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0 (de) vizualizări8 paginiComprobación del calculo de la cargas e del ala de gran alargamiento

Mar 03, 2019

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Comprobación del calculo de la cargas e del ala de gran alargamiento

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Comprobación del calculo de la cargas e del ala de gran alargamiento

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Lecture #20(14). Checking calculation of the cross section of the big aspect ratio

wing

Plan:

1. Main concepts of the reducing factor method

2. Sequence of calculation

3. Choice of reducing factors for initial approach

One of the most widespread and a reliable engineering method for calculation of

normal stress in a wing of the big aspect ratio is the reducing factors method. At

performance of checking calculation, it is necessary to take into account real geometrical

characteristics of the cross section and mechanical characteristics of materials. In the

structural mechanic - structural analysis the analytical model of a thin-walled bar is used

for calculation of the stresses in thin-walled elements. In this analytical model thus

hypotheses are accepted:

1) The one-plane law of distribution of strain (it is fair far from disturbance areas,

cutouts, a joint of a wing with a fuselage).

2) Principle Sen-Venana is fair. According to this principle stress on distance does

not depend from method of the load application.

3) It is considered that ribs are absolutely rigid in its plane and pliable from one.

4) It is considered that the physical law is linear law (Hook’s law E ).

5) The skin works on shear, work of a skin on normal stress is taken into account

by connection of a skin part to stringers, and spars.

6) According to the one-plane law of distribution of deformation we can write

z ax вy c ,

where а, b, c – are unknown parameters which we should find from the following

equations of equilibrium:

z E z aEx bEy cE - by the Hook’s law;

z ydF Mx ;

z xdF My ;

z dF Nz ;

here Мх, Му, Nz – are accordingly bending moments concerning axes x and y and

axial force in cross section.

From the decision of this system of the algebraic equations we find a, b, c. In the

main central axes we receive the equations for calculation of normal stress

Mx My N

z y x z (1).

Ix Iy F

1

This equation is fair, if the physical law is linear, the section is homogeneous, axes

main and central. In this connection it is impossible directly to take of the equation (1)

for calculation of normal stress z in a wing. Under ultimate loads the material is

deformed nonlinearly, some elements lose stability, the section can be non-uniform

(spars are from steel, and skin is from duralumin). For calculation of a real wing with use

of the analytical model of a thin-walled bar the theory of reduction (the original section is

replaced by some fictitious one for which physical law is linear and the section is

homogeneous) is offered.

Bases of the reduction theory are:

1. Geometry of the original and reduced cross section should be identical (it is

geometrical equivalence).

x0i= xri, y0i= yri, z0i= zri – for all elements of cross section.

2. Longitudinal efforts in elements of the original and reduced cross section should

be identical (it is static equivalence).

N0i = Nri

3. Deformations of elements of the original and reduced cross section should be

identical (it is cinematic equivalence).

0i =ri

If these conditions are executed, the problem may be decided.

From 2-nd condition follows

Noi N ri , (2)

where Noi, Nri - are longitudinal efforts in an element of the original and reduced

section.

From here next follows

No o f o r f r N r , (3)

where index 0 – means the original section; r - means the reduced section.

2. Sequence of calculation

f

o or r . (4)

r fo

If the factors of reduction are known, it is possible to find the areas of elements of

the reduced section. After this it is possible to find out position of the main central axes,

the axial moments of inertia, normal stress in the reduced section and by the diagram of

deformation from a condition of equality of deformations o=r to estimate the valid

stress.

Sequence of calculation for section of a wing on a method of reduced factors is next.

1) It is necessary to plot stress strain diagrams for all force elements of a wing, to

choice the fictitious physical law - FPL. FPL – is the linear law of deformation for the

homogeneous reduced section.

2) It is necessary to estimate reduction factors for initial approach and the effective

areas accepted in calculation.

2

ut spar

FPL

stringer

strcr

skin

skcr

ut

f rs f es φ s ;

f rst f est st ;

f rsk f esk sk ; (5)

f rst sk f rst f rsk ,

here s, st, sk -are reduction factors for spars, stringers and skin, frs, frst, frsk, frst+sk –

are reduced areas for spars and stringers with joined skin, fes, fest, fesk – are effective

areas of spars, stringers and skin.

