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THEME # 7 CHECKING STRESS CALCULATION OF THE WING

Lecture #20(14). Checking calculation of the cross section of the big aspect ratio
wing
Plan:
1. Main concepts of the reducing factor method
2. Sequence of calculation
3. Choice of reducing factors for initial approach

1. Main concepts of the reducing factor method

One of the most widespread and a reliable engineering method for calculation of
normal stress in a wing of the big aspect ratio is the reducing factors method. At
performance of checking calculation, it is necessary to take into account real geometrical
characteristics of the cross section and mechanical characteristics of materials. In the
structural mechanic - structural analysis the analytical model of a thin-walled bar is used
for calculation of the stresses in thin-walled elements. In this analytical model thus
hypotheses are accepted:
1) The one-plane law of distribution of strain (it is fair far from disturbance areas,
cutouts, a joint of a wing with a fuselage).
2) Principle Sen-Venana is fair. According to this principle stress on distance does
not depend from method of the load application.
3) It is considered that ribs are absolutely rigid in its plane and pliable from one.
4) It is considered that the physical law is linear law (Hook’s law   E ).
5) The skin works on shear, work of a skin on normal stress is taken into account
by connection of a skin part to stringers, and spars.
6) According to the one-plane law of distribution of deformation we can write
 z  ax  вy  c ,
where а, b, c – are unknown parameters which we should find from the following
equations of equilibrium:
 z  E z  aEx  bEy  cE - by the Hook’s law;

  z ydF  Mx ;

  z xdF  My ;

  z dF  Nz ;
here Мх, Му, Nz – are accordingly bending moments concerning axes x and y and
axial force in cross section.
From the decision of this system of the algebraic equations we find a, b, c. In the
main central axes we receive the equations for calculation of normal stress

Mx My N
z  y x z (1).
Ix Iy F

1
This equation is fair, if the physical law is linear, the section is homogeneous, axes
main and central. In this connection it is impossible directly to take of the equation (1)
for calculation of normal stress  z in a wing. Under ultimate loads the material is
deformed nonlinearly, some elements lose stability, the section can be non-uniform
(spars are from steel, and skin is from duralumin). For calculation of a real wing with use
of the analytical model of a thin-walled bar the theory of reduction (the original section is
replaced by some fictitious one for which physical law is linear and the section is
homogeneous) is offered.
Bases of the reduction theory are:
1. Geometry of the original and reduced cross section should be identical (it is
geometrical equivalence).
x0i= xri, y0i= yri, z0i= zri – for all elements of cross section.
2. Longitudinal efforts in elements of the original and reduced cross section should
be identical (it is static equivalence).
N0i = Nri
3. Deformations of elements of the original and reduced cross section should be
identical (it is cinematic equivalence).
0i =ri
If these conditions are executed, the problem may be decided.
From 2-nd condition follows
Noi  N ri , (2)
where Noi, Nri - are longitudinal efforts in an element of the original and reduced
section.
From here next follows
No   o f o   r f r  N r , (3)
where index 0 – means the original section; r - means the reduced section.

2. Sequence of calculation

The concept about factor of a reduction was earlier entered

 f
  o or   r . (4)
r fo
If the factors of reduction are known, it is possible to find the areas of elements of
the reduced section. After this it is possible to find out position of the main central axes,
the axial moments of inertia, normal stress in the reduced section and by the diagram of
deformation from a condition of equality of deformations o=r to estimate the valid
stress.
Sequence of calculation for section of a wing on a method of reduced factors is next.
1) It is necessary to plot stress strain diagrams for all force elements of a wing, to
choice the fictitious physical law - FPL. FPL – is the linear law of deformation for the
homogeneous reduced section.
2) It is necessary to estimate reduction factors for initial approach and the effective
areas accepted in calculation.

