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Chapter 01 System Architecture

Client/server
Processes
Instances
Clients

SAP AG
Chapter 01 Objectives

Getting to know the m ain features of a three-level


computer hierarchy
Division of work processes
What do the term s "R/3 instance" and "Client" m ean?

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R/3 Client/Server – Three-Level Computer
Hierarchy Central DB
(stores all data and
application programs)

Read database and


update buffers

Database update

Central DB
buffer
Output data to
the user Object-
oriented
Application logic change
requests
(asynchronous)

Input data
from the user

User interaction

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If the R/3 System is distributed according to the principles of client/server technology, its components
are spread across a three-level computer hierarchy.
A central computer functions as a database server, i.e. it contains processes which constitute the
database service. This computer also houses the R/3 update service which means that it is
responsible for performing database updates. The database server can be linked to several application
servers. On the application servers, the actual application logic is processed.
Each application server can be connected to several front-ends (e.g. workstations, PCs ) at which
users are working. All the presentation tasks are processed on these individual machines.
Division of Work Processes – "SAP Services"
Message

Dialog Update
U
M
D

A
A B
B
Background SAP dispatcher Enqueue
C
C
11
12
1
10 2

Gateway
9 3
8
7 6 5
4

Spool E
B S

R/2 G R/3

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Division of work processes:


Each work process is responsible for just one request type. Request types include dialog,
background, update, enqueue and spool.
The dispatcher distributes the tasks accordingly to the defined processes. However, this distinction
only concerns the different roles or special services assigned to the work processes through the
dispatch strategy.
Since the work processes contain applications written in ABAP/4, a process group consisting of a
dispatcher and a defined number of work processes is also known as an applications server.
The message server allows the applications servers to exchange short internal messages.
The gateway server facilitates communication between R/3, R/2 and other systems.
In applications programs, the applications processes can be divided into update processes (V1,V2)
and background processes (B).
R/3 Instance (Central System)
instance
profiles
(parameters)
message SAP
instance server gateway

dispatcher

D ... V
E E B ... S

SAP buffer

START
or
STOP

R/3
administrator
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Definition of an instance:
An instance is an administrative unit which groups together the components of an R/3 System that
provide one or more services. These services are started and stopped at the same time. All
components belonging to an instance are specified as parameters in a common instance profile.
A central R/3 System consists of a single instance which includes all the necessary SAP services.
Each instance has its own SAP buffer area.
Clients

Client 000 Client 001 Client nnn


(delivery system) (delivery system ) (customer copy)

application data application data application data


client-
specific

custom izing data custom izing data custom izing data

cross-client cross-client customizing

Repository objects

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In commercial, organizational and technical terms, a client is a self-contained unit of the R/3 System.
Clients have their own
customizing facility
application data
user master records
Clients play a particular part in the R/3 System.

SAP distinguishes several clients which should be distributed across at least two R/3 Systems. Each
client has a different purpose:
Development/test:

You use the development and test client for your customizing activities and for developing your own
Repository objects. Remember, however, that all Repository objects are available and can be changed
in all clients.
Quality assurance:

You use the quality assurance client to test your customizing. To reset the quality assurance client
after testing, SAP recommends that you use another client to hold test data.
Training:

The training client is intended for training project teams and end-users.
Production:

The production client receives the tested customizing settings and your Repository objects. SAP
recommends that you define no more than one production client.
The standard delivery system comprises two identical clients. Both contain the same customizing
settings, but no application data. Client 000 is SAP’s standard client which is modified by each SAP
upgrade. You should not change this client in any way. Perform your customizing work in client 001.
Chapter 01 Summary

The SAP R/3 System is based on a three-level hierarchy


which includes database, application and presentation
layers
All requests are executed by specialized processes
controlled by a dispatcher
R/3 is a client-based system

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