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BasicsBasics ofof digitaldigital imageimage processingprocessing

LectureLecture 44 SeptemberSeptember 23,23, 20062006

Basics of of digital digital image image processing processing LectureLecture 44 SeptemberSeptember 23,23, 20062006

WhatWhat isis imageimage processingprocessing

IsIs enhancingenhancing anan imageimage oror extractingextracting informationinformation oror featuresfeatures fromfrom anan imageimage ComputerizedComputerized routinesroutines forfor informationinformation extractionextraction ((egeg,, patternpattern recognition,recognition, classification)classification) fromfrom remotelyremotely sensedsensed imagesimages toto obtainobtain categoriescategories ofof informationinformation aboutabout specificspecific features.features. ManyMany moremore

s categorie s ofo f informationinformation aboutabout specificspecific features.features. Many Many more more

ImageImage ProcessingProcessing IncludesIncludes

ImageImage qualityquality andand statisticalstatistical evaluationevaluation RadiometricRadiometric correctioncorrection GeometricGeometric correctioncorrection ImageImage enhancementenhancement andand sharpeningsharpening ImageImage classificationclassification

PixelPixel basedbased ObjectObject--orientedoriented basedbased

AccuracyAccuracy assessmentassessment ofof classificationclassification PostPost--classificationclassification andand GISGIS ChangeChange detectiondetection

classificationclassification PostPost -- classificationclassification andand GISGIS ChangeChange detectiondetection
Image Image Quality Quality Many Many remote remote sensing sensing datasets datasets contain contain high

ImageImage QualityQuality

ManyMany remoteremote sensingsensing datasetsdatasets containcontain highhigh--quality,quality, accurateaccurate data.data. Unfortunately,Unfortunately, sometimessometimes errorerror (or(or noise)noise) isis introducedintroduced intointo thethe remoteremote sensorsensor datadata by:by:

thethe environmentenvironment (e.g.,(e.g., atmosphericatmospheric scattering,scattering, cloud),cloud), randomrandom oror systematicsystematic malfunctionmalfunction ofof thethe remoteremote sensingsensing systemsystem (e.g.,(e.g., anan uncalibrateduncalibrated detectordetector createscreates striping),striping), oror improperimproper prepre--processingprocessing ofof thethe remoteremote sensorsensor datadata priorprior toto actualactual datadata analysisanalysis (e.g.,(e.g., inaccurateinaccurate analoganalog--toto--digitaldigital conversion).conversion).

analysis (e.g., (e.g., inaccurate inaccurate analog analog - - to to - - digital digital conversion).
analysis (e.g., (e.g., inaccurate inaccurate analog analog - - to to - - digital digital conversion).
analysis (e.g., (e.g., inaccurate inaccurate analog analog - - to to - - digital digital conversion).

154

160

163

Cloud

MODIS

True

143

155

155

162

164

154 1 6 0 1 6 3 Cloud MODIS True 143 155 155 162 164
Clouds Clouds in in ETM+ ETM+

CloudsClouds inin ETM+ETM+

Clouds Clouds in in ETM+ ETM+
Clouds Clouds in in ETM+ ETM+

StripingStriping NoiseNoise andand RemovalRemoval

Striping Striping Noise Noise and and Removal Removal CPCA CPCA CombinedCombined PrinciplePrinciple ComponentComponent
Striping Striping Noise Noise and and Removal Removal CPCA CPCA CombinedCombined PrinciplePrinciple ComponentComponent

CPCACPCA

CombinedCombined PrinciplePrinciple ComponentComponent AnalysisAnalysis

Xie et al. 2004

Speckle Speckle Noise Noise and and Removal Removal BlurredBlurred objectsobjects andand boundaryboundary G G -

SpeckleSpeckle NoiseNoise andand RemovalRemoval

BlurredBlurred objectsobjects andand boundaryboundary

Removal Removal BlurredBlurred objectsobjects andand boundaryboundary G G - - MAP MAP Gamma Maximum A Posteriori

GG--MAPMAP

Removal Removal BlurredBlurred objectsobjects andand boundaryboundary G G - - MAP MAP Gamma Maximum A Posteriori

Gamma Maximum A Posteriori Filter

Removal Removal BlurredBlurred objectsobjects andand boundaryboundary G G - - MAP MAP Gamma Maximum A Posteriori

