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Slender Columns

Introduction

When the column height is noticeably long and the column cross-
section size is small, the column tends to deflect laterally (buckle), which
results in an additional secondary moment ( Msec = Pult δ ) that needs to be taken
under consideration when designing the column, such a column is called a slender
column. It should be stated here that most of the columns are classified as a
short column, which is been covered earlier in undergraduate reinforced
concrete course.

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 2/17


Why should we care whether the column in short or slender?

Because the slender column tends to reduce the load carrying capacity of
column, and if note been taken under account (the column slenderness), the
column would buckle suddenly, and fail catastrophically!!

How does the column slenderness decrease the column load capacity?

Well, let us consider a regular


short column, the column will be
subjected at its ends to an axial
compressive force (P), and in
many cases, to an accompanied
moments ( Mend = P e ), as shown
in the figure below. Due to the
stockiness of the column, the
column lateral deflection will be
minimal and might be neglected.
So, column will follow the linear
path OA {since “e” (moment
eccentricity) is constant (see
the right figure), the column
end moment”Mend” is linearly
related to the applied axial
force “P”} dashed line in the
column interaction curve
presented in the figure next
page.

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 3/17


Now, if the column becomes slender, it will suffer from lateral deflection
(buckling) “ δ ”, which in turn would lead to the creation of a secondary moment
Msec = P δ at mid column height. Which in turn would sum up with the end
moment to result in a larger moment (at column mid hight) than the end column’s
moments? The increase in the axial force “P” would lead to an increase of the
lateral deflection “ δ ” in a nonlinear fashion, which in turn would lead to a
 ).
nonlinear relationship between “ M ” and “P” (see curve OA
sec

Now, after understanding the behavior of the short columns and


slender columns, and with the aid of the interaction curve shown above, one
would easily notice the reduction of the axial load carrying capacity of a slender
column than a short column with the same cross-section size and steel
reinforcement and concrete properties, as a result of secondary moment
initiated by column buckling effect ( or” P- δ ” effect).

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 4/17


Slenderness Ratio

The column can be classified as a slender column or a short


klu
column based on its slenderness ratio, , where:
r

k: effective length factor reflecting the end restraint and


lateral bracing conditions of the column. The figure below shows
different values of “k” for different end restrains, for both,
columns in non-sway frames, and column in sway-frames.

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 5/17


It should be mentioned here, that in Kuwait, almost all the frames
(especially for multistory residential houses) are classified as a non-sway
frames. Generally speaking, a structure that consist of a stiffening structural
elements , such as reinforced concrete elevator shaft, shear walls, stair wells,
masonry walls) that remarkably helps in reducing the lateral structural drift
due to horizontal force actions (wind and earth quacks) are named as non-sway
frames. For a more accurate classification of a frame, one might refer to ACI
sections 10.10.5.1 and 10.10.5.2, as stated below.

lu : column’s unsupported length, and is defined as the clear distance between


the underside of the beam, slab, or column capital above, and the top of the slab
or the beam below.

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 6/17


Note: the column might have two different unsupported lengths in two
orthogonal directions, depending on the size of the supported elements
attached to the column.

r: radius of gyration, which reflects the cross-section size and shape to the
slenderness of a column.

I
r = radius of gyration associated with axis of bending =
Ag

 0.3h rectangular column; bending about strong axis



r =  0.3b rectangular column; bending about weak axis
 0.25h circular column

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 7/17


Moment Magnification for of Non-Sway Slender Column

Given : Pult , M ult,1 , M ult,2 , b , h , fc' , fy , fy,sp , lu


(mm) (mm)
(KN) (KN.m) (KN.m) (MPa) (MPa) (MPa) (mm)

 0.3h bending about strong axis



r = 0.3b bending about week axis
0.25 circular column

0.7 + 0.05 ( ψ 1 + ψ 2 )
 Mult1   "+" if single curvature 
 ( smaller ultimate end moment )   

   "−" if double curvature K = min  0.85 + 0.05 ψ min
 Mult2  "+ 1" if both end moments =0 
 (larger ultimate end moment)   
1

 M 
Klu 34 − 12  ult1  Go to Short Column Design
> min   M ult2  No
r No need to magnify moment

Yes  40

Yes Second-Order Analysis  Kg Kg


1.5 '
0.043w c fc 1440
m3
≤ w c ≤ 2560
m3

Ec = 
Klu 
≥ 100  4700 fc' normal weight concrete
r

No
M2,min = Pult (15 + 0.03h )
 bh 3
 moment about strong axis
 123
0.4E cI g 1.2Pd  hb
EI = β dns = Ig =  moment about weak axis
(1 + β ) dns
Pult  124
 πh
 64 circular column

 M ult2
π 2EI 
Pc = 2 M ult2 = max 
(Kl )u M M c = δnsMult2
 2,min

 Cm Go to Short Column Design


 M   With Pult and M2,ult=Mc
0.6 + 0.4  ult1    4Pult 

C m = max   Mult2  δns
1 −
= max   3Pc 
 
 0.4 
  END
 1

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 8/17


Ex.

