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REQUIREMENTS OF POWER

SYSTEM
 It must supply energy practically everywhere the customer demands.
 The load demands vary with time. The system must able to supply this
ever changing demand.
 The delivered energy must meet certain minimum requirements in
regard to quality. The following factors determine the quality:
a) The system frequency must be kept around 50Hz with
a variation of +0.05Hz to -0.05Hz.
b) The magnitude of the bus voltages are maintained within
prescribed limit around the normal value. Generally the
voltage variation should be limited to +5 to -5%.
 The energy must be available with high reliability.
 The energy must be delivered without overloading any element in the
power system.
 The energy must be delivered at minimum cost.

1
REAL POWER (P): The real power, P is
defined as the average value of P and
therefore, physically, means the useful
power being transmitted. Its magnitude
depends very strongly on the power
factor cosΦ.
REACTIVE POWER (Q):The reactive
power, Q is by definition equal to the
peak value of that power component
that travels back & forth on the line,
resulting in zero average, and therefore
capable of no useful work.
2
TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD PHASOR PHASE POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD
ANGLE P Q
I
V R I V Ф = 0° P>0 Q=0

I V
V L Ф Ф = +90° P=0 Q>0
I
I I
C P=0
V Ф = - 90° Q<0
Ф V

I R
V V
L Φ 0°<Φ<+90° P>0 Q>0
I

V R L

3
TYPE OF LOADS:
TYPE OF LOAD PHASOR PHASE POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD
ANGLE P Q
I

V R
C I
Φ V -90°<Φ<0° P>0 Q<0
C
V R

Tuned to
Resonance
IL = Ic
I
V L PL = Pc
C
Energy travels -90°<=Φ<=+90° P=0 Q=0
Ic IL
Back & forth
Between C&L

4
TYPE OF LOADS
• Inductive load absorbs positive Q. i.e., an
inductor consumes
reactive power.
• Capacitive load absorbs negative Q. i.e., a
capacitor generates reactive power.
• Sign change in Q simply means a 180° phase shift.
• Resistive load consumes real power.
• Inductive load consumes positive reactive power
• Capacitive load consumes negative reactive power.
• Combination of R & L load consumes real &
positive reactive power.
• Combination of R & C load consumes real &
negative reactive power.
• Reactive power is bi-directional power. It travels from
source to load as well as load to source.
5
CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR

• I) COLLECT THE INFORMATIONS FROM T.G. NAME PLATE / MANUAL:


1. Terminal Voltage : 11,000 V
2. Rated MVA : 137.5
3. Rated p.f. (cos Ф) : 0.8 Lagging
4. Rated Armature Current : 7220 A
5. Rated Field Current : 1500 A
6. Short Circuit Ratio : 0.5
• II) CALCULATED VALUES:
1. MW = MVA X p.f. = 137.5 X 0.8 = 110 MW
2. MVAR = MVA X SCR = 137.5 X 0.5 = 68.75 MVAR (Max. permissible zero
p.f. leading MVAR)
3. Ф = cos-1(0.8) = 36.87°
4. To ensure operational safety, there should be a margin of at least 12.5 %
(given by the manufacturer) of the power rating of the generator
between
the working point & the theoretical stability (load angle ‘δ’) limit line. The
operational limit of a generator rated at 0.8 p.f. lagging can be tabulated
below:
p.u. MW 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9
p.u. MW + Margin 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

6
CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR
REAL POWER
p.u. MW

Unity p.f.
Leading p.f. Lagging p.f.
VAR IMPORT VAR EXPORT

OE : No-load Field Current


OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction
FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

δ=90° B
1.0
P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING
0.9 0.9

G TURBINE LIMIT LINE D


0.8 0.8

3 °)
(δ=6
THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE

0.7 0.7

GIN

ST
NT

AT
E
MAR

RR

OR
0.6 0.6

CU
T
EN
%

CU
RR

RE
12.5

R
CU

TU

RE
0.5 0.5

ROTO
LD

MA

NT
ITH

FIE

AR
R)

LIM
IT W

R C
0.4 R (O

R)
0.4

IT
(O
TO

UR
LIM

RO

OR

REN
L

AT
TA 0.3
ITY

0.3
TO

ST
.87°

T LIM
BIL

L
TA
STA

0.2 0.2 TO

IT
Ф=36
AL
CT IC

0.1 0.1
PR A

A E F H C
1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
REACTIVE POWER SCR MVA X SCR REACTIVE POWER
MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE
p.u. MVAR (leading) MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.
p.u. MVAR (lagging)

7
CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR
REAL POWER
p.u. MW

Unity p.f.
Leading p.f. Lagging p.f.
VAR IMPORT VAR EXPORT

OE : No-load Field Current


OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction
FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

δ=90° B
1.0
P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING
0.9 0.9

G TURBINE LIMIT LINE D


0.8 0.8

3°)
(δ=6
THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE

0.7 0.7

R GIN

ST
NT

AT
E
RR

OR
0.6

MA
0.6

CU
T
EN
2.5 %

CU
RR

RE

RR
CU

TU
0.5 0.5

ROT
H 1

EN
D

MA
EL
FI

T
WIT

AR

OR
R)

L IM
0.4 R (O

R)
0.4
IMIT

CUR

IT
(O
TO
RO

OR
Y L

RENT
L

AT
0.3 TA 0.3
TO
BIL IT

ST

L

LIMIT
TA
.8
STA

0.2 0.2
TO
Ф= 36
AL
CTIC

0.1 0.1
PRA

0.5
0.4

0.6
0.2

0.3

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0
A F H C
0.1

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
REACTIVE POWER SCR MVA X SCR REACTIVE POWER
p.u. MVAR (leading) MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE p.u. MVAR (lagging)
MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.

