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NASS- The background

There is no educational system that is silent on the values that are accepted and cherished by that
society. Education is about values in other word behaviour change in all the domains of
education that is the psychomotor, the cognitive and the affective. A skilled artisan or
accountant with no sense of his position in society at the family level or at work or society in
general is a social misfit and a drain to national wealth because of the need to either
hospitalise him because he has AIDS or incarcerate him because he is a criminal and a
danger to that society. A strong sense of belonging or identity, responsibility and
accountability are the things that can be defined as patriotism. Economic giants today and in
the past are and were the most patriotic. In Zimbabwe today the sense of belonging has
eluded both young and old and this is due to selfishness, greed and the collapse of the
extended family due to western values. A culture of greed or a mafia and mercenary attitude
pervades all sectors of society in the banking, retailing, manufacturing and civil service. The
need to change attitudes and the need to inculcate correct values is not only urgent but
imperative now and in the future.

NASS -Definition
NASS can be defined as civic education designed to make all Zimbabweans who go through
tertiary institutions become responsible citizens who are patriotic and can therefor be
mobilised to participate in national development. .
Civic education is typical of and in all educational systems and is not unique to Zimbabwe.
Zimbabwe was the odd case in that it did not have this kind of emphasis in its education as
much as Zimbabwe was the odd case in relation to National Service.

NASS therefor is about positively changing or enhancing the attitudes of participants with respect
to their national identity and with respect to translating the political gains of the Second
Chimurenga into economic gains in the Third and Fourth Chimurenga.


Zimbabwe has a beginning in the distant past as witnessed and testified by the Zimbabwe ruins as
well as in the recent past as embodied in the ethos of the Second Chimurenga war. The second
chimurenga in essence establishes our ‘enduring political tradition” and ethos. Standing on a hill
allows one to see as far behind as he is able to see as far ahead. Mathematically expressed this
would be, “one is able to see as far ahead proportional to the distance he/she is able to see as far
backward.’ History is therefor relevant not only for today’s events and policies, but allows us to
shape our future and avoid the pitfalls of yester -year.



 State was most powerful before the 14th century i.e. 1500.

 It was called a state because it could raise an army and force the payment of tribute and was
involved in international relations.
 The state was built by a group of people and they were basically the shona people and who
had much wealth in the form of livestock.
 The Shona built the stone capital commonly called Great Zimbabwe which became the centre
of social, religious, economic and political life..
 The king was termed “Mambo”. The name of Great Zimbabwe means “house of stones” that
is “Dzimba Dzemabwe”. Similar “dzimba dzemabwe” were built across the country for
chiefs on rulers who were loyal to the “mambo” at Great Zimbabwe.

Historical evidence

 Historians have used the oral traditions to try to explain the history of the Great Zimbabwe
state. However, there is little that we normally get from the oral traditions because the
Shonas have no written records.
 Documentary evidence written during the Mutapa state by the Portuguese and records found
in Arab writings have an account on the Changamire and Mutapa states.

Archaeological Evidence

 Archaeology in the form of clothing found at the Great Zimbabwe and some of the evidence
including bones, copper and iron tools.
 These have been used by historians to show the social economic and political activities of the
people at Great Zimbabwe.
 The structure at the ruins consist of 2 complexes “the Acropolis”or temple area and the
external enclosure which consisted of a large number of stone buildings.
 Excavations in the external enclosure yielded stone, glass, bead, and brassware,
 Sea shells, iron ware, iron axes and hoes.
 Local goods included ivory, gold, beads, soapstones, chisels etc.

Social and Political Organisation

 By 1200 a ruling class had emerged which was strong enough to organize almost the whole
population to build a high surrounding wall made of granite blocks.
 The Great Zimbabwe rulers exercised power a number of chiefdoms who paid tribute to the
mambo at great Zimbabwe.
 Other chiefdoms may have been independent but connected through marriage and trade.
 The ruling class controlled trade.

Purpose of the stone structure

1) Security
2) Religion
3) Prestige monument.
4) Occupy slave labour

Causes for the Decline or Collapse of the State

 The state had become overpopulated leading to a shortage of resources.
 There was increased emigration
 Shortage of resources i.e. salt

 Civil wars
 Declining soil fertility
 Some dispute that Nyatsimba Mutota left Great Zimbabwe because he had failed to succeed
and left and formed the Mutapa state..

 The founder of the Mutapa state was Nyatsimba Mutota who left Zimbabwe in search of salt
or after a succession dispute according to oral history. Mutota went to the Zambezi Valley
where he defeated some weak communities who were already settled there such as the
Tavara or the Dzivaguru people. Mutota As a result earned the title ‘ Munhu-mutapa’ a praise
name which means Lord of Conquering.

 Before the succession dispute, King Chibatamatosi, Mutota’s father had ordered Mutota to
find salt.
 Initially the king had sent his servant Nyakatondo who had returned with salt and reported on
the abundance of elephants in the area.
 Prince Mutota traveled north leading a large army. He built his capital a “Zimbabwe” on the
slope of Chikato hill near the Utete River.
 Part of this Zimbabwe remains to this day at the bottom of the escapement north of Guruve.
 Mutota formed an alliance with the Tavara High Priest, Dzivaguru. Upon the death of
Mutota, his son, Nyanhenhwe Matope took over and co-ruled with his half sister Nyamhita
who occupied the district of Handa hence she is often referred to as Nyamhita Nehanda. The
two ruled the Mutapa Empire stretching from the Anngwa and Manyame Rivers, north to the
Zambezi and west to the Musengezi and Mukumbura Rivers.

The Mutapa Language eschatology and customs

 The people had the same shona language, customs and culture similar to the peoples of the
Great Zimbabwe state. The term “Shona” was not used until the 19 th century. The Ndebele
people described the Karanga ie. Mutapa language and area of control as “entshona langa”
which means a place where the sun sets or a place to the west.
 Nowadays the term Shona is representative of a number of related dialects (in Zimbabwe)
one of which is Karanga.
 They believed in a god whom they called ‘mwari’ who is claimed to have spoken through the
spirits of the ancestors and they listened carefully to spirit mediums i.e. the Mhondoros.
 Religious ceremonies were held to honour the spirit mediums where music dancing and
feasting occurred (Bira). The senior spirit mediums were Dzivaguru in the north east,
Nehanda in the central and Chaminuka in the west.
 At the cultural level the society was closely knit with the family being the nucleus of society
as well as being the foundation of the nation. The basis of this arrangement was a high
degree of morality with crime, starvation, delinquency, prostitution, divorce and almost all
known present day social ills being unknown. The law was highly developed to deal with
cultural issues and less defined in terms of commerce. Criminals even murderers were
rehabilitated with the law seeking to reconcile the injured and the culprit and compensate the
victim or his relatives in the case of murder. When a person was murdered life had to be
paid with life and invariably a young woman from the murderers’ family had to be given to
the victim’s family. Inevitably, this created a bond between the two considering that at birth
or death there are things that no one could or can do except the relatives of a woman. This is
in stark contrast to equivalent European law which was and remains punitive and divisive.

The Mutapa Economy

The state existed for almost 500 years in one form or the other. During its peak it was the heart of
a powerful empire which controlled the Zambezi River trade route and received taxes from
foreigners. Not only was the economy based on trade and taxation, tribute was also part of their
economy. The people of the Mutapa provided a variety of goods for trade. Trade made the
Mutapa ruling class wealthy and the state became strong.

 The people paid tribute to the Mutapa tax collectors and elephant hunters paid tribute in the
form of tusks.
 The Mutapa encouraged the gold miners to do the dangerous mine work in return the miners
had to sell the gold to the Mutapa.
 He taxed all imports and exports, every trader paid tribute, every visitor gifts, people brought
disputes and complains to the Mutapa and paid fees for his judgement.

The Mutapa Political Structures

 They had many advisors and ministers to govern the state.
 Some of the emperors’ wives were also officials, greeting visitors and handling their business
and as members of his royal court they became very powerful.
 Munhumutapa, his wives and officials wore expensive jewellery and clothes made from
cotton and silk. Most people wore skin aprons.
 A large army was maintained which traveled long distances, patrolling and collecting taxes
and cattle and brought new communities into the empire.

The Portuguese Factor In The Mutapa State.

 When Matope died, succession disputes arose. In 1494 Chikuyo Chisamarengu became king
and was the first to receive a Portuguese visitor named Fernandes who brought rice, cloth
and guns as gifts.
 The acquisition of more guns increased Mutapa’s power such that he was in a position to
assist his ally Makombe of Barwe to take control of Manyika.
 In 1530 Neshangwe became the new king after Chisamarengu had died. He took over Mbire
province earning the praise name Munembire.
 He introduced the old custom of chiefs sending their ambassador to rekindle fires at the
king’s palace.
 In 1550 Chivero Nyasoro succeeded Neshangwe and after him Nzou or Ntemba an unmarried
youth, took over and ruled with his mother Chiuya.
 Negomo and his mother Chiuya received a Catholic priest Father Goncalo da’ Silveira who
wanted to convert them to Christianity. Muslim traders at the king’s court (vamwenyi) did
not like this and plotted to kill Da’ Silveira. They subsequently strangled him and dumped
him in a pond.
 Goncalo’s death angered the Portuguese and when they sent an army to revenge his death, it
was defeated.
 In 1607 Gatsi Rusere asked the Portuguese’s for assistance to fight his rival for the
leadership and in return they were given mines.
 The people of Mutapa refused to tell them where the mines were because of earlier
experience with Portuguese Prazeros(land/ prazo holders)(this is where the name purazi
comes from) who took their land.

 More Portuguese arrived and forced them to work in the fields. The Portuguese
formed private armies and became wild and lawless.

The Decline or Collapse of the Mutapa State

 The decline was precipitated by the Portuguese private armies and this led the Mutapa
Nyambo Kapararidze to try to expel them.
 He was unsuccessful in this and was overpowered and in his place a puppet Mamvura
Mhande was installed.
 After Kapararidze, the Portuguese chose other Munhumutapas who would obey them.
 An 18th century Munhumutapa moved his people to Mozambique where new chiefs were
appointed to restore order.
 Chioko was the last ruler to use the title Munhumutapa. He led a revolt against the
Portuguese but was however crashed in 1817 and so ended the legacy of the Mutapa state.


 The state arose from plundered wealth by the Rozvi under Changamire Dombo (1634)
believed to having been a powerful ruler. He was very wealthy and claimed that his father
was a mwari and his mother a virgin. The Rozvi capital was at Thabazikamambo near
 By 1680 he was at his peak and his state was spread between the Zambezi and Limpopo
rivers and even into areas like Mozambique e.g. Sena.
 The Rozvi Changamire received tribute from smaller chiefs.
 By 1830 – 1860 the state existed in name only.

 Decline and Collapse Of the State

Collapse of the Rozvi state was as a result of Mfecane ‘or time of trouble” caused by Nguni
tribes who had fled from Tshaka or broken away from the Zulu state in present day Natal
Zwangendaba crossed the Limpopo with his group and fought the Rozvi ruler Chirisamhuru.
 The state was further weakened when Kololo Sebitwane in 1836 fought and defeated the
Rozvi. Mzilikazi turned west into Gaza and then north with his group and finished the
remnants of the Rozvi state between 1837 – 1840.


The Founder of the State was Mzilikazi son of, Matshobane and grandson of Zwide. Mzilikazi
joined Tshaka under Zwide. He was a chief of a small clan called Khumalo. He suspected Zwide
of the death of his father Matshobane.

 Mzilikazi was sent to recover cattle and he did not surrender the cattle to Tshaka and fled
 He left Natal in 1821/ 1822 with 300 men. The name Ndebele was given as a nickname by
Tswanas and means people of long shields. Mzilikazi increased his side through conquering
and incorporating weak tribes such as the Tswana and Suthuland some people voluntarily
joined Mzilikazi. He was defeated by the Boers at Enthumbane in the Transvaal. The
Ndebele crossed the Limpopo River in 1837 – 1846 and settled at Inyati near Matopo hills.
 They easily routed the weakened Rozvi and brought adjacent Shona areas under their
control. They conquered Shonas such as the Kalanga and Venda.

Political Structures
 King was pre-eminent in the Ndebele state. Mzilikazi was the supreme commander of the
army, highest judge with power over life and death. He was a religious leader who presided
over important religious ceremonies such as Incxwala.
 King however didn’t rule alone but with two advisory counsels, the Mphakati and Izinkulu
indicating that king was not a dictator.
 The Mphakati was made up of original Khumalo chiefs i.e. those who had left Natal and
knew Zulu military tactics.
 These made the most important decisions although they could be vetoed by the king.
 The Izinkulu was made up of other chiefs especially those who were incorporated in the
Ndebele state..

The Ndebele Economy.

Many European historians misunderstood or deliberately distorted the bases of Ndebele economy.
They argued that the Ndebele were nomads and therefore had lots of time for raiding the Shona.
This was not entirely true. The following were the basis of Ndebele economy:

 Herding –This was the most important economic activity owing to the fact that Ndeng
initially were not permanently established in Matebeleland. The Ndeng kept large heads of
cattle, sheep and goats.
 They acquired some of the cattle along the way while others were obtained through the
conquered Rozvi and others were received in the form of tribute from the Shona while others
were obtained through raiding.
 Agriculture- the Ndebele had fields in which they grew crops such as millet, sorghum, water
melons etc.
 Agriculture was however, not very popular with the Ndebele because of climatic conditions.
 Hunting and gathering - Hunting was very popular in the Ndebele state. Their kills ranged
from large animals e.g. elephants and buffaloes to small species e.g. buck and rodents. Men
usually hunted while women concentrated on gathering.
 They gathered wild fruits, grass seed and insects. Gathering was important in the Ndebele
state as far as it supplemented organised agriculture.
 Trade - They traded internally i.e. amongst themselves and externally with the Shona
The Ndebele traded their cattle and gold for grain, corn, cloth, iron, jewellery, beads etc.

- Mining - The Ndebele occasionally carried out some mining activities to a limited extent.
They traded gold with the Portuguese. Mining was done mostly in winter- after harvest when
people didn’t have much work in the field.

 Tribute - in the form of cattle, grain and to a certain extent women from those tribes under
their control
 Raids/plunder - They raided the unsubdued Shona tribes for cattle, women, young men and

 However, it should be realized that the Ndebele didn’t always raid the Shona. Only those
who lived near Ndebele settlements were raided occasionally such as the Shona in the
Masvingo, Mberengwa, Gweru and Kwekwe areas.

Ndebele- Shona relations

The myths and realities.

 Many European historians wrote that the Ndebele always raided the Shona and that the Shona
were on the verge of extinction when settler colonialists came to Zimbabwe. They used this
as an excuse to influence the British government to colonize this country and the
missionaries used this argument more than the ordinary settlers.
 The reason why missionaries encouraged the British government to occupy and destroy the
Ndebele Kingdom was because they had failed to convert a single Ndebele man.
 The truth of the matter is that there was co-existence between the Shona and the Ndebele had
the occasional raid as a common feature of this relationship.
 In the early stages of the Ndebele settlement i.e. between 1840 – 1870 the Ndebele were pre-
occupied with their own security, internal problems such that they could not always fight the
 It is also true that some Shona people never experienced Ndebele raids up to 1890 especially
those Shona people living north of Harare and Manicaland.
 Those Shona chiefs who refused to pay tribute e.g. Chief Chivi or Bere were major targets for
raids. Ndebele raids did not interfere with the economy of those Shona chiefs who paid
tribute and moreover some Shona chiefs aided the Ndebele and some stole or raided the
Ndebele to recover stolen cattle.
 The Ndebele actually encouraged good relations and there was some level of inter-marriage.
 The Ndebele adopted the Shona deity “mwari”/umlimu’ and followed the Shona traditions of
ancestral worship..
 The state was divided into 3 district social groups based on history namely:

a) Abezanzi

These were the superior class which occupied most important positions. They formed the
aristocratic ruling class. These were the original Khumalo who had left Natal and
constituted about 15% of Ndebele population ie. The Hadebes, Khumalos, Mkwananzi.

b) Enhla

These were 2nd most important groups in the Ndebele state. They were Sotho and Tswana
who joined the Ndebele on their way to Zimbabwe. They occupied important military
positions in the Ndeng state and they constituted about 25% of Ndebele population.

c) Amahole

These were the least important in the Ndebele state. They were made up of the Kalanga and
other Shona speaking people who were conquered and absorbed by the Ndebele and made up
60% of Ndebele population. However, the hole who proved themselves in battle also
occupied important military posts in the Ndebele economy. Due to continued inter-marriage
most of these groups lost their identities ie the Moyos, Sibandas, Ncubes, Gumbos.


 White settlement in the region was established as early as the 1650s at the Cape in South
Africa. This was a re-supply post for fresh water and food for the East India trade. The Dutch
settlers at the Cape were soon displaced by the British and pushed north. The discovery of
gold on the Rand and diamonds led to the continued jostling for control between the British
and Dutch settlers for the good part of the two centuries from 1700 through 1800. Hunters
and missionaries who were the trail blazzers for British colonisation spread the rumor that
there was a bigger Rand in the area occupied by the Ndeng across the Limpopo.

 Cecil John Rhodes who came to South Africa because of ill-health joined his brother at the
Kimberly diamond fields and became rich and directed his attention to the rumors of an “el
dorado” or city of gold to the north.

 Rhodes was an imperialist at heart. His aim was to bring under British Control all African
territory from South Africa to Egypt.

 Rhodes believed in British superiority and thought that it was a British responsibility to
civilize Africa the so called Dark Continent.

 Other imperialists were also interested in Zimbabwe namely; the Boers from the short lived
Transvaal Republic, Germans from South West Africa and especially the Portuguese.

 The Grobler Treaty

 In1887 the Transvaal government sent its representative Piet Grobler to negotiate a friendship
treaty with Lobengula assuming he was the ruler of all the territories north of the Limpopo.
The agreement - known as the Grobler treaty provided for a Boer Representative to be
resident at Bulawayo and Lobengula would assist the Boers ( in the face of British threats) if
required to do so.

 In response to the treaty, Rhodes influenced the British government to send a representative
to Bulawayo to negotiate a counter treaty.

The Moffat Treaty

 John Smith Moffat representing the British government negotiated and signed the treaty in
February 1888. According to this agreement Lobengula was to cancel the Grobler Treaty.
He would also not enter into any agreement with any European power without the consent of

 The Moffat Treaty was supposed to be a treaty of friendship between Lobengula and the
British government but in fact was the first step in the collapse and subjugation of the Ndeng

The Rudd Concession

 Agreed and signed in October 1888, it led to the occupation of Zimbabwe by the white
settlers through the British South African company. Rhodes had formed this commercial
company to spear head the occupation of this country.

 The Rudd Concession was entered into between Charles Rudd representing Rhodes and
Lobengula. The Rudd delegation consisted of three people namely;

1Charles Rudd

Rhodes’ old friend since their days at Oxford University. He was therefore an
embodiment of Rhodes’ self interest.

1. Rotchford Maguire

Was a lawyer and his expertise in the legal language was going to be useful in tricking

2. Francis Thompson

He was nicknamed “Matebele” because he was fluent in Nguni languages including Ndeng.
He had a perfect knowledge of Ndeng custom. His presence was therefore meant to influence
Lobengula to sign the agreement. Rhodes was careful in the selection of the Rudd team.

Lobengula didn’t want to meet this delegation let alone sign the agreement, the evidence is

1) It took the delegation about 6 weeks to meet Lobengula.

2) The delegation bribed Lobengula’s most trusted senior, Induna Lotshe, who influenced
Lobengula to sign the agreement and for that role Lotshe was executed together with his

3) Lobengula was influenced by several whitemen he trusted such as Moffat who misled or
lied to him that the Rudd delegation represented the queen.

4) Because of both internal and external influence, Lobengula signed the Rudd Concession
in October 1888, the terms of which were;:

a) Lobengula was to receive:

 Monthly pension of 100 pounds sterling per month.

 1000 enfield riffles and 100 000 rounds of ammunition.

 A gunboat to be placed on the Zambezi valley to guard against Portuguese invasion.

b) Lobengula was to grant Rhodes;

-Granted Rhodes and the BSAC exclusive rights over all minerals and precious metals in
Mashonaland and Matebeleland.

 Not more than 10 white men would enter the country.

 They would dig only one hole.

 They would surrender all their weapons to Lobengula and actually become his

The Royal Charter

 Armed with the Rudd agreement Rhodes had to have the political protection of the British
government. Rhodes therefor sought and got this protection through The Royal Charter,
granted in October 1889. The document in effect declared that the Rudd concession had
effectively made the territories of Lobengula British territories under the administration of
the British South Africa Company (BSAC) and by that virtue restricted Boer and Portuguese
expansion. Some German hunters advised Lobengula on what was meant by the document
and he tried in vain to repudiate it.

 He sent two of his Indunas to the queen accompanied by E A Mount and Charles Helm to
inform her that he was no longer interested in the Rudd Concession. The indunas were
deliberately delayed and the repudiation was too late.

 To reverse the Rudd agreement, Lobengula granted Edward Lippert a German businessman
a concession for a period of 100 years to mine in Zimbabwe.

 Rhodes bought the Lippert Concession and made his position even more powerful.

The Pioneer Column

 Rhodes’s next step was to organize a group of men who were going to form the first t settlers
in Zimbabwe.

 The group was called The Pioneers made up of 200 settler volunteers and chosen from
thousands of applicants from all over Europe and South Africa.

 Supported by 500 troops, the group was promised 2 000 acres and five gold claims each. The
Botswana protectorate provided 800 African labourers.

 Fredrick Selous guided the settler group because of his knowledge of the country as a hunter.
The group crossed Into Zimbabwe in March 1890 and built fort Tuli. The column turned
east avoiding the Ndeng state and established Fort Victoria (Masvingo) On 17 August 1890
the Column reached Fort Charter (Chivhu). From Charter the column reached Harare on 12
September 1890, raised the British flag the Union jack and, and called Harare Salisbury in
honour of British Prime Minister at that time. This marked the completion of the occupation
of the land.

 Leander Star Jameson, Rhodes’ personal friend was appointed the first governor of

The Anglo - Ndebele war and the Occupation of Matebeleland.

The members of Pioneer Column were largely disappointed with the amount of gold they got in

 They thought that Matebeleland was a little closer to South Africa so a second Rand could be
found in Matebeleland.

 The white settlers also admired the big cattle found in Matebeleland and the attractive land
(rich grazing lands). They even believed that Lobengula’s capital was built on top of a gold

 It should be borne in mind that the occupation of Matebeleland was inevitable and
unavoidable. It was to complete the occupation of Zimbabwe and, as the BSAC was
bankrupt, it needed gold; hence Matebeleland was their own way out of that big problem.

 To do so the BSAC had to destroy the powerful and landed Ndeng state and Leander Star
Jameson needed an excuse in order to attack the Ndeng state. He created conflicts to justify
war between whites and Ndeng.