Design a tied rectangular column cross-section to resist service axial


loads and of Pd= 500 KN and Pl= 312.5 KN while the ultimate moments acting
on the column were found to act in a single curvature with values as summarized
in the table shown below.

Around strong axis Around weak axis

Upper-end 135 KN.m 88 KN.m

Lower-end 76 KN.m 45 KN.m

The column unsupported length is 3m in both directions and is a part of a non-


sway frame.

Use φ22 reinforcement bars (Ab=387 mm2) with 40 mm concrete cover and
fc' = 30 MPa, fy = 420 MPa

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 9/17


Solution:

Pult = 1.2Pd + 1.6Pl = 1.2 ( 500 ) + 1.6 (312.5 ) = 1100 KN

Take : ρg = 0.03

ry = 0.3h = 0.3 ( 600 ) = 180 mm

rx = 0.3b = 0.3 (250 ) = 75 mm

K = 1
Take :  x
Ky = 1

 M   45 
34 − 12  ult1,x  = 34 − 12  +  = 27.86 ←
Kx lux 1 ∗3000   
Mult2,x   88 
∵ = = 40 ≤ min  
rx 75 
 40

∴ The column is slender around the x-axis (i.e. around the week axis)

 M   76 
Ky luy 1 ∗ 3000 34 − 12  ult1,y  = 34 − 12   = 27.24 ←
= = 16.67 ≤ min   Mult2,y   135 
ry 180  

 40

∴ The column is short around the y-axis (i.e. around the strong axis)

So, let now go and magnify the moment Mult2,x =88 KN.m, since we have concluded

a slender behavior for the column around the week axis:

M2,min = Pult (15 + 0.03h ) = 1100 (15 + 0.03 ∗ 250 ) × 10 −3 = 24.75 KN.m

E c = 4700 fc' = 4700 30 = 25742.96 MPa

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 10/17


3
hb 3 600 (250 )
Ig = = = 0.781 × 10 9 mm 4
12 12

1.2Pd 1.2 ∗ 500


β dns = = = 0.545
Pult 1100

0.4E cI g 0.4 ∗ 25742.96 ∗ 0.781 × 10 9


EI = = × 10 −3 = 5.2 × 10 9 KN.mm 2
(1 + β ) dns (1 + 0.545 )
π 2EI π 2 ∗ 5.2 × 10 9
Pc = 2
= 2
= 5702.4 KN
(Kl )u (1 ∗ 3000 )
M ult2,x = 88 KN.m ←

M ult2,x = max 
M
 2,min = 24.75 KN.m

∴ M ult2,x = 88 KN.m

 M   45 
0.6 + 0.4  ult1,x  = 0.6 + 0.4   = 0.8 ←
 M   88 
C m = max   ult2,x 

 0.4

∴ C m = 0.8

 Cm 0.8
 = = 1.077 ←
  4Plt   4 ∗ 1100 
1 − 1−
δns = max   3Pc  
 3 ∗ 5702.4 


 1

∴ δns = 1.077

M c = δnsM ult2,x = 1.077 ∗ 88 = 94.78KN.m

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 11/17


So, now we are dealing with the following moments:

Mult2,y = 135 KN.m

Mult2,x = 94.78 KN.m

So, let us continue the more clearly becoming biaxial column design:

φ = 0.65

Ag = bh = 250 ( 600 ) = 150000 mm 2

Pult × 10 3 1100 × 10 3
∵ = = 0.244 < 0.4
fc' Ag 30 (150000 )

 P × 10 3   fy + 280   420 + 280 


  0.5 + ult '   = 0.5 + 0.244    = 0.744 ←
  fc Ag   700   700 
∴ η = max 


 0.6

∴ η = 0.744

M ult,y 135
ex = × 10 3 = × 10 3 = 122.73 mm
( mm) Pult 1000

M ult,x 94.78
ey = × 10 3 = × 10 3 = 86.16 mm
( mm) Pult 1100

e x 122.73 e y 86.16
∵ = = 0.2 < = = 0.344
h 600 b 250

e 
∴ e y,mag = e y + η  x  b = 86.16 + 0.744 ( 0.2 ) 250 = 123.36 mm
 h 

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 12/17


Multx,mag = Pult e y,mag × 10 −3 = 1100 ∗ 123.36 × 10 −3 = 135.7 KN.m
(KN.m) (KN) (mm)

