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The PID controller

ISTTOK real-time AC 7-10-2010


 Introduction to Control Systems

 PID Controller

 PID Tuning

 Discrete-time Implementation

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Introduction to Control Systems

• Some systems are inherently unstable (e.g. inverted

pendulum, space rockets, airplanes in some particular
conditions, nuclear reactor, your automobile)
• Equilibrium: (i) Stable, (ii) Unstable and (iii) Astable
• To stabilize we need an active/passive control system
• Type of control:
• Open-loop
• Closed-loop

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Open-loop control

- The open loop control is usually based on a model.

- It works as if no disturbances are present because there is no form of

feedback in the system. In presence of disturbances it fails.

- If the plant changes slightly, the output will no longer match the reference.

Figure: A Mathematical Approach to Classical Control - Andrew D. Lewis

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Open-loop control

Perturbations Process
Reference Controller
output variable

Figure: A Mathematical Approach to Classical Control - Andrew D. Lewis

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Closed-loop control

- The main difference between open-loop and the closed loop control is the
presence of feedback in the closed-loop system.

- If the controller is well projected, the plant output will converge to the
desired reference even in presence of undesired disturbances d(t).



Figure: A Mathematical Approach to Classical Control - Andrew D. Lewis

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Open-loop Vs. Closed-loop

Open-loop system:

Closed-loop system:

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Examples of basic controllers

“Flyball” governor, used to regulate the

speed of a steam engine.

This is an example of a mechanical

proportional controller.

Regular toilet, the float ball turns off

the water valve when the deposit is
almost full.

This is an example of a mechanical

on-off controller.

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Timing definitions

• Dead time
• Response time
• Lag or latency

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Proportional- Integrative- Derivative Controller

• K - Proportional Term
• TI - Integral time
• TD - Derivative time

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PID analog circuit

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PID controller characteristics

+ Less Sensitive to perturbations

+ Less sensible to modifications in plant modifications
+ Does not require complex modeling
+ Two PID controllers can be used together
- Be careful with sensor noise
- Can be unstable (too much gain)
- Generally they are not optimal controllers
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Effects of increasing a parameter independently

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Example – Proportional only

Figure: Control System Design - K.J. Astrom

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Example – Proportional and Integral

Figure: Control System Design - K.J. Astrom

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Proportional, Integral and Derivative

Figure: Control System Design - K.J. Astrom

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Tunning issues

• Proportional Term:
• Gain too high-> unstable
• Integral Term
• Long period with errors->Windup
• Derivative Term
• High-Frequency noise
• “Derivative Kick”

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Problem: “Windup”

• The actuators can saturate:

• Error continues to be accumulated
• If controller regains control the response could
be exaggerated

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Problem: High frequency noise

• Problem: Sensor Noise is amplified by

differential term
• Possible Solution: apply a low-pass filter
before the derivative
• Consider the option of zeroing the derivative
part  PI controller

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Problem: Derivative kick

• Problem: When operator changes set-point

cause a big variation on the derivative term
• Solution1: derivative action based on PV
rather than error.
• Solution2: Apply a fraction of the set-point
to the derivative calculation:

D(t) = d/dt(β r(t) - y(t)) (0≤β≤1)

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Tunning methods

Method Advantages Disadvantages

Manual Does not need “Maths” But needs “know-

Consistent Tuning
Software May include simulation Cost and Training
Online of Offline Method

Ziegler- Proved and Online Trial & Error

Nichols Method Process is Perturbed
Other alternatives: Cohen-Coon, Chien-Hrones-Reswick.
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Ziegler-Nichols Method

• Pick a P Controler

• Begin with a low K

• Raise gradually K until the

system becomes unstable(Ku)

Tipo K TI TD • Measure the oscillation o

period (Pu)
P (1/2)*Ku - -
PI (9/20)*Ku (5/6)*Pu - • Chose the constants
correspondent with the type
of controller
PID (6/10)*Ku (1/2)*Pu (1/8)*Pu
One of the assumptions of the Ziegler-Nichols method is that the plant is Table: A Mathematical Approach to
in the form of a transport lag (delay) and a single time constant. Classical Control - Andrew D. Lewis
(Pag. 234)
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Digital system - Discrete Time Implementation

Figure: Introduction to Digital Control - A. Cenedese

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Digital system

• May be obtained by “discretizing” the continuous time

control system
• The bigger the sampling Frequency the BETTER the discrete
system resembles the continuous time control system
• The control system only works on receiving a sample. Until
next sample it works as an “open-system”

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Numerical Approximation

uk = Pk + Ik + Dk

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PID Pseudo-code

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Numerical approximation – derivative format

Goal: Evaluate variation in control variable uk= uk-1 + ∆ u

uk= uk-1 + Kp(ek - ek-1) + Kp Ts /Ti ek + Kp Td /Ts (ek - 2 ek-1 + ek-2)

Arranging terms: Ts = Sampling Time

uk= uk-1 + Kp [(1 + Ts /Ti + Td /Ts) ek - (1 + 2 Td /Ts ) ek-1 + Td /Ts ek-2]

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Pseudo-code – derivative form

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Pratical example

Remove integral and derivative action.

Create a small disturbance in the loop by changing the set point.
Adjust the proportional, increasing and/or decreasing, the gain until
the oscillations have constant amplitude.
Record the gain value (Ku) and period of oscillation (Pu).
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Open Loop (Feed Forward Loop)

Determine the dead time,

time for the response to
change, and the ultimate
value that the response
reaches at steady-state,
Mu, for a step change of

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• Summary:

• Books on control:
• Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems - G.F. Franklin,
J. Powell, A. Emami-Naeini
• Control System Design Lecture Notes for ME 155A -
K.J. Astrom

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