Precursors to the war

1. The Boundary Line

 According to Jameson, Mashonaland was not part of Matebeleland.

 Jameson drew up his own boundary line to separate Mashonaland from Matebeleland. He
then restricted Lobengula’s rule to Matebeleland.

 Lobengula never acknowledged the division of Mashonaland and Matebeleland.

 He claimed the whole country as his and to make matters worse, the boundary line kept on
shifting towards his capital thus reducing his area of influence.

The war - 1893

While Rhodes and BSAC were busy establishing themselves in Mashonaland the Ndeng were
trying to avoid any conflicts with the whites. Since the settlers were interested in Matebeleland,
Rhodes and his people were busy finding ways of attacking the Ndeng The whites admired the
Ndeng’s rich grazing lands and suspected gold deposits.

Causes of the War of 1893

1. The Victoria Incident

 Whites employed the Shona people but the Ndeng still regarded later as their subjects.

 In June 1893 some of the Shona people led by headman Gomala stole 500 metres of telegraph

 They were ordered to pay cattle as fine. They paid this fine using cattle that belonged to
Lobengula and which they had had stolen.

 Lobengula claimed the cattle to be his and they were returned to him.

 Soon after this event another Shona by the name of Bere is alleged to have to have stolen
cattle belonging to Lobengula.

 Lobengula sent an impi to punish the Shona chief and his people. As a result Shona servants
on European farms were killed and some fled to Fort Victoria for protection.

 The Ndebele Indunas,Manyao and Uumgandani pursued the Shona people who sought refuge
in Victoria.

 The indunas demanded that the Shona be handed over but Lendy, the magistrate of Fort
Victoria refused and the Ndeng were ordered to vacate Fort Victoria.

 Lendy followed and caught up with Umgandani’s party and killed all of them and in response
Lobengula mobilized 6000 soldiers.

 The Victoria Incident triggered the war but the issue at stake was that the white farmers
believed that there were rich gold deposits in Matebelaland and had long planned on how to
get there

They also saw the grazing land and good cattle herds of the Ndebele as a recipe for prosperity
even if they were to find no gold.

The powerful independent Ndebele state was seen as preventing white settlers from getting
enough labour for their mines and farms.

Preparation for war

 By September 1893 Jameson had organized a force of over 1000 well armed white settlers
aided by missionaries from South Africa.

 Jameson promised each of them 2400 hectares of land and 20 gold claims each if the Ndeng
were defeated.

The Battles

 The white armies left Salisbury and Fort Victoria in October 1893 and moved south west
towards Matopo ready for a show down with the Ndeng.

 In a battle, that took place along the Shangani and Mbembesi Rivers, the Ndeng impi was
heavily defeated.

 On 3 November after just a month of bloody fighting the invading forces entered the Ndeng
capital, Bulawayo and Lobengula set fire to the city and fled north where he vanished
without trace to date.

 The 1893 war marked the complete conquest of Zimbabwe and an end to Ndeng Supremacy.


Slavery is the highest level of degrading another human being. Slavery is as ancient as human
existence. The practice was pronounced under the Roman Empire and at that time it also
assumed its commercial undertones. This practice was perfected by the former Roman
colonies in Europe when they enslaved Africa. Never in the History of mankind were such
atrocities, insensitivity, and cruelty and inhumanity perpetrated by human beings upon
other human beings. Slavery was the crudest method of exploiting other human beings and
in its wake came colonisation which by definition is slavery with a humane face. The latter
like slavery leads to the exploitation of other man by other man by other means other than
brute force.

It is not possible under The United Nations Charter for a nation to unilaterally attack or annex the
territory of another state and where this has happened of late as when Iraq attacked Kuwait
the UN unanimously agreed to reverse the annexture through force of arms. To colonize
another state is therefor the highest form of state irresponsibility. The USA under false
claims of existence of weapons of mass destruction attacked Iraq in 2003 and there was a
global outcry against the war. Colonization nevertheless took place many centuries before
the UN came into existence but that does make colonization any less a crime against
humanity. Colonisation was perpetrated by the very nations that were vociferously opposed
to the Iraq Kuwait invasion and yet many serious human rights violations were perpetrated
by the colonial powers in this process. In Tasmania Australia, the aborigines on the island
were wiped out to the last man by British settlers. The Spanish conquistadors demolished
whole empires and civilizations in the Americas.


1. The discovery of gold and silver and agricultural potential in South America or in the
Americas created the need for disciplined workforce.

2. Inability of the local or native Red-Indian population to withstand organized disciplined


3. Existence of disciplined agricultural and industrial culture in Africa.

4. Indigenous or Red-Indian inability to withstand European diseases e.g. small pox, syphilis,
gonorrhea etc.

5. The existence of a greedy and guliable or naïve chieftainship in Africa which captured and
sold its own kith and kin for a bottle of fire water that is gin.

 Commercial activity therefore contributed much to the consolidation of slavery. The trade in
Europe did not provide sufficient profit because of the problem of exchange values. But the
trade with unindustrialized countries in Africa and America was more profitable because of
the use values.

 This system of trade was a system of robbery based on plunder, piracy and slavery and
colonial conquest.

 To consolidate accumulation or profit in England, the joint stock company was devised and
several of this new economic tool were formed, e.g. the Adventurous Russia company and
the Africa company. According to Nassau, a well known academic of the time, the objectives
of the Africa company were, “…to kidnap or purchase and work to death the natives of

Africa without mercy.” The Eastland Company had the monopoly and right to trade with the
European hinterland. The Levan Company in which Queen Elizabeth 1 was a major
shareholder became the East Indian Company.

 The Fuggers Company in Germany was first a merchant company and later became a bank
and financed all Germany wars of the period.

 The Fuggers Company in return for financing war was paid through the form of trading
concessions, colonial land and through revenue from colonial mines.

 As contact with Latin America or South America increased, the company turned to Africa for
cheap labour.

 It was the nearest continent with a population used to organize labour which was also
disciplined in many respects. The Uterecht Treaty of 1713 gave English Merchants the right
to supply South America with 5 000 slaves every year and a special company was formed to
supply these slaves.

 Most of the gold and products from the plantations from South America ended up in British

 The continued enslavement of African peoples between 1646 and 1680 resulted in 70 000
slaves being taken to South America. However, only 46 000 survived the translocation. The
slave trade was part of the triangular trade between Europe, Africa and South America .This
trade was very profitable to the European companies and the African Royal company which
was the slave company paid a dividend of 300% despite loss of half the “goods/cargo” that’s
despite the death of more than half the slaves en route to the Americas.

 There is therefore a co relation between Europe’s expansion/development and slave labour

from Africa. The methods used by the companies especially British firms, was to capture
other countries’ export markets through colonisation, protectionism and unequal exchange.

 Europe therefore did not undertake its industrial Revolution without the plunder, the
enslavement and the destruction of the native people of Africa.


 Colonialism was a product of European merchants or European commerce. The former (the
merchants) later supported and financed the political institutions or their governments in
their wars of conquest and colonisation and they also participated in policy making .
Colonisation therefore was therefor an economic necessity. The reasons or causes of
Africa’s colonisation were or are:

a) Facilitated protection of monopoly markets of each European trading nation.

b) Allowed easy access to tropical markets.

c) Allowed access to natural resources essential for industrial activities.

d) Allowed expansion and creation of new markets which had no balance of trade problems.

e) Colonization facilitated the unimpeded imposition of the religious super structure and
beliefs of the colonizers on the colonized peoples.

f) For glory and imperial prestige.

 African slavery had existed in Europe from about the 16 th century but the need to exploit the
wealth of South America saw slavery reaching a climax in the 18 th century. Slavery
however, came to an end when it stopped serving the purposes and interests of European

 The dynamics of European production and exchange changed and no longer required slave
labour. Britain banned slavery in 1807. Slavery however, continued or even grew after this
banning. In 1833 slavery was internationally banned but it did not die until a 100 years later
and to the shame of Africa still lingers on in places like the Sudan.

 Slavery was not abolished because Europe had repented of its weakedness but because
commerce could not benefit as much from this evil practice.

 Once slavery was abolished, it was replaced with colonization.

 The commercial revolution in the 16 th century expanded trade beyond Europe and this
created a conservative class of merchants and landlords. Commercial merchants were a
class which could not fully satisfy their accumulation potential in Europe so they turned to
foreign markets.

 Primitive accumulation in Europe, that is, getting rich through violence and other dishonest
means, was extended and practiced in foreign lands through colonization.

 The merchants and conquerors destroyed several civilizations in Africa e.g. the Ashanti
kingdom and the Aztec Civilization in central America.

 Earlier, five crusades had been wedged or undertaken in the Middle East and this almost
destroyed the Arab civilization. The crusades were less about religion and more about
plunder and theft and robbery. The amount of wealth stolen in this manner although
substantial could not last long and the result was to exploit the mines and the agricultural
potential in Africa and in South America.

 In South America where more gold and silver than in Africa existed, the mines could not be
exploited using local labour so they resorted to stealing people from Africa.

 This form of exploitation eventually gave way to paid labour as a more profitable way of
accumulating wealth.

 Development or industrialization in Europe is therefore directly linked to both colonialism

and slavery.


 Before the Berlin conference in 1884 commercial contact had long existed between Europe
and Africa and in trying to protect their commercial interest, Europeans had fought many
wars and for almost a 100 years between 1700 and 1800 Europe was at war with each other

because of commercial or economic interests. With the growth of England and France as the
major military powers, the wars became less and less However, when German became a
powerful nation towards the end of the 19 th Century, the following scenario developed in

 The possibilities of renewed conflict became real.

 The British passed The Navigation and Frauds Act, The Navigation and Staple acts etc. with a
view to monopolising trade with the so called ‘new world’ and ‘the dark continent.’

 Portugal fearing wars between Europe and Britain, suggested or requested Otto Von Bismark,
the Germany chancellor, to convene a conference for all interested parties with trading or
commercial interests with Africa. This led to the infamous Berlin conference. The objectives
of the conference were:

1. To lay down the rules for the partition and exploitation of Africa.

2 .To prevent war by so partitioning Africa.

Summary of Contents of the agreement at the Berlin Coference;

1.Freedom of navigation on all major rivers in Africa.

2. Colonization or establishment of protectorates to be entered into voluntarily between

European powers and African Chiefs.

3. A colony to be recognized only where there was visible occupation and evidence of a written
protectorate agreement.


2. 1. German ,Belgium ,England, France, Italy ,Portugal

Contents Of Protectorate Agreements between European Powers and African Chiefs/Kings.

1. Parties to the agreement- a). African chief and, b). a European commercial company.

2. Subjugation or surrender of title to land.

3. The location of the land, its size and general description.

4. Surrender of all political, judicial and military power.

5. Creation of a monopoly trade area.

6. Duration of agreement i.e. infinity or for ever and ever.

7. Rewards for the chiefs and the people, alleged or claimed improvement of their lives through
European civilization.

8. Surrender of all rights to minerals and other resources.


1. Led to the scramble for Africa by European powers (nations) through commercial companies
or by commercial companies.

2. The establishment of concessions which were unfair and never explained to the African

3. Resistance or rejection of the concessions by African chiefs when they understood the
implications of the agreement.

4. Use of force by European powers to break resistance and to fully colonise Africa.


1. Balance of trade dis-equilibra i.e. negative trade relations between Africa and European
countries during and after colonialism through a new form of relationship called Neo-

2. Exploitation and depletion of Africa’s natural resources without benefit to Africa.

3. Underdevelopment of Africa since there was no technology transfer to facilitate

industrialisation (investment was only in infrastructure to enable exploitation of resources).

4. Cultural decimation/destruction.

5. Dependency on European economies.

6. Loss of individual and national identity by Africans during and after colonialism

7. Super enrichment and development of Europe and their extensions in America and Australia.

Reasons for the colonisation of Africa.

1. Abundance of natural resources e.g. minerals, rubber, elephants (ivory).

2. Fertile soils and ideal climate in Southern Africa and Kenya..

3. Africa was the source of many major rivers.

4. Existence of a money economy in Africa.

5. Possibility of establishing colonies and monopoly markets.

6. Little to no meaningful resistance


Early Settler Administration.

 With the Ndbele state in ruins and the Shona state machinery crumbling in the face of
superior settler firepower , the BSAC proceeded apace to consolidate its grip on the

country. The Transvaal Boer state however posed a great challenge to Rhodes’ plans
In 1895, Jameson withdrew most of the company’s armed personnel into the
Transvaal to fight the Boers but was crushed and the scenario for the Native
rebellion in Zimbabwe developed


Causes of the War

The Ndebele Revolt

1. The land Issue

 The reserve system or translocation of native Zimbabweans to infertile dry inhospitable

holding areas was introduced.

 In 1894 the first reserves were set up in Shangani and Gwaai.

 After the defeat of the Ndebele, the settlers seized their 6 000 acres displacing many natives
and those displaced became fulltime labourers or squatters.

 The settlers started ill treating the Ndebele like they were doing the Shona.


 The British South African company introduced hut tax to force the Africans to go to work
and in order to raise revenue.

 Livestock was seized to force men to go to work for the settler.

 To solve their labour problems, the company introduced forced labour. The chiefs were
instructed to recruit able bodied men and hand them over to the BSAC as labourers-
“chibharo”. The Shona and Ndebele so enslaved ran away into the hills to escape.

 The presence of white settlements contrary to the agreements entered into.

 Again this did not please the Ndeng who wanted to claim their ancestral land back as in the
reserves there was food shortage and starvation at times.


 Soon after the defeat of the Ndeng in the Anglo Ndebele war, the whites confiscated the
Ndeng cattle numbering about 250 000.

 This drastically reduced the Ndeng herd and the Ndeng wanted their cattle back as it was a
sign of prestige.


 This was imposed on the Ndeng for a dual purpose

i) It was indirectly made to force the Ndeng to work in order to pay tax.

ii) It was meant to increase the company income.

Abuse of Ndebele women by Native Shona policema.

 In order to stop this abuse, the Ndebele had had to fight the whitemen and the employment of
their former vassals the Shona as policemen did not please the Ndebele as they were now
told what to do by these Shona policeman.


 It was at that time that natural disasters occurred. These included drought, rinderpest a cattle
disease and locusts. Africans gave these natural disasters a religious interpretation, they
argued that the presence of the whites had angered their ancestors hence these natural
disasters and they then found it necessary to drive away the whites in an effort to bring the
natural disasters to an end.


 These were very instrumental in bringing about a concented effort to drive away the white
man and they used a variety of methods. They passed information on the progress made in
the preparations for war. Some prophesied that the fighters would be protected by their
ancestors. They also provided medicine which they claimed made the fighters bullet proof.

 They gave general encouragement to everybody and in some cases they threatened death to
all those who showed no interest.


 Africans were defeated because of the inferior weapons that they used which included spears,
shields, bow and arrows against the whitemen’s machine guns, cannons and 7 pounders.

 Disunity and dis-organization among the Africans also led to this defeat as some collaborated
with the whites.

 Leaders and spirit mediums were captured and killed thereby leaving the Africans direction
less and leaderless.

 Africans lost faith in their spirit mediums in particular and in their religion in general leading
to many Africans being converted to Christianity. However, although the Africans were
defeated, their efforts need to be recognised. It was the first time that they had fought a
common enemy as a united people.

 It was also important in that it laid the foundation for future wars of resistance that is the 2 nd
Chimurenga etc.

 Notable heroes and heroines of the First Chimurenga were people like Nehanda, Kaguvi,
General Magwegwe and Mkwati of the Ndebele army, Chief Chingaira, Mashonganyika,
Muzambi, Maremba, Zvidembo, Mazhindu, Manyongori, Gunduza, Mvenuri and Gutu.

Repressive Settler Legilation which dispossed and dehumanized Native Zimbabweans

Almost two hundred whites lost their lives during the first Chimurenga war and many thousands
of Africans died in battle and in the reprisals that followed up to and during 1898. To secure their
position the settlers enacted many pieces of legislation that effectively proscribed or limited
African economic, cultural and political freedoms.

The Native Reserve Order In Council: 1898.

Effectively removed all native chiefs who were anti- settlers and replaced them with puppet
settler administrators. The act also created reserves or cantonments in dry inhospitable areas.

The Hut Tax: 1903.

Enacted to raise revenue for settlers and to force black men to go and work for the white man.

The Dog Tax and Land Bank acts: 1912.

The land bank act provide d new white settler farmers with free tillage for five years and the
same period as grace before commencing to repay loans from the state owned Land bank.

The European Produce Act: 1917.

Discriminated against natives in so far as agricultural production was concerned with respect to
quantities they could market or the prices they could fetch.

The Morris Carter Commission:1925.

Divided the whole country into agro-zones based on rainfall patterns from the highest rainfall
region 1 to the lowest rainfall region 5. Natives were trans- located to regions 4 and 5.

The Land Apportionment Act: 1930.

In 1930 whites who numbered 50 000 were allocated 49 000 000 acres of prime land while
blacks who numbered 1 000 000 were allocated 28 000 000 acres of the worst land in regions 4
and five. The translocation of blacks was accompanied with untold violence and starvation and
malnutrition became endemic. More government officials were employed country wide and
effect while rule and these included native commissioners and police man. A land policy after
1905 was affected which started to impoverish ty blacks and to keep them politically ineffective.
Africans were also excluded from government through strict qualifications e.g.. The right to
vote was given to males over 21 days with an annual income of 50 000 pounds or with property
worth 75 pounds. The Land Apportionment Act of 1930 confirmed and legalised the
displacement of Africans that had been ongoing earlier.

Up until 1906, ninety percent of Southern Rhodesia’s agricultural produce came from black
farmers and many whites did not like this state of affairs. As a result, the Rhodesia Native
Labour Bureau (RNLB) stopped blacks from competing with whites and between 1908 and
1915, 1.5 million acres of the best land was taken from blacks and given to whites. New
boundaries were created to exclude fertile high rainfall areas from newly created reserves. The
latter were located in semi arid areas. Blacks in regions 1, 2 and 3 were made to pay higher
grazing fees and taxes. Since many could not pay they were removed and settled in reserves
which were situated far away from markets and rail and tarred motor roads. By the 1920s, 65%
of the black population had been forced into reserves. This led to cycle of poverty among
Africans which persists up to today -2004.

The Maize Control Act:1935.

The act protected white farmers from black competition in maize production. 2 grades of maize
were made, A grade for whites and B grade for blacks. A grade fetched a higher price while B
fetched a lower price.

 Whites also paid less for maize they bought from blacks.

The Cattle Levy Act:1934.

 Whites paid less on the market for cattle bought from blacks.

 The government paid more to whites for their cattle.

 This system impoverished the blacks who were loosing out through this fraudulent
commercial arrangement. As the blacks became poorer in the reserves they migrated or
translocated to towns.

Industrial Conciliation Act:1934.

 Blacks were denied the right to join trade unions.

 Higher paying jobs were reserved for whites that are skilled and semi-skilled job.

 The act was latter amended to allow natives to become nurses and teachers.

Racial Discrimination Act:1934.

 The act barred social inter-action between the races for an example it was an offence for a
white to share a toilet with a black man or to mix in schools, hospitals, or hotels even

The Land Husbandry Act: 1951.

 The act barred any African family from owning more than five herd of cattle or eight acres
of land in the communal lands.

The Tribal Trust Land Act:1965.

 The act segregated the ownership of land between white areas and black areas. Natives could
only occupy land in communal lands without holding title to it. In Towns natives could only
lease property and no black man could own a house in town until after 1980.

The Land Tenure Act:1969.

 The act divided the land on racial lines and designated the best 45 000 000 acres as European
land and shared among the 250 000 whites and the worst 45 000 000acres was designated as
native land to be shared by the 5 000 000 blacks.

 The act also barred the races from encroaching in the other race’s land.


 All black males were required to carry a pass or identity paper which any white man or police
officer of any race could demand at anytime anywhere. This restricted black freedom of
movement from place to place.


After the collapse of traditional resistance in 1898 Zimbabwe was ruled by the British through
the BSAC. Africans were speedily brought under control and since company rule was
increasingly becoming inadequate and incapable of running the country, the British gave the
settlers two options to either join South Africa or to establish responsible self government. In a
referendum in 1923 the settlers chose the latter. The more the settler regime became repressive
the more the African spirit of resistance blazed. Early resistance took crude forms such as
jamming of factory machines or refusing to work on farms and in mines. More refined resistance
took the form of strikes and joining trade unions.

 Between the 1st. and 2nd. World wars the vehicle for political agitation among blacks were the
trade unions. The African Railway Workers Union and the Reformed Commercial and
Industrial Workers Union were the first and most effective and they also were non tribal.

 Bulawayo the industrial city of the nation at the time saw more political activity originating
and directed from that quarter. In 1945 the ARWU called a strike that paralyzed the whole
network from Mutare to Ndola in Zambia’s copper belt.

 In 1948 a general strike paralyzed all industrial and commercial activity in all cities in the

 The white settlers connived to create the federation of the Rhodesias and Nyasaland
(Southern and Northern Rhodesia, ie Zimbabwe, Zambia and Malawi)and by the early 1950s
this absorbed the attention of the natives since there were many false promises associated
with the creation of the federation. The federation was eventually created in 1953 and its
major features were the following;

 Polarization – all major manufacturing activity was concentrated in Southern Rhodesia..

 The communications infrastructure tended to serve and favour Southern Rhodesia with the
Federation railways and airlines being headquartered in Southern Rhodesia

 The University and all other institutions of higher learning were in Southern Rhodesia.

 The settler colonialists embarked on a process of ethnic cleansing designed to rid Southern
Rhodesia of all its native blacks and Trans locating them in Northern Rhodesia and replacing
them with what were perceived as docile migrant laborers from Zambia and Malawi.

 White settlers established permanent homes in Southern Rhodesia dashing any hopes of early
self determination for all the members of the federation as long as the federation existed.

 1955 The city National Youth league was formed and it was a purely workers movement
operating in the urban areas.

 Church leaders also sympathized with their black congregations’ political aspirations. Some
churches criticized the settlers in their sermons and hymns. However there were many racists
church leaders who used religion or Christianity to subdue and indoctrinate their black
congregations to accept a subservient role. These racist apologists were happy to continue
with the policies of segregation in church, politics and the economy and the result was a
proliferation of many independent African churches.

 In 1957, September 12, the African National Congress (ANC) was formed and it was a
merger between the old ANC and the City Youth League led by Joshua Nkomo. It demanded
majority rule.

 It co opted the rural peasantry and organized mass resistances against the Land Husbandry
Act (1951) and it urged the peasants not to cooperate with the government. Garfield Todd,
the federation premier (1953-1957) who was a liberal, argued for accommodation of African
demands but the avowed racists in his cabinet called for repression of all African political
activity. As a result Todd was deposed in an internal coup for giving in to black demands and
David White head became premier and in 1959 e SR-ANC was banned and hundreds of
blacks thrown in jail.

