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Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

Journal of Environmental Management


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jenvman

Review

Recycling of marble waste: A review based on strength of concrete T


containing marble waste
Esra Tugrul Tunc
Firat University, Engineering Faculty, Civil Engineering Department, 23100, Elazig, Turkey

A R T I C LE I N FO A B S T R A C T

Keywords: It is necessary to prioritize recycling applications to contribute to the marble industry, ecology, and economy. In
Recycling the current study, it is seen that the waste marble is used extensively in concrete instead of aggregate and
Waste marble cement. Thus, the aim involved minimizing the harmful effects of waste marble on the environment.
Aggregate Furthermore, the effects of waste marble on the strength of concrete were investigated. Recycling options for
Concrete
waste marble were explored in detail based on a review of previous studies. The results indicated that the use of
Strength
waste marble in concrete in certain rates was adequate to replace the coarse/fine aggregate, cement, and ad-
mixture material and that the resulting concrete exhibited higher strength. Additionally, in the current study,
practical equations were developed to calculate the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength in con-
crete that contains waste marble. A fairly good fit was obtained between the calculated and measured values for
both compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. The scientific value of the study was illustrated via a
demonstration that indicated that the use of waste marble in concrete production was beneficial and provided
useful equations to determine the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of concrete without ex-
perimentation.

1. Introduction absence of appropriate measures.


There is a continuous increase in the studies on waste management
Recently, increasing material consumption due to industrial growth both in Turkey and worldwide. The marble industry is a growth sector,
led to the rapid depletion of natural resources including energy and raw and thus, waste marble is an important factor that increases pollution in
materials. Additionally, a significant amount of waste emerges with nature. It is considered that use of the raw material that cannot be
increases in the production, and the waste negatively impacts the en- stored in industries provides enormous environmental and economic
vironment. Several international organizations and countries focused benefits. Uysal and Yılmaz (2011) observed the 28-day cost analysis of
on examining the recycling of waste to minimize the negative effects. A classic concrete as US$0.58/MPa/m3 while they determined the cost
literature review demonstrates that it is necessary to increase the analysis as corresponding to US$0.52/MPa/m3, US$0.48/MPa/m3, and
number of studies on waste marble to obtain eco-efficient, eco-friendly, US$0.47/MPa/m3 for samples containing 10%, 20%, and 30% marble
and workable material. powder, respectively. Thus, the results indicated that concrete that
Especially in recent years, the use of marble in the buildings has contains waste marble is approximately 15% cheaper when compared
increased. Thus, as the production in the marble factories increased, the to conventional concrete.
amount of waste could not be stored. By using these by-products that Rizzo et al. (2008) proposed alternative solutions to prevent
cannot be stored in other sectors, economic gain can be achieved and groundwater contamination and reduced soil productivity due to
environmental pollution can be prevented (Demirel and Alyamaç, marble slag waste in Sicily. They investigated the marble slag with X-
2018). ray refraction and simultaneous thermal analyses. In the study, they
Waste exhibits a significant negative effect on air, water, vegetation, stated that marble slag can negatively affect the environment due to its
animals, human health, and living conditions. Globally, it is expected high chemical content. Thus, they concluded that it is necessary to
that 12 billion tons of waste production in 2002 (wherein 11 billion recycle the wastes.
tons corresponded to industrial waste) will reach 25 billion tons in 2025 A literature review by Arel (2016) examined studies that focused on
(Yoshizawa et al., 2004; Pappu et al., 2007). It is evident that the in- the use of waste marble to replace cement and aggregate in concrete
crease will pose a tremendous threat to the environmental health in the production. Recycling of waste marble as opposed to aggregate in

E-mail address: esratugrul@firat.edu.tr.

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.10.034
Received 24 May 2018; Received in revised form 24 September 2018; Accepted 9 October 2018
Available online 16 October 2018
0301-4797/ © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

concrete increased the compressive strength. The measurements in- as natural aggregate in concrete production. For experimental research,
dicated that the use of waste marble as opposed to coarse aggregate three series of concrete mix were obtained by aggregate gravel and sand
improved the workability. However, the workability was reduced by quantity variations. Specifically, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% marble
replacing the fine aggregate with waste marble. Furthermore, the use of aggregate were used in the mixtures. The results revealed that the waste
waste marble powder in concrete resulted in a 12% reduction in CO2 marble aggregate exhibited positive strength (especially up to 75%
emissions and a decrease in the concrete cost from $40/m3 to $33/m3. replacement).
Recently, a new method, called “paste replacement method” was Soykan and Özel (2012) examined the recycling of waste marble as
proposed by some researchers. In this method, the waste marble is an aggregate in polymer concrete technology. Different sizes of waste
added to replace cement paste (water + cement) without changing the marble powder were mixed with polyester-based resin (PolyPol 314
water to cement ratio. By using this method, it is proved that the dur- filler-type polyester) to produce 7-series polymer concrete. Physical-
ability and dimensional stability of mortar can be significantly im- mechanical analyses were performed on the samples. The effect of
proved and at the same time, the cement content can be reduced by up marble powder particle size on polymer concrete properties was in-
to 33% (Li et al., 2018). vestigated. The highest physical and mechanical properties were ob-
Previous studies indicated that on average 30–40% of the processed tained with the samples that were produced with waste marble in the
marble in factories corresponds to production waste (Alyamac and 0.075–0.150 mm grain size as the phase material.
Tugrul, 2014). The utilization of the aforementioned potential in the Uygunoglu et al. (2012) used waste marble, waste concrete, crushed
industry provides significant returns for the national economy. Al- sandstone, and fly ash as aggregate replacement in precast concrete
though previous studies focus on recycling of waste marble powder in blocks. The study findings suggested that the most suitable waste cor-
the industry, there is a paucity of studies on the recycling of waste responded to waste marble aggregate due to its positive impact on
marble and especially that produced during the extraction of blocks in mechanical characteristics such as compressive strength and splitting
the quarries. Waste marble is used in plastic industry, paper industry, tensile strength.
agriculture and fertilizer industry, glass industry, chemical industry, A study by Omar et al. (2012) that investigated the use of limestone
and construction industry (Alyamac and Ince, 2009; Tugrul, 2017). waster to replace fine aggregate used in concrete utilized waste marble
Given that the annual average amount of produced waste marble is powder as an additive. Furthermore, 5%, 10%, and 15% waste marble
1 million tons (Uygunoglu et al., 2012), countries including Italy and powder was added to concrete mixtures prepared by replacing sand
Turkey were forced to limit marble production due to the damages with limestone waste at rates of 25%, 50%, and 75%. In order to de-
caused by the excess waste. Hence, it is necessary to determine an termine fresh and hardened concrete characteristics, flexural strength,
optimal method to utilize the ever-increasing waste marble stocks. compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, elasticity modulus, and
Fig. 1 shows images of waste marble that are detected in different re- permeability tests were conducted. Findings suggested that the use of
gions in Turkey and cause environmental pollution. limestone as a fine aggregate increased fresh concrete slump while the
The aim of the present study involves demonstrating that the utili- unit weight concrete did not change. The results indicated that the
zation of waste marble in concrete production and other related areas is performance of the concrete improved after the addition of marble dust
appropriate in terms of both preventing environmental pollution and to the concrete mix.
improving the properties of concrete. It is considered that the current Ural et al. (2014) examined the utilization of waste marble to re-
study contributes to the marble industry, environment, human health, place fine aggregate in concrete. The physical, mechanical, and physi-
and economy. In this context, the current literature on the topic was cochemical properties of clayey soil that contained marble powder were
reviewed and presented in full detail in the present study. Furthermore, determined. Based on the test results, a certain level of improvement
it is considered that realistic formulae obtained to calculate the com- was observed in the clayey soil behavior. Thus, it was stated that waste
pressive strength and splitting tensile strength in the present study fa- marble can be used as fill material as opposed to fine aggregate in
cilitate the determination of the concrete strength without conducting concrete production. In the study, they indicated that the optimum
any tests. waste marble ratio that can be used to replace fine aggregate corre-
sponded to 5%.
2. Discourse analysis: waste marble management options Mishra et al. (2013) utilized the effect of the use of marble slag
powder (as opposed to natural sand) in concrete on the compressive
In this section, areas of waste marble powder use and recycling strength and microstructure of cement mixes. The results indicated that
options were assessed, and a comprehensive literature review (the the strength also increased when the marble powder content increased.
studies after 2010) was conducted. Based on the literature review, Silva et al. (2013) examined the mechanical characteristics of fresh
studies conducted in various fields in which the waste marble is utilized and hardened concrete that contained fine aggregate at different ratios.
were presented in brief and in detail. The waste marble produced in the stone quarry industry replaced the
aggregate at the rates of 0%, 20%, 50%, and 100%. Improvements in
the mechanical characteristics of the concrete were observed in re-
2.1. Recycling of waste marble to replace aggregate in concrete
placements of up to 60% for the existing ratios. Thus, the results con-
cluded that it was adequate to use the waste obtained from marble
Corinaldesi et al. (2010) investigated the properties of marble dust
quarries in concrete production and especially up to 60%.
used in concrete and mortar. The results indicated that marble powder
Alyamac and Tugrul (2014) observed that it is possible to obtain
used to replace sand by 10% exhibited the maximum strength. It was
durable, aesthetic, and eco-friendly concrete by using marble dust and
also observed that the use of marble powder as a fill material at early
broken marble fragments as opposed to aggregates in concrete pro-
ages exhibited a positive effect.
duction.
Hebhoub et al. (2011) investigated the availability of waste marble
Kelestemur et al. (2014) observed the influence of glass fiber and
marble powder on cement mortars exposed to high temperatures. The
effects of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 50% (by volume) of marble powder that
replaced sand on the mechanical characteristics of concrete were in-
vestigated by considering temperature.
Gameiro et al. (2014) used waste obtained in marble quarries to
replace aggregate at the rates of 0%, 20%, 50%, and 100%. They
Fig. 1. Waste marble in the nature. conducted certain tests to characterize fresh and hardened concrete