8
III) COMPARISON

 Actual MW=50 (i.e. 50/137.5=0.364p.u.) E.T.P.S. *** UNIT-5


 Actual MVAR=6 (i.e. 6/137.5=0.044p.u.)
DATE: 09.08.2004
TIME: 11:00 Hrs.
 Arm. Current = 0.36p.u. X 7220A=2599A
 MW = 50
 Field Current=0.475p.u. X 1500A=712.5A
 MVAR = 6
 p.f.=cos(6.5°)=0.994 lag
 Armature Current = 2600A
 Load Angle ‘δ’=33.4°
 Field Current = 710A
 V=(MVA X 106)/(√3 X Iarm.)
 p.f.= 0.98 lag
 =(√(MW +MVAR ) X 10 )/(√3 X
2 2 6
Iarm.)
 δ = -- (No measurement)
 =(√(50 +6 ) X 10 )/(√3 X 2599) = 11.12KV
2 2 6

 V = 11.2 KV

9
CAPABILITY CURVE
• Rotor current limit
 Class of insulation (to take care of rotor insulation)
• Stator current limit
 Class of insulation for stator.
• MW load limit
 Turbine limit (steam power generation capability)
 Turbine is designed for MW load only .
• Minimum load angle limit
 Leading p.f. operation
 Stability limit of generation
K. Stator end heating limit
 Stressing stator winding & heating of stator
 10 to 20 MVAR (leading p.f.) is safe
 Rotor is relieved from stress
 Stator end winding heated due to capacitive effect
 Remove capacitor banks in load centres
 In NCTPS 210 MW unit, running the generator at -64 MVAR
load for ½ an hour. Not able to reduce the load.
10
USEFULNESS OF CAPABILITY DIAGRAM FOR
EXCITATION CONTROL

The information given by the capability diagram


regarding full load rotor current (excitation),
maximum rotor angle during steady state leading
p.f. zone operation (<75°) etc., are essential for
proper setting of the various limiters in the
excitation control system.
Capability diagram give the basic information
regarding the limiting zones of the operation so
that limiters can be set / commissioned suitably
for safe operation of the units.
11
FREQUENCY IS RELATED TO REAL POWER ( P – f )

 SMALL DROP IN SYSTEM LOAD.

 VALVE SETTINGS ARE IGNORANT OF THE LOAD CHANGE.

 INPUT TORQUE TO EACH MACHINE REMAINS UNALTERED.

 DECREASE IN CURRENT SUPPLIED BY EACH ALTERNATOR.

 DECREASE IN ELECTRO-MAGNETIC TORQUE BY EACH ALTERNATOR.

 EACH ALTERNATOR EXPERIENCES SURPLES ACCELERATING TORQUE.

 SLIGHT INCREASE IN SPEED AND FREQUENCY.

12
EFFECT ON OTHER LOADS:
 AT HIGHER FREQUENCY, THE REMAINING LOAD ROTATES AT
HIGHER SPEED AND TAKES MORE CURRENT.
 HENCE THE LOAD DEMAND INCREASES.
 POWER GENERATION AT HIGHER FREQUENCY EQUALS THE LOAD
DEMAND POWER.
 TO DECREASE THE FREQUENCY, THE VALVE MUST BE CLOSED
SLIGHTLY.
EXAMPLE: PUMP SET (INDUCTION MOTOR)
At high frequency, the speed of IM increases.
Ns = 120f / P Nr = Ns ( 1 - s )
The current taken by the IM will be more. Hence the demand on the system
increases.

ADJUSTING CONTROLS CONTROLS


INPUT VALVES FREQUENCY REAL POWER

13
VOLTAGE IS RELATED TO REACTIVE POWER ( Q – V )
G1

1 V1 V2 2
I jX
P jQ

1. Bus Voltage V1 is kept at constant magnitude.


2. Transmission line has reactance only i.e. jX.
3. Power flow is P Q.

Take V1 as reference.
V2=V1-jXI -----------------------------------(1)
V1 * I = P jQ
I = (P-jQ) / V1 ------------------------------(2)
Substitute (2) in (1)
V2 = V1 – jX [(P/V1) – j(Q/V1)]
V2 = [V1 – (X/V1)Q] – j(X/V1)P] 14
VECTOR DIAGRAMS:
V2 = V1- X Q - j X P
V1 V1

BOTH DROPS EQUAL DOUBLE P DOUBLE Q

V1 V1 V1
X Q X 2X Q
V1 Q V1
V1
X P XP
V2 V1
V2 V1

2X P
V2 V1

DOUBLE “P ”: VOLTAGE ANGLE WILL CHANGE. NO CHANGE IN MAGNITUDE.

DOUBLE “Q ”: VOLTAGE MAGNITUDE IS VERY MUCH RELATED TO REACTIVE


POWER.
MORE “Q ” FLOW WILL AFFECT THE VOLTAGE
EXCITATION MORE LAGGING MVAR GEN. VOLTAGE

EXCITATION LESS LAGGING MVAR GEN. VOLTAGE15


REACTIVE POWER INJECTION AT LOAD SIDE BY USING SHUNT
CAPACITORS, IMPROVES THE VOLTAGE.

UNDER LIGHT LOAD CONDITIONS, RECEIVING END VOLTAGE >


SENDING END VOLTAGE (FERRANTI EFFECT) DUE TO CAPACITIVE
LOAD. CONNECT SHUNT REACTORS TO CONTROL VOLTAGE.