UnivariateUnivariate descriptivedescriptive imageimage statisticsstatistics

TheThe modmodee isis thethe valuevalue thatthat occoccuursrs mostmost frequentlyfrequently inin aa distributiondistribution andand isis usuallyusually thethe highesthighest pointpoint onon thethe ccuurverve (histogram).(histogram). ItIt isis common,common, however,however, toto encounterencounter moremore thanthan oneone modemode inin aa reremotemote sensingsensing dataset.dataset. TheThe memedidianan isis thethe valuevalue midwaymidway inin thethe frequencyfrequency distribution.distribution. OneOne--halfhalf ofof ththee areaarea belowbelow thethe distributiondistribution curvecurve isis toto thethe rightright ofof thethe median,median, andand oneone--halfhalf isis ttoo thethe leftleft TheThe meanmean isis thethe arithmeticarithmetic averageaverage andand isis defineddefined asas thethe sumsum ofof allall brightnessbrightness valuevalue observationsobservations divideddivided byby thethe numbernumber ofof observations.observations.

value value observations observations divided divided by by the the number number of of observations. observations.
value value observations observations divided divided by by the the number number of of observations. observations.

n

i = 1

BV ik

n

µ

k

=

MinMin

MaxMax

VarianceVariance

StandardStandard deviationdeviation

CoefficientCoefficient ofof

variationvariation (CV)(CV) SkewnessSkewness

KurtosisKurtosis

Moment

Moment

Cont’Cont’

n

(

BV

ik

µ k

)

2

k

n 1

var

=

i = 1

s k

= σ

k

=

var k
var
k

CV

=

σ

µ

k

k

MultivariateMultivariate ImageImage StatisticsStatistics

RemoteRemote sensingsensing researchresearch isis oftenoften concernedconcerned withwith thethe measurementmeasurement ofof howhow muchmuch radiantradiant fluxflux isis reflectedreflected oror emittedemitted fromfrom anan objectobject inin moremore thanthan oneone band.band. ItIt isis usefuluseful toto computecompute multivariatemultivariate statisticalstatistical measuresmeasures suchsuch asas

covariancecovariance andand correlationcorrelation amongamong thethe severalseveral

bandsbands toto determinedetermine howhow thethe measurementsmeasurements covarycovary VarianceVariancecovariancecovariance andand correlationcorrelation matricesmatrices areare usedused inin remoteremote sensingsensing principalprincipal componentscomponents analysisanalysis (PCA),(PCA), featurefeature selectionselection,, classificationclassification andand accuracyaccuracy assessmentassessment

CovarianceCovariance

TheThe differentdifferent remoteremote--sensingsensing--derivedderived spectralspectral measurementsmeasurements forfor eacheach pixelpixel oftenoften changechange togethertogether inin somesome predictablepredictable fashion.fashion. IfIf therethere isis nono relationshiprelationship betweenbetween thethe brightnessbrightness valuevalue inin oneone bandband andand thatthat ofof anotheranother forfor aa givengiven pixel,pixel, thethe valuesvalues areare mutuallymutually independent;independent; thatthat is,is, anan increaseincrease oror decreasedecrease inin oneone band’sband’s brightnessbrightness valuevalue isis notnot accompaniedaccompanied byby aa predictablepredictable changechange inin anotheranother band’sband’s brightnessbrightness value.value. BecauseBecause spectralspectral measurementsmeasurements ofof individualindividual pixelspixels maymay notnot bebe independent,independent, somesome measuremeasure ofof theirtheir mutualmutual interactioninteraction isis needed.needed. ThisThis measure,measure, calledcalled thethe covariancecovariance,, isis thethe jointjoint variationvariation ofof twotwo variablesvariables aboutabout theirtheir commoncommon mean.mean.

n n BV n il ∑ ( ) i = 1 i = 1 SP
n n
BV
n
il
∑ (
)
i =
1
i
=
1
SP
=
BV
×
BV
kl
ik
il
n
i = 1

BV

ik

cov

kl

=

SP kl

n 1

CorrelationCorrelation

To To estimate estimate the the degree degree of of interrelation interrelation between between variables variables in in a a manner manner not not

influenced influenced by by measurement measurement units, units, the the correlation correlation coefficient, coefficient, is is

commonly commonly used. used. The The correlation correlation between between two two bands bands of of remotely remotely sensed sensed

data, data, r r

, , is is the the ratio ratio of of their their covariance covariance (cov (cov

) ) to to the the product product of of their their

kl kl

kl kl

standard standard deviations deviations (s (s s s ); ); thus: thus:

k

k

l

l

r kl

=

cov

kl

s s

k

l

If we square the correlation coefficient

If we square the correlation coefficient (r kl ), we obtain the sample coefficient of

determination determination (r (r 2 2 ), ), which which expresses expresses the the proportion proportion of of the the total total variation variation in in the the values values of of