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aggregates. The added marble aggregate positively affected water ab- A study by Uysal (2012b) investigated the effects of the use of
sorption. The results indicated that the general characteristics of con- marble, basalt, and limestone dust on the characteristics of SCC pro-
crete obtained with marble aggregates as opposed to fine aggregates duced with filler additives under high temperatures. Uysal et al. (2012)
(especially in the range of 50–100%) exhibited better performance. used certain rates of fly ash, limestone powder, basalt powder, blast
Singh et al. (2017a) provides an overview of the studies performed furnace slag, and marble powder to replace cement to determine fresh
on the partial replacement waste marble dust with cement and sand in and hardened characteristics of SCC. The conclusions suggested that the
concrete. highest compressive strength was observed in mixes that contained
Khyaliya et al. (2017) concluded that waste marble in mortar mix- 10% marble.
tures can be safely used up to 50% as opposed to river sand. However, Haddadou et al. (2015) investigated the effect of marble dust on
Kabeer and Vyas (2018) stated that 20% of waste marble dust is sui- fresh and hardened SCC. They used three different sizes of steel fiber in
table as opposed to river sand in concrete mortar. conjunction with marble powder. The results indicated that the addi-
Ashish (2018) used waste marble dust as opposed to cement and tion of marble powder increased the ultrasonic impact velocity, com-
aggregate, and optimum results were obtained by using 20% marble pressive strength, bending strength and splitting tensile strength in-
dust as opposed to 10% fine aggregate and 10% cement. creased. The results suggested that use of 30-mm fibers at a rate of 8%
exhibited a better strength performance.
2.2. Recycling of waste marble in self-compacting concrete
2.3. Recycling of waste marble to replace cement in concrete
Uysal and Yılmaz (2011) examined the effects of marble dust, basalt
powder, and limestone powder on fresh and hardened self-compacting Aruntas et al. (2010) examined the effect of waste marble dust used
concrete (SCC). Elasticity modulus tests are conducted to observe the as an additive in composite concrete production on concrete properties.
fresh and hardened characteristics of concrete; L volume, air content, The influence of waste marble powder that replaced cement at the rates
unit volume weight, compressive strength, and ultrasound velocity. The of 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% by weight on the mechanical, physical,
highest compressive strength was obtained with SCC that contained and chemical properties of type CEM I and CEM II cement samples was
marble powder while different performances were observed with all investigated in the study. These samples were also compared with
mineral additions. Furthermore, the highest static modulus of elasticity control samples and waste marble dust added cements. The findings
was determined in SCC with 20% waste marble, and the highest dy- were consistent with EN 197-1 standard, and the results indicated that
namic elasticity modulus was determined in SCC with 10% waste 10% marble dust added mortars can be used safely in cement produc-
marble. tion.
Valdez et al. (2011) examined the use of industrial waste marble as Corinaldesi et al. (2010) investigated the use of marble dust as
a filler in SCC production. The fresh and hardened characteristics of opposed to cement in concrete and mortar with and without additives.
SCC were evaluated when waste material replaced cement by 30% in They compared the mechanical properties of several different mortar
the study. In the study, examination of mixes that contained limestone mixes by considering the effect of the marble powder. The sand to ce-
and marble powder at the same rate exhibited improvement in self- ment ratio for all mixes corresponded to 3:1. In the Corinaldesi et al.
compacting mortars. (2010)'s study, maximum compressive strength was obtained by using
Uysal and Sumer (2011) evaluated the sulfate resistance, density, 10% marble powder instead of cement in concrete.
ultrasound velocity, compressive strength, and workability properties Ergun (2011) investigated the partial use of waste marble dust and
of SCC. Thus, various rates of marble powder, basalt powder, granu- diatomite to replace cement in concrete mixes in detail. w/c ratio was
lated blast furnace slag, limestone powder, and fly ash were used as taken between 0.50 and 0.63. In order to solve economic and en-
opposed to cement in concrete. They produced a total of 16 different vironmental problems, the aim of the study involved determining the
mixes by using mineral additions wherein one corresponded to the optimum ratio by using marble powder and diatomite separately and
control sample. The results determined that the compressive strength collectively to replace cement. The compressive and bending strengths
and workability properties of SCC mixes with additives generally in- of concrete were measured within 7, 28, and 90 days. The results in-
creased. dicated that concrete samples that contained 10% diatomite and 5%
Hameed et al. (2012) examined the impact and permeability of the waste marble dust exhibited optimal compression and bending strength
use of crushed rock dust and marble dust in SCC. Water absorption, values.
permeability, fast chloride penetration, compressive strength, and ul- Sheike et al. (2012) examined the effect of marble dust use in cer-
trasonic velocity tests were performed to compare the values obtained tain ratios as opposed to cement on concrete strength. The objective of
with the conventional concrete. Thus, the addition of up to 15% waste the study by Sheike et al. (2012) involved determining silica fume and
marble was determined as adequate for SCC. waste marble powder rates that rendered the maximum concrete
Belaidi et al. (2012) evaluated the effect of marble dust and natural strength. The experimental study was conducted with 150-mm cube
pozzolana in SCC. The fresh concrete properties of SCC were de- and 150 × 300 mm cylinder samples. The test results suggested that 7
termined by using the slump test, J ring, L-box, V-cone flow time, and and 28 days optimum compressive strengths for both the cylinder and
sieve segregation tests. The hardened concrete properties of SCC were the cube samples were obtained with 8% marble powder and 8% silica
determined via the compressive strength test. The results indicated that fume addition as opposed to cement.
5%–30% use of marble powder improved the characteristics of the Gencel et al. (2012) used waste marble in samples prepared with
concrete. two different cement types in the concrete parquet blocks. The effect of
Gesoğlu et al. (2012) experimentally examined the utilization of waste marble dust on the physical and mechanical characteristics of the
limestone and marble powder in the SCC. said concrete blocks was examined in the study. Uniaxial compressive
Uysal (2012a) investigated the effect of coarse aggregate on fresh strength, tensile, and bending strengths were determined based on
and hardened SCC. In the study, basalt, dolomite, limestone, marble, ASTM, TSE, and BS standards. The results indicated that cement blocks
and sand were used as the aggregate. Machinability, abrasion, com- containing marble aggregate exhibited higher freeze-thaw resistance
pressive strength, elasticity modulus, and ultrasonic velocity tests were when compared to that of control blocks. Based on the study findings,
conducted. Highest compressive strength was measured via the utili- pavements with waste marble content were considered to exhibit ade-
zation of basalt aggregates. However, the results revealed that the use quate quality.
of marble powder increased the compressive strength at a rate that In a study by Soliman (2013), the effect of marble powder on re-
should not be underestimated. inforced concrete floors was investigated. The results indicated that the

