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BHARAT SANCHAR NIGAM LIMITED ELECTRONIC SWITCHING

ENGINEERING INSTRUCTIONS WLL


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INTRODUCTION TO WLL (CDMA) - LG MAKE

1. SCOPE

This Engineering instruction gives the brief idea about the Wireless in local loop (WLL)
system based on Code Division Multiple Access (CDMA) technology.

2. GENERAL

WLL is a wireless local communication network which is capable of providing users


access to ‘PSTN’ Network and associated facilities supporting local loop functionalities to serve
users with voice and non - voice services.

WLL uses the radio waves to transmit signals over the ‘last mile’ i.e. the distance between
the subscriber premises and the nearest switching point. Also WLL substitute the copper wire up
to the subs. Premises or part of the connection and can be accessed by various wireless
technologies.

a) It is an application of radio technology and personal communication system.


b) It uses multiple access radio system instead of wires in the distribution/access network.

It is also used in remote areas where it is uneconomical to lay cables and also for rapid
development of telephone services.

CDMA WLL is a widely used system around the world. Any one can avail this facility
and it is the perfect replacement for land system as it is very cheap and affordable.

The technologies employed shall depend upon various radio access techniques like
FDMA, TDMA, CDMA.

2.1 FREQUENCY DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (FDMA)

In Frequency Division Multiple Access (FDMA) different signals are assigned different
frequency channels. Interference to and from adjacent channels are limited by the use of band
pass filters, which pass energy within the specific narrow frequency band.

2.2 TIME DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (TDMA)

In Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) a channel consists of time slots, in a periodic
train of time intervals make up a frame. A given signal energy is available in one of these time
A Govt. of India Enterprises
(Restricted to Telecom Staff)
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slots. Adjacent channel interference is limited by the use of a time GATE that passes the signal
received at the other end at proper time.

2.3 CODE DIVISION MULTIPLE ACCESS (CDMA)

Code Division Multiple Access Technique is widely used. It is an advance communication


technology which has inherent anti jamming and security features. CDMA is the platform over
which the 3G (third generation) telephony standard is based. CDMA is capable for use with fixed
as well as mobile wireless phones.

CDMA system assigns a specific digital code to every user in the mobile network and it
then encodes each bit of information transmitted from them. As the codes used are specific,
multiple user can transmit simultaneously on the same frequency without interface from each
other. This is known as ‘spread spectrum frequency technique’ where information contained in a
particular signal is spread over a larger area than the original signal. The specific nature of the
coded signals allows the system to treat other radio signals and interferences as noise which can
be filtered.

This technique enables the recovery of signals when S/N ratio is -15 to -25 dBs. i.e. signal
level is much below the noise level.

In this technique signals are transmitted on the top of one another. The receiver used
operates over the large band width, interfering noise is spread over the routine bandwidth in such
a way that it has the least effect on the desired signals. It enables reduction of power in
watts/hertz as the transmitter power is spread over the BW of 100 to 200 Mhz.

Whenever the signal is received, the narrow band receiver receives only a small
percentage of noise power. The unwanted interference is therefore negligible.

Spread spectrum receiver compresses the signal to the original bandwidth while the
interfering signal is spread over the wide bandwidth.

2.3.1 Difference between GSM and CDMA

S GSM CDMA
#
1 Divides signals into timeslots or frequencies Divides signals into codes.
2 Same frequencies can not be used in adjacent All cells can use all frequencies.
cells.
3 Capacity of network can not be increased as Capacity can be increased as such.
such.
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4 Prone to interference. Less prone to interference.

3. CDMA WLL Equipment Specification: (LG Make)

System specifications-
System is manufactured by M/s.LGIC on IS-95 standard
Frequency band-
824 - 849 Mhz Uplink
869 - 894 Mhz Downlink

Multiple Access Method is Code Division Multiple Access.

Duplexing Method is FDD

Access channel per carrier per sector 40 channels (3 sectors)

RF Spacing 1.25 Mhz


Duplex separation 45 Mhz

Coverage of the system in rural is up to 25 km and in urban is 5 km radius (line of sight).

BTS trans power is up to 20 watts.

Diversity against fading in the air

Voice coding

8K/13K QCELP 8K EVRC


Services

VOICE
DATA SERVICES
CUSTOMER CALLING SERVICES
MOBILITY

Softerhand off: between sectors within a BTS


Soft hand off : Between BTS’s within a BSC

Max FAs can be used with one BTS is 8

Interface with PSTN


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V5.2
R2/No.7

Power requirement

-48V DC for BSC


+24V DC for BTS

One BSC can support 20K/10K subs. depending upon R-2/No.7/V5.2 interface.

3.1 SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

WLL system consists of :

- BSC (Base Station Controller)


- BTS (Base Transceiver station)
- FWT (Fixed Wireless Terminal)
- MS (Mobile Station)
- BSM (Base Station Manager)

3.2 BASE STATION CONTROLLER (BSC)

It is located between BTS & PSTN. It controls up to 48 BTS systems.

Interface with PSTN


R2/No.7
V5.2

3.2.1 SYSTEM USING R2/No.7 Protocol

This system accommodates existing PSTN R2 signalling or CCS No.7 signalling.

- System capacity 20000 subs.