“band “band llthat that can can be be accounted accounted for for or or explained explained by by a a linear linear relationship relationship with with the the values values

of the random variable “band k.Thus a correlation coefficient

of the random variable “band k.” Thus a correlation coefficient (r kl ) of 0.70 results in an

r r 2 2 value value of of 0.49, 0.49, meaning meaning that that 49% 49% of of the the total total variation variation of of the the values values of of “band “band llin in the the

sample sample is is accounted accounted for for by by a a linear linear relationship relationship with with values values of of “band “band k”. k”.

), we obtain the sample coefficient of

kl

(r

) of 0.70 results in an

kl

(r

PPiixxeell

BBaanndd 11

BBaanndd 22

BBaanndd 33

BBaanndd 44

((ggrreeeenn))

((rreedd))

((nnii))

((nnii))

((11,,11))

113300

5577

118800

220055

((11,,22))

116655

3355

221155

225555

((11,,33))

110000

2255

113355

119955

((11,,44))

113355

5500

220000

222200

((11,,55))

114455

6655

220055

223355

exampleexample

SP

12

=

(31,860)

cov

12

=

540 = 135

4

5

(

)(

675 232

)

BBaanndd 11

((BBaanndd 11 xx BBaanndd

BBaanndd 22

22))

113300

77,,441100

5577

116655

55,,777755

3355

110000

22,,550000

2255

113355

66,,775500

5500

114455

99,,442255

6655

667755

3311,,886600

223322

BandBand 11

BandBand 22

BandBand 33

BandBand 44

MeanMean ((µµ kk ))

135135

46.4046.40

187187

222222

VarianceVariance ((varvar kk ))

562.50562.50

264.80264.80

10071007

570570

((ss kk ))

23.7123.71

16.2716.27

31.431.4

23.8723.87

((minmin kk ))

100100

2525

135135

195195

((maxmax kk ))

165165

6565

215215

255255

RangeRange ((BVBV rr ))

6565

4040

8080

6060

Univariate statistics

 

BBaanndd 11

BBaanndd 22

BBaanndd 33

BBaanndd 44

BBaanndd 11

556622 2255

--

--

--

BBaanndd 22

113355

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--

--

00

BBaanndd 33

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11000077 55

--

 

00

BBaanndd 44

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Covariance

 

BandBand

BandBand

BandBand 33

11

22

BandBand 11

--

--

--

BandBand 22

0.350.35

--

--

BandBand 33

0.950.95

0.530.53

--

BandBand 44

0.940.94

0.160.16

0.870.87

covariance

BandBand

44

--

--

--

--

Correlation coefficient

Band Band 4 4 0.94 0.94 0.16 0.16 0.87 0.87 covariance Band Band 4 4 -
Types Types of of radiometric radiometric correction correction DetectorDetector errorerror oror sensorsensor

TypesTypes ofof radiometricradiometric correctioncorrection

DetectorDetector errorerror oror sensorsensor errorerror (internal(internal error)error) AtmosphericAtmospheric errorerror (external(external error)error) TopographicTopographic errorerror (external(external error)error)

errorerror (external(external error)error) TopographicTopographic errorerror (external(external error)error)

AtmosphericAtmospheric correctioncorrection

ThereThere areare severalseveral waysways toto atmospatmosphericallyherically correctcorrect remotelyremotely sensedsensed dadata.ta. SSoomeme araree rreelalattiivveelyly straightforwardstraightforward whilewhile othersothers areare complex,complex, beingbeing foundedfounded onon physicalphysical principlesprinciples andand requiringrequiring aa significantsignificant amountamount ofof informationinformation toto functfunctiionon properly.properly. ThisThis discussiondiscussion willwill focusfocus onon twotwo majormajor typestypes ofof atmosphericatmospheric correction:correction:

AbsoluteAbsolute atmosphericatmospheric

correctioncorrection,,

RelativeRelative atmospatmosphericheric correctioncorrection

andand

Scattering, Absorption Refraction, Reflection

Various Paths of Satellite Received Radiance

Remote sensor detector L S
Remote
sensor
detector
L S
of Satellite Received Radiance Remote sensor detector L S Total radiance at the sensor Solar E