PEAK LOAD CONNECT TO CONTROL


CONDITION CAPACITORS VOLTAGE

LIGHT LOAD CONNECT


CONDITION REACTORS

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER IS USED TO ABSORB or TO DELIVER


THE REACTIVE POWER.

SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR UNDER NO-LOAD CONDITION IS


SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER.

16
POWER DIAGRAM (CAPABILITY DIAGRAM):

• ASSUMPTION: I.R. drop is negligible. CASE-I:


In Δ ABC, BC=E
Sinδ B
E In Δ BCD, BC=IXd
MW

d
CosФ δ Φ

IX
A
Φ V D C E Sinδ = IXd CosФ
I MVAR Multiply both sides by V
Xd
EV Sinδ = VI CosФ = REAL
Xd POWER
At δ=90°, We get the maximum power i.e. the theoritical stability line.
• CASE-I I: In Δ ABC, CD=AC – AD; In Δ BCD, CD=IXd SinФ
In Δ ABC, AC=E Cosδ & AD = V
IXd SinФ = E Cosδ - V ; Multiply both sides by V , We get
Xd
EV Cos δ – V2 = VI Sin Ф = REACTIVE POWER
Xd Xd 17
SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO ( SCR ):
SCR = FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO PRODUCE RATED VOLTAGE ON O.C.
FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO CIRCULATE RATED CURRENT ON S.C.
S.C.C.
O.C.C.
PER UNIT CURRENT
PER UNIT VOLTAGE

a b
1.0
C
E
AD AE DE
c AB AC BC
A D B

o Fo Fc FIELD CURRENT
SCR = o Fo c Fo c Fo 1 1
1
o Fs b Fs a Fo a Fo / c Fo Per unit voltage on open circuit
Xd
Corresponding per unit current on short circuit
18

= RECIPROCAL OF SYNCHRONOUS REACTANCE


TYPICAL S.C.R. VALUES:
 For 500 MW T.G., SCR= 0.48
 For 210 MW T.G., SCR= 0.49
 For 110 MW T.G., SCR= 0.50
 For 60 MW T.G., SCR= 0.59
 The SCR value may have to be raised to 1.0 to 1.5, if the loading is likely to be
capacitive i.e. leading MVAR supply.
 For modern Turbo-alternator, the SCR is normally between 0.48 to 0.7
EFFECT OF S.C.R. ON MACHINE PERFORMANCE:
 Higher value of SCR has higher stability limit.
 Better voltage regulation for high SCR.
 High value of SCR has a long air gap which means that the mmf required by
field is large. Hence machine with higher SCR is costlier to build.

TRANSPORTATION
SCR AIR GAP WEIGHT SIZE
PROBLEM

Present trend is to build low value of SCR since fast acting excitation
system available.
19
GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS
• T.G. CAPACITY IN M.W.:
50
60
62.5
100
110
120
200
210 – Weight: 250 tonnes
235
250
500
800 future
20
1000 future
GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS
• T.G. TERMINAL VOLTAGE IN KV :
10.5
11 – ETPS 60 MW, 110 MW
13.8
15 – Neyveli-Stage I
15.75 – BHEL 210 MW
16 – Nuclear 235 MW
18.4 – NTPC 210 MW
21 – 500 MW
22 - 500 MW
33 (or) 34 – Future (800 MW/1000 MW)
requires 800 KV line (year 2010)
21
GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS
 Higher capacity Hydro machine in India : 250 MW, KOINA (Maharastra),
Air cooled.

 Higher capacity T.G. in India : 500 MW.

 Higher capacity T.G. :


Advantage : Reduction of cost of Generation.
Limitations : (i) Transportation problem
(bigger size)
(ii) Do not have adequate
transmission lines.

 Higher capacity G.T. in India : 315 MVA, 3 phase, single unit,


400 KV.

 Maximum voltage : 400 KV AC.

 National Grid : 800 or 765 KV line – year 2010.

 Regional Grid : 400 KV line.

 World highest : FRANCE, 1500 MW T.G., Nuclear ,


1600 MVA, 1200 KV.

22
GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS

SPECIFICATION FOR ROTATING MACHINES:

IEC 34 Part – I, II, III (International Electro-Technical


commission)
IS 5422

 2*105 hours guaranteed operating time (23 years)


8760 hrs/year.
 104 start/stop times.
 Total life time : 25 years.
 Capital O/H : Once in 4 to 5 years (25 days).
 Annual O/H : < 10 days.

23
VOLTAGE VERSUS VAR/POWER FACTOR REGULATION ON
SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

Thomas W. Eberly Richard C. Schaefer


Member, IEEE Senior Member, IEEE
Southern California Edison Co. Basler Electric Company