 1959 to 1965 saw a host of new repressive laws come into effect such as;

The Native Affairs Act 1959

The Unlawful Organizations Act 1959

The Preventive Detention Act 159

The Emergency Powers Act 1960

THE law and Order Maintenance Act. 1960

 Internal pressure on the settler government produced more and more repression and the
nationalists resorted to pressure Britain to reign in the settlers and to give independence
to blacks but Britain refused.

 January 1960 the National Democratic Party was formed and replaced the SR-ANC. Joshua
Nkomo was elected president and the leardership of the party consisted of Ndabaningi
Sithole, Herbet Chitepo, Robert Mugabe, Bernard Chidzero, George Silunduka, Jaison Moyo,
Leopold Takawira, Josiah Chinamano, Dumbutshena etc.

 1961 The NDP was banned and the same year ZAPU was formed in December.

 1962 December the Rhodesia Front was elected premier in Southern Rhodesia and the party
represented the hard core white racists determined to wipe out all resistance to colonialism
and Winston Field was then premier.

 1962 September ZAPU was banned.

 1964 August ZANU was formed due to disillusionment with the politics of tolerance and
accommodation and the party was led by Ndabaningi Sithole.

 1964 ZANU was banned and all prominent nationalists were either in prison or in exile.

 1964 saw the beginning of violent African resistance to colonialism with many acts of
sabotage. Of note is the action by self styled General Chedu who led 100 youths calling
themselves the Zimbabwe Liberation army. The same year ZANU recruited and trained the
first armed resistance to colonialism and the Crocodile group drew first blood when they
attacked a police station and killed a white farmer in Chimanimani(Melsetter).

 1964 Ian Smith was elected premier of the settler government.

 1965 November 11th. Ian Smith’s Rhodesia Front made a Unilateral Declaration of
Independence. This made the country an illegal state and although Britain still claimed to be
the legitimate ruler they failed to bring to justice the settler regime. At about the same time
the little island of Anquilla in the Pacific made a UDI and Britain did not hesitate to reign in
the rebels.

 UDI led the nationalists to adopt armed resistance as the first option to gain self
determination and the Smith regime went on an all out campaign to stifle African aspirations
and institutionalized arpertheid or racial segregation as the system of governance and social
and economic life. The same year a state of emergency was declared. Such a declaration has
the effect of suspending some or all civil liberties and allows the state to take extra judicial
measures to deal with the crisis. What followed were many years of state terrorism and
murder to which the Africans responded by intensifying the armed resistance - the second
Chimurenga war.

 By 1963 the nationalist had secured external bases in independent African countries like
Egypt, Tanzania and Zambia to train their armed wings. Zanu’s armed wing became the
ZImbabwe National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and ZAPU’s armed wing became known as
the Zimbabwe People’s Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA). Training also took place outside
Africa in places like Cuba, China, and Russia.

 1966 at Chinhoyi the first externally trained ZANLA combatants clashed with the security
forces and all seven members of the group were killed.

 1967 August ZIPRA in alliance with the South African National Congress’s armed wing
Umkhonto Wesizwe deployed four groups of 20 combatants each group. The majority of
combatants were killed in and around Wankie district. Rhodesia airforce began to violate
Zambian airspace and another larger group was deployed by the alliance and again was

 The South African government in response sent troops into Rhodesia and the Smith
government passed the Law and order maintenance amendment bill – 7 September 1967. The
law provided for a death sentence on any one caught with arms of war

 Late 1969/early 1970 the Front for the liberation of Mocambique fighting the Portuguees in
Mocabmique formed an alliance with ZANLA and with more experience they provided
training and logistical support which proved invaluable and led to the opening of the eastern
front. Mass mobilisation became the preferred tool of the armed resistance and met with great
success. Rhodesia and Portugal began joint operations in 1968.

 1972 December ZANLA scored success with the attack at Alterna farm Centenary.

 1974 April in a coup in Portugal General Sipinoza deposed the premier Salazaar and brought
immediate independence to Mocambique, Angola and Guinea Bissau.

 1974 John Vorster South Africa’s Boer premier initiated Détente a policy of accommodation
designed to neutralize the armed struggle by promoting internal reactionary African
nationalists in Zimbabwe. This stalled and almost derailed the armed struggle especially with
the death /assassination of Herbet Chitepo on 18 March 1975 in Zambia.

 Chitepo became the chairman of Dare rechimurenga an organisation formed after the
banning and jailing of the nationalist leaders in 1964 and his task was to prosecute the war
while the leadership was in prison..

 1972/1973 in response to guerrilla offensive the keeps or cantonments were introduced in all
war fronts to deprive the fighters food and other support.

 1974 Internal rivalry and dissent rock both ZIPRA and ZANLA and the OAU force the two to
combine their armed efforts.

 1975 December ZANLA AND ZIPRA form the Zimbabwe people’s army (ZIPA) and armed
resistance gathered momentum in early 1976 as ZANLA intensified operations in Gaza, Tete
and Manica provinces or fronts or regions according to ZIPRA terminology.

 1976 In bombing raids on camps in Mocambique, Rhodesians killed many refugees and
guerillas at Chimoio and Nyadzonya in Mcambique and Freedom camp Mulungushi, and
Chifombo in Zambia.

 March 1978 the so called Internal Settlement was reached between anti war and reactionary
black groups in Rhodesia.

 April 1979 the ANC’s Bishop Muzorewa was elected prime minister in sham elections and
temporarily the Zimbabwe Rhodesia hybrid state existed and it was not recognized by any
state except South Africa. It was during this period that some of the most gruesome murders

were perpetrated against refugees and the armed resistance with the authority and
concurrence of Bishop Abel Muzorewa’s government.

 South Africa unable to meet the human and economic cost of the war in Rhodesia pressured
Smith for a negotiated solution.

 1979 October the British under international pressure convened the Lancaster house talks.
The parties to the talks were the British government, the Patriotic Front(ZANU and ZAPU)
and the internal group Muorewas ANC and Smith’s Rhodesia front. The talks could not
reconcile the demands of the parties especially on land but both groups hoped against hope
that they would win and be able to maintain their claims and positions from a legialised

 1980 March l in internationally supervised elections Muzorewa failed to win a single seat in
parliament , Smith only got his reserved 20 whitemen’s seats, ZANU(PF) swept the board
with 79 seats and ZAPU(PF) got 20 seats from all of Matebeleland and ZANU –Ndonga got
one seat..

 Independence saw many unrepentant whites emigrating to New-Zealand Australia Britain etc.
where they continue to reminisce nostalgically about the war and how Britain sold them out.

 1980 April 18 Zimbabwe became an independent state with Robert Mugabe as premier. The
new prime minister offered Josshua Nkomo the titular head of state position but he declined
to accept although several ministries were headed by his other fellow ZAPU colleagues.

 1980 massive arms caches belonging to ZIPRA and which were suppose to have been
surrendered to the state are discovered and ZAPUs properties with caches are confiscated by
the state. Disturbances of a tribal nature erupt in Bulawayo in Entumbanen and some people
are killed and the army is sent in to reign in rogue ZIPRA elements and some these flee to the

 1982 Former ZPRA elements with clear support from the Arpetheid regime in South Africa
begin a campaign of sabotage, murder and destabilisation in Matebeleland and the Midlands
and such names as Gwesela, Ndevu eziqamula inkomicho became household names for their
notoriety. Hoods, Conjwayo and other South African saboteurs and agents provocateurs are
apprehended in Zimbabwe. South Africa unleashes a war of destabilization of all frontline
states with rebel movements RENAMO in Mocambique and UNITA in Angola wrecking
havoc to the economies of all Front line states..

 1982 In response to the rebellion by some ex ZIPRA elements the Fifth brigade is deployed in
Matebeleland and the Midlands and development stalls in the affected areas as hundreds of
Shona civilians perish at the hands of dissidents and thousands of Ndebele civilians loose
their lives in reprisals by the Fifth Brigade..

 1987 December 12 after protracted negotiations spearheaded by Zimbabwe’s first non

executive president Mr. Canaan Banana, a unity agreement is signed between ZANU PF and
ZAPU PF. A new party ZANU PF is created and Joshua Nkomo became a co vice president
with Simon Muzenda. All dissident to be incorporated into society and no charges to be
preferred against them and similarly no charges to be preferred against any member of the
Fifth Brigade.

 1980 saw the end of all formal or legal racial segregation but this evil and immoral practice
continued and exists unabated to date. The new government made strides to correct the
colonial evils in the following areas;

1. Universal free primary and secondary education..

2. Free medical and health care

3. Policy of reconciliation towards the former settler colonialists to

which they have to date spurned.

4. Land distribution under the willing seller willing buyer basis.

5. Integrate and demobilize the belligerents

6. Indeginisation- enabling the native Africans to own and control


7. Expanding trade with the region and the world at large

 1991 A foreign driven Economic structural programme from the IMF and World Bank was
adopted. The programme required Zimbabwe to liberalize trade, that is allow free movement
of goods from outside, restrict or cut expenditure, and devalue or allow the local currency to

 1998 due to ESAP food rioting took place in the major towns due to the negative effects of

 1998 August the Zimbabwe Defense Forces are deployed to the DRC to help the beleaguered
Kabila regime.

 1998 November Nearing the end of the restrictive 20 year non compulsory acquisition of land
close in the Lancaster agreement, a Land Donor Conference is organised and many foreign
donors pledge to assist Zimbabwe but not a cent is remitted.

 1999 The labour Union leadership break ranks with government and threatens to form a
political party under the leadership of Morgan Tsvangirai and in September the same year this
actual happens in the form of the Movement for Democratic change...

 War veterans receive lump and monthly gratuities and in the build up to the 2000 elections
The labour leardership cum opposition party slides more and more to the right and is seen
supporting settler colonial interests in land commerce and industry and receives massive
monetary and moral support from the same quarter. This alliance also receives massive
external assistance from foreign interests like the USA and UK governments directly or
indirectly through such organisations as the Westminister Foundation etc.

 February 2000 a new draft constitution is taken to the people in a referendum and labour, the
opposition together with civic organisations mobilise the electorate to reject it because
allegedly it confers too much power on the president but really because of the ‘no
compensation for land compulsorily acquired for settlement “ clause in the constitution.

 2000 February realising the near success of the landed white class in derailing the land
redistribution by using political parties they funded and helped to found, Veterans of
Zimbabwe’s 2nd. Cimurenga and landless peasants occupied white owned farms and forced
government to make appropriate legislation to fast track land distribution – The Land
Acquisition Act 2000.

 200 June in parliamentary elections the new party almost upset the ruling ZANU(PF) party
and wins 57 seats to 63 for ZANU PF.

 2000/2001 the opposition near success gives impetus to Britain to ostracize the Mugabe
regime and begins to talk about regime and forces its friends to impose sanctions on
Zimbabwe to ruin the economy in order tomake the electorate vote him out of power.
Inflation rises steadily and local white employers on the whole do everything to arm twist the
electorate to vote Mugabe out of power.

 2002 Presidential elections are won by the ZANU PF candidate and the MDC refuses to
concede defeat or to recognize the new government and goes to caught to challenge the
election results and alleges intimidation vote rigging etc.

 2003 the nation is in a political stalemate with threaten invasion from Britain and America
and court challenges to the presidency continuing and the opposition top leadership is
arrested and taken to court for trying to assassinate the president.

 2004 The 2003 scenario continues but inflation begins to fall and a general optimistic
expectation pervades the nation as preparation and campaigning for the 2005 gubernatorial
elections get underway.

The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland(15 Dec

1953- 31 Dec 1963)

The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was the product of the general election
of December 15, 1953 and was the first election to the legislative assembly of the
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, which had been formed a few months before.
The election saw a landslide victory for the Federal Party under Godfrey Huggins who
had been Prime Minister of Southern Rhodesia for the past 20 years.
Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, also called Central African
Federation, political unit created in 1953 and ended on Dec. 31, 1963, that embraced the
British settler-dominated colony of Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and the territories of
Northern Rhodesia (Zambia) and Nyasaland (Malawi), which were under the control of
the British Colonial Office.
From the 1920s white European settlers in the Rhodesias had sought some form of
amalgamation to counter the overwhelming numerical superiority of black Africans, but
this had been blocked by a British Colonial Office that was sensitive to profound African
The Idea Of Federation 1953 to 1963

The term federation means loose coalition of nations or organizations where by each
nation report to its central leader whilst returning its otonomy/independence.
The idea of forming a federation of Southern Rhodesia, Northern Rhodesia and
Nyasaland was discussed as early as 1915.
There were two main advantages for the federation, one was economic and the oher one
was political.
1. economically the federation would give the BSAC control over a large mineral
producing area.
2. the whites in Southern Rhodesia would benefit from cheap labour extracted from
the three nations.
3. politically the whites in the three nations would increase their armament, both by
recruiting fighting men and capitalizing on the weapons from the three nations.
4. the federation would also improve the settler security against enemies.
5. the principal aim for the establishment of federation was to fight the Afrikaners in
South Africa who had just won the elections and were very powerful, but their
relationship with the whites was not always good.
6. another reason for federation was social, namely that the whites just wanted to
control the blacks in all the three nations.

Steps Towards The Establishment Of The Federation.

 In 1929 the Hilton Young Commission was appointed to look into the
federation question in East and Central Africa.
 The commission recommended against the union of the three nations.
 It baesd its argument on the Devonshire Memorandum of 1923, which has
said that African interest were to be put first.
 It also recommended no self-government of the settlers in Kenya and
Tanzania would be recommended.
 This principle was therefore applied by the Hilton Young Commission to
Northern Rhodesia who felt that the whites population in this country was
so small that it could not make a federation viable.
 In 1938 the Bledisloe Commission was again appointed to look into the
 Again the Commission objected the idea on the grounds that the racial
policies in the Southern Rhodesia were harmful to blacks.

 In 1951 the conservative party in Britain won the election.
 This party supported the idea of federation.
 White politicians in Northern and Southern Rhodesia began to campaign
for the idea of federation.
 They openly explained that their nrelationship to the black was like that of
horse and the horserides.
 Inspite of all these objections the federation was imposed on blacks in

Federation Years 1953 to 1963

 The Federation was created in 1953 comprised of Southern Rhodesia, Northern

Rhodesia and Nyasaland.

 There was a total of 310 000 whites in all the three nations, and 8 500 000
Africans. The Federal Parliament had 35 seats but 29 belonged to the whites and
only 6 were for the blacks.

 The Federation however did not benefit Zambia and Malawi, it only benefited

 100 000 pounds generated from the Zambians Copper Mine was spent in Southern
Rhodesia in building institutions like the University of Rhodesia and Nyasaland,
later on called the University of Zimbabwe.

 Furthermore, the powerstations at Kariba was built on the Zimbabwean side.

 Northern Rhodesia and the Nyasaland provided ready markets for finished goods.

 In Zambia , Harry Nkumbula and Kenneth Kaunda fought tirelessly against the

 In Malawi it was the effort of Kamuzu Hastings Banda who also fought against

 In Southern Rhodesia people like Joshua Nkomo who formed the ANC in 1957
led the people in the fight against federation.

The 1961 constitutional proposals

 A new constitution was harmed out in Southern Rhodesia in 1961.

 According to the constitution the electorate was divided into two, the A and B

 Roll A would elect 50 of the 65 members of the partiam whilst roll B would elect
only the remaining 15.

 To qualify for roll A one had to have the following:

1. An income of at least 792 pounds per year.
2. fixed property valued at 1650 pounds.
To qualify for roll B one had to have the following:
1. income of 264 pounds per year or ownership of fixed property valued at 495

A minister of religion or headmen with 20 or more followers automatically qualifies into

the B roll. However three votes on the B roll were equivalent to one vote in the A roll.

 Joshua nkomo and Ndabaningi Sithole had attended the conference in

1961 and they had surprisingly agreed to these terms.

 The federation broke on December 31, 1963 and Northern Rhodesia and
Nyasaland went on to attend independency the following year.

 When the federation ended Southern Rhodesia benefited in 3 ways:

i) all the military was taken by Southern Rhodesia
ii) university of Rhodesia and Nyasaland became the University of
Rhodesia now University of Zimbabwe.
iii) The Kariba powerstation was now controlled by Southern Rhodesia
(Zimbabwe) although it also applied to Zambia.


The heritage of any nation is based on that nation’s enduring political tradition. In the USA, the
national heritage is a deep rooted political legacy born out of the war and rebellion against Great
Britain and this is embodied in the term REPUBLICANISM. The French, who are fiercely proud
of their heritage, have the French revolution which climaxed in the storming of the Bastille palace
and the slaughter of the nobility as their national heritage. Similarly, the young nation of

Zimbabwe has the ethos of the second Chimurenga as the national and enduring political
tradition. The second chimurenga ethos embodies political, cultural as well as economic
principles which define and continue to sustain us as a nation. To destroy any nation, all one has
to do is undermine that nation’s heritage hence the continuing psychological war by the enemies
of Zimbabwe to distort and demonize not only the second chimurenga war but those who
participated in that war and especially the heroic leaders of that struggle.

A heritage can be defined as an enduring legacy, a definitive event, achievement, tradition or

theory to which the peoples of a specific nation rally around, and have emotional attachments and
for which they are prepared to defend and to go to war if threatened or violated.


Culture in Zimbawe reflects the major ethnic and tribal groups in the society The demographic
statistics show that the people of Shona extraction constitute about ninety percent of the
population with the Ndebele at 2.5%, Tonga, Venda, Kalanga, Cewa Nambia, Shangaan and other
smaller groups constituting about 7%. The white population has dwindled to less than o.1% of the
population. Inspite of their small number the Ndebele influence on culture is fairly strong not
only on the smaller groups but has rubbed on to the Shona tribes adjacent to them. The reverse is
also quite true. Culture is dynamic. As a result it is a correct generalization that there is such a
thing as African culture in Zimbabwe as opposed to European culture. There are at most only
variations in customs among the various African groups in Zimbabwean society but the customs
are either the same or closely resemble each other. Zimbabwean African culture has the
following major elements;

-Nuclear or extended family

- recognition and respect for age, parents and authority.

- Respect for hard and honest work .

- acceptance of good morals in terms of dress, sex, and marriage .

There has however been a strong negative influence due to the mass media on the African culture
in Zimbabwe. Television radio and the print media have done much harm in undermining the
superior African culture by encouraging foreign tastes and habits in terms of diet, dress, the
family, marriage, sex and the extended family. The first culprit has been the African family with
divorce (unknown and unthinkable in pure African culture) wrecking many families. Disease due
to sex before marriage and prostitution has grown to pandemic levels especially AIDS related
ailments. The white mans’ consumption or spending patterns have also spread among young
Zimbabweans and they are finding the extended family unbearable. Greed and exclusiveness are
the hallmarks of the white mans’ culture and this is spreading fast among urbanized Africans.
Unlike the white person in Zimbabwe, the African does not have sufficient expendable cash and
as a result debt and unfulfilled desires and wants are making the lives of many Zimbaweans

African culture remains the superior culture in that it keeps society and the nation cemented.
Moreover such social ills as prostitution, pandemics, street kids, crime and political opportunism(
kutengesa nyika ) because of greed would be non existent. All these ills are a result of lack of self
respect and lack of personal identity due to wanting to be a white person eg. Michael Jackson

who straightens his nose or an African woman who wears false hair extensions to look like a
Caucasian or preferring to speak in a foreign language and not vernacular..

The legacies we have as Africans in terms of diet are also unchalengable in that traditional diet
consisting of small grains legumes and African fruits, vegetables and nuts naturally prevent such
diseases as obesity/kusimba - a common feature of most urbanized woman and the major cause
of high blood pressure, hypertension, osteoporosis and infertility.

In medicine, traditional herbs and a good diet remain undoubtedly the panacea for a long healthy
life and the solution to such problems as AIDS more so than condoms.

Marriage and the family are the economic base of any society and nation. Premarital sex, divorce
and sex for money and perversions such as lesbianism homosexuality, drug taking including
alcohol directly attack and undermine the family and as such society. A multiplicity of sexual
partners before marriage will always lead one to either multiple sex partners in marriage or lack
of satisfaction with one partner in marriage.

In religion opinions vary but the facts remain. In African culture the fundamentals of
Christianity are firmly embedded. Respect for age, parents and authority, good morals that is no
fornication or adultery no perversion that is no homosexuality, taking care of the needy etc. are
biblical positions that remain unchangeable. In short the white mans’ culture is not only
incompatible with Christianity, it is in fact the antithesis and a direct attack on everything Godly,
that is , it is devilish.. The problem between African religion and Christianity is not lack of morals
in African religion, but methods of accessing God or worship. Indeed this writer is convinced
there is lots of superstition with respect to methods of worship in African religion in as much as
most main line and emerging Christian churches are thoroughly paginated. It is only right and
good therefore to promote and maintain our morally superior culture while adopting correct
Christian methods of worship.

Our religious inheritance will therefor remain for all time our good cultural values or morals .

The values of any society therefor serve to define that society’s identity. History has much been
distorted by painting the African culture as irreligious to the extent that it is almost the accepted
value among most young Zimbaweans to be immoral because a White Christian has an immoral
value or practice for an example walking naked or partial naked in public despite the fact that this
violates Christian principles. The Black person should there for not use the Whiteman’s values, or
morals or immorals as the case may be as the reference point for good or bad values but should
use traditional practice as the point of departure and compare that with biblical principles which
remain unchanging Our values as Africans clearly identify and portray us as a people who shun
immorality graft corruption and laziness. We respect family and authority and hard work. We
believe in God and we have no room for atheism in our culture.

The second chimurenga also defines our political and economic values. At the economic level the
legacy of the second chimurenga and our heritage from that event is that the resources that are
God given belong to Zimbabweans irrespective of race or creed or tribe. Thus the land as
resource number one belongs to all Zimbabweans. White Zimbabweans with very negligible
exceptions believe that land and all ill gotten gains from the international crime of colonialism
and accompanying ethnic cleansing and segregation are legitimately and exclusively the property
of those former criminals. Whites do not want to share our land with us . We have said we will
equitably share our land with whites and that remains and will always remain the Zimbabwean
African’s morally right and correct position. Any so called Zimbabwean therefor of any race

who departs from this position is not only a threat to the interests of the Nation, but is in effect
and in essence declaring that the second chimurenga was not won and lost, that is, won by the
Africans in Zimbabawe through much blood and joy, and lost by settler colonialists through by
much blood and tears. It amounts to a declaration of war.