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use of marble powder as opposed to cement increased workability as waste marble powder as fill material increased compressive strength,
well as compressive and tensile strength. elasticity modulus, and tensile strength. The maximum compressive
Bacarji et al. (2013) used 5%, 10%, and 20% marble and granite strength was obtained with 5% waste marble powder use. Maximum
waste (MGR) as opposed to Portland cement. In concrete with MGR, elasticity modulus and maximum tensile strength were obtained with
optimum results for mechanical characteristics of the concrete in- 7% marble powder use. Thus, the results indicated that the utilization
cluding abrasion resistance, elasticity modulus, compressive strength, of waste marble powder in bituminous concrete resulted in improve-
and concrete rheology were obtained for the ratio of 5%. ments in the concrete strength.
In a study by Pathan and Pathan (2014), it was observed that the
compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of samples that 2.5. Recycling of waste marble in other areas
contained 10% waste marble powder (as opposed to cement) increased.
Aliabdo et al. (2014) conducted a study in which they replaced Bilgin et al. (2012) examined the use of waste marble powder as an
cement and sand by 0%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, and 15% marble powder by additive in industrial brick production. They examined the physical,
weight for w/p = 0.50 and w/c = 0.40. Additionally, TGA, XRD, and mineralogical, mechanical, and sintering properties of brick composi-
SEM analyses were conducted on the mixtures. The results indicated tions obtained by the addition of waste marble powder at rates of 20%,
that the use of marble powder (especially when used to as opposed to 30%, 40%, 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90%, and 100%. The study findings
sand) generally resulted in improvements in the mechanical char- suggested that the physical and mechanical characteristics of the bricks
acteristics of the concrete. also increased significantly when the quantity of used waste marble
Rodrigues et al. (2015) used 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% by volume increased. The use of waste marble in the production of industrial
marble slag extracted from marble quarries with plastics to replace bricks allows the utilization of recycled wastes. Thus, this significantly
cement to examine the mechanical behavior of concrete. Improvements contributes to both ecological balance and the economy.
in concrete strength were observed at up to 10% replacements for the Quesada et al. (2012) examined the availability of various waste
present rates. materials including sawdust, compost, spent earth oil filtration, and
Munir et al. (2017) investigated the properties of concrete obtained marble in the production of light bricks. Linear shrinkage, bulk density,
by changing the cement and waste marble powder up to 40%. Singh suction absorption, water absorption, compressive strength, and SEM
et al. (2017b) stated that up to 15% of waste marble dust can be used results were evaluated to observe the effect of additive use on the
(as opposed to cement) in concrete production. technological properties of bricks. The results indicated that the op-
Khodabakhshian et al. (2018) determined that the replacement of timal mechanical properties were obtained with 5% sawdust, 10%
cement and waste marble by 0%, 5%, 10%, and 20% improves the compost, and 15% marble and spent earth oil filtration in the bricks.
mechanical performance of concrete. Gandhi (2013) experimentally investigated the Surat region that
exhibits extensive soil stabilization. Rice husk ash and marble powder
2.4. Recycling of waste marble in asphalt concrete were used as additive materials to avoid problems that arise due to the
type of soil in the region. A regression analysis was conducted to esti-
Ustunkol and Turabi (2010) used recycled marble aggregates to mate the rate of swelling and swelling pressure of the soil. The analysis
replace the pure aggregates in hot mix asphalt to examine the physical results suggested that the use of both rice husk ash and marble powder
and mechanical effects of industrial waste with different properties (which are inexpensively available in the region) can be effective in
(marble powder, fly ash, phosphor-gypsum, and glass powder) on the stabilizing the soil in the region inexpensively. In the study, marble dust
asphalt concrete wear surface. The Marshall method was applied to the was obtained as more adequate and effective when compared to rice
samples wherein the optimum bitumen content was determined as husk ash.
4.9%. The variations in the sample stability and creep values were in- Ahmed et al. (2013a) stated that marble slag produced in the marble
vestigated. The results indicated that optimal strength was obtained in processing industry can be used as a filler in natural rubber composites.
bituminous hot mixes with 7% waste filler. The effects of the use of marble slag to replace 10, 15, 20, 37, and 75-
Fırat et al. (2012) determined the strength and hardness values for μm selective micro-particles on the characteristics of concrete were
foundation layers stabilized with fly ash, sand, and waste marble observed. The swelling properties, mechanical properties, and curing
powder in the study. The materials were added at the rates of 5%, 10%, properties of the composites were determined. The test results sug-
15%, and 20%. In order to investigate the engineering properties of the gested that the addition of marble dust increased abrasion loss, com-
obtained waste mixes, all samples were tested for California Bearing pression, stiffness, and modulus while increases in the amount of
Rate (CBR), permeability, and swelling ratios. Furthermore, XRD and marble powder decreased fracture of the composites.
SEM analyses were conducted on samples that contained 15% additive. Ahmed et al. (2013b) investigated the formation of hybrid compo-
In the study, the results suggested that the waste material can be safely sites in industrial and agricultural waste materials with the replacement
used in road construction. of rice husk and the waste marble slag in total or in specific proportions.
Moghadas Nejad et al. (2012) conducted 15%, 25%, 40%, and 60% In the study, swelling behavior and mechanical characteristics of hybrid
replacements in the study. In order to test the use of hot asphalt mixes composites that contained marble slag, husk ash, and natural rubber
that contained recycled marble aggregate in roads with medium traffic were investigated. Tensile strength, modulus of elongation at break (at
volume, they conducted indirect tensile, dynamic creep, fatigue, re- 100% and 300%), tear strength, compression setting, abrasion re-
silient modulus, and indirect tensile strength ratio tests. Marble exhibits sistance, hardness, and rebound resilience analyses were performed and
low SiO2 content, and thus the results indicated that the splitting tensile the results were discussed. The aim of the study in which the marble
strength increased with recycled marble aggregate use. Nevertheless, and rubber were used together involved contributing to the ecosystem
the results suggested that permanent deformation on roads with inter- and environment.
mediate traffic volume decreased with up to 60% recycled aggregate Tozsin et al. (2014) examined the effect of waste marble on Tombul
use. hazelnut cultivar and soil properties. Field tests were performed in
Chandra and Choudhary (2012) examined the effect of the recycling Giresun (Turkey) for one year. The results indicated that the utilization
of waste marble powder as a filler in a bituminous concrete filler. In of waste marble significantly affected the neutralization of the soil and
order to compare the results, stone and lime dust were also used as filler the hazelnut yield. With the addition of waste marble, the pH of the soil
as opposed to marble powder. In the study, various tests (such as the increased from 4.71 to 5.88. The resulting hazelnut yield increased
Marshall stability test, direct tensile test, fatigue test, and free com- from 1120.3 kg ha−1 to 1605.5 kg ha−1. Based on the results, waste
pression test) were conducted. The results indicated that the use of marble lead to the neutralization of the acidic soil and increased the