Abstract - When paralleled to the utility bus, the early morning, but drops progressively through the day
synchronous generators can be controlled using either as system loading increases. In other cases, high
terminal voltage or var/power factor control. Selection reactances in the transmission and distribution line can
is dependent upon the size of the generator and the cause undesirable voltage drops with increased system
stiffness of the connecting utility bus. loading. This reduces the available voltage at the load,
forcing local area generators to supply more VArs into the
For large generators where the kVA is significant, utility bus to meet the demands of the system.
these machines are usually terminal voltage regulated
and dictate the system’s bus voltage. Depending upon the impedance of the transmission or
distribution line at the area of the local generating station,
When smaller terminal voltage regulated generators and the voltage regulation of the system bus, a smaller
are synchronized to a stiff utility bus, the system generator tied into the utility bus can become either
voltage will not change as the smaller generator shares severely overloaded or underexcited. The severity depends
reactive loading. However, if the system voltage upon the magnitude and direction of the system voltage
changes significantly, the smaller generator, with its change.
continuous acting terminal voltage regulator, will
attempt to maintain the voltage set point. As the
voltage regulator follows its characteristic curve, it II. TYPES OF EXCITATION SYSTEM REGULATION
may cause either over or under excitation of the
smaller generator. Voltage variations are not uncommon in the utility system.
When they are minor, the reactive droop compensation
Excessive system voltage may cause a small generator within the voltage regulator will assure reactive load
to lose synchronizing torque, while low system voltage sharing between the generator and the interconnected bus.
may cause excessive heating on the generator or This prevents large changes in reactive current for any one
excessive overcurrent operation of the excitation generator. Excessive reactive current can result in either
system. overload or loss of generator synchronism. Reactive droop
compensation is accomplished by the addition of a current
Maintaining a constant reactive load on the smaller transformer in one of the generator output leads. With the
generating unit can reduce the generator field current proper orientation of this signal into the voltage regulator
variations and, thus, reduce the maintenance of the sensing circuit, the control system becomes sensitive to
collector rings and brushes. reactive current flow. The compensation circuit has the
same effect as adding approximately 10% impedance in
This paper illustrates the effect of changing system series with the generator whose automatic voltage
bus voltage on small generators utilizing voltage regulator provides 1/2% voltage regulation.
versus VAr/power factor regulation.
In Fig. 1, a generator is equipped with a solid state voltage
INDEX TERMS: Synchronous generator, excitation regulator having reactive voltage droop compensation. The
systems, voltage regulators, var/power factor controllers graph illustrates the effect of bus voltage changes on the
reactive/ampere load on the generator. If the bus voltage
I. INTRODUCTION drops by 6%, the reactive/ampere generator load will
change from zero to 70%. A further decrease to 10% could
When synchronous generators are tied to a utility bus, exceed the kVA rating of the generator, causing excessive
conditions may exist in which it is not desirable for a heating in the field winding and the power semiconductors
generator to use a terminal voltage regulator with reactive of the excitation system. The increase in field heating is
droop compensation. These conditions occur where the proportional to the increase of lagging reactive/ampere
transmission or distribution voltage may be sensitive to load.
local load fluctuations. The bus voltage may be normal in
Fig. 1. Voltage Regulator Droop Versus Var/PF Control Regulation

Fig. 1 also illustrates a condition where the bus voltage


may increase, causing a leading power factor condition on
the generator. Here, insufficient reactive droop
compensation may cause the generator to become
underexcited, and the voltage regulator circuit can cause
potential loss of machine synchronism. To avoid these
possible scenarios, a maximum excitation limiter is used to
prevent excessive rotor heating when the bus voltage Fig. 2. Generator Capability Curve
drops very low, while a minimum excitation limiter is utilized
to prevent generator potential loss of synchronism when Fig. 2 is used for explanation in describing the controller’s
the system bus voltage rises excessively. operation. A vector 0-D is used to represent full 0.8 power
factor output of a generator. With “var” control, if kilowatts
For these conditions that can dramatically affect small are decreased progressively, the vector O-D will move in a
machine performance, a more favorable method of control horizontal manner to 0-C’, 0-B’ and finally 0-A’, regulating
is the use of a VAr or power factor control. There are the var quantity regardless of kW changes. Changing the
several schemes used today from a continuous analog-
controller to regulate ”Power Factor ” causes the cos ∅ to
type, a SCADA or meter relay output contacts scheme (a
be regulated. As kW decreases, the operating point will
non-continuous acting method) to digital regulators. Any of
move proportionally from D to D’ and finally to D”,
these methods will cause the generator to be regulated at a
decreasing the ”var” component, but maintaining a constant
programmed quantity of VArs or power factor. The major
angle ∅.
difference between the schemes is the response time of
the controller to modify the voltage set point. In Fig. 1, the
var controller is used in lieu of the terminal voltage
III. SYSTEM TESTING AT THE PORTAL
regulator with reactive droop compensation. Notice the
POWERHOUSE
effect of bus voltage changes on system vars in voltage
regulation mode, while the var controller can be set to
To illustrate the system performance variation between
regulate the generator at a programmed level of 70% vars
voltage regulation with the voltage set point reactive droop
and maintain it, regardless of bus voltage changes that
compensation versus var/power factor control, tests were
may occur. The controller provides essentially infinite
conducted on a 10.4 MW hydro-turbine generator. The
droop.
generator utilizes a 100 kW static exciter regulator
equipped with an automatic voltage regulator and reactive
droop compensation working directly into the main field.
Also included is a minimum/maximum excitation limiter and
a var/power factor controller.

The machine is located at the Portal Powerhouse in Central


California on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada
Mountains. It derives power from the upper San Joaquin
River basin drainage area. The generator is a lone,
unattended machine, connected at the end of a radial line.
Portal PowerHouse generates at 4,800 Vac then is stepped
up to 34.4 kV into a medium voltage distribution line. The
area distribution voltage is dependent upon the utility bus
voltage. The change in the bus voltage can cause
significant reactive current to flow between the Portal
generator and the interconnected bus. Based upon these
conditions, the excitation system was equipped with
var/power factor control. See Fig. 3.