Total radiance at the sensor

Solar E irradiance 0 L 90Þ p L T 60 miles T θ 0 or
Solar
E
irradiance
0
L
90Þ
p L
T
60
miles
T
θ 0
or
2
T
θ v
100km
Diffuse sky
irradiance
E d
1
Atmosphere
1,3,5
4
θ
v
3
θ
0 L
I
5

Reflectance from

Reflectance from

neighboring area,

study area,

r

λ n

r

λ

AbsoluteAbsolute atmosphericatmospheric correctioncorrection

SolarSolar radiationradiation isis largelylargely unaffeunaffectedcted asas itit travelstravels throughthrough thethe vacuumvacuum ofof space.space. WhenWhen itit interainteraccttss withwith thethe Earth’sEarth’s atmosphere,atmosphere, however,however, itit isis selectivelyselectively scatteredscattered andand absorbedabsorbed TheThe sumsum ofof

thesethese twotwo formsforms ofof energyenergy lossloss isis calledcalled

atmosphericatmospheric attenuationattenuation

AtmosphericAtmospheric attenuationattenuation maymay 1)1) makemake itit difficultdifficult toto relaterelate handhand-- heldheld inin situsitu spectrospectrorradiometeradiometer measurementsmeasurements withwith remoteremote measurements,measurements, 2)2) makemake itit difficultdifficult toto extendextend spectralspectral signaturessignatures

throughthrough spacespace andand time,time, andand (3)(3) havehave anan impactimpact onon classificationclassification accuracyaccuracy withinwithin aa scenescene ifif atmosphericatmospheric attenuationattenuation variesvaries significantlysignificantly throughoutthroughout thethe image.image.

TheThe generalgeneral goalgoal ofof absoluteabsolute radiometriradiometricc correctioncorrection isis toto turnturn

thethe digitaldigital brightnessbrightness valuesvalues (or(or DN)DN) recordedrecorded byby aa remoteremote sensisensingng

systemsystem intointo

scaledscaled surfacesurface reflectancereflectance values.values. TheseThese valuesvalues cancan

thenthen bebe comparedcompared oror usedused inin conjunctionconjunction withwith scaledscaled surfacesurface

reflectreflectaancence valuesvalues obtainedobtained anywhereanywhere elseelse onon thethe planet.planet.

reflect a a nce nce values values obtained obtained anywhere anywhere else else on on the

relativerelative radiometricradiometric correctioncorrection

WhenWhen requiredrequired datadata isis notnot availableavailable forfor absoluteabsolute radiometricradiometric correction,correction, wewe cancan dodo relativerelative radiometricradiometric correctioncorrection RelativeRelative radiometricradiometric correctioncorrection maymay bebe usedused toto

SingleSingle--imageimage normalizationnormalization usingusing histogramhistogram adjustmentadjustment MultipleMultiple--datadata imageimage normalizationnormalization usingusing regressionregression

MultipleMultiple -- datadata imageimage normalizationnormalization usingusing regressionregression

SingleSingle--imageimage normalizationnormalization usingusing histogramhistogram adjustmentadjustment

TheThe methodmethod isis basedbased onon thethe factfact thatthat infraredinfrared datadata (>0.7(>0.7 µµm)m) isis freefree ofof atmosphericatmospheric scatteringscattering effects,effects, whereaswhereas thethe visiblevisible regionregion (0.4(0.4--0.70.7 µµm)m) isis stronglystrongly influencedinfluenced byby them.them. UseUse DarkDark SubtractSubtract toto applyapply atmosphericatmospheric scatteringscattering correctionscorrections toto thethe imageimage data.data. TheThe digitaldigital numbernumber toto subtractsubtract fromfrom eacheach bandband cancan bebe eithereither thethe bandband minimum,minimum, anan averageaverage basedbased uponupon aa useruser defineddefined regionregion ofof interest,interest, oror aa specificspecific valuevalue

DarkDark SubtractSubtract usingusing bandband minimumminimum

Dark Dark Subtract Subtract using using band band minimum minimum
Dark Dark Subtract Subtract using using band band minimum minimum
Dark Dark Subtract Subtract using using band band minimum minimum
Dark Dark Subtract Subtract using using band band minimum minimum
Dark Dark Subtract Subtract using using band band minimum minimum