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E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

Table 1
The reviewed studies based on waste marble recycling options.
The studies on the replace of The studies on the recycling The studies on the replace of cement The studies on the use of The studies on the recycling of
aggregate with waste marble in the of waste marble in SCC with waste marble in the concrete waste marble in asphalt waste marble in the other areas
concrete

Demirel (2010) Uysal and Yilmaz (2011) Aruntas et al. (2010) Ustunkol and Turabi (2010) Bilgin et al. (2012)
Bilgin (2010) Valdez et al. (2011) Corinaldesi et al. (2010) Firat et al. (2012) Quesada et al. (2012)
Corinaldesi et al. (2010) Uysal and Sumer (2011) Rai et al. (2011) Moghadas Nejad et al. Gandhi (2013)
(2012)
Rai et al. (2011) Uysal (2012) Ergun (2011) Chandra and Choudhary Ahmed et al. (2013a)
(2012)
Hamza et al. (2011) Hameed et al. (2012) Shirule et al. (2012) Ahmed et al. (2013b)
Hebhoub et al. (2011) Belaidi et al. (2012) Pathan and Pathan (2014) Tozsin et al. (2014a)
Soykan and Özel (2012) Gesoglu et al. (2012) Sheike et al. (2012) Yesilay et al. (2017)
Uygunoglu et al. (2012) Uysal (2012) Gencel et al. (2012) Buyuksagis et al. (2017)
Omar et al. (2012) Uysal et al. (2012) Soliman (2013) Çınar and Kar (2018)
Dhoka (2013) Elyamany et al. (2014) Bacarji et al. (2013) Munir et al. (2018a)
Mishra et al. (2013) Uygunoglu et al. (2014) Aliabdo et al. (2014) Munir et al. (2018b)
Silva et al. (2013) Haddadou et al. (2015) Rana et al. (2015)
Ural et al. (2014) Tennich et al. (2015) Talah et al. (2015)
Aliabdo et al. (2014) Sadek et al. (2016) Rodrigues et al. (2015)
André et al. (2014) Alyamac et al. (2017) Munir et al. (2017)
Martins et al. (2014) Singh et al. (2017b)
Alyamac and Tugrul (2014) Khodabakhshian et al. (2018)
Kelestemur et al. (2014)
Gameiro et al. (2014)
Chavhan and Bhole (2014)
Kore and Vyas (2016)
Singh et al. (2017a)
Khyaliya et al. (2017)
Kabeer and Vyas (2018)
Ashish (2018)

