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Topic 4 TSL 3143

CONSIDERATIONS
IN DESIGNING CURRICULUM
LECTURER: YEE BEE
CHOO
IPGKTHO
CONSIDERATIONS
Needs Target Aims and
Objective Content
Analysis Group s
Learning Theories,
Material
Approaches and Personnel
Selection
Methods

Assessment
Monitoring and
and Constraints
Support
Evaluation
CONSIDERATIONS
1 2

Target group needs analysis on


3 4
their aims and objectives of
content with learning6 theories,
5
approaches and 7
methods. The
personnel 8
also needs material
9
selection, assessment 10
and
evaluation to monitor and
support but there are
constraints.
CONSIDERATIONS
• A curriculum is more than putting
together a set of academically required
subjects.
• Several things must be considered,
such as the learning needs of students;
the consensus of teachers and
administrators; the expectations of the
community; and current breakthroughs
in academic fields.
1. TARGET GROUP

Various
Learning
Individual Potential Multiple
Abilities Interests Styles or
Needs s Intelligences
Learning
Modes
2. NEEDS ANALYSIS
• According to Iwai et al. (1999), the term needs analysis
generally refers to the activities that are involved in
collecting information that will serve as the basis for
developing a curriculum that will meet the needs of a
particular group of students.
• The curriculum designers must be aware of the learners’
strengths and weaknesses.
• It examines what learners already know and what they
need to know (Nation & Macalister, 2010).
• Many scholars indicate that knowing about learners’
needs such as “their learning objectives, language
attitudes, expectations from the course” are necessary in
order to design an efficient curriculum (Brindley, 1984;
Nunan, 1988, Xenodohids, 2002, et Kayi, 2008).
2. NEEDS ANALYSIS
Steps of a needs analysis plan include:
1. Write objectives: What is it that you want to learn from
the needs analysis?
2. Select audience: Who is the target audience? Whose
needs are you measuring, and to whom will you give the
required information?
3. Collect data: How will you collect data that will tell you
what you need to know? Will you collect data directly
from the target audience or indirectly?
4. Select audience sample: How will you select a sample of
respondents who represent the target audience?
2. NEEDS ANALYSIS
Steps of a needs analysis plan include:
5. Choose an instrument: What instrument and techniques
will you
use to collect data?
6. Analyse data: How will you do with information that you
gain?
7. Follow up: What will you do with information that you
gain?
8. Make decision: What kind of decision is to be made from
the
information gained?
2. NEEDS ANALYSIS
Needs analysis is important to the development of a new
programme:
• The outcome of a needs analysis should be a list of goals
and objectives which is important to determine the
direction and target of the programme. For example,
before setting up a remedial programme in school, the
teacher should analyse the results from the summative
evaluation of students’ performance.
• The findings of the needs analysis will serve as the basis
for developing tests, materials, teaching activities,
evaluation strategies. For example, students are weak in
grammar, so the teacher needs to prepare more materials
and suitable tasks to address the problem identified.
2. NEEDS ANALYSIS
Needs analysis is important to the development of a new
programme:
• Re-evaluating the precision accuracy of the original
needs analysis is important because the feedback helps
to realign or improve existing practice in developing
curriculum. For example, before starting on a new
programme, the teacher should reflect on the
shortcomings of past practices so that those
shortcomings can be overcome.
3. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

• The aims of curriculum are the reasons


for undertaking the learning ‘journey’
• Aims and Learning Objectives –
• Aims are broad and all encompassing
• Objective/learning outcomes are specific,
behavioural, student- focussed
IPGM EDUCATION

Vision Mission To prepare world


Leading the class teachers who
Teacher are competent and
Education passionate through
dynamic teacher
Excellence development program
(Ministry of Education, p.131, 2012)
TESL TEACHER EDUCATION CURRICULUM
(PISMP)

To produce beginning teachers who


have knowledge, skills and values.

Develop the knowledge and skills of


teachers in line with the National
Philosophy of Education and the
National Education Policy towards the
realisation of Education Blueprint.
4. CONTENT

Relevant Appropriate Up-do-date

Valid Feasibility
5. LEARNING THEORIES, APPROACHES AND
METHODS
• Academic subject designs
Subject-centered • Discipline designs
Designs • Broad field designs
• Correlation designs
• Process designs
• child-centered
Learner-centered • Romantic/Radical Designs
Designs • Humanistic designs

• life-situation designs
Problem-centered • Core designs
Designs • Social problem designs
6. PERSONNEL

• Curriculum planners
• Teachers
• Technical staff
• Administrative staff
7. MATERIAL SELECTION
• Equipment including IT and AV equipment, models and
simulators, laboratory and clinical equipment, whiteboards, flip
charts.
• Finances - the course will require adequate funding to sustain
its activities.
• Books, journals and multimedia resources – lists of core
textbooks for each part of the course and other resources
including reference texts These should be supported by other
resources such as journals (printed and online) and multimedia
packages. The library will be the main support structure for
these resources but additional resources may also be delivered
through an Intranet or via departmental ‘libraries’.
• Teaching rooms, office space, social and study space
• Requirements for supervision and delivery of practical teaching
(practicum) – availability of schools, mentors, supervisors.
8. ASSESSMENT AND EVALUATION
• In designing the assessment methods that measure
students’ performance, the starting point should always
be the stated learning outcomes.
• Assessments must check that students have achieved
the learning outcomes in various contexts and thus that
the content has been covered.
• Evaluation is a system of feedback, providing information
to planners, teachers/trainers, students, parents and
decision-makers.
• Evaluation is a process involving ongoing activities
aimed at gathering timely information about the quality of
a programme.
9. MONITORING AND SUPPORT
• Student recruitment and selection processes.
• Teaching staff
• Training needs for teachers
• The teaching and learning process
• Assessment
• Regulations and procedures
• Availability of recommended books and journals and
other teaching materials
• Access to the library and other resources
• Performance standards
10. CONSTRAINTS

• Technological: ICT, lab, LCD, etc.


• Timing: Implementation, Readiness
• Duration: Length – lectures,
• Co-curriculum, practicum, internship,
etc
CONCLUSION
• Designing a curriculum involves the
interaction of several participants,
reaching beyond the academic wall to
impact the entire community.
• Without an effective curriculum,
students would not be able to
understand or meet the challenges of
society.
• A curriculum prepares an individual with
the knowledge to be successful,
confident and responsible citizen.
TUTORIAL 4

Task 1
• Conduct a background research on the
current Malaysian curriculum and
English Language syllabus.
• Based on your research, discuss the
influencing factors that shaped the
curriculum.
TUTORIAL 4

Task 2
• Read the following chapters from
Ornstein and Hunkins (2014):
Chapter 7 Curriculum Development (pg 181
– 220)
• Based on your readings, find the answers
for the focusing questions in the
beginning of the chapter. Present your
answers in class.