Through hard work and self- sustaining economic policies, Zimbabweans with land firmly in
their hands, can engage other nations at the economic level and benefit from the comparative
advantages we have in terms of skilled disciplined labour, good climate, an abundance of
minerals and varied flora and fauna - domestic and wild. Economic activity therefor should
benefit Zimbabweans first and foremost and this should happen through an internal driven
economic programme and not one that is externally driven. Political liberation simply relates to
universal common suffrage being available to all citizens. This was gained fully at Lancaster as
manifested in the result of the 1980 elections and subsequent elections whether presidential or
gubernatorial. Such a gain is hollow and empty and absolutely useless if it is not used to bring
about economic emancipation. Political emancipation there for leads to and of necessity must
lead to economic emancipation. This has eluded not only Africa but most of the former colonies
through the practice of neo colonialism by the former colonizers and the USA and most of the
developed world. The war for economic emancipation is the last war and it is the most difficult
war in that it is now being fought at the psychological level through global media houses and the
agency of corrupted local comprador/reactionary/collaborator journalists who raise and imagine
and publish false notions of the freedoms of expression assembly and association. This leads to
people as it were shooting themselves in the foot because they through a corrupted democracy –
one in which the voters’ perceptions have been warped in favour of their colonisers - vote into
power those who perpetrate their economic subjugation. The battle for perceptions is an unfair
war, and it is most cruel and criminal because of the open aggression through demands made on
former colonies under the guise of human rights.

At the political level the second chimurengas’ heritage is that as a people we are sovereign and
can determine our own destiny without outside interference and through democratic processes
designed to safeguard our hard won independence. (see governance under legal and parliamentary

Ubuntu\Unhu\Moral Values-The African Values Perspective

 Mbigi and Maree (1995:p7), define Ubuntu as the sense of solidarity or
brotherhood which arises among people within marginalized or disadvantaged
groups .
 It is not unique to African people, but can also be found elsewhere.
 It is the foundation of communal African livelihood.
 It expresses our “interconnectedness, our common humanity and responsibility to
each other that deeply flows from our deeply felt connection” (Nussbaum
 It brings to the fore images of supportiveness, co-operation and communism
(Koster 1996:111).
 Nussbaum (2003:2) views it as the capacity in African culture to express
companion, reciprocity, dignity, harmony and humanity in the interest of building

and maintaining community with justice and mutual caring “Personhood is the
central theme of Ubuntu.
 It is based on the Zulu proverb”Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu,” meaning a person
is a person through other people.
 This Ubuntu affirms the humanity of one person being directly related to next
person’s humanity.

 Archbishop Tutu (199:34-35) characterises a person with Ubuntu as “ one who is

open and available to others, affirming, does not feel threatened that others are
able and good, for he\ she has a proper self assurance that he or she belongs in a
greater whole is diminished when others are humiliated, when others are tortured
or treated as if they were less than who they are from the foregoing, it is clear that
ubuntu is characterised by human dignity, respect, interdependence,
compassion, solidarity and taking care of your own.
 Tambalusi and Kayuni(2005:147-161) presuppose that there is no reason for one
to grab other’s property, get forced gifts from fellow human beings in whatever
form. In this view, there is no justification for extortion, demanding bribes or
extortion for service delivery areas in Zimbabwe.

 In view of the above , prostitution; immoral dress such as miniskirts, tight fitting
clothing; murder; rape; robbery; burglary, drug abuse; alcoholism; abusive
language; lack of respect of senior citizens; corruption; dishonesty, gay
movement(homosexuality and lesbianism), among others, are all characteristics of
lack of ubuntu.

 The point in this case is that as Zimbabweans we must cherish

our ubuntu principles in our social, political, economic, and
professional settings or lives for the good of our country.

 Lack of ubuntu can be observed in most Government departments such as the

police, mining, city councils, immigration, among others, where corruption,
mismanagement or any other form of malpractices such as demanding bribes and
extortion are rampant.

 From another view point, Mandela (1994) captures the essence of ubuntu in the
following quotation; “I am not truly free if I am taking away someone’s freedom
or rights just as truly when my freedom is taken away .” The point in this case is

that as Zimbabweans we must cherish our ubuntu principles in our social,
political, economic, and professional settings or lives

Ubuntu and Leadership

 As Zimbabwean citizens, we are leaders in various capacities such as at family, group,

community, occupational and national levels and we are expected to be role models in
terms of our moral values(ubuntu/unhu)
 Leadership is the process of directing and influencing the task related activities of
group members (Stoner et al, 1995: 470).
 Leaders use powers and influence to get the activities effectively performed by
 Whereas power is defined as the ability to exert influence, that is to change
attitudes or behaviour of individuals or groups; influence refers to any actions or
examples of behaviour that cause a change in attitude or behaviour of another
person or group.

 It must , therefore, be pointed out that leadership is about values.

 According to James McGregor Burns (cited in Stoner et al, 1995: 470), the leader
who ignores the moral components of leadership may well go down in history as a
 Thus, moral leadership concerns values and requires that followers be given
enough knowledge of alternatives to make intelligent choices when it comes time
to respond to a leader’s proposal to lead.

 As noted by ethicist Michael Josephson (quoted in Stoner et al, 1995:470),

followers or employees do not learn ethics from people who sermonize or
moralise or try to preach to them about ethics, but learn ethics from the people
whom they admire and respect, who have power over them and those are the right
people or teachers of ethics.
 It is, therefore, important to reinforce ideals if they are sincere.

 It is also very important for leaders and role models, whether they be sports
figures, politicians / rulers or Senior Government Officials to make positive
statements of ethics, if they say (Stoner et al 1995: 470). If leaders are not
hypocritical, they can account for their actions.

 The ideas articulated in this case by Stoner et al (1995), squarely matches the
concept of “Ubuntu in(Zulu/ Ndebele and Unhu in Shona)” Ubuntu refers to
love for God, love for one another, and bringing to ourselves and the rest of
the world music, sport, arts and other forms of expression which bring out
the best of the human spirit and connects people across the boundaries of
material life (Rukuni,2007:450). Given the poor service delivery and corruption
which characterize various sectors of Zimbabwe, what ethics/values or
Ubuntu/Unhu do some of our fellow citizens portray to the society?

 Van der Colff (2003) points out that Ubuntu calls for leadership which
espouses the values of leadership legitimacy, communal enterprise and value
sharing. She argues that these values are vital for establishing an enabling
culture and a set of skills and competencies valued in most leadership

 Historically, African leadership is based on participation, responsibility and

spiritual authority. According to Lessen and Nussbaum (1996), African
leadership calls for transparency, accountability and legitimacy. On the
contrary; Van der Colff (2003) contends that leadership legitimacy can only be
promoted by being role models for their followers through their actions
and sticking to values and goals. Thus leaders must be of integrity before
expecting the same for followers.

 Furthermore, a leader with Ubuntu values must create an enabling

environment for their followers. He / She must be fair, helpful and considerate
and support followers in their legitimate requests..

 Karsten and IIIa( 2005) highlight that Ubuntu decision making is characterised
by consultation, communal participation and open conversation. Evidently,
Ubuntu leadership entails a critical discourse since voices of all participants in
organisations or groups are involved and emphasis is on consensus building.

 This is strikingly similar to indigenous African political systems whose story

telling, inclusive decision making and participatory community meetings were
key. Coercive powers were generally not used to achieve a common goal.
Rather, consensus was the means. “Majority of opinion did not count;
unanimity was the rule (Ayittey 1991:100). As a result, communal meetings
were not largely characterised by haggling and debate but a search for deeper
comprehension of issues and a spontaneous emergency of solutions.

 The key issue here is the “value system” that guides and controls behaviour.
According to Tambulasi and Kayuni (2005 147 – 16), some African public
officers perceive the concept of Ubuntu to be all encompassing and it’s
pursuance is viewed as an empowerment to pay less attention to western
derived principles of democracy and good governance. In view of this, would
the mixed-bag of western value systems and African value systems help
Zimbabwean citizen achieve the desired results or outcomes in social
,economic and political life? The question is “can African feet divorce Western

shoes?” This follows Richard Tammbulasi and Happy Kayuni (2005)’s quest for
reality about Unbuntu/Unhu,/Butho.

Economic Heritage
National resources.

Zimbawe is endowed with many natural resources which in certain instances places the nation on
the strategic resources map of the world.


Zinbabwe’s land mass is about - million square miles and has a very conducive climate being
neither too hot nor too cold and has an average rainfall of about 1500 ml.


Zimbabwe has the following minerals; chrome, iron, coal, gold, copper, tin, emeralds. Diamonds,
platinum nickel.

Our Chrome, platinum, nickel and coal reserves are of global strategic importance because they
are ranked in the top five in terms of quantity and quality. Unfortunately control of these minerals
is still in foreign hands and as a nation we also are not yet adding value to them.

Wild life

The three major game parks in Zimbabwe are second to the combined Kenyan and Tanzanian
wild life population of the Serengeti game park. The big five wild game –elephant, buffalo,
giraffe, lion and rhino are more abundant in our game parks than in any other park in the world..


With a population of about 14 000 000 people Zimabwe is still sparsely populated considering
that our land mass can sustain seventy million people with optimal economic utilization. The plus
about this population is its literacy levels –about 87% and its varied skills base from which even
the most advanced nations are tapping into. Through many tricks especially after the 2000
parliamentary elections, the Western countries have not rested in trying to spark a civil war in
Zimbabwe which they will use as a pretext to directly interfere in the politics of this nation.
Thatchell the infamous homosexual has been quoted as saying that he is not only organizing but
sponsoring a group consisting of personnel in Zimbabwes’ armed forces and in the diaspora to
militarily bring about an end to the Mugabe regime in Zimbabwe. The West Minister Foundation
And even much earlier the Heritage Foundation a USA right wing organization are trying and
had tried to use opposition parties in Zimbabwe to engage the Zimbabwean armed forces . On the
whole the people of this nation have refused to be used in this very destructive and dangerous
way and have democratically expressed their wishes at the polls. The people of this nation save
those who pipe and beat the drum of this nation’s enemies remain resolutely united in the face of
an unprecedented onslaught from Europe and the USA. o


The National Anthem

Born and inspired by the war of liberation, the national anthem is as it were the rallying point of
the nation. Authored by Professor Mutsvairo, it describes and narrates in a few words our origins,
history, beliefs and aspirations.

The National Flag

The national flag represents state wood and together with the court of arms they are the official
and visible tokens of the state and its authority and existence. The flag is also a product of the war
of liberation. The red star represents our socialist ideals and the Zimbabwe bird proudly points
back to our distant origins and prowess as a people and nation in antiquity among the great
civilizations of the world. The white background on which the above two are superimposed
represents our desire for peace and tranquility within and without. The red stripes symbolize the
blood of the heroes who died liberating the country, yellow our mineral resources, green our flora
and fauna and black the indigenous African natives of this nation. It is incumbent upon every
Zimbabwean and any foreigner on our soil to acknowledge our statehood by standing at attention
when the flag is lowered where ever and what ever one is doing. Standing at attention is not a
religious act as some over zealous and misguided so called Christians think. Kneeling or bowing
down in reverence is a religious act reserved for God that is why Shadrech and his other two
friends were thrown in a furnace. Nowhere in Christian writing is standing erect an act of
worship or homage. It would be only right and fair to refuse to kneel to the flag for every
Christian. It is only right and fair for every Christian to stand erect in recognition not homage of
those who rule them.

The Great Zimbabwe monument.

Located near Masvingo town , it represents unparalleled architectural design and construction and
stands as a direct insult to those who have ridiculed Africans of possessing no scientific
psychological make up or achievements or capability. It was used as a palace and a temple by the
kings of the great Zimbabwe period and latter dynasties.

The Victoria Falls.

A natural geological formation from years of erosion, the feature has few rivals if any and has
water plunging a hundred meters forming thunder and mist from which its more appropriate
Tonga names is derived from –mosi a-tunya the smoke that thunders. It is the nation’s prime
tourist resort attraction.



As technology has advanced so has disasters or accidents associated with it and at the same
time what appears to be natural disasters have also increased. Management of these disasters
has become a major science and the role of each citizen in disasters has become an
imperative. Major disasters can be listed as,

-disease pandemics eg. AIDS, SARS and Ebola

-Floods as a result of unusually high rainfall due to industrialization or broken dam walls

-Drought due to changing weather patterns as a result of industrialization.

-Accidents at the work place e.g. airplane crashes, gas leaks, nuclear contamination.



 Disease management is first and foremost an individual responsibility. Correct dietary

and sexual habits are the first front line. Each individual is a national resource and eating
junk food or recklessly imbibing in drugs or alcohol destroys that line as much as taking
irresponsible and immoral sexual behavior like sex before marriage or infidelity within
marriage. With infectious diseases, each individual should take note and report any
suspected infections and quarantine self or the affected victim.

 Floods, earthquakes and workplace disasters require the nation to rally behind those
affected by donating food and clothes and shelter. It is also necessary to avoid flood and
quake prone areas and to take heed to quake or flood warning.

 Industrial accidents are a manmade problem which require social responsibility to

minimize the risks. There is no such thing as safe technology. The issue at stake is risk
minimization and management.

 Droughts have always been there before the white man’s agriculture and especially
exotic crops such as maize. Despite droughts, Africa was not found unpopulated as a
result. A banana plant does not grow in Gokwe as naturally as it does in Rusitu valley in
as much as maize thrives in Peru but is prone to drought in Zimbawe. Maize is a stock
feed that grows well in its homeland in South America but is prone to drought in
Zimbabwe. On the other hand small grains thrive in Zimbabwe and are highly nutritious
for humans. The paradigm shift in our dietary habits will go a long way towards national
food self sufficiency because eventually sooner rather than latter even irrigated crops
will fail when there is no flow in the dams. There is no other credible long lasting
solution to drought at the family or national level than reverting to the small grains.

 :In defense of the Nation

 All stable nations thrive on patriotism. Patriotism relates to each citizen’s ability to
identify with his nation by being able to distinguish between party political issues and
national issues. Sovereignty, land and defending the nation are not party political issues
but national issues to which every real Zimbabwean must stand up in defense.

Patriotism means ;

- Defending the nation physically and in armed combat when called upon to do so by the
authorities in power or individually when the situation so demands like in the case of
unilateral superpower attack.

- Defending the nation through positive publicity. The nation’s greatest and most potent enemy
today is the one amongst us who agrees to spread falsehoods about the nation’s politics and

economy. Other than the dissident menace, Zimbabwe has been the most peaceful nation at
par with countries like Botswana and Namibia.

- Supporting the nation through correct tax payments

- Practice environmentally friendly practices e.g. avoiding littering, pollution etc.

- Preserve the national asset that is oneself by avoiding graft, crime, corruption, greed and
harmful behavior such as premarital sex, drug abuse etc..

- Respect and tolerate other races, tribes, religions opinions and beliefs.

- Cherish unity in diversity among the various stake holders in spite of differences in



 Need to develop rural areas to stop rural-urban drift and to correct a hundred years of colonial

 Redirect economic priorities to serve the whole population rather than a small white section
of the population.

 Bring health. Education, and shelter to all Zimbabweans.

 Recurring drought - 1983, 1992, 1997, 2002 as it negatively affects the national economy and
agricultural production.

 Deal with unfavourable terms of trade.

 Stop the shrinking in the economy and reverse growing unemployment.

 Resolve inflation and the Devaluation of the Zimbabwean dollar against major international

 Gradual increase in prices of basic commodities due to speculation and profiteering.

 Falling commodity prices in the international market.

 Dis investment due to a more vigorous indegenisaion economic approach.

 Political interference in the nation’s politics through the sponsoring and creation of
opposition parties with a foreign agenda..

 The brain drain

 Corruption

 Decline in moral values leading to AIDS


 Drought in Zimbabwe has been partly alleviated by importing grain from abroad and
construction of dams and also creating grain strategic reserves seeds packs given to peasants
to help them recover from droughts. Of major importance has been the redistribution of land
and reducing pressure in the congested rural areas and settling people in areas with fertile
soils and high rainfall.

 The Ministry of Employment Creation and indegenisation have gone some way in creating

 Externally originated and driven economic policies have been abandoned in favour of home
grown solutions

 Profiteering and speculation which fueled inflation have been checked gradually restoring
sanity to the financial sector.

 ESAP has been abandoned by the government and attention has been redirected to the East
Asian economies to encourage investment and cooperation..

 SADC and COMESA Union trade arrangements have been adopted to encourage an increase
in international trade.

 However, Zimbabwe has not managed to solve all problems.

 Cost sharing in Education and Health have been instituted to alleviate spiralling costs..

 Indigenisation, affirmative action, creation of SEDCO, The Land bank land redistribution
etc have all gone a long way towards alleviating the unemployment problem.

 New monetary policies together with an anticorruption drive has seen inflation decreasing
slowly but gradually.

 Reawakening of the peoples’ moral values and their culture as a solution to decreasing and
ultimately wiping out STDs and AIDS infection.


1. LAW
1.1 Definition
Can be generally defined as;
a) ‘rules of behavior enforced by society’
b) “a body of established norms for the good governance of society’
Austin defines law as,
c) “ a command set, either directly or circuitously, by a sovereign individual
and /or body, to a member or members of some independent political
society in which his authority is supreme”.

Salmond defines law as,
d) “ consisting of principles which are recognized and enforced by the courts
in the administration of justice.”
Vinshisky (a one time attorney general in Russia in the ninetieth century) defines
law as;
e) “rules and regulations put in place by those in power in order to protect
their interests.”

The major elements in Austin’s definition are:

1) “ the command of a sovereign’. This suggests use of force and the right to
2) The definition is deficient in that it lacks such ethical elements as justice,
consistence and uniform application. In this present day and age law is
looked at as the balance and union between might and rightness or justice
and legitimacy. The definition also excludes the law enforcement aspect –
the courts.
Salmond, an English judge emphasizes the aspect of “principle” and “recognition’
and in typical English legal tradition leaves room and gives a free hand to the
judge to determine what is a recognized principle and what is not. Moreover this
definition does not deal with the element of legitimacy assuming that English
political authority is right and legitimate always and everywhere and in one
statement legitimating such evils as colonialism or wars of conquest.
A principle can be defined as “ something that can be applied over a large range
of cases resembling one another in their most essential features” and the result or
outcome is invariably the same.

Vinshisky ‘s definition is more behavioral in approach and scope and explains the
origins; purposes and justification of such laws as the Hut tax the Land
apportionment act and the Land Tenure act in pre-independent Zimbabwe. It also
explains the current laws being made to reverse the very same laws e.g. the Land
acquisition Act, POSA and AIPPA. Everywhere even in Britain law is not made in
pursuit of that elusive thing called justice but for the protection of the interests of
those in power. To a large extent this is a Marxist definition and is precise in so far
as it is realistic and not idealistic. No law is just per se’. All law is premised on
maintaining the status quo and the advantages - political and economic- of those
in authority or of the ruling class.

1.2 Purpose of Law;

1.2.1 Realistically the purpose of law is to protect the interests of those making
the law.

1.2.2. Idealistically the purpose of law is to bring about law and order,
predictability, stability and peace.

1.3 The nature of law

Man is a social animal. The term ‘society’ or community suggests norms or
behavioral patterns in the society. Behavior patterns become social customs with
the passage of time, usage, and acceptance. Social customs attract social sanctions
if and when violated e.g. Labeling such as uri nzenza or ostracism etc. Social
custom evolves into legal custom once they are enforced and accepted in the law
courts e.g.. van Breda and Others vs. Jacobs.

1.4 Natural law or lex Naturalis and the origins of law.

Natural law can be viewed broadly as a product of the biblical principle ‘ do unto
others as you would want them to do unto you’. Evolutionists suppose that man
had to escape from a state of nature that is lawless society. In such a society each
member of society does as he pleases and is a law to himself and does not value
nor does he respect the welfare of others. Thomas Hobbes views law as an
authoritarian command, which should be legitimated by its consistence or
compliance to natural law that is one gives as much as he is willing to receive.
One enjoys unchallenged enjoyment of staying in his house because he in turn
does not threaten the undisturbed enjoyment of other people’s homes.
Statute law or legislation is just law if only it is an extension of natural law.
Lawmakers are therefore bound by natural law and it flows naturally from right
reason. Natural law is seen as the moral basis and norm for legislators and
governments. The state is thus a product of men or members of society
contracting to appoint a single body or will to bear or represent all of them.
Members of society therefore enter into a social contract, which is characterized
by a mutual transfer of rights. Lex naturalis proscribes man from doing that
which is destructive of his life or taking away the means of preserving his life.
Man in a state of nature has the right to everything and is governed by his own
reason and can do anything to anyone to further his interests. Thus man should be
willing if and when others are willing and in so far as his security and peace are
assured as he sees it, waive his right to every thing and be satisfied with as much
liberty against others as s he receives from others. Every member of society
should therefore surrender as much in terms of rights as the other person is
prepared or willing to surrender. This alludes to the entering of a social contract
by people whose desire is to escape from a state of nature. All modern law is
presumed to be based on natural law.

1.5 The origins of law /Sources of law

1.5.1 Persuasive sources of law

These are references, which the law courts resort to in order to tilt the
balance for or against a decision or controversial point of law. These
are; a) social custom, b). Legal literature by jurists, c) Judicial
precedent specifically Obiter Dicta or that part of a judges decision in
a novel case which are side statements and not the actual principle.

1.5.2 Binding sources of law
These are references, which are followed in determining what is legal, or
are not. It consists of legal principles in the following forms;
a) Legal custom; Social custom that can be enforced in the law courts
b) Judicial precedent/common law; the legal principles established
each time a new case or situation comes before a judge. It is based
on ratio decided, that is the legal basis on which a decision is
c) Legislation; this refers to law made by the legislature or parliament
and is termed statutory law or acts of parliament. Parliament
delegates its authority to make law to such bodies as municipalities
and the law they make is termed delegated legislation that is,
statutory instruments or by laws. Where there is a conflict between
the various laws, the statutory law position takes precedence and
nullifies any other position.

1.6 Principles / characteristics of legislated law

All law, to be valid, should be seen to possess the following elements;

i) Doctrine of impartiality;
a) Equality -there should be seen to be equality in the application of
law among citizens.
b) Uniformity - there should be spatial uniformity in the application
of law.
c) Just application- law should be seen to be morally right.

ii) Authority;
a) Separation of powers – the legislature, judiciary and the executive
should be separated to ensure counterbalancing and
counterchecking the exercise of the powers of state.
b) Doctrine of ultra and intra virus- all law should be made within
the confines of the law i.e. in consistence to/with the constitution.
iii) Certainty;
– The law should not be retroactive or ex-post-facto

1.7 Divisions/classification of law


National Law International Law

Criminal Law
Admin Law Law
Constitutional Law Law
Law of
Civil Private Law
Law of
Commercial Law
Company Law

Family Law
Industrial Law

Labour Law

National law is the body of rules and regulations that govern the behavior of citizens of
and within a specific country and it is further subdivided into three specializations. These
three distinctions are not based on the type of act/omission but on the legal action that

Criminal law is where criminal proceedings are instituted against a person for committing
a crime that is an act or omission that attracts sanctions – fines or imprisonment or both.
The parties in criminal proceedings are; the State vs. the defendant or the accused. The
outcome is guilty or not guilty.