hazelnut cultivation yield. decreased by 8%. It was conducted experiments for w/c = 0.51.
Yeşilay et al. (2017) revealed that it was appropriate to use waste Rai et al. (2011) observed that when waste marble was used up to
marble dust up to 27% in the clay mixture in the production of ceramic 15% to replace sand, the 28-day compressive strength increased by 5%
artwork. in proportion to the reference samples. Similarly, a 25% increase was
Buyuksagis et al. (2017) investigated the use of waste marble dust as observed in bending strength of the samples when 15% waste marble
raw material in insulation panel mortars and indicated that it was was used. When the waste marble ratio increased, the sample slump
economically more convenient to use waste marble dust as opposed to value also increased.
dolomite. Uysal and Sumer (2011) indicated that the optimal result was ob-
Çınar and Kar (2018) stated that it was possible to produce com- tained with SCC with 10% marble powder when compared to that of
posite materials using polyethylene terephthalate bottles and marble classical concrete. In the study, a significant change was not determined
dust. between the compressive strength of the reference sample and 400 day
The main focus of Munir et al. (2018a) is to utilize waste marble samples with 10%, 20%, and 30% marble powder.
sludge in the production of energy efficient burnt clay bricks on in- In a study by Uysal and Yilmaz (2011), the compressive strength of
dustrial scale. The use of waste marble dust between 5% and 25% in 90-day old concrete was determined as 82 MPa while the compressive
brick manufacturing was investigated by Munir et al. (2018b). strength of samples with 10%, 20%, and 30% marble powder corre-
Studies that investigate waste marble recycling are classified in sponded to 84, 81, and 80 MPa, respectively.
Table 1 based on different waste management options. In the literature, Hebhoub et al. (2011) indicated that the 28-day compressive
the highest number of studies focused on its use to replace aggregates strength of samples with 25%, 50%, and 75% marble increased by
(approximately 35% of the reviewed studies) while the least number of 22.2%, 16.8%, and 16.8%, respectively, compared to the reference
studies focused on its use in asphalt production (6% of the reviewed samples that did not contain any marble powder. Furthermore, the 90-
studies). It is considered that this is because the optimal results were day splitting tensile strength increased by 13%, 33%, and 11%, re-
obtained with the recycling of waste marble as opposed to an aggregate spectively.
in concrete. Waste marble pieces are mainly used in the production of Belachia and Hebhoub (2011) obtained the highest compressive
asphalt. However, most of the waste marble in the industry is obtained strength by adding 25% of marble powder. With respect to w/c = 0.45,
in powder form. the compressive strength of samples without waste marble was 33 MPa
while the compressive strength of samples with 25% waste marble in-
creased to approximately 36 MPa.
3. Content analysis: the effect of waste marble on the strength of
Omar et al. (2012) observed that when 15% marble powder is used,
concrete
the elasticity modulus increased by 1.2%–5.1% and the concrete
workability decreased. The increase in the strength of samples with
Corinaldesi et al. (2010) indicated that utilization of marble dust as
10% marble powder was 17%, 15%, and 15%, respectively, while the
a filling material was adequate. When 5% marble powder was used, the
increase rates in samples with 15% marble powder were 22%, 17%, and
bending and compressive strength of concrete increased by 12% and
17%, respectively. Furthermore, the splitting tensile strength of the
5%, respectively, while the porosity of the physical matrix decreased.
samples increased by 10% in all the marble powder rates.
Demirel (2010) determined that when 100% waste marble was
Shirule et al. (2012) observed that 28-day compressive strength
used, the 28-day compressive strength and elasticity modulus of the test
increased up to 17% with the use of 10% marble dust as opposed to
samples increased by 9.7% and 25%, respectively, and sample porosity

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E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

cement and a tensile strength increased 11.5%. maximum compressive strength was observed with replacement of ce-
Dhoka (2013) observed an increase of 7.7% in 28-day compressive ment by 5% marble powder.
strength and an increase of 25% in splitting tensile strength compared Talah et al. (2015) compared the properties of reference samples
to the reference samples in the study where they used 50% marble and without marble powder with test samples with 15% marble powder
50% stone dust as opposed to fine aggregate. The results indicated that content. The results indicated that the 7, 28, 90, 180, and 365-day
the concrete workability and water absorption increased while the compressive strengths of the reference samples were 26 MPa, 38 MPa,
sample splitting tensile strength decreased when the replacement rate 44 MPa, 46 MPa, and 48 MPa, respectively while the same figures for
exceeded 50%. the test samples were 39 MPa, 52 MPa, 58 MPa, 62 MPa, and 65 MPa,
Soliman (2013) used 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5%, 17.5%, and 20% respectively (i.e., compressive strength increased).
marble as a share in total mix to replace cement and produced Tennich et al. (2015) determined that the marble powder used as fill
115 × 40 mm floors. When 2.5% waste marble powder was used, they material in SCC increased the compressive strength of the samples by
observed a 24.9% increase in the 28-day compressive strength when 42.7% when compared to conventional SCC when it was used ap-
compared to that of the conventional sample. When 7.5% waste marble proximately 75% of the cement weight. However, the ultrasonic pulse
powder was used, the strength increased by 8%. When 5% waste marble velocity rate decreased by 2.6%, while the dynamic and static modulus
dust was used, the 28-day splitting tensile strength was 3.8 MPa while it of elasticity decreased by 12.8% and 16%, respectively, while the
decreased to 2 MPa when 20% waste marble powder was used. It was splitting tensile strength increased by 41%. Similarly, Wu et al. (2001)
conducted experiments for w/c = 0.45. and Omar et al. (2012) stated that the increase in dynamic elasticity
Chavhan and Bhole (2014) determined that the compressive modulus for samples with marble was identical. However, Demirel
strength of 14-day conventional concrete was 30.1 MPa and that the (2010), Aliabdo et al. (2014), and Rodrigues et al. (2015) stated that
compressive strength of 28-day conventional concrete was 28.2 MPa. the increase in ultrasonic pulse velocity was 10%.
They also determined the 28-day splitting tensile strength as 4.7 MPa. Kore and Vyas (2016) produced 20%, 40%, 60%, 80%, and 100%
Previous studies determined that the compressive strength of samples waste marble mixes to replace limestone aggregate. It was observed
with 50% marble powder corresponded to 33.1 MPa for 14 days and that up to 80% waste marble use increased the compressive strength of
35.7 MPa for 28 days in a study conducted by adding 5% and 50% the samples.
marble powder and gravel as a ratio of the total mix as opposed to Sadek et al. (2016) determined the compressive strength of SCC
aggregate in cement. Furthermore, with respect to the new blend that produced with the addition of marble dust, granite dust, and marble
was obtained (with the addition of 50% marble powder), the 28-day dust + granite dust at certain ratios. When 30%, 40%, and 50% marble
splitting tensile strength was measured as 5.7 MPa. powder was added, increases in the 28-d compressive strength corre-
Aliabdo et al. (2014) and Rodrigues et al. (2015) reported that ul- sponding to 1.7%, 3.9%, and 9.5%, respectively were observed. Thus,
trasonic pulse velocity did not change significantly when 15% marble the results indicated that the optimum rate of waste material additive
powder was used as opposed to cement and sand. Furthermore, when corresponded to 50% by weight for 400 kg/m3 cement content irre-
10% marble powder was used as opposed to sand, the compressive spective of the material type.
strength of the concrete increased by 14% and the strength of the series In Fig. 2(a), the effect of waste marble powder used to replace ce-
with low w/c ratio increased by 22%. ment in concrete on compressive strength is compared based on dif-
Aliabdo et al. (2014) measured a 15% increase in splitting tensile ferent study findings. The results suggested that the compressive
strength when 10% marble powder was used to replace cement and strength varied between 20 and 80 MPa (mostly between 30 and
natural sand and suggested that it exhibited a higher performance re- 50 MPa) in studies conducted without waste marble powder. When the
lative to that of conventional concrete. Optimal results were obtained at use of waste marble dust increased up to 10%, the results indicated that
low w/c ratios. compressive strength also generally increased. The maximum value of
Elyamany et al. (2014) examined the utilization of marble dust as the compressive strength is typically obtained with the use of 10%
filler material in SCC and analyzed its effect on mechanical and physical waste marble powder. In certain studies (albeit only a few), the value
characteristics of the concrete. Thus, they added 30 kg/m3 (7.5%), was observed as 5%. The increase in compressive strength was ac-
40 kg/m3 (10%), and 60 kg/m3 (15%) marble powder to 400 kg/m3 companied by increases in the rate of waste marble powder used in a
cement mix. Furthermore, they added 50 kg/m3 (10%) of marble few studies, while the increase was minimal in other studies. As shown
powder to 500 kg/m3 cement mix. The 7-day compressive strength of in Fig. 2(b), the effect of waste marble powder used to replace ag-
mixes with 15% silica fume and 15% marble powder corresponded to gregates on the compressive strength of cement is compared across
31 and 36.5 MPa, respectively. At the end of 56 days, the compressive different studies. The data suggested that there was a continuous in-
strengths increased to 47.5 and 46.5 MPa, respectively. Thus, they crease in compressive strength even with the 100% replacement of
stated that the selected filler material type significantly affected the aggregate with marble powder. Furthermore, the results indicated that
segregation and bleeding values. increase in compressive strength was significant up to 20% replace-
Uygunoglu et al. (2014) produced mixes with 0.31, 0.34, 0.37, and ment. Thus, Fig. 2(a and b) demonstrates that the use of replacement of
0.40 w/c ratios using recycled and waste marble aggregates. The results the aggregate by waste marble as opposed to the replacement of cement
revealed that the recycled aggregate samples with w/c = 0.31 exhibited is more adequate in concrete. Furthermore, the results revealed that the
a compressive strength of 49 MPa for 7 days and 44 MPa when marble increase in compressive strength can be up to 40% higher than the
aggregate was used. The 28-day compressive strengths of the same initial value. It is expected that the increase in compressive strength
samples corresponded to 54 MPa and 53.5 MPa, respectively. Ad- with the waste marble recycling in cement was due to the high CaCO3
ditionally, the results suggested that the compressive strengths de- content obtained in the chemical composition of marble.
creased when the w/c ratio increased.
Rana et al. (2015) used 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% marble slag 4. Research findings and statistical analysis
as opposed to cement. The results indicated that the compressive
strengths of 7, 28, and 90-day classical concrete corresponded to 36, 43, In this section, nonlinear equations were developed for compressive
and 51 MPa, respectively. When 5% marble slag was used, the results strength and splitting tensile strength based on the data reported in
suggested that the respective compressive strength values were 50, certain studies in the literature. Experimental data were compared to
42.5, and 35.5 MPa. Thus, the maximum compressive strength was the data obtained with the formulae developed in Statistica 8.0 soft-
obtained when 5% marble slag was used in the mix. Similarly, Gesoğlu ware (StatSoft Inc., USA). In the present study, and it was concluded
et al. (2012), Ergun (2011), and Uysal and Yılmaz (2011) stated that that the formulae can be used for accurate prediction.