Fig. 3. Portal PowerHouse (One Line)

Three tests were performed on the generator to illustrate


the system performance between voltage, var and power
factor control. During the test, transformer taps at the 34.4
kV distribution level, approximately 20 miles from the Portal
Powerhouse, were raised and lowered to adjust the system
voltage. The data collected illustrates the effect of the
system voltage change on the 10.4 MW generator. Fig. 4. Per Unit Change in Generator Voltage
Performance data included generator terminal voltage and
line current, generator Mvar and MW, phase angle between
the generator line to line voltage and line current, system
voltage measured at the transformer tap changer, and
generator field voltage and field current.

A. Terminal Voltage Regulator

For the test, transformer taps were moved to eight different


settings, four lower, a neutral and three raise. Each
representing a 2 1/2% voltage step change. After the data
was recorded, all generator quantities- were normalized to
reflect 100% MW, zero Mvars - 100% MVA, at rated field
current and voltage, rated generator terminal voltage and
normal system line voltage.

Fig. 4 shows the per unit change in generator voltage


measured at the terminals of the machine versus field
voltage and field current.

Fig. 5. MW Component
The generator output voltage changed 2.0% while field
excitation changed approximately 25% over the same
range. As the transformer taps were progressively reduced,
the automatic voltage regulator sensed the lowering system
voltage and reacted by pushing more dc power into the
field. When the transformer tap changed to its highest
position, system voltage measured at the tap changing
transformer likewise raised. Here the automatic voltage
regulator reduced the field excitation into the rotor to
reduce the generator voltage. As the automatic voltage
regulator attempted to keep the generator voltage constant,
the generator reactive current flowed into the generator
(VArs buck) thus causing the phase angle between the
generator voltage and current to increase.

Fig. 5 shows that the component of the MW remained


essentially constant as the governor regulated the power
from the turbine. MVA, however, changed approximately
3% as the voltage regulator varied its output response to
maintain generator terminal voltage.

Generator line current exhibited the familiar generator V


curve characteristic as field excitation is varied by the
command of the automatic voltage regulator. The reactive
current magnitude of the generator output is extremely high
at the minimum transformer tap (vars boost) due to the
large voltage difference between the generator and bus
voltage. As the transformer tap is moved to the maximum
position, raising the bus voltage, the action of the automatic
voltage regulator reduces the field excitation. This action Fig. 6. Var Control Test Per Unit Change in Generator Voltage
again creates a voltage difference between the generator
and bus voltage, causing the reactive current magnitude to
be high but in the opposite polarity. Here, the vars are
Phase Generator System Generator Field WATTS MVA
being absorbed into the generator (vars buck). Angle Voltage Bus Current Current
Change Voltage
The difference in generator voltage and system bus voltage
is noted in Fig. 5. While the voltage regulation of the 20° 2.0% 6.4% 5.4% 25.3% 0.53% 2.7%
generator is 2.0%, the regulation of the system bus voltage
varied 6%. The difference in regulation, is due to the Table 1. Change for Generator Quantities in Voltage Regulation
voltage drop caused by the reactances in the distribution Mode
line between the generator and the changing transformer
tap, and the impedance of the generator step up
transformer. Table 1 illustrates the percent change of the
various quantities as the transformer tap range is moved
through eight different positions.

B. Var Control

Upon completion of the first test, the operation of the static


excitation system was switched from voltage regulation to
var control. In the VAr mode, the excitation system was
regulated to keep the reactive current constant. New
performance data was generated using the same
transformer tap range. Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate the effect of
VAr control on the generator while Table 2 tabulates the
data and shows the percentage change in the measured
quantities.
Phase Generator System Generator Field WATTS MVA
Angle Voltage Bus Current Current
Change Voltage

0.15° 8.6% 9.02% 8% 11.7% 0 0

Table 2: Change for Generator Quantities in Var Regulation Mode

C. Power Factor Control

The last performance test involved placing the excitation


system into power factor control. Here, the power angle is
regulated by comparing the real power (watts) and the
reactive power (vars). Final tests were limited to four
transformer taps due to problems with the tap changer
system. For clarity, the data in Table 3 compares the same
tap settings using voltage, var, and power factor regulation.
Figs. 8 and 9 graphically illustrate the data taken during the
test.

The data in Table 3 illustrates that noted performance


differences are again predominant between voltage
regulation and power factor control.

Fig 7. Var Control Test Machine Phase Angle, Minimum Change

In VAr mode, tests were conducted in an identical manner


to the voltage regulator mode. Fig. 6 shows a substantial
difference in the reaction of the generator terminal voltage
to the change in system voltage, as compared with Fig. 5.
Since the generator voltage was no longer the sensed
parameter of the excitation system, the generator terminal
voltage rose and fell in near unison with the system bus
voltage. A greater change of approximately 8% in
generator terminal voltage is noted because it depicts the
action of the var controller regulating reactive current in lieu
of generator voltage.

Unlike the earlier test where the phase angle changed


drastically with terminal voltage regulation, Fig. 7 illustrates
the phase angle held essentially constant due to the
regulated var and the regulated watt components. When
the generator terminal voltage increased or decreased, the
generator current decreased and increased respectively
due to the turbine governor holding a constant load (MW)
or torque and the var controller holding the reactive power
at zero.

