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v

2.1.2

Design from experience

17

2.1.3

Elastic theory

17

2.1.4

Plastic theory

18

2.1.5

Limit state theory and design codes

19

2.2

Limit states and design basis

20

2.3

Loads, actions and partial safety factors

20

2.3.1

Loads

20

2.3.2

Load factors/partial safety factors and design loads

21

2.4

Structural steels—partial safety factors for materials

21

2.5

Design methods from codes—ultimate limit state

21

2.5.1

Design methods from BS 5950

21

2.5.2

Analysis of structures—Eurocode 3

23

2.5.3

Member and joint design

23

2.6

Stability limit state

24

2.7

Design for accidental damage

24

2.7.1

Progressive collapse and robustness

24

2.7.2

Building Regulations 1991

25

2.7.3

BS 5950 requirements for structural integrity

25

2.8

Serviceability limit states

26

2.8.1

Deflection limits

26

2.8.2

Vibration

26

2.9

Design considerations

26

2.9.1

Fatigue

26

2.9.2

Brittle fracture

27

2.9.3

Corrosion protection

28

2.9.4

Fire protection

28

3

Preliminary design

31

3.1

General considerations

31

3.2

Need for and scope of preliminary design methods

31

3.3

Design concept, modelling and load estimation

31

3.3.1

Design concept

31

3.3.2

Modelling

32

3.3.3

Load estimation

32

3.4

Analysis

32

3.4.1

Statically determinate structures

32

3.4.2

Statically indeterminate structures

35

vi

3.5.1

General comments

38

3.5.2

Ties and struts

39

3.5.3

Beams and girders

40

3.5.4

Beam-columns

41

3.5.5

Members in portal frames

42

3.6

Examples

43

3.6.1

Ribbed dome structure

43

3.6.2

Two pinned portal—plastic design

45

4

Single-storey, one-way-spanning buildings

48

4.1

Types of structures

48

4.2

Pinned-base portal—plastic design

48

4.2.1

Specification and framing plans

48

4.2.2

Dead and imposed loads

49

4.2.3

Wind loads

50

4.2.4

Design load cases

52

4.2.5

Plastic analysis and design

52

4.2.6

Dead and wind loads

54

4.2.7

Plastic design checks

55

4.2.8

Rafter under wind uplift

59

4.2.9

Portal joints

60

4.2.10

Serviceability check

62

4.3

Built-up tapered member portal

63

4.3.1

General comments

63

4.3.2

Design process

63

4.4

Two-pinned arch

63

4.4.1

General considerations

63

4.4.2

Specification

64

4.4.3

Loading

65

4.4.4

Analysis

65

4.4.5

Design

65

4.4.6

Construction

67

4.4.7

Lattice arch

67

5

Multistorey buildings

72

5.1

Outline of designs covered

72

5.1.1

Aims of study

72

5.1.2

Design to BS 5950

72

vii

5.2.1

Specification

72

5.2.2

Loads

73

5.2.3

Materials

74

5.3

Simple design centre frame

75

5.3.1

Slabs

75

5.3.2

Roof beam

75

5.3.3

Floor beam

75

5.3.4

Outer column—upper length 7–10–13

75

5.3.5

Outer column—lower length 1–4–7

75

5.3.6

Centre column—upper length 8–11–14

76

5.3.7

Centre column—lower length 2–5–8

76

5.3.8

Joint design

77

5.3.9

Baseplate—centre column

77

5.4

Braced rigid elastic design

78

5.4.1

Computer analysis

78

5.4.2

Beam design

78

5.4.3

Column design

81

5.4.4

Joint design

82

5.5

Braced rigid plastic design

83

5.5.1

Design procedure

83

5.5.2

Design loads and moments

84

5.5.3

Frame design

85

5.6

Semirigid design

90

5.6.1

Code requirements

90

5.6.2

Joint types and performance

91

5.6.3

Frame analysis

91

5.6.4

Frame design

94

5.7

Summary of designs

100

6

Floor systems

101

6.1

Functions of floor systems

101

6.2

Layouts and framing systems

101

6.3

Types of floor construction

102

6.4

Composite floor slabs

103

6.4.1

General comments

103

6.4.2

Design procedure

103

6.5

Composite beam design

104

6.5.1

Design basis

104

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6.5.2

Effective section

105

6.5.3

Plastic moment capacity

105

6.5.4

Construction

106

6.5.5

Continuous beam analysis

106

6.5.6

Design of members

106

6.5.7

Shear connectors

107

6.5.8

Longitudinal shear

108

6.5.9

Deflection

109

6.6

Simply supported composite beam

109

6.6.1

Specification

109

6.6.2

Moment capacity

110

6.6.3

Shear

110

6.6.4

Shear connectors

110

6.6.5

Longitudinal shear

110

6.6.6

Deflection

110

6.7

Continuous composite beam

111

6.7.1

Specification

111

6.7.2

Floor loads

112

6.7.3

Elastic analysis and redistribution

113

6.7.4

Section design checks

116

6.7.5

Shear connectors

118

6.7.6

Longitudinal shear

119

6.7.7

Deflection

120

7

Tall buildings

122

7.1

General considerations

122

7.2

Structural design considerations

123

7.3

Structural systems

123

7.3.1

All-steel braced structure

123

7.3.2

Rigid frame and mixed systems

124

7.3.3

All-steel outrigger and belt truss system

125

7.3.4

Composite structures

126

7.3.5

Suspended structures

127

7.3.6

Tube structures

128

7.3.7

SWMB structures

129

7.4

Construction details

129

7.4.1

Roofs and floors

129

7.4.2

Walls

131

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7.4.3

Steel members

131

7.5

Multistorey building—preliminary design

131

7.5.1

Specification

131

7.5.2

Dead and imposed loads

132

7.5.3

Beam loads and design

133

7.5.4

Design of perimeter column PC1

136

7.5.5

Braced core wall—vertical loads

139

7.5.6

Wind loads

140

7.5.7

Stability, foundations and bracing

144

8

Wide-span buildings

146

8.1

Types and characteristics

146

8.2

Tie-stayed roof—preliminary design

147

8.2.1

Specification

147

8.2.2

Preliminary design

149

8.2.3

Stability and wind load

153

8.3

Space decks

155

8.3.1

Two-way spanning roofs

155

8.3.2

Space decks

157

8.3.3

Space deck analysis and design

157

8.4

Preliminary design for a space deck

158

8.4.1

Specification

158

8.4.2

Arrangement of space deck

158

8.4.3

Approximate analysis and design

158

8.4.4

Computer analysis

159

8.4.5

Computer results

162

8.4.6

Member design

162

8.5

Framed domes

163

8.5.1

Types

163

8.5.2

Dome construction

164

8.5.3

Loading

165

8.5.4

Analysis

166

8.5.5

Stability

166

8.6

Schwedler dome

166

8.6.1

Specification

166

8.6.2

Loading for statical analysis

167

8.6.3

Statical analysis

167

8.6.4

Member design

171