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E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

120
Recyclability of waste marble replace cement in concrete
Sounthararajan and Sivakumar (2013)
Soliman (2013) Ergun (2011)

Compressive Strength (MPa)


100
Shirule et. al. (2012) Uysal et. al. (2012)
Agarwal and Gulati (2006)

80

60

40

20
0 5 10
Waste Marble (%)

(a)

50
Compressive strength (MPa)

40

30
Recyclabilty of waste marble replace aggregate in concrete
Binici et. al. (2007)
Ural et. al. (2013)
Omar et. al. (2012)
20 Demirel (2010)
Yildiz et. al. (2011)

0 20 40 60 80 100
Waste marble (%)

(b)
Fig. 2. Changes in compressive strength due to the rate of waste marble powder use: (a) As a cement substitute; (b) As an aggregate substitute (Agarwal and Gulati,
2006).

4.1. Formulation of concrete strength for use of waste marble instead of studies in question for using waste marble as opposed to cement in
cement concrete production. The relevant results show that with respect to the
concrete obtained by using waste marble as opposed to cement; the
Table 2 presents the results of the experiments performed to cal- compressive strength changes between 25.60 and 45.40 MPa, and the
culate the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the splitting tensile strength changes between 2.30 and 5.50 MPa. When the

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E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

Table 2
Experimental results from the related studies for containing waste marble as opposed to cement.
Related studies C (kg/m3) MP (kg/m3) w/c (−) sp (%) G (kg/m3) S (kg/m3) fc (28d) ft (28d)

(MPa) (MPa)

Sounthararajan and Sivakumar (2013) 400.0 0 0.30 1.50 1113.0 672.0 44.90 3.60
390.0 10 0.31 1.50 1113.0 672.0 42.10 3.64
380.0 20 0.32 1.50 1113.0 672.0 43.50 3.82
370.0 30 0.43 1.50 1113.0 672.0 45.40 4.00
Soliman (2013) 390.0 10 0.45 0.05 578.0 1157.0 38.00 3.70
350.0 50 0.45 0.05 578.0 1157.0 27.40 3.00
340.0 60 0.45 0.05 578.0 1157.0 26.80 2.80
330.0 70 0.45 0.05 578.0 1157.0 26.60 2.50
320.0 80 0.45 0.05 578.0 1157.0 25.60 2.30
Ergun (2011) 300.0 0 0.50 0.01 1721.4 312.3 35.40 5.30
277.5 0 0.54 0.01 1721.4 312.3 40.40 5.20
270.0 0 0.56 0.01 1721.4 312.3 42.60 5.30
270.0 15 0.56 0.01 1721.4 312.3 39.70 5.50
255.0 15 0.59 0.01 1721.4 312.3 42.00 5.50
255.0 30 0.59 0.01 1721.4 312.3 39.20 5.20
240.0 30 0.63 0.01 1721.4 312.3 37.50 5.30

60 Table 3
2
R =0.96 Experimental results from the related studies for containing waste marble as
Measured data in the related studies (see Table 2) opposed to fine aggregate.
Compressive Strength, fc (MPa)

Calculated data in the present study from the Eq.1


50 Related C MP w/c (−) sp (%) G S fc (28d) ft (28d)
studies (kg/ (kg/ (kg/ (kg/
m3) m3) m3) m3) (MPa) (MPa)

Demirel 500 0 0.51 0 1405 156 48.68 –


40 (2010) 500 39 0.51 0 1405 117 50.25 –
500 78 0.51 0 1405 78 50.69 –
500 156 0.51 0 1405 0 53.39 –
Yildiz 300 0 0.63 0 1623 85 37.34 3.40
30 et al. 300 21 0.63 0 1623 64 42.70 3.56
(2011) 300 43 0.63 0 1623 43 44.69 3.67
300 64 0.63 0 1623 21 46.27 3.88
300 85 0.63 0 1623 0 44.92 3.77
350 0 0.63 0 1509 79 50.30 4.18
20 350 20 0.63 0 1509 60 55.23 4.33
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 350 40 0.63 0 1509 40 58.33 4.43
Experiment Number 350 60 0.63 0 1509 20 60.27 4.64
350 79 0.63 0 1509 0 58.92 4.57

(a)

waste marble exceeds 10% of the cement substitution the concrete


strength decreases. Additionally, concrete strength, water to cement
7
2 ratio, super plasticizer weight, aggregate size, and aggregate weight are
R =0.99
also affected. It is determined that the compressive strength is directly
Splitting tensile strength, ft (MPa)