2
ut spar

FPL
stringer

strcr

skin
skcr
ut

3) It is necessary to compute reduced areas for all elements

f rs  f es φ s ;
f rst  f est  st ;
f rsk  f esk  sk ; (5)
f rst  sk  f rst  f rsk ,
here s, st, sk -are reduction factors for spars, stringers and skin, frs, frst, frsk, frst+sk –
are reduced areas for spars and stringers with joined skin, fes, fest, fesk – are effective
areas of spars, stringers and skin.
4) It is necessary to calculate position of the central axes (those formulas are
from mechanic of materials):
y сg 
 f ri y i ;
 f ri
x cg 
 f ri x i (6)
 f ri

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Y
Y
CG
X

Xcg X
Ycg

Coordinates of elements in the central axes are equal:

x i  x i  x сg ; (7)
y i  y i  ycg .
The inertia moments for the reduced section will make (from mechanic of
materials):
k
I rx   f ri y i 2 ;
i 1
k
I ry   f ri x i 2 , (8)
i 1
k
I rxy   f ri x i y i .
i 1
5. Let's calculate the position of the main central axes. The angle of turn for the
central axes to position main central axes we shall find from the parity (from mechanic of
materials):
2 I rxy
tg 2  (9)
I ry  I rx

Fig. 3. The main central axes

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Coordinates of elements in the main central axes we shall find so (from mechanic
of materials):
U i  x i cos   y i sin  ; (10)
Vi  y i cos   x i sin 
6. The axial moments of inertia for the reduced section are equal relative of the
main central axes (from mechanic of materials):
k
I ru   f riVi 2 ; (11)
i 1
k
I rv   f riU i 2 .
i 1
7. Projections of bending moments to the main central axes are equal (from
theoretical mechanic):
M u  M x cos   M y sin  ; (12)
M v  M y cos   M x sin 

Fig. 4

8. Next step is the calculation of reduced stress from structural mechanic):

M M
 ri  u Vi  v U i (13)
I ru I rv
9. Next step is the determination of the actual stresses in elements of section. It is
spent under the diagram of deformation from a condition of equality of element
deformations for the effective and reduced section (fig. 5).
10. After we must calculate reduction factors for each element from cross section
for the following approach:
 ai
 i 1  . (14)
 ri
11. Let's execute comparison, if
 i 1   i
 , (15)
 i 1
That calculation is finished and we determined actual stresses if maximal value

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  . If the error is exceeded this value we must again considered the
reduced areas and carried out next iteration. Usually it is accepted  = .
12. The excess strength factor  is calculated after finishing of iterative process for
calculation of normal stress:
 ut  dir
  in the tension zone;
a a

  cr in the compressed zone.
a

ut spar
asp

r FPL
stringer
ast
strcr
skin
skcr
ut

r=a

The reducing factor method converges irrespective of choice of reducing factors

for initial approach, but their correct successful choice decreases the necessary number of
iterations, i.e. time of the account.
So we must keep in mind next factors.
1. In calculation on ultimate loads when stress in the strongest elements of wing in
a spar should be neighbor to stress of ultimate tension, therefore the fictitious physical
law expediently carries out through ut (fig. 5).
Calculation should be carried out separately for the tension and compressed zone.
The effective area is area which works with actual stress and accounts holes,
instability, lag of stress.

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The tension zone The compressed zone
1. Reducing factors are equal
 utsp  utsp
 sp  1  sp  1
 utsp  utsp
  crst
 st  utst  st 
 uts  uts
 sk   st  sk   st
2. The effective areas are accepted in calculation
f esp  f 0 s k 2 sp  tk 2 sp k 3 sp f esp  f 0 sp  2 c sp
f est  f 0 st k 2 f est  f 0 st
f esk  tk 3 k 2 f esk  2 c
f est  sk  f 0 st k 2  tk 3 k 2 st f est  sk  f 0 st  2 c
3. The reduced areas of elements are equal:
f rsp  f esp‘s p f rs  f esp
f rst  sk  f est  sk”  st f rst  sk  f est  sk  st
 utsk 
where  sp  ,  st  utsk , factor k2 – is empirical factor which accounts
 utsp  utst
holes, k3 - is factor which accounts lag of stress.
At limit loads a stress in elements of a structure should not exceed a limit of
proportionality. At calculation on directive stress the actual stress in a structure also are
neighbor to a limit of proportionality. Therefore calculation in these cases is expedient to
carry out on a linear site of the diagram of spar deformation.
In this case we have:
 E  E
 st  st  st a  st ; (16)
 r Er r E s
 sk   st .
Calculation of the effective areas is spent as well as in the first variant. If as a
result of the first iteration of a stress in an element will not exceed a limit of
proportionality, calculation is finished i.e. in this case first iteration is enough.
Calculations carry by tabulated way.

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FPL

Spar

Stringer
crst

crsk