TopographicTopographic correctioncorrection

TopographicTopographic slopeslope andand aspectaspect alsoalso introduceintroduce radiometricradiometric distortiondistortion (for(for example,example, areasareas inin shadow)shadow) TheThe goalgoal ofof aa slopeslope--aspectaspect correctioncorrection isis toto removeremove topographicallytopographically inducedinduced illuminationillumination variationvariation soso thatthat twotwo objectsobjects havinghaving thethe samesame reflectancereflectance propertiesproperties showshow thethe samesame brightnessbrightness valuevalue (or(or DN)DN) inin thethe imageimage despitedespite theirtheir differentdifferent orientationorientation toto thethe Sun’sSun’s positionposition BasedBased onon DEM,DEM, sunsun--elevationelevation

orientationorientation toto thethe Sun’sSun’s positionposition BasedBased onon DEM,DEM, sunsun -- elevationelevation
orientationorientation toto thethe Sun’sSun’s positionposition BasedBased onon DEM,DEM, sunsun -- elevationelevation
orientationorientation toto thethe Sun’sSun’s positionposition BasedBased onon DEM,DEM, sunsun -- elevationelevation
Conceptions Conceptions of of geometric geometric correction correction Geocoding Geocoding : :

ConceptionsConceptions ofof geometricgeometric correctioncorrection

GeocodingGeocoding:: geographicalgeographical referencingreferencing

Registration:Registration: geographicallygeographically oror nonnonggeographicallyeographically (no(no ccooordinationordination system)system)

ImageImage toto MapMap (or(or GroundGround GeocorrectionGeocorrection))

TheThe correctioncorrection ofof digitaldigital imagesimages toto groundground ccoordinatesoordinates usingusing grogroundund contcontrolrol pointspoints collectedcollected fromfrom mapsmaps (Topographic(Topographic map,map, DLG)DLG) oror groundground GPSGPS points.points.

ImageImage toto ImageImage GeocorGeocorrectionrection

ImageImage toto ImageImage correctioncorrection involvesinvolves matchingmatching thethe coordinatecoordinate systesystemsms oror columncolumn andand rowrow systemssystems ofof twotwo didigitalgital imagesimages withwith oneone imageimage actiactingng asas aa referencereference imageimage andand thethe otherother asas thethe imageimage toto bebe rectified.rectified. SpatialSpatial interpolation:interpolation: fromfrom inputinput positionposition toto outputoutput positionposition oror coordinates.coordinates.

RSTRST (rotation,(rotation, scale,scale, andand transftransformation),ormation), PolynomialPolynomial,, TriTriaangulangulatitionon

RootRoot MeanMean SquareSquare ErrorError (RMS):(RMS): TheThe RMSRMS isis thethe errorerror termterm usedused toto

determinedetermine thethe accuracyaccuracy ofof thethe transformationtransformation fromfrom oneone systemsystem toto another.another. ItIt isis thethe differencedifference betweenbetween thethe desireddesired outputoutput coordinatecoordinate forfor aa GCPGCP aandnd thethe actual.actual. IntensitIntensityy (or(or pixelpixel value)value) interpolationinterpolation (also(also calledcalled resamplingresampling):): TheThe processprocess ofof

extrapolatingextrapolating datadata valuesvalues toto aa neneww grid,grid, andand isis thethe stepstep inin rectrectifyingifying anan iimmageage thatthat calculatescalculates pixelpixel valuesvalues forfor thethe rectifiedrectified gridgrid fromfrom ththee originaloriginal datadata grid.grid. NearestNearest neighbor,neighbor, BilinBilinear,ear, CuCubicbic

fromfrom ththee originaloriginal datadata grid.grid. NearestNearest neighbor,neighbor, BilinBilinear,ear, CuCubicbic
Image Image enhancement enhancement imageimage reduction,reduction, imageimage magnification,magnification,

ImageImage enhancementenhancement

imageimage reduction,reduction, imageimage magnification,magnification, transecttransect extraction,extraction, contrastcontrast adjustmentsadjustments (linear(linear andand nonnon--linear),linear), bandband ratioingratioing,, spatialspatial filtering,filtering, fourierfourier transformations,transformations, principleprinciple componentscomponents analysis,analysis, texturetexture transformations,transformations, andand imageimage sharpeningsharpening

analysis, analysis, texturetexture transformations,transformations, andand imageimage sharpeningsharpening

ContrastContrast EnhancementEnhancement (stretch)(stretch)

MaterialsMaterials oror objectsobjects reflectreflect oror emitemit similarsimilar amountsamounts ofof radiantradiant fluxflux ((ssoo

similarsimilar pixelpixel value)value) LowLow--contrastcontrast imageryimagery withwith pixelpixel rangerange lessless thanthan thethe designeddesigned radiometricradiometric rangerange