Civil law is where civil proceedings are instituted or where an individual sues another
individual in a legal suite. The parties in civil proceedings are the plaintiff or complainant
(the one suing) and the defendant (the one being sued). The result of or sentence of the

proceedings is commission of a wrong or no commission. The sentence can be damages,
compensation, restitution or performance.

Administrative law is the law that relates to the operations and functions of formal
institutions in so far as their relations with the state and their employees is concerned.

International law is the law that regulates relations between states and is based on
conventions, custom, treaties and bi-lateral and multilateral agreements. It differs from
national law in that where as national law has a law-enforcing agency to back it in the
form of the army and police and prisons, international law has none of these law-
enforcing agencies and relies on the goodwill of states, which in many instances is
lacking. International law can be private international law or public international law. The
former deals with disputes between citizens of two different countries and these are
mostly trade disputes. Public international law is the law that relates to disputes between
states and these are normally issues relating to boundaries, war, or natural resources
access. International law is the law that governs the behavior of states and to a growing
extent the behavior of nationals within states e.g. War crimes, crimes against humanity
and terrorism.

1.8 Substantive and adjectival law

This classifications cut across all the above categories.

Adjectival law can be defined as the law that relates to the enforcement of rights
and duties liberties and powers specifically the law of procedure and evidence for
an example civil and criminal pleadings. In civil procedure the plaintiff’s claim is
termed the declaration and the defendant’s response is termed a traverse
(countercheck quarrelsome according to Dickens).

Substantive law is that law that lays down the peoples’ rights, duties, liberties and
powers e.g. the constitution or an act of parliament.

2. The Constitution

Most nations have a written constitution as the supreme law of the country. The
United kingdom stands out as the odd case that has no one clear document written
and termed a constitution. The UK has precedent, custom as well as separate
pieces of documents that all add up to what may be interpreted as a constitution. A
constitution is the body of rules and regulations that sets out the authority of those
in power or and the extent and limits of the exercise of executive power. It also
sets out the rights and duties of the citizen. These two aspects are contained in the
doctrine of the separation of powers and the doctrine of intra-vires and ultra-


After fighting a successful protracted war of liberation, The First Chimurenga

war, the settler colonialists and Britain succumbed to the reality of defeat and had

to negotiate for peace and unlike the previous occasions where peace talks were
unsuccessful, it was imperative that a solution had to be found to the war of
liberation in Zimbabwe if the settler community and British interests were to be
safeguarded. The Frontline states were also a major factor in the search for peace
at the conference in that there were clear signs of war weariness on their part. This
scenario was ideal for the settlers in that there was every chance of as they saw it
of getting into power I they or their stages the DNC were to get into power. The
major problems provisions of the agreement were as follows:

2.2 The Separation of Powers

The state has three arms whose functions are separate and these are;

The State is that intangible aspect of every nation that can be defined as the authority
and identity conferred by a people within a country to themselves and for which
there is a force in the form of an army to defend that authority. A state does not
change or vanish unless territory is annexed by another state through conquest or
agreement or the population becomes non existent and the territory becomes
uninhabited that is terra nullius. Sovereignty is therefore not conferred on a nation
but it is claimed by each individual nation people and asserted through the exercise
of executive powers and the ability to enter into diplomatic intercourse with other

A Nation is the peoples within a geographical entity called a country whose

aspirations, interests shall so decide the shaping of their destiny.

A Country is geographical space marked by natural or man-made boundaries.

2.3 The doctrine of separation of powers.

The three arms of state are supposed to act as checks and balances on each other
so that there is no abuse of power by anyone aspect or arm of state. This ensures
that the judiciary is impartial and does not make any law. The legislature is the
supreme law making body and has no restricted competency and can change or
amend the constitution.

2.3.1 Ultra-vires and intra-vires doctrine

Parliament can only make law that does not violate provisions of the
constitution and the executive or government must exercise its authority as
provided for in the constitution. When the executive or parliament acts
within their powers they are acting intra-vires when they act outside their
powers as provided for by or in the constitution, they are acting ultra vires
and there is therefore no rule of law. When parliament makes law they act
intra-vires the constitution there is therefore the rule of law. Any influence
by foreign or illegitimate forces in relation to constitutional uses, were

national interests are concerned; the wish of the state thru the national
force (people) shall take precedents in the interests of sovereignty.

2.3.2 Public order

Public order refers to a situation in the nation when every individual is
able to exercise his/her constitutional rights without infringing or
interfering with the rights of others or endangering state security and
national sovereignty by championing blatantly clear foreign interests that
seek to reverse the gains of independence and self rule and by so doing
compromising state national sovereignty. Democracy is therefore a
qualified and subjective term that does not give license to any individual
or group or political party the right to exploit situational hurdles in the
history of Zimbabwe to compromise national sovereignty and the ethos of
the preservation of freedom. If and when that happens, the custodian of
the nation, the army and every patriotic Zimbabwean, should by all means
available, defend the nation and democratic rights can and should be
suspended until such a time as these are compatible with our historical
aspirations. Public order therefore entails the capability of self-censorship
with respect to the exercise of individual constitutional rights especially
the rights of expression, speech, assembly and association. In the latter
case, the constitution cannot be read to mean that belonging or associating
with a subversive organization or unpatriotic party or ill association whose
interests are to destabilize peace, order and security is a right guaranteed
by the constitution.

Democracy and Governance.

Democracy as a system of governance is of Greek origin. Its main tenet
was its attempt to bring about an inclusive rather than an exclusive form of
governance that is typical of the monarch or king. A monarch has its
merits and demerits and so does democracy.
The traditional Zimbabwean system of governance while having its
shortcomings was nevertheless superior to both the former aristocratic
European system of governance and the present form of democracy as
championed by the West especially The U.S.A. and its lackey the U.K.
Demo means people and cracy means rule. Democracy means people rule.
Hence aristocracy that is rule by the top few or kleptocracy that is rule by
thieves. Democracy as a system of governance is not established through
elections only. In the traditional Shona system of governance “ushe
hwaive madzoro” first and foremost, that is there was no permanent ruling
class or family as in the present American and European systems where
the super rich and well connected and acceptable few in terms of race and
ideology qualify to rule that is the rich Anglo Saxons. (Jews, Chinese,
Hispanics and especially lacks are excluded from the presidency on no
other grounds other than that that they are from these minority groups.

Secondly, the community was always represented at large in the kings
“dare” and this system of inclusion permeated the whole structure from
top to bottom and it was reflected in the family governance where the
family was not run by the father tyrannically but involved and to a large
extent today does involve the mother the children who have come of age
and the check and balance of the extended family “vana tete nana


The term “governance” refers to the process of decision-making and

the ways in which decisions are implemented (or not). In any given
system, the executive ( government) is the major actor, but others like
the Judiciary and the Legislature can influence the process. Non-state
actors, such as religious or tribal leaders, civil society, major
landowners, trade unions, financial institutions, and community based
groups can play important roles. The following characterise a good
system of governance:
• Participatory—encouraging wide citizen participation
in decision-making;
• Consensus-orientated—attempting to reach decisions
based on widespread agreement;
• Transparent—being open to scrutiny in decision making
• Responsive—listening and responding to the needs
of its citizens;
• effective and efficient—providing basic services; and
• equitable and inclusive—not excluding sectors of
the population, especially those that are more
vulnerable or marginalised.

There are many multi- and bilateral institutions that are concerned with
promoting what they have termed “good governance” in post conflict
and developing countries. Each of these institutions defines good
governance slightly differently and has developed its own indicators by
which it measures and evaluates progress toward good governance.
The World Bank, for instance, has identified six indicators of good
governance “to help countries identify areas of weakness so that
capacity building and assistance strategies are more effective.” The
indicators are:
• voice and accountability;
• political stability and lack of violence;
• government effectiveness;
• regulatory quality;
• rule of law; and

• control of corruption.
Democracy and Governance
Political leaders’ visions they promote and the systems and values they
bring to governing a country play a pivotal role in fostering peace and
development, promoting oppression or the resurgence of conflict. Since
so much is at stake, during peace negotiations there is often great
competition for power and the prospect of controlling a government.
For countries that have little or no experience with democratic
governance, the challenges are immense. But the post conflict
environment does provide an opportunity for countries to create new
structures of government and systems of “good governance.” In
situations where the international community has taken on state-
building, its institutions assume some responsibility for issues related
to democracy and governance. It is also a time of opportunity for
women. In particular, Zimbabwe has been effective at using quotas
and reserved seats to “ensure the presence and participation of
women in justice, governance, private sector and civil society .For
example ,we have a lady Vice President, Mrs Joice Mujuru. International
actors consider “good governance” to be a key for building sustainable
peace and long-term development. Progress toward good governance
is increasingly used as a requisite for the provision of aid. Despite the
variations in definitions and indicators of good governance, most
institutions agree that good governance typically includes efforts at
democratization and decentralisation, the introduction of free and
fair elections, participatory politics, the creation of an
independent civil society, guarantee of a free and
independent press and respect for the rule of law. Each
of these topics, among others, is discussed below.


In countries involved in peace processes, questions relating to
governance often consume a significant portion of the discussions;
typically demands for democratisation, including elections and
timeframes for transition, are addressed. Other related elements
include discussions surrounding the nature of political
participation, electoral systems, issues of transparency and separation
of powers, as discussed below.

Democracy is a system of government in which power is vested in the
people (the population) and exercised through representatives chosen
in free and
fair elections. But a democracy does not just mean that “the majority
rules.” A democracy also includes and protects the human rights of

minorities and respects multiple or “plural” views and opinions. In a
democracy people have rights as citizens, but they also have
responsibilities to participate in the
governance system. There are many versions of democracies around
world (e.g. electoral, consultative) and ongoing debates about the
extent to which “one size fits all” with regard to democracy. The
process a country
goes through in attempting to become more democratic is referred to
as democratisation. In order for a country to be truly democratic, all
of its
citizens—men and women—must be empowered to participate fully in
the governance process (as citizens, voters, advocates, civil servants,
elected officials, etc.).


An election is the procedure by which citizens of a country choose their

representatives and leaders and assign authority. Elections must be
held regularly so that elected officials remain accountable to the
population; if they do not uphold their responsibilities to the electorate,
they can be voted out of office in the next election. Elections must be
held within a period of time that is prescribed in the constitution, or
fundamental law. For an election to be truly democratic, it must be:
• universal—All citizens of a country must have the right to vote and to
be elected, without discrimination based on sex, race, language,
religion or political affiliation. In Zimbabwe as elsewhere in the world
there is no discrimination in voting processes.
• equal—The value of each vote must be the same.
• secret—The balloting must be private so that citizens can participate
without being afraid; only the voter must know for whom she or he
• direct—The voters must be able to choose their own leaders without
an intermediary.
• wide choice—The voters must have the opportunity to choose from
among several available candidates..

An increasingly important component of democratisation in many parts
of the world is decentralisation. Decentralisation is the process of
transferring authority and responsibility from the central government
to provincial and local levels. Countries pursue decentralisation for a
variety of reasons, including a desire to make the government more

receptive and accountable to the needs of its population and/or to
respond to pressure from donors to “downsize” central government
budgets. Decentralisation is based upon the notion that
various levels of the government have different expertise and abilities
to address problems. For example, national defence and monetary
policy are clearly best set at the national level, but policies concerning
schools, local police protection and some public services are often
better determined at the local level with community input. Critics of
decentralisation, however, charge that it weakens parts of the state
that, for the sake of peace building and human security, need to be
strengthened. There are three types of decentralisation: political,
administrative and fiscal. Political decentralization involves the election
of local-level leaders. Administrative decentralisation occurs when
some of the government’s decision-making is managed at the local
level. And fiscal decentralisation refers to the national government
sharing budgetary responsibility for collecting revenues and making
expenditures with local government representatives. Decentralisation
processes often include local-level


The concept of “participatory politics” refers to the involvement of all

citizens in politics and policymaking. This requires a relationship
between the government and society in which the participation of
citizens and a plurality of views are
encouraged. This can be supported by strengthening political parties;
encouraging the participation of marginalised groups, such as women
and youth; and by strengthening civil society (described below). The
right to convene and articulate political views is a key principle of good
governance and democratisation. Political parties are one of the
cornerstones of a democratic political system. Parties are critical
because they provide a structure for
political participation for people with similar beliefs and interests. By
joining together, individuals, who would otherwise not be influential,
can make their
voices heard in the political process through their support of a political
party. Political parties also provide leaders with a space in which to
learn the
skills needed for governing a society. A democracy must have more
than one major, viable party so that a single group does not dominate
the government
and voters have a choice. This principle is called multipartyism.
Membership in political parties must be voluntary. It can be difficult for

women to achieve leadership positions within political parties and to be
selected as candidates because, in many countries, parties operate or
govern themselves without written party rules or transparent
procedures. Such lack of openness allows patronage systems and “old
boys’ networks” to flourish, effectively excluding women from decision-
making positions and candidate lists. In some countries, political
parties have adopted internal quotas for women’s participation to
ensure that they always put forward a certain number of women’s
candidates. In Zimbabwe as in Argentina, Botswana and France, among
others, all political parties encourage participation of women in politics.
For example, the political parties in Zimbabwe have Women’s Leagues
in their structures and both the major political parties in Zimbabwe
have ladies as their Vice Presidents. An important advocacy strategy
for women is to work with political parties to make sure that the party
platform, the formal declaration of the principles and positions that
the party supports, describes its positions on issues important to

The Constitution of Zimbabwe

The constitution is the supreme law in Zimbabwe. No law is above the
constitution of the republic of Zimbabwe in determining what is legal and
what is illegal in Zimbabwe. This law (constitution) is drawn and revised
to protect and safeguard the interests of the citizens of this country. Some
countries especially the European nations and the U.S.A. want to
introduce laws that they term international norms or laws acceptable in
international law.

This is in a way an attempt to change the laws of other countries in such a

way as to have their interests protected. The majority of these laws are
designed to protect subversive or perverted elements within other societies
or nations for an example perverts (Gays and lesbians) or puppet political
and economic groups within smaller nations for an example secessionist
and tribal minorities.

2.4.1 Republican Destiny

The constitution of Zimbabwe begins with the declaration that Zimbabwe
is a sovereign state and so shall decide its destiny. The republican destiny
is outlined in conjunction with national interests as represented by the
public seal which shall be kept by the president as the head of state and
whose authority protects national interests and aspirations.

2.4.2 Citizenship

- Can be by birth, except if the parents have diplomatic immunity,
are not citizens, or the parents are enemy aliens or an illegal residents
- Can be by descent that is he is born outside the country but his
parents are or were Zimbabwean citizens.
- Can be by registration that is by application to the minister of
Home affairs.
Dual citizenship.

No person having other citizenship can be a Zimbabwean citizen unless

he/she renounces that other citizenship. In many precedents law tends to
favour descent than any other citizenship status on enjoyment of

2.4.3 Declaration of rights

Every citizen irrespective of color race religion etc. is entitled to the basic
and fundamental rights of the individual provided that when enjoying such
rights or freedoms he/she does not infringe on the peaceable enjoyment of
the rights of others or does not endanger the public interest that is state
security and public order. Such freedoms are as follows:

a) The right to life except where the state is duly carrying out a death
sentence, or where there is need to defend property or in repelling
violence, or effecting lawful arrest or preventing someone from escaping
from lawful custody, or in suppressing a riot, insurrection and unlawful
gathering, or in preventing the commission of a crime or if the cause of
death is a lawful act of war.

b) Right to Personal liberty

Such a right can be exercised by any citizen excerpt where; the person is
sentenced to a prison term by a court of law for a criminal offence or for
contempt of a court of law or in a civil suit or where a parent or guardian
so requests the court for the welfare or education of an individual between
21 and 23 years old or in order to prevent the spread of a disease or if the
person is of an unsound mind, is a drug addict an alcoholic or is an illegal
immigrant or subject of an extradition process.

Any person so detained is entitled to legal representation and should be

charged within a reasonable period and where a person is unlawful
detained the detainee is entitled to compensation from that person or
authority detaining him/her.

c) Protection from slavery and forced labour

Excerpt where such labour is in compliance with a court sentence or is
necessary for hygiene and the maintenance of the places of lawful
detention or is a requirement by a parent for purposes of parental

discipline or labour required by virtue of belonging to a uniformed
service or required of any citizen during an emergency.

d) Protection from inhuman treatment;

Such as torture or other degrading punishment. Where as reasonable force
or corporal punishment is acceptable in effecting an arrest or for a parent
or anyone in loco parentis over a person eighteen years and below and
under his custody.

e) Protection From deprivation of property

Every Zimbabwean citizen shall not be compulsorily deprived of his/her property

or right therein excerpt;
When legally required by law in the case of land for the utilization of such
land for purposes of agricultural settlement or other use or for land
reorganization such as forestry and game parks or for purposes of
relocation of persons affected in the former cases, or for purposes of
public defense, public order and safety, morality, health, town and country
planning, or for any other public good.

Where such land is thus acquired it will be done according to the law in
force at that time allowing for reasonable notice and fair compensation.

f) PROTECTION from arbitrary search and entry of the person or his

Except where the person so searching is parent, or for purposes of the
defense and security of the state, public health, morality or town and
country planning or in the enforcement of the law where there are
reasonable grounds of suspicion of the existence of a crime.

g) Provision to secure protection of the law

All citizens are entitled to the protection of the law. Where a person is
charged with a criminal offence that person should; be brought before an
independent and impartial court within reasonable time, is innocent until
proved otherwise, is entitled to legal representation and to defend and
cross examine witnesses and no person is guilty of an offense post facto.

h) Protection of freedom of conscience

Every citizen except for minors or with his/her own consent has a right to freedom of
thought, religion (belonging or changing), freedom to individually or severally in public
or private to propagate/ manifest his/her religion through worship teaching practice and
observance. No person attending an educational institution shall be compelled to receive

religious instruction contrary to his/ her religion, unless in the interest of group
Any community is entitled to provide religious instruction to its members
at its educational institutions. Provisions on guardianship powers may
limit freedom of conscience.

i) Protection of freedom of expression

Every citizen save for minors or with one’s own consent is entitled to hold
his her own opinions on any issue and receive and impart such opinions or
information without interference Excerpt where, The law makes
provisions for the sake of the defense of the nation, public safety and
order, economic interests of the state, public morality and public health to;
Protect reputations privacy, and rights of others, Maintain confidentiality,
protect parliament, the courts and tribunals, and regulate technical aspects
of telecommunications and the electronic media and preventing any
unlawful communication. Freedom of expression is exercised within the
parameters of justification, fair comment and qualified or absolute

j)Protection of freedom of assembly and association

With the excerption of minors or through his own consent every citizen is entitled to
assemble and associate and belong to or not to be compelled to assemble or associate
with any group, political party, union for purposes of protecting and propagating his/her
interests. Excerpt where the law makes provisions for the sake of public order, safety
morality, health, security and defense and the regulation of companies or other business
enterprises. The associations whose interests are known to comprise security and order
shall be diffused under the prohibition from commitment of crime.

k) Protection from discrimination on the grounds of;

Race, religion, ethnicity, gender, political affiliation, place of origin tribe,
etc. No law or practice shall be deemed lawful if it violates this provision
excerpt in the cases of adoption, marriage divorce, burial devolution of
property or any matter pertaining to personal law or relating to
immigration status, qualifications for purposes of employment not relating
to any of the above.

l) Enforcement of rights
Where an individual feels that his her rights are violated the said person
shall appeal to the supreme court which alone has the prerogative to hear
and deliberate on all matters relating to the constitutional provisions on the
fundamental freedoms.

2.4.5The Executive
Executive Powers and Authority

The Executive Authority of the Inclusive Government shall vest in, and be shared among the
President, the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, as provided for in the Constitution and legislation.

The President of the Republic shall exercise executive authority subject to the Constitution and
the law.

The Prime Minister of the Republic shall exercise executive authority subject to the Constitution
and the law.

The Cabinet of the Republic shall exercise executive authority subject to the Constitution and the

In the exercise of executive authority, the President, Vice Presidents, the Prime Minister, the
Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and Deputy Ministers must have regard to the principles and
spirit underlying the formation of the Inclusive Government and accordingly act in a manner that
seeks to promote cohesion both inside and outside government.

2.4.5 The Cabinet

(a) shall have the responsibility to evaluate and adopt all government policies and the
consequential programmes;

(b) shall, subject to approval by Parliament, allocate the financial resources for the
implementation of such policies and programmes;

(c) shall have the responsibility to prepare and present to Parliament, all such legislation and
other instruments as may be necessary to implement the policies and programmes of the
National Executive;

(d) shall, except where the Constitution requires ratification by Parliament, or action by the
President, approve all international agreements;

(e) shall ensure that the state organs, including the Ministries and Departments, have sufficient
financial and other resources and appropriate operational capacity to carry out their functions
effectively; and

(f) shall take decisions by consensus, and take collective responsibility for all Cabinet decisions,
including those originally initiated individually by any member of Cabinet.

(g) The President and the Prime Minister will agree on the allocation of Ministries between them
for the purpose of day-to-day supervision.

20.1.3 The President

(a) chairs Cabinet;

(b) exercises executive authority;

(c) shall exercise his/her powers subject to the provisions of the Constitution;

(d) can, subject to the Constitution, declare war and make peace;

(e) can, subject to the Constitution, proclaim and terminate martial law;

(f) confers honours and precedence, on the advice of Cabinet;

(g) grants pardons, respites, substitutes less severe punishment and suspends or remits
sentences, on the advice of Cabinet;

(h) chairs the National Security Council;

(i) formally appoints the Vice Presidents;

(j) shall, pursuant to this Agreement, appoint the Prime Minister pending the enactment of the
Constitution of Zimbabwe Amendment no.19 as agreed by the Parties;

(k) formally appoints Deputy Prime Ministers, Ministers and Deputy Ministers in accordance with
this agreement;

(l) after consultation with the Vice Presidents, the Prime Minister and the Deputy Prime Ministers,
allocates Ministerial portfolios in accordance with this Agreement;

(m) accredits, receives and recognizes diplomatic agents and consular officers;

(n) appoints independent Constitutional Commissions in terms of the Constitution;

(o) appoints service/executive Commissions in terms of the Constitution and in consultation with
the Prime Minister;

(p) in consultation with the Prime Minister, makes key appointments the President is required to
make under and in terms of the Constitution or any Act of Parliament;

(q) may, acting in consultation with the Prime Minister, dissolve Parliament;

(r) must be kept fully informed by the Prime Minister on the general conduct of the government
business and;

(s) shall be furnished with such information as he/she may request in respect of any particular
matter relating to the government, and may advise the Prime Minister and Cabinet in this regard.

