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Spirochetes

are long, slender, helically coiled bacteria containing


axial filaments, or periplasmic flagella, which wind
around the bacterial cell wall and are enclosed by an outer
sheath.1 These gram-negative, microaerophilic bacteria
exhibit a characteristic corkscrew flexion or motility.
Diseases caused by these organisms have many similarities,
including a localized skin infection that disseminates to
numerous organs as the disease progresses, a latent stage,
and cardiac and neurological involvement if the disease
remains untreated. This chapter discusses disease manifestations
and testing for the two major spirochete diseases,
syphilis and Lyme disease. Serological testing plays a key
role in diagnosis of these diseases, because isolation of the
organism itself is difficult to accomplish in the laboratory,
and clinical symptoms are not always apparent.

Primary syphilis-PRAISE
P-painless lesion
R-regional lymphadenopathy
A-cArtilagenous consistency of lesion
I-indurated lesion(ex:chancre)
S-single lesion
E-exudation with discharging serous fluid
Secondary-CAMP
C-condylomata lata
A-associated lesions(opthalmic,osseous,meningeal)
M-mucocutaneous lesion,mucous patches
P-pruritic papules
Latent-+ve serology;no clinical manifestation
Tertiary-CLASS
C-cardiovascular disorder
L-late benign sypillis(gummata)
A-asymptomatic neurosyphilis
S-symptomatic neurosyphillis
S-as above