2020--100100 forfor TMTM lessless tthhaann tthhee designeddesigned 00--255255

ToTo improveimprove thethe contrast:contrast:

LinearLinear techniquetechnique

 

MinimumMinimum--maximummaximum contrastcontrast stretchstretch

PercentagePercentage linearlinear contrastcontrast stretchstretch

StandardStandard deviationdeviation contrastcontrast stretchstretch

PiecewisePiecewise linearlinear contrastcontrast stretchstretch

 

NonNon--linlinearear techniquetechnique

 

HistogramHistogram equalizationequalization

ContrastContrast enhancementenhancement isis onlyonly intendedintended toto improveimprove thethe visualvisual qualityquality ofof aa displayeddisplayed imageimage byby increasingincreasing thethe rangerange (spreading(spreading oror stretching)stretching) ofof datadata valuesvalues toto ooccupyccupy thethe availableavailable imageimage displaydisplay rangerange (usually(usually 00--255).255). ItIt doesdoes nonott chachanngege thethe pixelpixel values,values, unlessunless savesave itit asas aa newnew image.image. ItIt isis nonott googoodd practicepractice toto useuse savedsaved imageimage forfor classificationclassification andand changechange detection.detection.

MinimumMinimum--maximummaximum contrastcontrast stretchstretch

⎞ in BV = ⎛ ⎜ BV max − min k ⎟ quant out ⎜
in
BV
= ⎛ ⎜ BV
max
− min
k
quant
out
k
− min
k
k

-

-

k

-

k

-

PercentagePercentage linearlinear andand standardstandard deviationdeviation contrastcontrast stretchstretch

XX percentagepercentage (say(say 5%)5%) toptop oror lowlow valuesvalues ofof thethe imageimage

willwill bebe setset toto 00 oror 255,255, restrest ofof valuesvalues willwill bebe linearlylinearly stretchedstretched toto 00 toto 255255 ENVIENVI hashas aa defaultdefault ofof aa 2%2% linearlinear stretchstretch appliedapplied toto eacheach

imageimage band,band, meaningmeaning thethe bottombottom andand toptop 2%2% ofof imageimage valuesvalues areare excludedexcluded byby positioningpositioning thethe rangerange barsbars atat thethe appropriateappropriate points.points. LowLow 2%2% andand toptop 2%2% willwill bebe saturatedsaturated toto 00 andand 255,255, respectively.respectively. TheThe valuesvalues betweenbetween thethe rangerange barsbars areare thenthen stretchedstretched linearlylinearly betweenbetween 00 andand 255255 resultingresulting inin aa newnew image.image. IfIf thethe percentagepercentage coincidescoincides withwith aa standardstandard deviationdeviation

percentage,percentage, thenthen itit isis calledcalled aa standardstandard deviationdeviation contrastcontrast stretch.stretch. ForFor aa normalnormal distribution,distribution, 68%,68%, 95.4%,95.4%, 99.73%99.73%

valuesvalues lielie inin ±±11σσ,, ±±22 σσ,, ±±33 σσ

stretchstretch isis thethe ±±11σσ contrastcontrast stretch.stretch.

SoSo 16%16% linearlinear contrastcontrast

original Saturating the water Stretching the land Saturating the land Stretching the water Special linear

original

original Saturating the water Stretching the land Saturating the land Stretching the water Special linear contrast

Saturating the water Stretching the land

original Saturating the water Stretching the land Saturating the land Stretching the water Special linear contrast

Saturating the land Stretching the water

Special linear contrast stretch Or Stretch on demand

Stretching the land Saturating the land Stretching the water Special linear contrast stretch Or Stretch on

PiecewisePiecewise linearlinear contrastcontrast stretchstretch

WhenWhen thethe histogramhistogram ofof anan imageimage isis notnot GaussianGaussian (bimodal,(bimodal, trimodaltrimodal,, …),…), itit isis possiblepossible toto applyapply aa piecewisepiecewise linearlinear contrastcontrast stretch.stretch. ButBut youyou betterbetter toto knowknow whatwhat eacheach modemode inin thethe histogramhistogram representsrepresents inin thethe realreal world.world.

knowknow whatwhat eacheach modemode inin thethe histogramhistogram representsrepresents inin thethe realreal world.world.
knowknow whatwhat eacheach modemode inin thethe histogramhistogram representsrepresents inin thethe realreal world.world.
Stretch Stretch both both land land and and water water