Fig. 7 shows the field characteristics relating to the var


control mode. A close examination of these trends as
Fig. 8. Power Factor Control Minimum Phase Angle, Minimum
compared to the field characteristics in Fig. 4 reveals an Change
inverse relationship of field power between the two modes
of regulation. This inverse characteristic exhibited in the var
mode demonstrates the var controller’s ability to decrease
rotor heating when the system voltage is low, and pole slip
when the system voltage is high.
Fig. 9. Power Factor Control, Per Unit Change in Generator
Voltage

Control Mode Phase Angle Generator System Bus Generator Field Current WATTS MVA
Change Voltage Voltage Current

VOLTAGE 7.9° 0.89% 2.5% 1.08% 10.6% 0 0.32%

VARS 0.1° 3.6% 3.73% 3.63% 4.67% 0 0

POWER 0 3.3% 3.7% 3.3% 4.6% 0 0


FACTOR

Table 3. Voltage, Var Performance Comparison to Power Factor Regulation

In comparing power factor to var control, the data indicates and the collector rings. If the current load is excessive, too
nearly identical performance. much film may form, causing excessive brush decay and
particle decomposition. This results in arcing, uneven heat
IV. OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING MACHINE distribution on the brush, and brush bounce. However, if
PERFORMANCE the current density is too low, too little film will form,
creating excessive friction over the collector ring. This
A. Brush Life for Synchronous Generators again results in excessive brush wear, brush chatter, and
actual brush breakage.
For both old and new generators, where brushes are
utilized, it is important that a machine’s performance be For those generators where voltage regulation control is
optimized to insure long life at minimum maintenance The utilized, it is not uncommon to see generator field excitation
manner in which a generator is operated can influence the change extensively under extreme operating conditions.
brush life and hence the related maintenance. Brushes are Data in Fig. 4 illustrate this phenomenon. For these
used to transfer the dc field current and voltage from either systems under those conditions, brush life is expected to
a rotating exciter or static exciter system to the rotor’s be shorter. Here a smaller machine would enjoy a
collector rings. Brush selection is based upon a certain maintenance advantage if equipped with a var or power
current density range where it can establish and maintain a factor controller.
satisfactory film important for lubrication. The lubrication
helps ensure a good sliding surface between the brushes
B. Other Voltage Control Equipment become overloaded or possibly lose synchronizing torque
unless limiters are utilized when the bus voltage changes
In large generator systems, voltage regulating units are from one extreme to another.
desirable because they stabilize the system’s terminal
voltage. Smaller generators have little impact on changing Data presented in this paper did not show the generator
the bus voltage, and in fact can lead to system coordination actually overloaded or extremely underexcited because of
problems. These problems occur typically where capacitor the controlled testing at the site. It did, however, show the
and transformer banks are simultaneously used for voltage tendency for a machine that is terminal voltage regulated to
control. see larger field current swings when degradation of the bus
voltage does occur.
In these systems where a small voltage regulated
generator is utilized, nuisance switching may result VI. REFERENCES
between the voltage correcting equipment and the
interconnected smaller generator that uses a terminal 1. National Trademark Brush Digest, Union Carbide
voltage regulator. These system disturbances are caused Corporation, Carbon Products Division
by excessive voltage correction from capacitor and/or
transformer banks trying to compensate for the smaller 2. Eberly, T.W., Schaefer, R.C., “Minimum/Maximum
generator’s limited capacity to help keep system bus Excitation Limiter Performance Goals for Small
voltage constant. Secondly, it may cause unacceptable Generation”, presented at IEEE Power Engineering Society
reactive current exchanges between the smaller generator ’95.
and the utility bus depending upon the magnitude and
direction of the voltage change. 3. Jackson, J.Y. “Interpretation and Use of Generator
Reactive Capability Diagrams”, IEEE Transaction On
For these systems, a compromise may be needed between Industry and General Applications, Vol. IGA-7, No. 6,
both the voltage regulator and the Var/PF controller Nov./Dec. 1971.
operation. During a system disturbance, the voltage
regulator may need to provide voltage bus support and, 4. Godhwani, A., Kim, K., Basler, M.J., “Design, Test and
after the event, return back to the Var/PF control set point. Simulation Results of a VAr/Power Factor Controller
Today, with digital control, compromises can be resolved Implemented in a Modern Digital Excitation System”,
easily by adjusting gains within the excitation system to presented at 1998 IEEE Summer Meeting Panel Session.
provide optimum control for either application. A high gain
voltage regulator will provide fast transient response to 5. M. J. Basler, R.C. Schaefer, K. Kim, and R. Glenn,
improve the system voltage transient stability and help "Voltage Regulator with Dual PID Controllers Enhances
improve relay tripping coordination during a fault. After the Power System Stability," presented at Hydrovision, 2002.
system stabilizes, the Var/PF controller can maintain the
Var or power factor set point without operator intervention. 6. A. Godhwani, M.J. Basler, and T.W. Eberly,
"Commissioning and Operational Experience with a
Modern Digital Excitation System," in IEEE Transactions on
V. CONCLUSION Energy Conversion, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1998.

The use of var/power factor controllers on generating units 7. IEEE Std 421.2-1990, IEEE Guide for Identification,
connected to the transmission system is not always Testing, and Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance of
desirable unless other considerations are made. In the Excitation Control Systems, New York, NY: IEEE.
case of a large system disturbance, the var/power factor
controllers will degrade the system’s ability to recover from 8. IEEE Std 421.4 1990, IEEE Guide for Specification for
low voltage conditions. Excitation Systems, New York, NY: IEEE.