- Traffic handling capacity - Max. 1892 Erlang.
(Taking .1 Erlang/subs.)
- Connectivity with PSTN 64 E1 links Max.
- 48 BTS can be connected within one BSC via 48EI, links
where 1 BTS is 1FA/1Sector.
Selector / Vocoding channel capacity = 1920 chls.
- 8 SVC ch/PBA
- 16 PBA/Shelf (128 SVC ch.)
- up to 15 shelves (15 x 128 = 1920)
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IWF capacity (inter working function for data call)


= 512 channels
- 8 channels/PBA
- 16 PBA/ shelf
- up to 4 shelves

Switch network T-switch


- Power requirement
-48V DC (-43V - 55V)

Port capacity up to 16 links


Temp = 0 50 dg. C
Humidity = 0 - 90%

Space requirement
750mm (W) x 700 (D) x 1886(H) mm.

BSC (R2/No.7 Type) Dissipated Current

Cabinet Dissipated
Current
(Amp)
WICR 36.2

WNIR 25.44

MSIR 36.03

MTIR 35.4

MINR 32.3

IWFR 18.7

BSM 39.7

3.2.2 System Using V5.2 Protocol

This system accommodates V5.2 protocol which is being settled as standard protocol of
WLL system. Billing and number translation function are performed by public network.

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Traffic handling capacity = 995 Erlang.


No. of subscriber accommodated = 9950 subs. (using .1 Erlang/subs)

Selector/Vocoder channel capacity = 1024 chls

- 8 SVC ch/PBA
- 16PBA/shelf
- upto 8 shelves

IWF Capacity 256 channels.

- 8 chls./PBA
- 16 PBA/shelf
- upto 2 shelves

No. of BTS supported by 1 BSC = 48

Ports to BTS = 48 EI, Ports to PSTN = 32 EI,

Power, Temp, Humidity and space requirement same as R2/No.7

Connectivity towards PSTN from DCI card at BSC


Connectivity towards BTS from CIN card at BSC

3.3 BASE TRANSCEIVER SYSTEM (BTS)

It is located between MS and BSC. BTS performs call control and maintenance functions
concerning MSs. It guides MSs to recognise the BTS, assigns traffic channels upon the call
requests and open call paths. It also performs overload control, statistics and measurement,
software downloading functions.

BTS Types-
Indoor type upto 8 FA
Outdoor type upto 4 FA

a) Standard BTS
b) Compact
c) Microcell
d) Picocell

For India indoor type - standard BTS upto 8 FA.


Specifications:

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BTS type - Standard (indoor) upto 8 FA/3 sectors


Traffic channel capacity per sector - 8K vocoding - upto 40 chls.
- 13K vocoding - upto 23 chls.
Traffic handling capacity per sector - More than 9 erlang/sector/FA BP= 2%
No. of FA per BTS (IFA=1.25MHz) - upto 8 FA/3 sector.
No. of channel element per board - 16 channel elements
No. of receiver antennae - 2 EA /sector
Sectorization - Omni, 3 sectors.
Frequency band - Downlink (BTS-MS) : 869 to 894 Mhz
- Uplink (MS-BTS) : 824 to 849 Mhz
Power requirement - DC 24/27V
Rack size - BTS (Standard)
750 x 650 x 188.6 (mm)

Tx - Rx Sep = 45 Mhz
Channel Nos = 1 to 799
Tx frequncy = 0.03N + 870
Rx frequncy = 0.03N + 825 N is channel Number.
3.4 Base Station Manager (BSM)

The Base Station Manager performs initialisation, configuration, diagnostic monitoring of


the Base Station Subsystem. After system initialisation the role of manager is not essential for
steady state operation, but manager continues its function as an monitoring element. By
monitoring the other sub systems in the wireless loop system the manager detects faulty
equipment, reconfigure the system and then communicates the status of the Base Station to the
Operation and maintenance centre. The abstract of OAM functions is:

Initialisation of the system


Fault Management of the System.
Configuration Management of the System.
Security Management of the system.
Performance Management of the system.
Account Management of the system.
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The Manager connects all the subsystems both directly and through CDMA interconnect
subsystem.

3.4.1 BSM H/W Requirement

Platform : Sun workstation

Ultra 2 : Ultra 5
Main Memory : 256 MB +
Hard disk : 2 GB+

Tape Back Driver


CD Driver
Ethernet (TCP/IP Networking Connection)
Interface card : BIPA (LGIC)
Ultra 2 : S-bus card
Ultra 5 : PCI Card

3.4.2 BSM S/W Requirement

OS : Solar is 2.5+
CDE (Common Desktop Environment)

CDE is included in Solar is 2.6+

DBMS : Informix 7.0 - Shared Memory

3.4.3 Inter Working function (IWF)

The Inter Working Function is connected to the Switching system of digital mobile
telephone or PCs to Interface to the wired network signalling for call set up of circuit Data, G-3
FAX Data and packet Data of Mobile handset.

4. CONCLUSION

This is the ultimate answer to the problems faced by the Land system as the physical
External Plant items are completely eliminated and also it is cost wise easy for common man.
The use of common frequency, power control and variable bit rate vocoding and soft hand off
features of CDMA gives us the benefits of no frequency planning, High capacity, flexibility
along with high performance and therefore quality at a minimum cost can be attained.

END
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