StretchStretch bothboth landland andand waterwater

Stretch Stretch both both land land and and water water
Stretch Stretch both both land land and and water water

PrinciplePrinciple ComponentsComponents AnalysisAnalysis (PCA)(PCA)

ThereThere areare largelarge correlationscorrelations amongamong remoteremote sensingsensing bands.bands. PCAPCA wilwilll resultresult

inin anotheranother uncorrelateduncorrelated datasets:datasets:

containscontains thethe largestlargest variancevariance

principalprincipal componentcomponent imagesimages (PCs).(PCs). PC1PC1

TheThe firstfirst twotwo oror threethree componentscomponents (PCs)(PCs) concontaintain overover 90%90% ofof infoinformationrmation fromfrom thethe originaloriginal manymany bands.bands. ItIt isis aa greatgreat compresscompress operationoperation

TheThe newnew principalprincipal componentcomponent imagesimages thatthat maymay bebe moremore interpretableinterpretable thanthan

thethe originaloriginal data.data.

that that may may be be more more interpretable interpretable than than the the original original
that that may may be be more more interpretable interpretable than than the the original original
Purposes Purposes of of image image classification classification LandLand useuse andand landland covercover

PurposesPurposes ofof imageimage classificationclassification

LandLand useuse andand landland covercover (LULC)(LULC) VegetationVegetation typestypes GeologicGeologic terrainsterrains MineralMineral explorationexploration AlterationAlteration mappingmapping …….…….

terrainsterrains MineralMineral explorationexploration AlterationAlteration mappingmapping …….…….

WhatWhat isis imageimage classificationclassification oror patternpattern recognitionrecognition

IsIs aa processprocess ofof classifyingclassifying multispectralmultispectral ((hyperspectralhyperspectral)) imagesimages intointo patternspatterns ofof varyingvarying graygray oror assignedassigned colorscolors thatthat representrepresent eithereither

clustersclusters ofof statisticallystatistically differentdifferent setssets ofof multibandmultiband data,data, somesome ofof whichwhich cancan bebe correlatedcorrelated withwith separableseparable classes/features/materials.classes/features/materials. ThThisis isis thethe resultresult ofof UnsupervisedUnsupervised ClassificationClassification,, oror numericalnumerical discriminatorsdiscriminators composedcomposed ofof thesethese setssets ofof datadata thatthat havehave beenbeen groupedgrouped andand specifiedspecified byby associaassociatingting eacheach withwith aa particularparticular classclass,, etc.etc. whosewhose identityidentity isis knownknown independindependentlyently andand whichwhich hashas representatirepresentativeve areasareas (training(training sites)sites) withinwithin tthhee imageimage wherewhere thatthat classclass isis localocated.ted. ThisThis isis thethe resultresult ofof SupervisedSupervised ClassificationClassification

SpectralSpectral classesclasses areare thosethose thatthat areare inherentinherent inin thethe remoteremote sensorsensor datadata andand mustmust bebe identifiedidentified anandd thenthen labeledlabeled byby thethe analyst.analyst.

InformInformatioationn classesclasses areare thosethose thatthat humanhuman beingsbeings define.define.

Inform Inform atio atio n n classes classes are are those those that that human human

unsupervised classification, The computer or algorithm automatically group pixels with similar spectral characteristics (means, standard deviations, covariance matrices, correlation matrices, etc.) into unique clusters according to some statistically determined criteria. The analyst then re-labels and combines the spectral clusters into information classes.

supervised classification. Identify known a priori through a combination of fieldwork, map analysis, and personal experience as training sites; the spectral characteristics of these sites are used to train the classification algorithm for eventual land-cover mapping of the remainder of the image. Every pixel both within and outside the training sites is then evaluated and assigned to the class of which it has the highest likelihood of being a member.

training sites is then evaluated and assigned to the class of which it has the highest
training sites is then evaluated and assigned to the class of which it has the highest
training sites is then evaluated and assigned to the class of which it has the highest

HardHard vs.vs. FuzzyFuzzy classificationclassification

SupervisedSupervised andand unsupervisedunsupervised classificationclassification

algorithmsalgorithms typicallytypically useuse

toto produceproduce aa classificationclassification mapmap thatthat consistsconsists ofof hard,hard, discretediscrete categoriescategories (e.g.,(e.g., forest,forest, agriculture).agriculture).

hardhard classificationclassification logiclogic

Conversely,Conversely, itit isis alsoalso possiblepossible toto useuse fuzzyfuzzy setset

classificationclassification

logiclogic,, whichwhich takestakes intointo accountaccount thethe

heterogeneousheterogeneous andand impreciseimprecise naturenature (mix(mix pixels)pixels) ofof thethe realreal world.world. ProportionProportion ofof thethe mm classesclasses withinwithin aa pixelpixel (e.g.,(e.g., 10%10% barebare soil,soil, 10%10% shrub,shrub, 80%80% forest).forest). FuzzyFuzzy classificationclassification schemesschemes areare notnot currentlycurrently standardized.standardized.