2.4.6 The Prime Minister

(a) chairs the Council of Ministers and is the Deputy Chairperson of Cabinet;

(b) exercises executive authority;

(c) shall oversee the formulation of government policies by the Cabinet;

(d) shall ensure that the policies so formulated ar€ implemented by the entirety of government;

(e) shall ensure that the Ministers develop appropriate implementation plans to give effect to the
policies decided by Cabinet: in this regard, the Ministers will report to the Prime Minister on all
issues relating to the implementation of such policies and plans;

(f) shall ensure that the legislation necessary to enable the government to carry out its functions
is in place: in this regard, he/she shall have the" responsibility to discharge the functions of the
Leader of Government Business in Parliament;

(g) shall be a member of the National Security Council;

(h) may be assigned such additional functions as are necessary further to enhance the work of
the Inclusive Government;

(i) shall, to ensure the effective execution of these tasks, be assisted by Deputy Prime Ministers;

(j) shall report regularly to the President and Parliament.

2.4.7 Council of Ministers

To ensure that the Prime Minister properly discharges his responsibility to oversee the
implementation of the work of government, there shall be a Council of Ministers consisting of all
the Cabinet Ministers, chaired by the Prime Minister, whose functions shall be:

(a) to assess the implementation of Cabinet decisions;

(b) to assist the Prime Minister to attend to matters of coordination in the government;

(c) to enable the Prime Minister to receive briefings from the Cabinet Committees;
(d) to make progress reports to Cabinet on matters of implementation of Cabinet decisions;

(e) to receive and consider reports from the Committee responsible for the periodic review
mechanism; and

(f) to make progress reports to Cabinet on matters related to the periodic review mechanism.

2.4.7 Composition of the Executive

(1) There shall be a President, which Office shall continue to be occupied by President Robert
Gabriel Mugabe.

(2) There shall be two (2) Vice Presidents, who will be nominated by the President and/or Zanu

(3) There shall be a Prime Minister, which Office shall be occupied by Mr Morgan Tsvangirai.

(4) There shall be two (2) Deputy Prime Ministers, one (1) from MDC-T and one (1) from the

(5) There shall be thirty-one (31) Ministers, with fifteen (15) nominated by Zanu PF, thirteen (13)
by MDC-T and three (3) by MDC-M. Of the 31 Ministers, three (3) one each per Party, may be
appointed from outside the members of Parliament. The three (3) Ministers so appointed shall
become members of the House of Assembly and shall have the right to sit, speak and debate in
Parliament, but shall not be entitled to vote.

(6) There shall be fifteen (15) Deputy Ministers, with (eight) 8 nominated by Zanu PF, six (6) by
MDC-T and one (1) by MDC-M.

(7) Ministers and Deputy Ministers may be relieved of their duties only after consultation among
the leaders of all the political parties participating in the Inclusive Government.

2.4.8 Senate

(a) The President shall, in his discretion, appoint five (5) persons to the existing positions of
Presidential senatorial appointments.

(b) There shall be created an additional nine (9) appointed senatorial posts, which shall be filled
by persons appointed by the President, of whom, 3 will be nominated by Zanu PF, 3 by MDC-T
and 3 by MDC-M.

2.4.9 Filling of vacancies

(a) In the event of any vacancy arising in respect of posts referred to in clauses 2.4.7 and 2.4.8(b)
above, such vacancy shall be filled by a nominee of the Party which held that position prior to the
vacancy arising.

The executive arm of the state consists of the Head of State the president,
the Vice presidents,the Prime Minister, the Deputy Prime Ministers, the
Cabinet, the ministries or/and the civil service, the Security agencies that
is, the Zimbabwe Defense Forces, the Zimbabwe Republic Police, The
Prison Service, And the Central Intelligence Service.

a) The President

i) Is the head of state, is the executive head of government, and is the

commander in chief of the Defense Forces. Is the Pre- eminent
person in the Nation.

ii) Qualification.
Should be a citizen of Zimbabwe by birth, or descent, should be
forty years and above, is ordinarily resident in Zimbabwe.
(NB. To be read into the constitution although the document is
silent is that the presidential aspirant should espouse and uphold
the aspirations of the nation, derived from assertions leading to the
war of liberation in the preservation of freedom, independence and
national interests uphold Zimbabwe’s ENDURING POLITICAL
TRADITION as represented by the values of the War of
liberation.) Should hold no criminal record.
iii) Election.
Is an elected y voter on the common roll and within ninety days
before the expiry of the presidential term and in the case of death,
incapacity or impeachment the Vice president shall act as president
for ninety days during which period fresh elections should be held.

iv) Tenure (duration in office)

Shall be in office for six years and until the next person elected
take office

v) Removal from office

- Can leave office through resignation by letter to the speaker
of parliament.
- Can leave office on parliamentary recommendation
following a request of not less than a third of members of
parliament alleging willful violation of the constitution, or
incapacity to carry his duties/functions or gross misconduct
and when two thirds or more of members support the
motion to impeach the president.

vi) Functions of the President.

a) Has and exercises all executive authority of the state that is the

government of the country or the enforcement of law, the
defense of the nation translation of political policy into
government programs and their implementation by the civil
b) To uphold the constitution
c) To exercise the prerogatives of head of state that is: -
 Enter into treaties and international agreements.
 Proclaim and terminate martial law
 To declare war and make peace.
 To confer honors and precedence
 Appoint and accredit diplomats
d) To act on advice of the cabinet excerpt on: -
 Matters relating to dissolution of parliament
 Appointment and removal of governors
 Duties of the Vice presidents or any other person
appointed by the president.
e) To exercise the prerogative of mercy that is: -
 Grant pardon to felons
 Declare a stay of execution of a felon
 Vary/substitute prison terms
 Suspend or remit a sentence
 Declare public emergencies
 Which shall be approved by parliament within fourteen
days failing which the declaration becomes void.
The declaration lasts for a specified period or for a period not
exceeding six months subject to any extension of such a period by
the president. The effect of such a declaration is to allow the
direction of funds to that emergency and where necessary the
suspension of civil liberties.

2.4.9 The Public service

The constitution provides that a public service be established for
the administration of the country. This consists of all the ministries
and other institutions through which government implements its
Members of the Public service are appointed on merit and have
security of tenure, are not political appointees and at most are not
expected to engage in active politics.

The affairs of the Public service are managed by a commission,

which consists of a chairperson and not less than two and no not
more than seven members. The president appoints the members.

2.4.10 The Attorney General

Is the principal legal adviser to government, holds a public office
but is not a part of the public service.

The president appoints him after consultations with the judicial
services commission. Only persons suitable for appointment as
judges are qualified to be A.Gs. The A.G. is an ex-officio member
of the cabinet and his main functions are to institute criminal
proceedings, and to prosecute or defend an appeal from all
criminal proceedings.
2.4.11 The Police Force
The police force is provided for in the constitution with the
specific task of preserving the internal security in the country and
the maintenance of law and order.

A police commissioner appointed by the president heads the ZRP.

A Police commission headed by a chairperson who is the
Chairperson of the Public service commission manages the affairs
of the Police force.

2.4.12The Zimbabwe Defence forces

To defend the territorial integrity of the nation, the constitution

provides for the establishment of an army consisting of an Air
force, and an Army – ground troops and any other specializations
deemed necessary for the defence of the nation and provided for
through an act of parliament. The commander in chief of the
defence forces shall be the President.
The affairs of the army are managed by the defence forces
commission consisting of a chairperson (the Public service
chairperson) and not less than two and no more than seven other

2.4.13 The Prison service

Tasked with the responsibility of protecting society from criminals by incarcerating them
and rehabilitating and reintegrating them into society. The prison service is headed by a
Prison service commissioner and the affairs of the service are managed by a Prison
service commission headed a chairperson (the head of the public service
commission) and between two and seven other members.

2.4.14 The Intelligence service

Provided for by the constitution as part of the office the President
with the specific task of providing, through conventional and
unconventional means, information of any type necessary for the
protection of the nation’s economic, political, social or cultural and
other interests. A Director General appointed by the President
heads the service.

2.4.15 The Ombudsman

Holds public office buts not a member of the public service. He she is tasked with
the responsibility of receiving any complaint from members of the public on the
function or lack of it of member of the civil service.

2.4.16 The Comptroller and Auditor General

Holds a public office but is not a member of the Public service. His/her main functions
are to examine or audit at least once a year all ministries or persons or institutions
entrusted with the receipt or the use of public funds, that is, monies from the
consolidated revenue fund. (C.R.F). The president appoints him after consulting the
Public service commission.

2.4.17 The C.R.F.

All monies collected for and on behalf of government as taxes, fees, fines, profit etc. are
deposited into the CRF and used or withdrawn from that account as allocated funds
under respective ministerial budgets excerpt where the authority is allowed to retain the
monies so collected and for use to defray their expenses as provided for through an act of
parliament. The allocation shall be made through the Budget process in Parliament
as votes to Ministries and government departments.


Parliament has the supreme authority to make law in and for Zimbabwe. No law
made elsewhere is binding or legal unless Government accedes to or ratifies such
law through parliament. International law or other legal protocols are binding only
if and when parliament ratifies such directly or through an act of parliament.
Parliament can delegate it authority to make law to other bodies such as local
government authorities or parastatals.

3.1 The law making process in parliament

The process of making law in parliament is open to any member of society. Most
of the law ,however, comes in the form of bills or proposals from concerned
ministries and not as private members’ bills. The stages in the law making process
are as follows;
3.1.1 Proposals- anyone can make law proposals.
3.1.2 Expert/legal input- relevant ministry or and Attorney general’s office.
3.1.3 Draft bill- distributed in parliament.
3.1.4 First reading – notification in parliament; no responses from MPs.
3.1.5 Second reading- no responses from MPs.
3.1.6 Committee stage
3.1.7 Report stage – responses and inputs from MPs.
3.1.8 Third reading – responses from MPs.

3.1.9 Third reading – voting

3.1.10 Presidential assent Gazzetting.

At each stage of the readings, reference is made to the Parliamentary
LegalCommittee, which shall consider inputs from MPs from a legal point
of view and produce adverse or non-adverse reports where necessary.

3.2 Composition consists of: -

- The President
- One hundred fifty members of parliament elected appointed and
nominated as follows;
- 120 elected by voters on the common roll and representing 120
- 8 provincial governors appointed by the president
- 10 chiefs elected according to the electoral law
- 12 members appointed by the president.

3.3. Non-voting members of parliament

- The president
- Vice presidents and ministers if not members of parliament and the AG.
- The Speaker and Deputy Speaker
The speaker is the presiding officer whose function is to facilitate the
process of legislation by ensuring that debate and voting and al other
procedures related to legislation are conducted in the manner prescribed
by the standing rules of the house. The speaker is elected from persons
who have been members of parliament before and his tenure of office lasts
a full parliamentary term unless he/she resigns or becomes a minister or
vice president while his/her term has not expired
Or becomes an MP.

3.4 Administrative staff of parliament

- Secretary to Parliament
Appointed by the committee on standing rules and orders and is the pre-
eminent administrative officer of parliament. Holds a public office but is
not in the public service.
- Clerk to parliament

He is the chief administrative officer and holds a public office and supervises all
other supporting staff like clerks, stenographers accountants etc.

- Sergeant at Arms
He holds a public office and is a member of the police force and ensures
that order is enforced in the legislative assembly.

3.5 Parliamentary Legal committee
The committee consisting of not less than three and is appointed by the
parliamentary committee on standing rules and orders at the beginning of each
parliamentary term. The members of the committee shall in the majority be
legally qualified.

The functions of the committee: -

- Examine every bill other than constitutional bills
- Examine every statutory instrument.

3.6 Tenure of Members of Parliament

Shall last the full term of parliament or until parliament is dissolved

Membership shall also laps: -

- If member dies before dissolution of parliament
- On resignation by letter to the speaker
- Is absent for twenty one consecutive sittings/days in one session of
- Ceases to be a member of his political party
- Becomes speaker or president or provincial governor or assumes any
public office.
- Is placed under a curator bonis
- Is mentally or physically unfit
- Is incarcerated for more than six months

3.7 Parliamentary privilege and immunity

These are fixed through an act of parliament but broadly no member of parliament is
criminally or civilly liable in any act or utterance while performing his/her
parliamentary functions.

3.8. Legislative function of MPs

By/through bills passed by parliament and assented to by the president within
twenty-one days of being passed by parliament

A bill becomes law if MPs present vote with a simple majority provided that
members present a re a quorum that is not less than twenty-five.

3.9 Constitutional amendment

Parliament has the power to amend change or repeal the constitution through an
affirmative vote of not less than two thirds of members of parliament.

3.10 Parliamentary elections
Elections are held not more than four months after a dissolution of parliament or
as by election in the event that a seat becomes vacant. For elections to be held the
following shall be done as provided for in the constitution.

a) By election: conducted in the event of the death or resignation of a

member of parliament.
b) General election: conducted at prescribed times as laid out in the supreme
law of the country.

4. Commissions

4.1 Delimitation commission

- Is appointed by the president
- Consists of a chairman – chief justice or other judge of the supreme or
high court and three other members
- Functions for five years.
- Functions shall be to determine the boundaries of the -constituencies
taking cognisance of such features as geography, ethnicity and
communication etc.

4.2. Electoral Supervisory commission

- Appointed by the president
- Consists of a chairman and four other members –two appointed by the
president after consulting the judiciary service commission and two
after consulting the speaker.
- Functions are to supervise voter registration, and conduct/run elections.
- Consider proposed bill or other law relating to elections.

4.3 The constitution also provides for the formation of the Public Service
Commission, the Judiciary Commission, and the Police Commission etc.

5. Contemporary issues and New dimension in law

a) Rule of law – upholding of the law in a scenario where no one is above the law

b) Prerogative – discretional prerogatives have made law to be applied based on

certain trivial relative issues

c) Political willpower – those in power or those wielding the axe make the most
decisions and tailor-make law to protect their interests

d) Human rights – the emergence and definition of human rights has led to
commitment of crime and subsequent ignorance of the rule of law even when
certain behaviours become immoral e.g. the gays and lesbian case

e) Christian balance – as Christian values shape most legal frameworks, the same
have been used in negotiations although in many cases equality is not achieved
in Christian balances. The ‘coveter’ and the converted are two different

Regional and International Relations

1 Definitions;
- International relations; The interaction of nation -states
- Nation; The people within a country
- Country; Geographical territory in which a specific people live in
- State; the permanent power or authority which is sovereign and represented by the
arms of state, that is, government, judiciary and the legislature and which is normally
embodied in the constitution as the right of a group of people to self-determination.
- Government; the arm of state which is tasked with ruling or

exercising the executive powers of the state that is, representing the nation at
international fora, defending and keeping law and order in the nation, implementing
political, economic, and social policy of the ruling political party. Government is
formed by the winner at general elections and therefore comes and goes where as the
state is permanent except where the country is annexed, secedes or the people
become extinct.

2 The practice of International relations

2.1 Society

People within a nation are a society or societies of people. To become a nation therefore
the people should have similar political aspirations or interests. The term “society”
supposes the existence of common norms or behavioural patterns within that society.
Such norms determine relations among the members of the society in terms of political
structures or governance; this determines in turn distribution of resources. Political
structure presupposes a hierarchy and hence classes within society. Classes in turn infer
inequalities among the people. In international relations instead of people forming the
society or community we have nations being the members of the international society or
community and hence the existence also of norms or political behaviour, international
political hierarchy and classes, distribution of resources by the international ruling class
and hence the existence of international inequalities. This will be dealt with in full under
international capital below.

2.2.International Society.

The international society as we know it today is a recent development in the world’s

history. Vast empires, fiefdoms or localized chiefdoms have always been the general
picture of politics at the global level. Sovereign nation – states appear on the global
scene about five hundred years ago and evolve and only become the norm in the 16 th.
century as principles that govern their conduct take a definitive shape. Before the
development of rules that govern relations between areas or regions or states, relations
between different political entities were characterized by internecine warfare. It was more
a state of nature or survival of the fittest. With the advent of Christianity and its growth,
war and its limitation, conduct and justification became necessary and the notion of the
just war was developed. In his work, “The Summa Theologica,” St. Thomas Aquinas
argued the case for a just war as consisting of;
- It had to have the backing of the king
- The reason or cause for going to war had to be just
- Those to be attacked had to be guilty of some grave evil
- The attackers had to have the right intention – to promote good or the
avoidance or prevention of evil
Many unfair wars and untold evil were perpetrated under the guise of the just war and by
about 1490 Honore Bonet stated “ soldiers were the flail of God who by his permission
make wars upon sinners and sin and make havoc among them in this world as the devils
of hell do in the next”. Not surprising therefore that at about that time the Aztec
civilization was destroyed by Spanish conquistadors and Africa and many parts of the
world seen as containing sinners were subjected to the most cruel and inhuman plunder
and decimation by the European powers. In the same vein Gorge Bush’s “axis of evil”
position hundreds of years latter fits squarely in the Aquinian doctrine. Bush argues that
the war on Iraq - weapons of mass destruction aside - was a just war because that nation
is evil. Who defines evil and by what standard is evil determined? As a result of this
doctrine in international relations it was not possible to develop or for there to evolve
rules that could govern relations between states. Similarly, because of a reversion to the
same old position by the Bush administration, the whole fabric of international law is
strained to breaking point. “Evil” is a value laden term which is highly subjective.
Being a fundamentalist Moslem is interpreted as being evil by Bush and his company
whether one is a suicide bomber or not and no law therefore can restrict regime change in
any nation perceived to be evil. Such international behaviour not only drags the world
backwards but also creates a very dangerous environment in which every nation and
individual takes unilateral action to redress grievances and institutionalise suicidal
tendencies and solutions even at state level like in the case of North Korea.

In 1654, in his treatise, “De Jure Belli et pacis”, Hugo Grotius”, a Dutch jurist wrote
principles that were supposed to govern warfare and this became the basis for our modern
international law.

3. Approaches in the study of international relations

The study of relations between nations is a recent and evolving science. The main
approaches are as follows;

A: Traditional Approaches
1.The classical approach
2.The Idealist approach
3.The Realist and or Rational approach

B: Modern approaches
1.The Strategic approach
2.The billiard ball approach
3.The Cobweb approach

C: The Behavioural approach

1.The global approach or model
2.The regional approach or model

3.1 The Traditional Approaches

3.1.1.The Classical approach;

The proponents of this approach are to a large extent social contract theorists.

Thomas Hobbes sees the state, as arising out of the need to escape from a state of nature
where there is anarchy and life is insecure, short, nasty and brutal. A state of nature
presupposes the non-existence of society and therefore the non-existence of law. In such
a lawless state everyone does as he pleases and those with more clout survive. In other
words the law of the jungle that is “might is right” and “survival of the fittest” rules
supreme. In another sense this approach is also evolutionist or Darwinian. It infers
natural selection that favours the stronger species’ survival and continuity. To escape
from this state of nature at the national or state level people had to agree to surrender
some of their rights to each other and appoint a sovereign authority as guarantor and
arbitrator for and in this social contract. The same arrangement could be said to hold true
within the community of nations or the global society. However as nation states
developed in Europe a state of nature more or less developed in that these states resorted
to war wily nily on the basis of each state’s prerogative of national sovereignty to wage
war. All wars were therefore justifiable. Jean Jacques Rousseau and others saw relations
among states as possessing potential for peace as long as members of a society were
willing to enter a clear contract. The Machiavellian argument was closely echoed by
Immanuel Kant and Carl von Clausewittz in his book “On War,” argues that power is at
the heart of interstate relations in that each state seeks to increase its power at the
expense of other states. Alliances, wars and the arms race were the result of this
argument and Europe was plunged into the First World War.

3.1.2 The Idealist Approach.

The First World War shocked non-belligerents as well as the belligerents in so far the toll
in human and material loss were concerned. This led people to treat peace as
something they should deliberately seek and sought to engineer global society in
such a way as to not only create peacefully conditions but also prevent war. This
approach was thus normative prescriptive and pro active. Woodrow Wilson the USA
president at the time and others thus pursued this logic and it resulted in the creation
of the LEAGUE OF NATIONS in 1918. The USA refused to join the league in spite
of championing it. Through covenants or a body of rules collective security it was
thought could thus be assured in the community of nations. This body of thinking or
ideology failed to bring about peaceful coexistence among states and soon after the
formation of the League of Nations after 1927 Italy and Germany went on the
warpath and soon after the world was in another global war. Idealism sought to affect
the thinking of global society but this proved to be a futile exercise.

3.1.3 The Realist or Rational approach.

Between the two world wars thinking on international relations shifted from idealism to
rationalism or realism. This means people began to look at the actual practice of relations
among states and sought to explain their behavior rather than to change their behavior. In
a way this approach was a throw back to the classical approach. Hans Morgen Thau a
major proponent of this approach argued that power and self-interest were at the heart of
state behavior. To legitimate pursuit of power and self-interest nations cake iced and
disguised their otherwise questionable and illegitimate behavior moral hyperbole and
legalistic arguments. This fits squarely in the George Bush Jr.s’ conduct of the war in
Iraq. Saddam was said to be evil but that had never been justification for war in modern
society. To legalize action against Sadam, the latter had to possess weapons of mass
destruction and that became the legal basis for war. Having e failed to provide the
evidence of WMDs Bush back tracked to the moral position, that is, Sadam is evil
anyway. War thus is not only inevitable, but also desirable in certain instances and the
issue at stake is not its prevention or avoidance, but its control to achieve desired
outcomes. This approach is thus to a large extent descriptive.

3.2 The Modern Approaches

3.2.1 The billiard ball model.

This model builds on the realist approach in that it recognizes states as individual entities
which when and if one entity or ball picks motion naturally on contact with others
produces motion in other balls or states. The internal dynamics of each entity or ball are
seen having no effect on the relative position of the entities.

3.2.2 The Cob web model

John Burton sees international relations as existing within a complex web or matrix in
which each state is linked to the other directly and indirectly and where motion in or
between components impacts on the rest. This approach is very close to reality in that the

operations of global commerce and industry is such that events in any state immediately
impacts on events in all or in other states. More over cyberspace and efficient transport
communications is threatening to produce a global super culture.

3.2.3 The Strategic Approach

The proponents of this approach believed and believe in power politics. They strategize
or scheme situations in the global arena that best suit the pursuit of their self-interests.
Former USA secretary of state Henry Kissinger Herman Khan and others emphasized the
use of mathematical models and games theories policy options ranging from total
surrender graduated severity warfare to total annihilation. Policy options according to the
strategists are rationally made on the basis of comparisons of outcomes. The probability
of a favorable outcome was seen as the deciding factor in the action of any state.
Deterrence through such policies as mutual assured destruction (MAD) became major
policy positions of the USA as a result of this approach.