For large machine applications where constant vars are 9. R.C. Schaefer, "Voltage Regulator Influence on
desired, but the advantages provided by a terminal voltage Generator Stability", Presented at Waterpower Conference,
regulator are needed to provide voltage stability, additional 1991.
provisions will be required for the var controller. For these
applications, the var/power factor controller must be 10. R.C. Schaefer and K. Kim, "Digital Excitation System
equipped with a slow integrated var function. In this case, Provides Enhanced Tuning Over Analog Systems,"
the advantages of both a terminal voltage regulator and presented at IEEE/IAS Pulp and Paper Conference, 2000.
var/power factor operation can be achieved. During the
initial disturbance, the voltage regulator will contribute to 11. F.P. de Mello, C. Concordia, "Concept of Synchronous
the voltage stability of the system, then after some time Machine Stability as Affected by Excitation Control", IEEE
delay, the var control assumes command. Transactions On PAS, Vol. PAS-88, No. 4, April, 1969, pp.
316-329.
There are many factors affecting generator behavior when
it is tied to a utility bus. System bus voltage fluctuation and
area load distribution can cause small generators to
Route 143, Box 269, Highland, Illinois U.S.A. 62249
If you have any questions or need Tel +1 618.654.2341 Fax +1 618.654.2351
No. 1300 North Zhongshan Road
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additional information, please contact e-mail: info@basler.com Suzhou, Jiangsu Province - P.R. China 215200
Tel +86(0)512 6346 1730 Fax +86(0)512 6346 1760
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Our web site is located at: P.A.E. Les Pins, 67319 Wasselonne Cedex FRANCE
Tel +33 3.88.87.1010 Fax +33 3.88.87.0808
http://www.basler.com e-mail: beifrance@basler.com
e-mail: info@basler.com
Synchronous Generator
Capability Curve
Sudarsanan.S
Graduate Engg. Trainee
Kalki communications Technologies
Introduction


Synchronous Machines

Generator Capability

Capability Curve

Importance
Synchronous Machines

Constant speed.


Operating Modes


Excitation
Synchronous Machines
Non-salient pole generator

• High speed (2 - 4 poles)


• Large power (100 - 400 MVA)
• Application
Synchronous Machines
Salient pole generator

• Small and mid-size power ( 0 - 100MVA)

• Mid size generators for emergency power


supply

• Large size generators in hydro-electric power


plants
Capability Curve
 Plot of Complex Power
 Stator And Rotor Heat Limit
 External Limits
Capability Curve - Importance
 Ensure Protection
 Construction of Generator
 Nature of Excitation Circuit
 System Condition
 Influence of Voltage and Power Regulation
 Rotor Acceleration
 Rotor and Stator Overheating
 Over voltage on Rotor
Synchronous Generator Capability Curve
Volts V =Rated Phase Voltage
B

I θ AB E =Generated Emf

A
volts
jX S
Ia =Armature Current
θ o
VΦ A Ra =Armature Resistance
I OA
A Xs =Sync.Reactance
 =Load Angle
The generator phasor diagram Xs =Xa+Xl
Xa =Armature Reactance
E=Vt+IaRa+IajXs =E 
Xl =Leakage Reactance
Ra<<0
E=Vt+IajXs =E|_
AB
cos θ =
XsIA
AB = X s I A cos θ
OA
sin θ = or OA = X s I A sin θ
XSIA
Real Power R eactive Po wer
P3Φ = 3VΦ I A cos θ Q 3Φ = 3VΦ I A sin θ

Apparent Power

S 32Φ = P32Φ +Q 23Φ


S 3 Φ = 3VΦ I A
Capability Curve-Construction
Phasor Diagram to Power Diagram
Volts
B
AB
Volt to Volt amp = 3Vo/Xs
I θ

A
volts Phasor Orgin = -Vo
jX S

o Power dia Orgin = -Vo*(3Vo/Xs)


θ VΦ A
I OA
A

The generator phasor diagram

3E AVΦ
DE =
Xs
I
A

3V P = 3VΦ I A cosθ
S=

θ 3V 2
x Q = 3VΦ I A sin θ

synchronous generator capability curve :


corresponding power units
The origin of the phasor diagram is at − VΦ on the
horizontal axis, so the origin on the power diagram is at
3VΦ VΦ2
Q3Φ = ( −VΦ) = −3
Xs XS
The field current is proportional to the machine’s flux, and
flux is proportional to Generated Emf E
3E AVΦ
DE =
Xs
The armature current Ia is proportional to XsIa ,and the
length corresponding to XsIa on the power diagram is

S = 3VΦ I A
Capability Curve-Non Salient Pole Generator

capability diagram of the turbo generator with xd = xq

Xd=Direct axis synchronous reactance,XsSino

Xq=Quadrature axis synchronous reactance,XsCoso


Capability Curve-Salient Pole Generator

Capability diagram of the Salient pole generator with xd = xq


Conclusion

Capability Curve

Thanks
TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
CAPABILITY
SIPAT SAMPLE SYSTEM: p.u. on Gen Base
Seoni
Z1bu=0.0111 Z=0.055

Z1=Z2=0.098, Z0=0.36
GEN: X"d=0.17,
Xd=2.1, X2=0.21
GT:21/765KV
Z=0.147 Z1=Z2=0.19, Z0=0.608

ICT: Z=0.082 Raipur


UT: 21/11KV Z1bu=0.0212
Z=1.503
Z1=Z2=0.082, Z0=0.26
Korba
IBT
Z1bu=0.0212
ST

132 / 400 KV Z1=Z2=0.505, Z0=1.893


11 / 132 KV Ranchi, Z1bu=0.0212

System Impedance at gen terminal= GSU+Grid {Seoni lines ‫[ ׀׀‬ICTs+400 kV lines]}


Zsys (normal)= 0.182
Zsys (Both Seoni line out)= 0.231
THE SAMPLE SYSTEM

Tutorial Objectives:
• Develop understanding of the parameters that define normal operation of the
generator
• Analyze the various malfunctions that can befall a generator

Operation Scenario:
• The variation in system configuration and voltage have a significant effect on
the operation of the generator and associated auxiliary equipment