PixelPixel--basedbased vs.vs. ObjectObject--orientedoriented classificationclassification

InIn thethe past,past, mostmost digitaldigital imageimage classificationclassification waswas basedbased onon

processingprocessing thethe entireentire scenescene pixelpixel byby pixel.pixel. ThisThis isis commonlycommonly

referredreferred

toto asas perper--pixelpixel (pixel(pixel--based)based) classificationclassification

ObjectObject--orientedoriented classificationclassification techniquestechniques allowallow thethe

analystanalyst toto decomposedecompose thethe scenescene intointo manymany relativelyrelatively homogenoushomogenous imageimage objectsobjects (referred(referred toto asas patchespatches oror segmentssegments)) usingusing aa multimulti--resolutionresolution imageimage segmentationsegmentation process.process. TheThe variousvarious statisticalstatistical characteristicscharacteristics ofof thesethese homogeneoushomogeneous imageimage objectsobjects inin thethe scenescene areare thenthen subjectedsubjected toto traditionaltraditional statisticalstatistical oror fuzzyfuzzy logiclogic classification.classification. ObjectObject-- orientedoriented classificationclassification basedbased onon imageimage segmentationsegmentation isis oftenoften usedused forfor thethe analysisanalysis ofof highhigh--spatialspatial--resolutionresolution imageryimagery (e.g.,(e.g., 11 ×× 11 mm SpaceSpace ImagingImaging IKONOSIKONOS andand 0.610.61 ×× 0.610.61 mm DigitalDigital GlobeGlobe QuickBirdQuickBird).).

Imaging IKONOS IKONOS and and 0.61 0.61 × × 0.61 0.61 m m Digital Digital Globe

UnsupervisedUnsupervised classificationclassification

UsesUses statisticalstatistical techniquestechniques toto groupgroup nn--dimensionaldimensional datadata intointo theirtheir naturalnatural

spectralspectral clusters,clusters, andand useusess thethe iterativeiterative proceduresprocedures labellabel certaincertain clustersclusters asas spspecificecific informationinformation classesclasses

KK--meanmean andand ISODATAISODATA

ForFor thethe firstfirst iterationiteration arbitraryarbitrary startingstarting valuesvalues (i.e.,(i.e., thethe clustercluster properties)properties) havehave toto bebe selected.selected. TheseThese initialinitial valuesvalues cancan influenceinfluence thethe outcoutcomeome ofof thethe classificclassificaation.tion. InIn general,general, bothboth methodsmethods assignassign firstfirst arbitraryarbitrary initialinitial clustercluster values.values. TheThe secondsecond stepstep classifiesclassifies eacheach pixelpixel toto thethe closestclosest cluster.cluster. InIn thethe thirdthird stepstep thethe newnew clustercluster meanmean vectorsvectors areare calculatedcalculated bbaasseedd onon allall thethe pixelspixels inin oneone cluster.cluster. TheThe secondsecond andand thirdthird ststepseps areare repeatedrepeated untiluntil thethe "chan"change"ge" betweenbetween thethe iterationiteration isis small.small. TheThe "change""change" cancan bebe defineddefined inin severalseveral ddifferentifferent ways,ways, eithereither byby measuringmeasuring thethe distancesdistances ofof thethe meanmean clustercluster vectorvector havhavee changedchanged fromfrom oneone iterationiteration toto anotheranother oror byby thethe percentagepercentage ofof pixelspixels thathatt havehave changedchanged betweenbetween iterations.iterations. TheThe ISODATAISODATA algorithmalgorithm hashas somesome furtherfurther refinementsrefinements byby splittingsplitting andand mergingmerging ofof clusters.clusters. ClustersClusters areare mergedmerged ifif eithereither thethe numbernumber ofof membersmembers (pixel)(pixel) inin aa clustercluster isis lessless thanthan aa certaincertain thresholdthreshold oror ifif thethe cceentersnters ofof twotwo clustersclusters areare closercloser