3.2.4 The Behavioral Approach

This approach makes a methodological departure from previous approaches and

denounces the strategic approach as war mongering immoral and a threat to world peace
and security. Behaviouralists incorporate all social sciences techniques and conclude that
the danger to peaceful co-existence may result from unintentional war due to
misinformation or miscalculation or both. There is an element of correct prognosis in the
approach considering the furor over the role of intelligence over Iraq in assessing the
nature and extant of threat posed by Saddam Hussein. The war in Viet Nam and Iraq are
classical examples of miscalculation and misinformation.

3.2.5 The global approach

Some behaviouralists believe that the best way forward is a centralized one-world
government with the nation state disappearing.

3.2.6 The Non-global Approach.

In this model it is envisaged that authority should be decentralized and the state dispensed
with and authority devolved to lower tier structures below the present state level or tier.

4. The Subject matter or issues in International relations

All the above approaches look at relations between nations in one or more of the
following areas;
1. Conflict
2. Cooperation
3. Competition
These are termed the three Cs of international relations. At each moment in time all
nations are relating to each other in so far as one or all of the three aspects are

4.1 Conflict

Conflict is the most pronounced element in that the state system is almost synonymous
with war. World history is the story of when and with whom nations have fought from
time immemorial to date.

4.2 Cooperation

When states are not fighting each other they are cooperating in maintaining peace and in
dealing with the challenges and problems that mankind faces for example diseases such
as AIDS or disasters such as earth quakes. Cooperation is highly visible and pronounced
even among nations that appear to have no love lost between them in that the UN and
many other world fora provide an avenue for all nations to cooperate in one way or

4.3 Competition

Competition among or between nations exists in the form of normal trade or commerce
and can manifest itself in the form of alliances and treaties.

The global power Balance.

5.1 Power blocs

International relations are therefore about competition, conflict or cooperation among

states. The three Cs produce a global political picture, which is either dominated by one
super power or a group of states that become a super power bloc or a scenario where
power is evenly distributed between two or more blocs or centres. When the Roman
empire of the Caesers came into being by about 160 BC there was no power on earth
strong enough to challenge its hegemony for almost six hundred years up to about 530
AD. Global Power was concentrated in that one super state and it was a uni-polar global
power arrangement. When pagan Rome collapsed the world stage was again dominated
by Papal power the so called Holy Roman Empire for almost 1300 years up to 1789.
Papal power was however effectively challenged by Frances’ Napoleon Bonarparte and
from that time to the end of the second world war power concentration was widely

dispersed among European and Asian nations and no one state or group of states had
monopoly over global power. This was a multi polar global power balance. With the end
of the Second World War the world was split between two power blocs with the Soviet
Union leading the eastern or Warsaw Pact bloc or what is wrongly termed by the west the
communist bloc and the USA leading the NATO or western bloc nations. After
decolonisation of most African and Asian nations from about 1947 the former colonies
formed so-called non- aligned nations. Global politics never the less remained polarised
between the two major blocs and up until the collapse of the War Saw Pact bloc by about
1985. During that period the world was in a nuclear stand off between the two major
powers where each bloc had sufficient nuclear weapons to annihilate the whole world.
The periods’ relations are characterised by what is termed the cold war. The cold war was
in fact a very live and hot war in which the two major blocs sponsored opposing groups
in civil wars in countries termed the Non Aligned nations. The period was marked by
bloody wars in Vietnam, Nicaragua, Angola, Mozambique and many other nations in
Africa and South America. The politics of the period were based on the philosophy and
ideology of the Strategic school of thought who argued that nuclear deterrence that is;
“having so many nuclear bombs and an unstoppable delivery system which would render
an attack by any one of the two opposing sides simple suicide because the other side
would retaliate in an equally overwhelming response and bring about a mutually assured
destruction (MAD)”. To weaken the other side, the 1970s and early 1980s were marked
by a runaway arms race as the two blocs tried to gain the upper hand. The arms race
proved too expensive for the Soviet Union and following the introduction of the Glasnost
policy by Michael Gorbachev the Soviet President then, the whole War Saw pact military
and economic system collapsed and the USA emerged as the unchallenged global
superpower from the 1990s onwards. Global power politics has thus become uni-polar
and the USA has assumed the role of global policeman or and corrector of all rogue states
so called. Other terminology has also begun to be used in global politics for an example
“rogue state” meaning a nation that is ultra nationalistic and refuses to kow tow to USA
bullying, “regime change” meaning the forcible removal from power of state leaders who
are not supportive of American policies, “axis of evil” referring to those countries
opposed to American style of governance. The period also saw a marked increase in
unilateral action by the USA outsides the mechanism of recognised international fora
such as the UN.
5.2 International Terrorism

The period of USA unilateralism has seen a marked increase in terrorism. Terrorism can
be defined as indiscriminate acts of violence against soft targets for an example non-
military installations and un armed civilians. The USA has declared war on global terror
but this terror in the first place appears to have been prompted by USA partiality in
dealing with global problems like in the handling of the Palestinian issue or dealing with
undemocratic as if dealing with democratic states for an example Uganda under
Museveni a non democratically elected government while making lots of fuss about lack
of democracy in Libya and more blatantly parochial the alleged lack of democracy in
Zimbabwe. In any case there is no international that makes it mandatory for any state to
adopt American style democracy. The latter is not holy writ nor is it fool proof neither fair
nor just. Terrorism is bound to grow as the USA leaves groups and individuals with no

other options in redressing their grievances. Terrorism has become the preferred tool of
many marginalized groups as they desperately seek for justice in the resolution of their

Global power balances are important in that it is within the framework of this
arrangement that state inter action takes place. As shown above, the multilateral power
structure between 1800 and 1945 produced or created a very unsafe world and led to two
catastrophic wars. The bipolar global power balance between 1945 and 1985 and the
resultant rivalry and arms race of that period saw many developing countries falling
victim to the politics of the day. After 1985 increasing USA unilateralism has bred a new
global scourge called terror. The USA has itself become a terror to many states small and
big if they dare assert their nationalism hence the growth in terrorism. Terrorism is
inherently evil and un acceptable as much as the bellicose attitudes by stronger states that
drive weaker groups to resort to terror tactics.

6. International Law.

All states are members of the global community, which has codes of conduct or
behaviour expectations for its members. These behaviour expectations arise out of
custom or agreements. There is there for such a thing as international law. (NB. See
International Law in Module 2. Legal and Parliamentary affairs.) The major deficiency in
international law has been its lack of a force back up mechanism that is an army or police
force. Of late there has been attempts to make international more meaningful by
extending its jurisdiction to individual and to the actions of states as it relates to its

6.1 Jurisdiction of international law.

In its current mould international law affects those countries that are signatories to
conventions and agree to be bound by the provisions of such agreements. The
signatories are also left with the option to accept the conclusions of the International
Court Of Justice or simply to ignore them. The ICJ was formed in 1945 as an organ of
the UN and is based at The Hague in the Netherlands. The disputes that are taken to the
courts are mutually agreed upon and relate to trade or boundary disputes between states.
The action of states against other states is a hardly ever the subject matter of international
Law. Criminal acts by individuals or states have traditionally fallen outside the scope and
jurisdiction of international law. Increasingly however there is a trend toward making
international law more encompassing by the introduction of crimes that can be defined as
acts against humanity e.g. genocide. This has led to the establishment of many
international Tribunals like the Nuremberg war crimes tribunal set up to try NAZI
Germany war criminal after WW2. Other special international tribunals have also been
set to deal the Balkans crisis and the Rwanda genocide of 1991. The UN has also set up
as of 2003 the International Criminal Court and many countries have ratified the treaty.
The USA however has refused to ratify the agreement and has gone on a bullying
campaign coercing small nations to agree not to send USA nationals to the court. In the
meantime The USA is making a lot of noise about sending Charles Taylor to the Special
War crimes Tribunal in Sierra Leone.


Diplomacy can be defined as “ the application of intelligence and tact to the conduct of
official relations between the governments of independent states.” Formal contact
between nations in the global community takes place through the medium of
diplomacy and the interaction of diplomats. Diplomats are the emissaries or
representatives of their governments in other countries and are the direct contact
between different governments. The ministries of foreign affairs in all states have the
responsibility for the deployment of diplomats and the carrying out of the foreign
policy of each respective country.

7.1 Foreign policy

Foreign policy is the position of each government on various issues on world affairs.
Foreign policy is determined by each state’s National Interest. The National interest can
be defined as the common interests of all the citizens of a nation. The national
interest arises from the values and aspirations and history of a nation and these are at
variance with the national interests of other nations because of the competitive nature
of inter state relations. Foreign policy objectives relate to power or sovereignty,
profit and prestige. These objectives can be classified as: a) Core interests, b)
Objective interests, and c) Subjective interests.

7.1.1 Core interests

These are goals for which most people are willing to pay the ultimate sacrifice and relate
to self preservation as a nation and revolve round defending the nation and the
perpetuation of a particular social cultural and economic way of life.

7.1.2 Objective interests

These are permanent interests of the state irrespective of institutional changes within the
state that is even when governments come and go objective interests remain unchanged. In
Zimbabwe this may be related to our sovereignty or the right to access land by the natives
of this country.

7.1.3 Subjective interests.

To determine whether an issue is a national interest in this instance will depend upon
the values and subjective assessment of those making a decision and the issue at stake

does not relate to self-preservation or perpetuation as a state. Example would be the
decision on whether Zimbabwe remains a member of the Commonwealth or not.

It is around the interests of a state that diplomacy is conducted. This suggests or

presupposes therefore that all diplomats are conversant with the interests of the state that
they represent and will be defending and promoting.

7.2 Zimbabwean Foreign Policy

During the hey day of Soviet and American rivalry Zimbabwe’s foreign policy was
unequivocally non-aligned. This does not amount to saying Zimbabwe was a neutral
state. Zimbabwe, guided by its policy of non-alignment has from independence sought to
establish close relations with states pursuing a socialist ideology. This approach allowed
Zimbabwe to articulate its national interests from a firm ideological base.

7.2.1 Objective Interests in Zimbabwe’s Foreign Policy

- Preservation of national sovereignty. In pursuit of the same quit the Common wealth
and believes in the democratic right without interference from outside to self-
- Being an equal and active partner in regional and international fora. Is a member of
SADC, COMESA, AU and the UN.
- A strong Pan Africanism arising from the continent’s history of slavery, colonialism
neo colonialism and the war against these three evil crimes against humanity. In
pursuit of the same fought against banditry and imperial de- stabilization in
Mozambique against RENAMO and in the DRC against imperial sponsored regime
change of the Kabila administration through Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi.

7.2.2 Core Interests

- That the native Zimbabwean has an inalienable right to land to own it and to share it
equally with other Zimbabweans of all races without discrimination.

7.2.3 Subjective Interests

- To determine the most suitable international economic relations.

7.3 The origins of diplomacy

Diplomacy is as old as human society. In Shona culture a wise saying states that
“nhume/mutumwa haana mbonje” This statement also underlies one of the major
elements of diplomacy namely the inviolability of the diplomatic person and his
possessions. Diplomacy was thus well established in early European states as well as in
all the pre-colonial Zimbabwean states. In Europe diplomacy almost suffered a fatal blow
during the so-called Holy Roman Empire. These were the dark ages of human
It was only in the fourteenth century that transient diplomacy is replaced with permanent
embassies or missions as city-states take root in Italy. By the seventeenth century
diplomacy is governed by disjointed rules in Europe and the disputes that arose over

diplomatic precedence and protocol were such that war was always narrowly averted. In
1815 The Congress of Vienna and the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818 formalised
diplomatic rules and procedure. It was only in 1961 that eighty-one states at the Vienna
Conference on Diplomatic Intercourse And Immunities that The Vienna Convention on
Diplomatic Relations was ratified. The document covers all aspects of diplomatic activity
in terms of types of missions’ functions and immunities and privileges of diplomatic

7.4 Setting up diplomatic relations and missions

Diplomatic relations are established through mutual consent. It is assumed that all
diplomats posted are acceptable to the receiving state and the host state issues a document
called the agre’ment to indicate their acceptance of the proposed head of mission. The
latter document can be withheld without explanation. The head of mission to be becomes
official after the presentation of credentials at the ceremony where he meets the head of
state of the host county and presents his letter of credence.

7.5 Types of diplomatic missions and representation

Diplomatic representation is divided into three groups namely:

- Ambassadors and Ministers; these present credentials to the hosting head of state
- Charge’d’ affaires present credentials to the minister of foreign affairs of the host state.
- Former British colonies’ heads of mission are termed High commissioners and heads of
mission between non-former British colonies are termed ambassadors extraordinary and

7.6 Privileges and immunities of diplomats

All accredited diplomats are immune from criminal and civil jurisdiction in the host state
and exempt from all taxation. Diplomats are subject to the host state’s laws where they
enter into private business. Action incompatible with the status of the diplomats may lead
the host state to request their removal.
Diplomatic missions are immune from searches and any other intrusive acts by the host

7.7 Functions of diplomatic missions.

The major activities of diplomatic missions can be classified as a) non substantive and
substantive routine work and b) non routine work.

7.7.1 Non-Substantive routine functions

Attending social and ceremonial functions in the host state e.g. receptions or cocktail
parties, luncheons honour giving ceremonies, parades etc.
NB. The following are sometimes treated as consular functions; Registration of births
deaths marriages of citizens from their country residing in the host state issuing,

validating and replacing passports. Dealing with extradition cases and looking after the
interests of citizens from their country in the host state.

(Consular issues proper are not diplomatic functions although these may be carried out
in the diplomatic premises. These include, the processing and issuing of visas, certificates
e.g. certificate of origin and the facilitation of any other commercial activities. )

7.7.2 Substantive Routine work

This work relates mostly to reporting and intelligence gathering. Intelligence gathering is
not an official or declared function of diplomatic missions but they are never the less used
extensively as cover for these nefarious activities. Where the host state observes
abnormally high and audacious levels of espionage they demand the immediate
withdrawal of such personnel and this normally prompts retaliatory action. Reporting is
normally on economic, political, military and social issues. In certain instances it might
be necessary to engage specialized diplomats called Attaches’ in the areas of information
military and economic affairs.

7.7.3 Non-Routine Functions

This function relates to negotiating. This relates to the transmission of messages and
attending to direct talks at various levels with the authorities of the host state.


8.1 Introduction.

The current stage in global politics and relations is characterized by a high level of
dominance relations between the weak and the powerful states. Such domination has
been the major feature in relations between sates and within states since time immemorial
and arises out of the structured nature of society national or global. The term society
suggests classes and classes suggest inequalities in the distribution of resources in that
society. Inequalities also suggest contradictions and contradictions suggest motion that is
politics. Thus it can be argued from the outset that the major characteristic of global
relations has been the phenomenon of imperialism.
The study of class formation in societies is termed historical materialism. On the other
hand the study of motion that results from class contradictions is termed dialectical
materialism. “It is the study of society in their essentially contradictory movement.”
Class contradictions arise out of the inequalities or unfair sharing of the resources within
society or exploitation. This sharing is what can be termed political economy. Political
economy of any society therefore reveals the extent and level of exploitation in that
society and the level of dynamics or contradictions in that society. Historical and
dialectical materialism and political economy there for are the tools that can best be used
to analyze the past and present stage in global relations.
Each stage in the evolution of production and exchange has a specific class structure,
which determines relations in the society.

8.2 Stages in the development of Capital

Imperialism can be defined as, “the general tendency of states or groups within states to
exploit other states or groups through relations brought about by force or other subtle
means and to the detriment of the exploited group and the advantage of the dominant
group or state.” Such exploitation becomes manifestly visible through exchange and
production relationships.
Production and exchange have over time evolved through various stages and at each
stage the major feature has been the existence of dominance relationships that is an
exploited class and an exploiting class. At each stage imperialism can be seen to be
mutating or changing until it reaches its present and highest stage as International or
Global Capital. The stages through which capital has evolved are as follows;
1. the Hunter gatherer or communal stage
2. Feudalism
3. Mercantile capital
4. Competitive capital
5. Monopoly capital
6. Finance capital
Capital can be loosely defined as wealth in the form of land, finance or technology
depending on the stage of development of that society which at most is either scarce or
monopolized by a small group within a particular society.

While Capital and its monopolization can be traced to the Feudal mode of production or
stage, it can be seen that its nonexistence in the first mode of production namely the
hunter-gatherer stage, was due to the class nature of that society.



1. Non-existent Class contradictions Non- Free for all economic
Hunter Gather (4000 BC – existent Survival of the specialisation hunting and
1500 BC) fittest in a state of native gathering No ownership
gave rise to the need for
2. 1. Aristocracy Exploitation of slave labour Aristocracy owned means of
Slave Society (1500 BC to 2. Soldier e.t.c leading to rebellion against production land and workers-
500 AD) 3. Slaves and latter the ruling elite slaves non paid

3. 1. Aristocratic Exploitation of serfs led to Barter trade Natural economy.
Feudalism (500 AD to soldiers elite friction between serfs and Extraction of surplus through
1700AD) 2. Serfs=half slave landlords free labour and rent in
half worker kind=produce and latter
3. Clergy money. Land owned by
4. 1. Aristocracy Workers=Craftsmen Monopolisation of markets by
Mercantile Capital (1700 to 2. Merchants exploitation by Merchants merchants. Surplus value
1800) 3. Clergy and landlords. extracted through under paid
4. Craftsman Concentration of capital worker and high profit mark
5. Labourer/worker and formation of joint stock up on goods at home and
company led to abroad. Means of production
globalisation of trade and owned by merchants and land
slavery and colonialism owners=land + money
5. 1. Industrialist David Hume, Adam Smith Free trade based on
Competitive Capital 1800 to 2. Worker against merchant monopoly international division of
1900 3. Peasant/leman of capital and markets. labour. Exploitation of
Industrialists + bankers workers by industry.
exploit workers and Monopoly of machines
bankers=former merchants money and land
exploit industrialists

6. Monopoly Capital 1900 to 1. Bankers Worker’s labour under Extraction of surplus value
1945 2. Industrialists valued leading to acute through lending is paying for
3. Workers concentration of capital workers needs not for value
4. Peasants of labour. Monopoly
ownership of capital-land,
money and machines
7. Finance Capital 1945 to 1. Finance institutions Buyers determine prices Selling of Money Export of
present 2. Borrowers Money Monopoly ownership
Of Capital by banks

During the hunter-gatherer mode of production there was no society and no classes.
Extraction of surplus value or exploitation of one class by another class was not possible.
The situation was a free for all and this made life difficult on a state of nature. With the
development of Roman slave society classes developed as well as conflicts as well. The
landowners had slaves who resented being owned and forced to work. The colonii or
freed former slaves and peasants were also exploited by the landowners who made them
pay rent in kind or in cash. These conflicts eventually led to the collapse of the system
and it was replaced by Feudalism. Feudalism as a mode of production was based on a
highly stratified society where extraction of surplus value by those who owned and
monopolised the means of production was for long sustained through force. The serfs or
landless peasants were made to work and pay part of their produce to the landlords who
owned all the land. The major features of all successive modes of production develop at
this stage except the global element, which exists in the last stage or mode of production.
It is this global aspect namely the extraction of surplus value or exploitation from other
countries through the exportation or selling of finance capital that imperialism reaches its
highest and most developed stage.

8.4 Major elements of imperialism

The features that exist in all modes of production except the hunter gather modes are as
follows: -

1. Class formation or Societal stratification. This is along the lines of

a) those who own and monopolise the means of production and,
b) those who are exploited or from whom surplus value is extracted.

2. Class Antagonism or Conflict due to exploitation.

3. Collapse of the previous mode of production due to contradiction and;

4. Emergence of another mode of production with different classes and different

contradictions but with exploitation or surplus value extraction being the ever-
unchanging feature.

The current phase or mode of production that is the finance capital mode, is globalised in
that those who own and monopolise the means of production, have been able to mortgage
all economic activity in their home countries and abroad to money that these financial
institutions lend locally in export abroad. The result in the global economy has been
there for marked by:

a) Concentration/monopolisation of capital in global or multilateral financial


b) Formation of a class of super rich money owners who extract surplus value or
exploit the world economy through interest on money loaned through such banks
as the IMF the World Bank etc.

c) International division of labour. This has led to other countries being pushed into
being producers of raw materials while others have become producers of
manufactured goods. Producers of raw materials as a global class have
contradictions with those who monopolise finance capital and those who buy their
raw materials at cheap prices determined by the buyer who then manufactures
goods to sell to producers of raw materials. This is exploitation of man by man at
its highest level and is no different from exploitation by force under slavery or
colonialism hence the term neo-colonialism to describe the economic and political
relations between producers of finished goods the develop0ed countries and
producers of raw materials under developed countries or the third world.

8.5 International Economic Relations

The Second Word War marks the beginning point of the present global economic
arrangement. The idealism of the immediate post world war two period led to massive
government led initiatives to bring the shattered economy of the world back to its feet.

By 1979 however this role of government in economic activity was under attack and has
to a large extent been abandoned altogether. The social welfare state has become a thing
of the past and a new ideology emphasising the role of the market in determining all
economic as well as social and political decisions has been adopted.

In the current economic thinking, cooperation’s or business have total freedom and
collective bargaining and trade unionism and the consumer and citizen in general have
found themselves at the receiving end of the new international economic order. This new
international economic order had by the middle 1990s assumed a new form and
characteristic namely globalisation.

The IMF World Bank and oil Breton Woods financial institutions were formed for the
specific purpose of preventing future conflicts by dealing or removing those economic
and social issues that had led and that might lead to new war. The mandate of these
financial institutions was to provide lending for reconstruction and for short-term balance
of payment support. These institutions after 1979 have increasingly taken over individual
governments, economic policies and intervene in national policy will beyond the scope of
their mandate. The post 1945 period saw a massive realignment of global economic
relations with Europe being mortgaged to the U.S.A. under the Marshall Plan which saw
infusion of capital into Europe from the U.S.A. and newly created Breton Woods
financial institutions. The U.S.A. insisted on decolonisation as a condition of giving
financial support to Europe and declared the end to empire. Thus the U.S.A. gained the
empires that Europe lost through decolonisation as it gained unprecedented control of
former colonies through new economic relations specifically the supply of manufactured
goods and the provision of finance capital. Debt becomes the primary form of survival
technique for all former colonies and the supply of new materials from former colonies
was accelerated in order to raise money to pay off the debt. By the end of the 1970s the
so called debt crisis had developed with a new economic global structure which split the
world into producers of raw materials and importers of finance capital and finished goods
and producers of finished goods and exporters of finance capital. This relationship was
marked or characterised by a high level injustice in the form of unequal exchange. The
former colonies in America, Africa and Asia were selling raw materials with little value
added to them at prices set by the buyer that is the developed countries. The latter sell
manufactured goods to the developing countries at high profit margins and over and
above this drain of resources from the south servicing the loans obtained from the north
compounds or increases the flow of resources to the south.

