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0 (de) vizualizări6 paginiPovećanje prenosa toplote u izmjenjivačima toplote

Mar 09, 2019

Seminarski rad- Povećanje prenosa toplote u izmjenjivačima toplote

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Povećanje prenosa toplote u izmjenjivačima toplote

© All Rights Reserved

0 (de) vizualizări

Seminarski rad- Povećanje prenosa toplote u izmjenjivačima toplote

Povećanje prenosa toplote u izmjenjivačima toplote

© All Rights Reserved

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Toplotni aparati

Heat Transfer from Extended Surfaces

There are many different situations that involve such combined conduction–

convection effects, the most frequent application is one in which an extended surface

is used specifically to enhance heat transfer between a solid and an adjoining fluid.

Such an extended surface is termed a fin.Consider the plane wall of Figure 3.12a. If

Ts is fixed, there are two ways in which the heat transfer rate may be increased. The

convection coefficient h could beincreased by increasing the fluid velocity, and/or the

fluid temperature T_ could be reduced. However, there are many situations for which

increasing h to the maximum possible value is either insufficient to obtain the desired

heat transfer rate or the associated costs are prohibitive. Such costs are related to

the blower or pump power requirements needed to increase h through increased fluid

motion. Moreover,the second option of reducing T_ is often impractical. Examining

Figure 3.12b,however, we see that there exists a third option.

That is, the heat transfer rate maybe increased by increasing the surface area across

which the convection occurs.This may be done by employing fins that extend from

the wall into the surroundingfluid. The thermal conductivity of the fin material can

have a strong effect on thetemperature distribution along the fin and therefore

influences the degree to whichthe heat transfer rate is enhanced. Ideally, the fin

material should have a large thermalconductivity to minimize temperature variations

from its base to its tip. In thelimit of infinite thermal conductivity, the entire fin would

be at the temperature of thebase surface, thereby providing the maximum possible

heat transfer enhancement.Examples of fin applications are easy to find. Consider

the arrangement for coolingengine heads on motorcycles and lawn mowers or for

cooling electric powertransformers. Consider also the tubes with attached fins used

to promote heat exchangebetween air and the working fluid of an air conditioner. Two

common finnedtubearrangements are shown in Figure 3.13.

Different fin configurations are illustrated in Figure 3.14. A straight fin is anyextended

surface that is attached to a plane wall. It may be of uniform cross-sectional

area, or its cross-sectional area may vary with the distance x from the wall. An

annularfin is one that is circumferentially attached to a cylinder, and its cross

sectionvaries with radius from the wall of the cylinder. The foregoing fin types have

rectangularcross sections, whose area may be expressed as a product of the fin

thickness tand the width w for straight fins or the circumference 2_r for annular fins.

In contrastpin fin, or spine, is an extended surface of circular cross section. Pin fins

may alsobe of uniform or nonuniform cross section. In any application, selection of a

particularfin configuration may depend on space, weight, manufacturing, and cost

considerations,as well as on the extent to which the fins reduce the surface

convection coefficientand increase the pressure drop associated with flow over the

fins.

extended surfaces or fin arrangements could improve heat transfer from a surface to

the surrounding fluid. To determine the heat transfer rate associated with a fin,

wemust first obtain the temperature distribution along the fin. As we have done for

previous systems, we begin by performing an energy balance on an appropriate

differential element. Consider the extended surface of Figure 3.15.

one-dimensional conditions in the longitudinal (x) direction, even though conduction

within the fin is actually two dimensional. The rate at which energy is convected to

the fluid from any point on the fin surface must be balanced by the net rate at which

energy reaches that point due to conduction in the transverse (y, z) direction.

However, in practice the fin is thin, and temperature changes in the transverse

direction within the fin are small compared with the temperature difference between

the fin and the environment. Hence, we may assume that the temperature is uniform

across the fin thickness, that is, it is only a function of x. We will consider steady-state

conditions and also assume that the thermal conductivity is constant, that radiation

from the surface is negligible, that heat generation effects are absent, and that the

convection heat transfer coefficient h is uniform over the surface.

(3.61)

This result provides a general form of the energy equation for an extended surface.

Its solution for appropriate boundary conditions provides the temperature distribution,

which may be used with to calculate the conduction rate at any x.

begin with the simplest case of straight rectangular and pin fins of uniform cross

section (Figure 3.16).

Its general solution is of the form :

Note that the magnitude of the temperature gradient decreases with increasing x.

This trend is a consequence of the reduction in the conduction heat transfer qx(x)

with increasing x due to continuous convection losses from the fin surface.

Recall that fins are used to increase the heat transfer from a surface by increasing

the effective surface area. However, the fin itself represents a conduction resistance

to heat transfer from the original surface. For this reason, there is no assurance that

the heat transfer rate will be increased through the use of fins. An assessment of this

matter may be made by evaluating the fin effectiveness _ƒ. It is defined as the ratio

of the fin heat transfer rate to the heat transfer rate that would exist without the fin.

Therefore:

where Ac,b is the fin cross-sectional area at the base. In any rational design the value

of ᵋƒ should be as large as possible, and in general, the use of fins may rarely be

justified

unless ᵋƒ > 2.

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