Measured data in the related studies (see Table 2)


proportional to the splitting tensile strength.
6 Calculated data in the present study from the Eq.2
In the present study, Eqs. (1) and (2) were obtained with the data
presented in Table 2 to calculate compressive strength and splitting
5 tensile strength for the use of waste marble as opposed to cement in
concrete production. The expression is as follows:
w
fc = −0.084 × C − 0.26 × MP + 45.8 × ( ) + 15.07 × sp + 0.016 × G
4 c
+ 0.035 × S (1)

3 w
ft = 0.011 × C − 0.0065 × MP + 6.684 × ( ) − 0.287 × sp
c
− 0.0003 × G − 0.0031 × S (2)
2 where, fc = compressive strength (MPa), ft = splitting tensile strength,
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17
C = cement content (kg/m3), MP = marble powder content (kg/m3),
Experiment Number w/c = water to cement ratio (−), sp = percent of super plasticizer by
weight of cement (%), G = aggregate content (kg/m3), and S = sand
(b) content (kg/m3).
Fig. 3. Change in the compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete with In Fig. 3, the experimental formula obtained with the data presented
the number of experiments for using the waste marble powder as opposed to by researchers in the experimental study and present study is compared
cement: a) for compressive strength; b) for splitting tensile strength. with the fc and ft values calculated with Eqs. (1) and (2). Thus, when the
results obtained for compressive strength (fc) were compared, an

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E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

80 Table 4
2
R =0.93 Experimental results from the related study for SCC containing waste marble.
Measured data in the related studies (see Table 3) Related C MP w/c (−) sp (%) G S fc (28d) ft (28d)
Compressive Strength, fc (MPa)

70 Calculated data in the present study from the Eq.3 study (kg/ (kg/ (kg/ (kg/
m3) m3) m3) m3) (MPa) (MPa)

60 Alyamac 300 100 0.63 2 696 1055 36.4 3.05


and 300 100 0.67 2 685 1039 34.2 2.87
Ince 300 100 0.70 2 675 1023 31.6 2.63
(2009) 300 200 0.58 1 672 1020 40.0 3.33
50 300 200 0.58 2 672 1020 38.2 3.16
300 200 0.63 3 657 996 37.8 3.16
300 250 0.60 2 648 983 37.8 3.16
300 250 0.63 1 637 967 34.7 2.87
40 300 250 0.63 2 637 967 37.3 3.09
300 250 0.63 3 637 967 37.3 3.05
300 250 0.67 2 627 951 35.6 2.98
30 300 250 0.67 3 627 951 35.1 2.91
300 250 0.70 2 616 935 33.8 2.84
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
300 250 0.70 3 616 935 32.0 2.70
Experiment Number 350 150 0.60 2 638 968 40.9 3.37
350 200 0.60 2 619 938 36.4 3.01
(a) 400 0 0.45 2 711 1079 55.6 4.47
400 0 0.48 2 701 1063 52.0 4.23
400 0 0.50 2 690 1047 49.3 4.06
400 50 0.51 2 667 1013 50.2 4.06
400 100 0.45 2 672 1020 53.8 4.37
5.5 400 100 0.48 2 662 1004 50.7 4.13
2
R =0.98 400 100 0.53 2 641 972 46.2 3.82
Measured data in the related studies (see Table 3) 400 150 0.58 2 600 910 42.7 3.50
Splitting tensile strength, ft (MPa)

450 100 0.44 2 634 962 55.1 4.43


5.0 Calculated data in the present study from the Eq.4 500 0 0.42 2 646 979 57.8 4.64
500 50 0.42 2 626 950 60.0 4.88

4.5
concrete production.
In the present study, Eqs. (3) and (4) were obtained with the data
4.0 presented in Table 3 to calculate compressive strength and splitting
tensile strength for using waste marble powder as opposed to fine ag-
gregate in concrete production. The expressions are as follows:
3.5
w
fc = −0.674 × C + 2.781 × MP + 1430 × ( ) + 0.1 × sp − 0.55 × G
c
3.0 + 2.725 × S (3)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 w
ft = 0.0124 × C + 0.065 × MP + 2.828 × ( ) + 0.1 × sp − 0.0044 × G
Experiment Number c
+ 0.059 × S (4)
(b)
In Fig. 4, the experimental formula obtained with the data presented
Fig. 4. Change in the compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete with
by the researchers in the experimental study and present study are
the number of experiments for using the waste marble as opposed to fine ag-
compared with the fc and ft values calculated with Eqs. (3) and (4).
gregate: a) for compressive strength, b) for splitting tensile strength.
Thus, a comparison of the results obtained for compressive strength (fc)
indicated that an average maximum deviation of 4% existed for the
average maximum deviation of 3% and 1% were observed for the compressive strength and 1% for the splitting tensile strength. The
compressive strength and splitting tensile strength, respectively. The correlation coefficient was determined as R2 = 0.93 for the compressive
correlation coefficient was determined as R2 = 0.96 for the compressive strength and R2 = 0.98 for the splitting tensile strength.
strength and R2 = 0.99 for the splitting tensile strength.
4.3. Formulation of concrete strength for use of waste marble in SCC
4.2. Formulation of concrete strength for use of waste marble instead of
aggregate Table 4 presents the results of the experiments performed to cal-
culate the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength in the
Table 3 presents the results of the experiments performed to cal- study in question for using waste marble in SCC production. The re-
culate the compressive strength and splitting tensile strength of the levant results indicate that with respect to the concrete obtained by
studies in question for use of waste marble powder as opposed to fine using waste marble in SCC; the compressive strength changes between
aggregate in concrete production. Relevant results indicated that with 31.60 and 60.00 MPa, and the splitting tensile strength changes be-
respect to the concrete obtained by using waste marble as opposed to tween 2.63 and 4.47 MPa. The use of waste marble powder in SCC
aggregate; the compressive strength changed between 37.34 and ensures that higher concrete strength is obtained albeit in small quan-
60.27 MPa, and the splitting tensile strength changed between 3.40 z– tities.
4.64 MPa. This indicated that the concrete strength was even higher In the present study, Eqs. (5) and (6) were obtained with the data
even while using up to 100% of waste marble dust as opposed to fine presented in Table 4 to calculate compressive strength and splitting
aggregate. Generally, higher concrete strength was observed in use as tensile strength for using waste marble powder in SCC production. The
opposed to aggregate when waste marble was replaced with cement in expressions are as follows:

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E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

80 70
2 2 Perfect line
R =0.99 R =0.92
Measured data in the related study (see Table 4)
Compressive Strength, fc (MPa)

70 Calculated data in the present study from the Eq.5 60

Calculated fc (MPa)
60 50

40
50

30
40

20
30 20 30 40 50 60 70
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
Measured fc (MPa)
Experiment Number
(a)

(a)

5.6
2
5.2 R =0.99
Perfect line
6
2 4.8
R =0.98 Calculated ft (MPa)
Splitting tensile strength, ft (MPa)

Measured data in the related study (see Table 4)