Debt servicing, cheap raw

materials. Imports of finished NORTH
goods and services
Loans And
SOUTH Good Service

The flow of wealth from the South to the North through debt servicing and unequal
exchange is further increased with the insistence on structural adjustment programmes in
the south by the so called donor community that is western governments and the Breton

Woods financial institutions or the North. The catch word on economic structures
adjustment programmes forced on the South are similar to the free market economic
policies instituted on the domestic economics of the North which resulted in nett gains for
the super rich and nett loss for the average worker. Average income in the 1980s of the
top 10% of American families increased by 16%, “the top 5% increased by 23%, the top
1% got 50%. The bottom 10% of Americans lost 15% during the same period.” The
same policies during the same period applied to global policies saw an increase in nett
flows of income to the North and a decrease in income to the South with the result that
IMF policies have led to increased poverty in the South. These policies are what can be
termed globalisation and are hinged upon: -

a) free trade in goods and services between countries through the

removal of trade barriers.

b) free circulation of capital

c) freedom and protection of investments

d) reduction of government expenditure and government interference in the economy.

e) privatisation of parastatals
These points have become the conditionalities for receiving or disbursement
of aid by the North. The result in all instances was that the forced
privatisation saw corporations in the North buying up all privatised
companies in the South so privatised.

Closely related to these policies has been the creation of the UN – World
Trade Organisation (UN – WTO) in 1995. The liberalisation of world trade
under the current requirements is reducing developing countries to
primitive economies as industries close under pressure from unregulated
competition from the North.

The North in the meantime is not removing trade restrictions, which remain
in the form of quarters or strict health requirements in agricultural
products. Moreover subsidies maintained by both the U.S.A. and Europe on
agricultural production is seeing many countries in the South collapsing

9. International Division Of Labour

The global economic arrangement between the South and North has structural linkages,
which perpetuate the inequalities that exist in global economic relations. The North or
developed economies can thus be termed the centre of global economic activity and the
South or developing countries the periphery of economic activity at the international
level. These relations can be diagrammatically represented as follows: -


Periphery Periphery

Periphery Centre

Centre Centre Disharmony of

Periphery Centre Periphery

Harmony of interests
between periphery centre
and centre is the centre.

9.1 Centre Periphery Relations

The centre has those who own and run the economy and the governments. They also
have a periphery that is the workers and the unemployed. The same can be said of both.
The centre in the centre has to have harmony of interests with the centre in the periphery
because both these groups are the beneficiaries in the world economic arrangement. The
peripheries in both divisions have disharmony of interests with the centres because they
are the victims of the system. This relationship demonstrates why it is difficult for the
developing countries to get out of their current position because of the collaboration
between their political leadership with the leadership in the North. It also explains why
the North seeks to influence the selection of leaders in the South and talk about regime
change when they fail to control the electoral processes the South.

10. Development Strategies

In a world where there are structural linkages between the North and South that thrive on
the allocation of unequal roles based on historically and political derived positions
development in the South is only a myth.
It is not possible to envisage a situation where the North will allow economic conditions
in the South to develop to such a level or extent or to undermine the supply of their raw
material resources or the continued existence of markets for their goods. Development
has remained elusive in the South especially as long as the North subverts or influences
the political process in the South. Development refers to a situation where the majority
of the people have sufficient levels of literacy, access to education, food, shelter and
health care. Bustling metropolis are not proof of development. Highly segmented
society where a few people enjoy privileged economic advantages while the rest of the

population languish in squalor and poverty in illiteracy and in slums with no access to
health care are clear examples of endemic under development. This scenario is true for
many of Zimbabwe’s neighbours and especially when one compares the health education
and infrastructure in the region. Structural dependence linkages, which create, sustain
and perpetuate the existence of dual economics, are short-term gains that will in the long
term create catastrophic situations. Development approaches have to be long term in
nature and have to take cognisance of the realities in which nations exist as members of
the global community. It has already been demonstrated that former colonies are
structurally dependent and linked to the former colonies through new forms of linkages,
which prohibit development in this neo-colonial relationship.

The problem countries like Zimbabwe face is dependence which perpetuates the
traditional role and position of supplier of raw materials with the result of creating a dual
economy – an affluent metropolis and a poor peasantry. Development therefore can be
viewed from the following angles.

10.1 Interdependence

“This is inevitable in this heterogeneous planet: resources, including fertile land,

fresh water, deposits of minerals and sources of energy are dispersed unevenly
over its surface. In simpler times, populations were concentrated mainly in areas
of plentiful resources and especially those propitious for the growing of food.
Such societies could therefore become more or less self-sufficient and
international trade gradually developed mainly to provide exotic products, which
were initially, luxuries but which little by little improved the general material
standard of life. With the impact of technological development, a vastly greater
range of materials was required. The present industrialized economies, which
arose as a consequence of the industrial revolution, were initially based on local
deposits of coal and iron ore. but, as these economies became more sophisticated,
their industries called for a wide variety of materials, many of which had to be
imported from distant lands and this had many consequences including
colonization. Interdependence, then, became an important reality but was seldom
recognized politically.
Little by little, within this system human skills and knowledge (especially those of
science and technology) became the most important of all national resources and
we have now reached a situation in which successful and innovative economies
can be created”

10.2 Self Reliance

“Interdependence appears, therefore, to have become a central feature of the

contemporary world. However, it is inevitable that the most powerful of the
nations are the most capable of exploiting it to their own advantage; at least as
the’re short-term vision seems to indicate. Such a situation tends to make the rich
richer and the poor relatively poorer, increasing disharmony, which must in the
end imperil the rich as well as the poor. For the establishment of a stable world

order, therefore, interdependence has to be complemented by self-reliance, which
means, essentially, the capacity to manage interdependence. Without such a
capacity, interdependence can only mean dependence on the part of the many, a
continuing economic and technological colonialism, or just plain poverty.

There are many ingredients within the concept of self-reliance. It is necessary for
instance to have a stable and intelligent government, with partners who may be
well trained and able to command skills in negotiation with partners who may be
stronger. Likewise it is necessary to attain a national competence in science and
technology to provide a sound basis for industrialization and to ensure that
imported technologies are well chosen, intelligently assimilated and assist in
providing the skills which will make possible indigenous innovations and
development. It necessitates also a good level of education and training as well as
the acquisition of management capacities. Self-reliance is thus a very different
concept from that of self-sufficiency; it entails the building up of a capacity, both
institutional and in terms of human skills which enables a country to manage its
resources and affairs effectively so as to benefit to the maximum from
interdependence, rather than to be its passive victim”.

11. Regionalism

Economic and Political integration among Third World countries is normally on a

regional or sub-regional basis. Before taking the merits and demerits of such integration
it is necessary to define first what we mean or what is meant by “region” and
“integration”. The term region will be defined first and integration will be defined latter.
By region is meant:

- “an area of contiguous countries defined usually by geography or by a common

cultural heritage, shared political philosophy or mutual economic interest”.
- Such integration can be seen as falling under: -

i) “Multifunctional geographically comprehensive organisations such as the

Organisation of American States (O.A.S), the Organisation of Africa’s
Unity (O.AU) and the League of Arab States (LAS).

ii) Cooperative or integration-oriented and geographically limited (sub-

regional) organisations such as the European Economic Community
(EEC) and the Economic Community for West African States (ECOWAS).

iii) Technical or otherwise narrowly functional organisations such as the

Colombo plan for economic cooperative development.

iv) Economic Commissioners falling under the United Nations such as the
Economic Commission for Africa (ECA). Economic Commission for
Latin America (ECLA), Economic Commission for Western Asia

(ECWA), and the Economic Commission for South Asia and the Pacific

To these can be added in a sub global sense of regional integration regional bodies such
as the British Common Wealth, the Organisation of the Conference of Islamic States and
Africa-Caribbean and Pacific group that falls under the Lome Conventions 1 and 11.
These organisations usually double as loose association with political as well as
economic undertones. It is possible to make further extensions to include the ideological
divide, which form the End-West confrontation, but a broad assumption will be made that
developing countries do not fall under these groupings. The North-South dialogue can
also be seen as being trans regional.

The logic behind regionalism therefore is economics of scale in production and trade at
the economic level and shared cultural and social values at the political level. The
formation of regional organisation is therefore a logical imperative and answer to the
common problems facing mankind. When the UN was formed article 52(1) of the
Charter provided that:
“Nothing on the present Charter precludes the existence of regional arrangements or
agencies for dealing with such matters relating to the maintenance of international peace
and security as are appropriate for regional action provided that such arrangements or
agencies and their activities are consistent with the purposes and principles of the United
Student Exercise

Using the following table fill in the necessary information on or about the following
regional organisations, SADC, COMESA, ECOWAS, AU, SACU, EU.



Public International Organisation

Public International Organisation refers to multilateral institutions formed by states for

the purposes of facilitating inter stake cooperation in economic political social and
cultural issues. These organisations arise out of the need to regulate intercourse In
relations between states. The consul and diplomatic mission were the first examples of
formal institutions in relations between states. The existence of problems, which could
not be dealt with by or through the diplomatic mission, gave rise to the development of
the international conference consisting of representatives from various states. The
conference of Vienna (1815), The Paris conference of 1919 etc were ad-hoc conferences
of this nature, which discussed each unique problem as it arose. Associations and unions
had developed by the nineteenth century to replace the mechanism of the conferences.
These unions and associations were either private or public international organisations
such as the International Law Association and the Universal Postal Union respectively.
After World War 2 the idealism of the period resulted in the formation of the League of

Nations, which became the precursor to the United Nations. International Organisations
can be classified according to function as follows: -
a) Administrative organisations e.g. international Postal Union.
b) Political Organisation e.g. the UN.
c) Judicial Organisations e.g. the International court of justice.

Or classified according to extent or geographical space as follows: -

a) Global
b) Regional

Structure of the UN
General Assembly Secretariat Security Council

U.N.O Disarmament
UNILO Committee of
Committee No. 1
Political & Security IBRD Military Staff

Special Political
Committee IDA
Ad Hoc Bodies
Committee No. 2
Economic & Financial FAO International
Atomic Agency
Committee No. 3
Social Humanitarian WHO

Committee No. 4
Trusteeship Council ITU

Committee No. 5
Administrative & WIPO

Committee No. 6 IFAD


Student Exercise

Write in full the abbreviated names of the UN organs and state the functions of each

The UNWTO (United Nations World Trade Organisation)

The UNWTO was formed in 1995 as the successor organisation to the General
Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).


To enable states to agree among themselves to reduce and remove or eliminate

restrictions on trade. Of all UN organs the WTO has been cited as the most negative in
its operations for an example: -

1. Undermines democracy in the developing World.

2. Perpetuates underdevelopment by exposing weak economies to unfair
3. WTO regulates and promotes World trade through rules that undermine commerce
and industry in the developing nations etc.

Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs)

Non-governmental organisations have become a major feature in international relations

for two reasons: -

a) They are used directly and indirectly by their home states as front organisations.

b) Impact of their activities can be far reaching.

NGOs are formal organisations formed by private individuals for the specific purpose of
articulating concerns, raising awareness and lobbying governments for legislative or
other political action and soliciting for resources.

NGOs can be classified according to their area of concern or operations namely: -

a) Developmental NGOs

b) Advocacy NGOs

c) Relief NGOs

Developmental NGOs are involved in raising resources human or material for use in
alleviating poverty or suffering.

Advocacy NGOs raise awareness in an existing problem and lobby governments to take
specific action to deal with that type of problems. Relief NGOs solicit for financial and
material resources for use where natural disasters and earthquakes occur.

12. The Impact of NGOs’ Activity in Zimbabwe

Developmental NGOs have contributed substantially in the construction of infrastructure

in the rural areas in Zimbabwe. Plan International has together with the ministry of local
government been putting up shallow and deep wells. Other organisations have been
involved in the provision of equipment, construction of clinics and dams. The work of
these organisations while laudable in the short term has produced and fostered a culture
of dependence among Zimbabweans. People who receive these handouts have no sense
of ownership of the items donated and are not only reckless in the use of donated
equipment but abandon such equipment sooner rather than latter. Most wells have been
abandoned in the rural areas because the pumps have broken and no one has bothered to
repair them.

Advocacy NGOs have been the most prolific in Zimbabwe. These organisations have
raised awareness on such issues as women’s rights, the girl child, human rights
democracy and many other areas. These organisations have produced less positive
contribution than the other organisations. It is also these organisations that have been
used by western governments to subvert and undermine the democratic process in
Zimbabwe. These organisation have been highly disruptive of African or local culture
assuming western or foreign values to be superior over local culture.

Relief NGOs provide assistance such as food during droughts in Zimbabwe; such
assistance while it averts starvation in the short term has been extremely detrimental in
long-term food security in the country. Instead of coming up with solutions to recurring
drought, people in Zimbabwe look for external assistance. Adopting wrong grains for
food worsens drought effects. Local small grains like sorghum and millet have been safe
food security reserves in the past but the use of an exotic and foreign grain like maize not
suited to our climate has produced a crisis in food security. The overall picture or effect
is that NGOs have contributed more negatively than positively to Zimbabwe’s welfare.

Front organisations are organisations that are used as cover for some other purposes or
activity. These front organisations have been used to subvert the political process in
Zimbabwe. The Zimbabwe Democracy Trust is sponsored by white Rhodesians to create
an environment that undermines black interests and gains. MISA –Media Institute for
Southern Africa promotes, funds and where necessary encourages the creation of media
that is friendly to western interests. One of MISA’s subsidiaries, the Southern African
Media Development Fund has been active in promoting media hostile to the Zimbabwe
government. The U.S. Agency for International Aid, of a USA, government department,
funds more than fifteen NGOs in Zimbabwe with the specific objective of undermining
the Zimbabwe government. The US Aid subsidiary Office of Transition Initiatives is
funding a hostile and subversive radio station SW radio advocating political uprising in
Zimbabwe. The Communication Assistance Foundation of the Netherlands reportedly

seeks to “influence policy formulation” in Zimbabwe and supports activities of the
“Zimbabwe Civil Society”, that is, groups seeking to overthrow the Zimbabwean
government. The Westminster Foundation, a United Kingdom organisation has been
active in supporting all activities aimed at undermining the Zimbabwean government.

Media definition, roles and functions
Media can be defined as a channel through which one communicates. Mass media refers
to the channel through which one or a group of people communicates to a large audience.
It can be print, electronic or digital.
It plays 3 primary roles i.e entertains, educates and informs.
The media have become one of the central elements of modern societies with some
theorists calling it the FOURTH ESTATE or fourth arm of the state, whose primarily
function is to be a watchdog.

The media is the major ideological apparatus of any state. Nation states use the media to
maintain peace, order, national values, heritage as well as the sovereignty and territorial

Ideological state apparatus Repressive State Apparatus

Media police
Education army
Religion state security

The Rambai Makashinga jingle for instance successfully entrenched the spirit of
resilience in the hearts and minds of the ordinary Zimbabweans suffering from the
negative effects of successive droughts and sanctions on the economy.

19.1.1 The media and Identity

Identity: is simply our understanding of who we are. An individual may have multiple
identities & at times it leads to an identity crisis. By belonging to various communities
one can have multiple identities e.g. (A Dynamos Supporter, can be a Christian, a
Polytechnic Student, a Ndebele.)

However, every nation has to promote its own uniqueness and cultural diversity from
other nationalities and cultures. Nonetheless, the greatest threat to such cultural
preservation is the work of media products (cultural products) that transcend national and
geographic boundaries to cultivate western cultures to locals in what has come to be
known as cultural imperialism.Noteworthy is the glamorization of homosexuality in the
entertainment media with countries like Zimbabwe against such practices labeled as
Abusers of Human Rights.

Hence, in the best interests of the preservation of local culture & identity, nations should
fight against the global media influence which is increasingly defining the world for us.
Radio channels on short- wave frequency (which has the widest reach) such as Channel
Africa & Voice of Zimbabwe try to counter that influence and promote an Afro centric
ideology and give the true African view.

19.1.2 The Media: nation & nationalism

Nation- is a political community sharing cultural background and aspirations. The era of
national galas promoted a national togetherness and the use of national colors (eg
Zimbabwe Independence Silver Jubilee T-shirts & flags) in supporting national causes
even in sports, promotes nationalism. A more localized programming creates a national
ideology against foreign ones (eg the 75% local content policy in Zimbabwe, with some
Moslem states totally disregarding any foreign media content).

19.1 Freedom of Expression and self sensorship
Journalists the world over clamor for media freedom, as they claim it is one of the basic
requirements in any independent nation-state. The current Zimbabwean constitution
guarantees the freedom of Expression in section 20 (5). However, journalists have more
often than not abused their freedom of expression, leading to jeopardization of state
security at times and in other instances disturbing of peace and creating public
despondency through the writing of alarmist stories.

Understanding that media messages have economic, political, social, and aesthetic
purposes (e.g., to make money, to gain power or authority over others, to present ideas
about how people should think or behave, to experiment with different kinds of symbolic
forms or ideas) help us to understand why all governments provide relative and never
absolute freedom as this will inevitably lead to anarchy. The Oxford Concise dictionary
10th edition defines anarchy as the state of disorder due to lack of government control).
The media has influence on society as a whole (e.g., influence in shaping various
governmental, social, and cultural norms; influence on the democratic process; influence
on beliefs, lifestyles, and understanding of relationships and culture; how it shapes
viewer's perceptions of reality; the various consequences in society of ideas and images
in media)
The media has the ability to influence social and cultural issues (e.g., creating or
promoting causes: U.N. military action, election of political parties; use of media to
achieve governmental, societal, and cultural goals)
This is the reason why the Zimbabwean government enacted laws which makes it a
criminal offense to publish falsehoods, write anything that creates public alarm and
despondence or anything prejudicial to the state, president or his office. The government
of Zimbabwe also recently allowed for the self censorship of journalists through their self
appointed regulatory board known as the Voluntary Media Council. It is however
essential to note that the media framework cannot work in an unregulated fraternity.

19.2 Freedom of Association within the context of Media Freedom
The right to freedom of assembly and association in Zimbabwe is guaranteed under
Article 21 of
the Constitution of Zimbabwe. Commenting on this provision and Article 20 on freedom
of expression, in re Munhumeso &Ors, the Supreme Court of Zimbabwe emphasized
"the importance attaching to the exercise of the right to freedom of expression and
assembly must never be underestimated. They lie at the foundation of a democratic
society and are one of the basic conditions for its progress and for the development of
every man.”

These two essential provisions i.e freedom of expression and assembly have to be well
monitored and governed by the state in the best interests of public safety and public order
to an extent which is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

In Zimbabwe just like in Britain, any organization that intends to gather for whatever
reason has to seek police clearing for the maintenance of peace, order and tranquility.

19.4 Comparing the behavior of Zimbabwean media to that of other countries

United States has the largest number of media organizations in the world however the
media is owned and controlled by a few individuals. This makes the media environment
in the US to be plural (many newspapers & tv stations) but definitely not diverse(as all
the media organizations are singing from the same hymnbook).

Researchers at Sonoma State University in the US looked up the names of the 155 people
who served on the boards of directors of the eleven media companies that dominated the
U.S. media market.

Who are these 155 media elites-directors of the largest combined media news systems in
the world? They include men like: Frank Carlucci, who sits on the board of directors of
Westinghouse (CBS), and was former deputy director of the CIA and later Secretary of
Defense under President Bush. This doesn’t come as a surprise that the Bush

administration like any other government in the world desires to effectively control the
media so that it perpetrates its ideologies and policies.

The U.S. media has lost its diversity and its ability to present different points of view.
Instead, there is homogeneity of news stories and the major media tend to look alike.

The media in the U.S. has created, to use Neil Postman's words, the "best entertained,
least informed society in the world." Americans are ignorant about international affairs
and alienated from their own social issues.

19.5 Assess the role of the foreign media in shaping perceptions and influencing
political processes in modern politics
The ever widening reach of the global media has created a relatively unified international
view of the world. According to the Agenda Setting theory, “the media may not be
successful much of the time in telling people what to think, but it is stunningly successful
in telling its readers what to think about.” Bernard C Cohen (1963).

The seemingly plural global media has formed a cartel that owns newspapers, magazines,
book publishers, motion picture studios, radio and TV stations globally. Time Warner,
Walt Disney, News Corporation, Viacom and Bertelsmann control almost all global
media of influence and they are also under one controlling hand, hence all the news and
entertainment enjoyed the world over come from one controlling stake.

Realizing the power of the media in controlling the thinking of man, imperialists have
hijacked and manipulated the global media from its educative, informative and
entertaining role to being the major apparatus in the creation and perpetuation of the
Anglo-American hegemony agenda globally.
It therefore doesn’t come as a surprise that a successful land reform program may be
called “chaotic”, an economy under sanctions named “mismanaged and in meltdown”, a
homegrown legislation called “draconian”, by almost if not all of these media houses who
are perpetrating an ideology of their paymasters (He who pays the piper calls the tune).

Through their ill gotten wealth (slavery & colonialism, and other neo-colonial and
imperialist injustices they continue to commit) the imperialists promote their capitalist
system as the only hope for ailing developing economies so that through their set
financial institutions (IMF, World Bank) they continue to exploit the rich human and
natural resources of African economies.

Frantz Fanon noted that “the last battle of the colonised against the coloniser will often
be the fight of the colonised against each other”. The words are very linked to the
Zimbabwean scenario and relates to what other sections of the Zimbabwean media
community are doing to destroy Zimbabwe in the name of freedom of the media.

For example, the private media, which are usually anti-establishment, refer to the
sanctions that have led to the economic downturn and suffering of the ordinary
Zimbabweans as targeted and claim they are not affecting trade in the country. However,
the public media in Zimbabwe has always maintained that sanctions in Africa in general
and Zimbabwe in particular hurt masses not the government in power because there is no
middle class like in countries of Europe who can effect regime change.

19.6 The role of the media in modern welfare and trade.

The building and maintenance of public support is essential in modern warfare due to the
increasing politicization of warfare, where losses and gains are measured in political
rather than military terms. And if progress cannot be demonstrated during a war, then by
default one is assumed to be losing. Thus, the adage “the battle is not lost on the
battlefield but in the mind,” is very true.

This explains why the American war against terror is glamorized in Western media
though it has led to the indiscriminate killing thousands of innocent civilians which
include defenseless women and children in countries like Afghanistan and Iraq. War on
Terror has been interpreted as an assault on democracy and freedom by Islamic
fundamentalists and has been heavily criticized for the death of innocent souls the world
over though it is positively portrayed in the media.

The media onslaught against Zimbabwean policies is part of the Anglo American warfare
strategy that involves the control of the minds of people and the media support of any of
their policies though they may lead to untold suffering to other people. The third world
Pan- African states, like other developed states also use their indigenous media to counter
the global media positive coverage of Anglo-American policies.

With the growth of global media, the third world countries are creating less of their
culture and buying more of it from the media, hence the continued loss of African culture.
Thus, Africans in general, and Zimbabweans in particular should work together in the
fight against western ideals which are proclaimed in foreign media.


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