4) It is necessary to calculate position of the central axes (those formulas are

from mechanic of materials):

y сg

f ri y i ;

f ri

x cg

f ri x i (6)

f ri

3

Y

Y

CG

X

Xcg X

Ycg

x i x i x сg ; (7)

y i y i ycg .

The inertia moments for the reduced section will make (from mechanic of

materials):

k

I rx f ri y i 2 ;

i 1

k

I ry f ri x i 2 , (8)

i 1

k

I rxy f ri x i y i .

i 1

5. Let's calculate the position of the main central axes. The angle of turn for the

central axes to position main central axes we shall find from the parity (from mechanic of

materials):

2 I rxy

tg 2 (9)

I ry I rx

4

Coordinates of elements in the main central axes we shall find so (from mechanic

of materials):

U i x i cos y i sin ; (10)

Vi y i cos x i sin

6. The axial moments of inertia for the reduced section are equal relative of the

main central axes (from mechanic of materials):

k

I ru f riVi 2 ; (11)

i 1

k

I rv f riU i 2 .

i 1

7. Projections of bending moments to the main central axes are equal (from

theoretical mechanic):

M u M x cos M y sin ; (12)

M v M y cos M x sin

Fig. 4

M M

ri u Vi v U i (13)

I ru I rv

9. Next step is the determination of the actual stresses in elements of section. It is

spent under the diagram of deformation from a condition of equality of element

deformations for the effective and reduced section (fig. 5).

10. After we must calculate reduction factors for each element from cross section

for the following approach:

ai

i 1 . (14)

ri

11. Let's execute comparison, if

i 1 i

, (15)

i 1

That calculation is finished and we determined actual stresses if maximal value

5

. If the error is exceeded this value we must again considered the

reduced areas and carried out next iteration. Usually it is accepted = .

12. The excess strength factor is calculated after finishing of iterative process for

calculation of normal stress:

ut dir

in the tension zone;

a a

cr in the compressed zone.

a

ut spar

asp

r FPL

stringer

ast

strcr

ask

skin

skcr

ut

r=a

for initial approach, but their correct successful choice decreases the necessary number of

iterations, i.e. time of the account.

So we must keep in mind next factors.

1. In calculation on ultimate loads when stress in the strongest elements of wing in

a spar should be neighbor to stress of ultimate tension, therefore the fictitious physical

law expediently carries out through ut (fig. 5).

Calculation should be carried out separately for the tension and compressed zone.

The effective area is area which works with actual stress and accounts holes,

instability, lag of stress.

6

The tension zone The compressed zone

1. Reducing factors are equal

utsp utsp

sp 1 sp 1

utsp utsp

crst

st utst st

uts uts

sk st sk st

2. The effective areas are accepted in calculation

f esp f 0 s k 2 sp tk 2 sp k 3 sp f esp f 0 sp 2 c sp

f est f 0 st k 2 f est f 0 st

f esk tk 3 k 2 f esk 2 c

f est sk f 0 st k 2 tk 3 k 2 st f est sk f 0 st 2 c

3. The reduced areas of elements are equal:

f rsp f esp‘s p f rs f esp

f rst sk f est sk” st f rst sk f est sk st

utsk

where sp , st utsk , factor k2 – is empirical factor which accounts

utsp utst

holes, k3 - is factor which accounts lag of stress.

At limit loads a stress in elements of a structure should not exceed a limit of

proportionality. At calculation on directive stress the actual stress in a structure also are

neighbor to a limit of proportionality. Therefore calculation in these cases is expedient to

carry out on a linear site of the diagram of spar deformation.

In this case we have:

E E

st st st a st ; (16)

r Er r E s

sk st .

Calculation of the effective areas is spent as well as in the first variant. If as a

result of the first iteration of a stress in an element will not exceed a limit of

proportionality, calculation is finished i.e. in this case first iteration is enough.

Calculations carry by tabulated way.

7

FPL

Spar

Stringer

crst

crsk

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