Calculated data in the present study frem the Eq.6 4.4
5
4.0

3.6
4 3.2

2.8

3 2.4

2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.4 4.8 5.2 5.6


Measured ft (MPa)
2
(b)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28
Fig. 6. Comparison of measured and calculated values: a) for fc, b) for ft.
Experiment Number

(b) 4.4. Comparison of measured and calculated fc and ft values

Fig. 5. Change in the compressive and splitting tensile strength of SCC with the
The results indicated that the data mostly overlapped on a perfect
number of experiments for using the waste marble: a) for compressive strength,
line. Thus, the measured and calculated fc and ft values are consistent as
b) for splitting tensile strength.
shown in Fig. 6. Thus, the equations derived from the present study can
be safely used in engineering applications.
w
fc = 0.08 × C + 0.008 × MP − 45.16 × ( ) + 1.12 × sp − 1.91 × G
c
5. Conclusions
+ 1.3 × S (5)
The study involved investigating the recycling of waste marble as
w aggregate and cement substitute in processes including SCC and asphalt
ft = 0.006 × C + 0.0007 × P − 3.39 × ( ) + 0.081 × sp − 0.141 × G
c production. Its effect on the compressive strength and splitting tensile
+ 0.096 × S (6) strength of related cement types in detail are given below:

In Fig. 5, the experimental formula obtained with the data presented


by the researchers in the experimental study and present study was
• Although there are studies in the literature on recycling of waste
marble powder in the industry, only a few studies focus on recycling
compared with the fc and ft values calculated with Eqs. (5) and (6). the waste marble obtained during the extraction of marble blocks in
Thus, a comparison of the results obtained for compressive strength (fc) quarries. Thus, it is necessary to investigate optimal methods to
indicated that an average maximum deviation of 1% existed for the recycle ever-increasing waste marble.
compressive strength and splitting tensile strength. The correlation
coefficient was determined as R2 = 0.99 for the compressive strength
• Approximately 15% economic profit can be gained by recycling
waste marble. The results suggested that the utilization of waste
and R2 = 0.98 for the splitting tensile strength. marble in the production of concrete is advantageous in terms of
obtaining cheap and durable concrete and solving ecological

95
E. Tugrul Tunc Journal of Environmental Management 231 (2019) 86–97

problems. In order to contribute to both the marble industry and Bilgin, N., 2010. Using Waste Marble Dust in Building Materials. Master Thesis. Yildiz
national economy, it is necessary to recycle waste marble in related Technical University, İstanbul in Turkey (in Turkish).
Bilgin, N., Yeprem, H.A., Arslan, S., Bilgin, A., Günay, E., Marşoglu, M., 2012. Use of
areas, and thus it is necessary to expend efforts to develop recycling waste marble powder in brick industry. Construct. Build. Mater. 29, 449–457.
applications. Thus, it is considered that this potentially contributes https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2011.10.011.
to environmental and human health. Buyuksagis, I.S., Uygunoglu, T., Tatar, E., 2017. Investigation on the usage of waste

• The effect of waste marble use in concrete on the strength of the


marble powder in cement-based adhesive mortar. Construct. Build. Mater. 154,
734–742. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2017.08.014.
concrete was investigated. The results suggested that the use of Chandra, S., Choudhary, R., 2012. Performance characteristics of bituminous concrete
waste marble powder as coarse/fine aggregate, cement, and other with industrial wastes as filler. J. Mater. Civ. Eng. 25 (11), 1666–1673. 1943-
5533.0000730. https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)MT.
waste material substitute improved the strength of the concrete.

Chavhan, P.J., Bhole, S.D., 2014. To study the behaviour of marble powder as supple-
The results indicated that the optimum replacement rate was 10% mentary cementitious material in concrete. Int. J. Eng. Res. Appl. 4 (1), 377–381.
while using waste marble powder as a substitute for cement in Corinaldesi, V., Moriconi, G., Naik, T.R., 2010. Characterization of marble powder for its
use in mortar and concrete. Construct. Build. Mater. 24 (1) 113e117. https://doi.
concrete. Thus, the cement with optimal concrete strength was ob-
org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2009.08.013.
tained by using 10% waste marble replacement for cement. Çınar, M.E., Kar, F., 2018. Characterization of composite produced from waste PET and
• The results suggested that compressive strength generally increased marble dust. Construct. Build. Mater. 163, 734–741. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.
conbuildmat.2017.12.155.
by using recycled waste marble to replace aggregate in concrete and
Demirel, B., 2010. The effect of the using waste marble dust as fine sand on the me-
even in substitutes of up to 100% (significantly up to 20%) and that chanical properties of the concrete. Int. J. Phys. Sci. 5 (9), 1372–1380 ISSN: 1992-
the strength of the said concrete indicated a better performance. 1950.

• The results revealed that use of waste marble substitution of ag- Demirel, B., Alyamaç, K.E., 2018. Waste marble powder/dust. In: Waste and
Supplementary Cementitious Materials in Concrete, pp. 181–197. https://doi.org/10.
gregate in concrete was more adequate when compared to that of 1016/B978-0-08-102156-9.00006-7.
cement substitution. Dhoka, M.M.C., 2013. Green concrete: using industrial waste of marble powder, quarry
• In the present study, nonlinear equations were developed and can be dust and paper pulp. Int. J. Eng. Sci. 2 (10), 67–70 ISSN: 2319 – 6726.
Eliche-Quesada, D., Corpas-Iglesias, F.A., Pérez-Villarejo, L., Iglesias-Godino, F.J., 2012.
used safely to determine the compressive strength (fc) and splitting Recycling of sawdust, spent earth from oil filtration, compost and marble residues for
tensile strength (ft) of the concrete including the waste marble. A brick manufacturing. Construct. Build. Mater. 34, 275–284. https://doi.org/10.1016/
good fit between the calculated and measured values were obtained j.conbuildmat.2012.02.079.
Elyamany, H.E., Elmoaty, A.E.M.A., Mohamed, B., 2014. Effect of filler types on physical,
for both fc and ft values. mechanical and microstructure of self compacting concrete and Flow-able concrete.
Alex. Eng. J. 53 (2), 295–307. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aej.2014.03.010.
Acknowledgments Ergun, A., 2011. Effects of the usage of diatomite and waste marble dust as partial re-
placement of cement on the mechanical properties of concrete. Construct. Build.
Mater. 25 (2), 806–812. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.07.002.
I would like to thank Prof. Kursat Esat ALYAMAC who is from Firat Fırat, S., Yılmaz, G., Cömert, A.T., Sümer, M., 2012. Utilization of marble dust, fly ash and
University, for his comments that significantly improved the manu- waste sand (Silt-Quartz) in road subbase filling materials. KSCE J. Civ. Eng. 1–9.
script. Gameiro, F., de Brito, J., Correia da Silva, D., 2014. Durability performance of structural
concrete containing fine aggregates from waste generated by marble quarrying in-
dustry. Eng. Struct. 59, 654–662. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.engstruct.2013.11.026.
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