Multx,mag × 10 6 135.7 × 10 6
Rn = = = 0.185
φ fc' Agb 0.65 ∗ 30 ∗ 150000 ∗ 250

Pult × 10 3 1100 × 10 3
Kn = = = 0.376
φ fc' Ag 0.65 ∗ 30 ∗ 150000

dt = 10 mm ( since db = 22 mm < 32 mm )

γh = h − 2 ∗ c.c. − 2d − d t b
= 250 − 2 ( 40 ) − 2 (10 ) − 22 = 128 mm
replace "h" by "b" if working on week axis 

γh 128
γ= = = 0.51 ⇒ Take γ = 0.5
h 250

From the column interaction diagram, with:

γ = 0.5 

Rn = 0.185 

Kn = 0.376  ρg ≈ 0.05
fc' = 30 MPa 
fy = 420 MPa 

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 13/17


Ast,req = ρgAg = 0.05 ∗ 150000 = 7500 mm2

⇒ Use 20φ22

∴ As,provided = 7740 mm2

Ast,prov 7740
ρg,prov = = = 0.0516
Ag 150000

γh = h − 2 ∗ c.c. − 2dt − db = 600 − 2 ( 40 ) − 2 (10 ) − 22 = 478 mm

γh 478
γ= = = 0.797 ≅ 0.8
h 600

γ = 0.8 

ex 
= 0.2
h 

ρg,prov = 0.0516Knx ≈ 0.95

fc' = 30 MPa 
fy = 420 MPa 

∴ Pnx = Knx fc' Ag × 10 −3 = 0.95 ∗ 30 ∗ 150000 × 10 −3 = 4275 KN


(KN )

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 14/17


γb
γ= = 0.5
b

γ = 0.5 

ey 
= 0.344 
b

ρ g,prov = 0.0516K ny ≈ 0.53

fc' = 30 MPa 
fy = 420 MPa 

Pny = K ny fc' Ag × 10 −3 = 0.53 ∗ 30 ∗ 15000 × 10 −3 = 2385 KN


(KN )

Pno = 0.85 fc'(Ag − Ast,prov ) + As,prov fy  × 10 −3

⇒ Pno = 0.85 ∗ 30(150000 − 7740) + 7740 ∗ 420  × 10 −3 = 6878.4 KN

1 1 1 1 1 1 1
= + − = + − = 5.078 × 10 −4
Pni Pnx Pny Pno 4275 2385 6878.4

∴ Pni = 1969.2 KN

⇒ φPni = 0.65 ∗ 1969.2 ≅ 1280 KN > Pult = 1100 KN ⇒ Safe !!

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 15/17


 40 mm ←
s clear,min = m ax 
 1.5 d b = 1.5 ∗ 22 = 33 mm

∴ s clear,min = 40 mm

b − 2 ∗ c.c. − 2dt − N # of bars on the side "b" db


s x,clear =
(N # of bars on the side "b"
− 1)

250 − 2 ( 40 ) − 2 (10 ) − 3 ∗ 22
∴ s x,clear = = 42 mm > s clear,min = 40 mm ⇒ O.K.
(3 − 1 )
600 − 2 ( 40 ) − 2 (10 ) − 9 ∗ 22
s y,clear = = 37.75 mm < s clear,min = 40 mm ⇒ NotO.K.
(9 − 1)
But, it is not to far from the minimum required spacing, so, I'll leave it as is!!

48d t = 48 (10 ) = 480 mm



 16db = 16 (22 ) = 352 mm
s t,req = min 
 b = 250 mm ←
 h = 600 mm

∴ s t = 250 mm

3φ 10 ties
@ 250 mm 40mm
40mm

250 20 φ 22
mm

600mm

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 16/17


Now, if we were to have the freedom of enlarging the column cross-
section in order to convert it to a short column rather than a slender column,
we would certainly, enlarge the column width, i.e., b=250 mm, since the column
was concluded to be slender about the week axis only.

 M   45 
34 − 12  ult1,x  = 34 − 12  +  = 27.86 ←
K l 1 ∗ 3000  M   88 
∵ x ux = = 40 ≤ min   ult2,x 
rx 0.3b 
 40

3000
⇒b≥ = 358.9 mm
0.3 ∗ 27.86

∴ Take b = 400 mm

Dr. Ammar Ben-Nakhi Slender Columns 17/17