Variation in system configuration:


• Impact of change in system configuration is shown in sample system diagram

Variation in system voltage:


• Impact of change in system voltage is discussed in next slide
THE SAMPLE SYSTEM

Variation in system voltage:


Light Load Periods:
• Voltage drop through system components such as lines and transformers is
minimal
• Generators may be required to operate with reduced field current,
consuming excess Vars from the system
High load Periods:
• The increased voltage drop caused by flow of Watts and Vars through
highly inductive components, causes system voltage to fall
• The voltage drop caused by an amp of reactive current is greater than that
caused by an amp of real current
• The system voltage regulation is amplified by the reactive characteristic of
the long high voltage (HV) transmission lines
• At peak system load, generators operate near full field current, supplying
Vars to support system voltage
• When the system is in normal configuration, a portion of the generators‟
reactive capability should be held in reserve to boost voltage in the event
of a forced outage of a major tie line or generator
GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Nameplate rating of sample generator:


• 500 MW at 0.85 power factor, 21 kV

Generator capability curve:


• Nameplate rating defines only one limiting point of operation for the
machine
• A reduction in MVAR output would allow some increase in MW output
and a reduction in MW would allow higher MVAR output
• These allowable variations are defined by the generator capability curve
which defines the Watt/Var (P/Q) operating limit as a function of
coolant pressure. The actual coolant pressure for an operating unit is
often less than the design maximum pressure
• Capability curve is normally plotted at the rated terminal voltage for the
generator
• Capability curve is a composite of three distinct limits as shown in the
next slide
GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Leading(Underexcited) MVAR(PU) Lagging(Overexcited)


Sample Generator Capability Curve
0.8
A
0.6 0.85PF

0.4
B
0.2

-0.2 C

-0.4
0.9PF
-0.6 D
Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU
-0.8
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
MW (PU)
GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Three distinct sections of the capability curve:


• Right hand section (B-C):
 It represents the limit imposed by the ampere rating of the stator winding
• Top section (A-B):
 The ampere rating of the field winding limits the output of Vars into the
power system termed as lagging Vars
• Bottom section (C-D):
 It defines the maximum Vars the generator can consume from the power
system termed as leading Vars.
 This limit is the result of heating in the end laminations of the stator core
which is caused by the flux that flares from the end of the stator when the
generator is operating at low field current

Capability curve for a hydro unit:


• Hydro units are of salient pole construction and do not have end core
regions
• The leading Var limit is determined by the current rating of the stator
winding
GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Generator Capability Curve: Steam, Gas and Hydro Units


Overexcited 0.8
A
0.6 0.85PF
0.4
B
0.2
MVAR(PU)

-0.2
C
-0.4 Steam Gas
Underexcited

Turbine
-0.6 0.9PF

-0.8 D Hydro
Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU
-1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
MW (PU)
VOLTAGE LIMITATIONS

GSU limits:
• No load requirement:
Voltage limit at no load= 110% rated voltage for any tap position
• Rated load requirement:
GSU is operating on 784.125 kV tap with impedance of 14.7%
I= kVA/Esec= 1.0/1.05= 0.952 ‫ﮮ‬-36.90= 0.76-j0.57
Ep=1.05+j0.147(0.76-j0.57)= 1.13 + j 0.11 = 1.135 <5.1°
• Therefore max allowable continuous voltage on GSU primary (LV)
winding is 13.5% as defined by requirement of 0.8 pf, rated load with
105% rated voltage at secondary terminals

Generator limit:
• ANSI/ IEEE C50.12 and C50.13 define permissible operating range of
cylindrical rotor or salient pole machines to be ±5% rated voltage
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

• The MW output of generator is limited by driving torque available from turbine.


• The Var output is function of Et, Esys and Zsys. It is common to encounter voltage
limitation before generator Var limit is reached.
• The relationship between P and Q, Esys and Zsys is often represented by power circle
diagram

Power circle diagram


• Centre= Et2/Zsys
• Radius= Et*Esys/Zsys
+Q
• If resistance is neglected, the center is Center = Et2/Zs
located on Var out axis as shown in
figure Radius=Et*Esys/Zsys

Zsys
Esys
(P,Q)
Et P

-Q
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

1 • The MW output
of generator is
O/E

0.8 Field Limit limited by driving


Turbine Limit torque available
0.6 from turbine.
0.85
• Centre= Et2/Zsys • The Var output is
Reactive (pu)

0.4 • Radius= t*Esys/Zsys function of Et,


Esys and Zsys. It
Et= 1.05 is common to
0.2 encounter voltage
Stator Limit limitation before
0 generator Var
limit is reached.
-0.2 Et= 0.95 • The relationship
between P and Q,
-0.4 Esys and Zsys is
U/E

End core Limit often represented


0.9
by power circle
-0.6 diagram
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Esys= 1.0
Power (pu) Zsys= 18.2% (Gen Base)
Practical operating limits: System normal
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
Practical operating limits: Seoni Bus outaged

O/E 1
0.8
0.6 0.85
Reactive (pu)

0.4 Normal System

0.2 Seoni Lines Out

0
-0.2
-0.4
U/E

0.9
-0.6
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Power (pu)
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
Practical operating limits: All lines in, vary grid voltage

O/E 1
0.8
Esys = 0.96
0.6 0.85
Reactive (pu)

0.4 Esys = 1.0

0.2 Esys = 1.055


Esys = 0.96
0
Esys = 1.0
-0.2
-0.4 Esys = 1.055
U/E

0.9
-0.6
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Power (pu)
GENERATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

• Generator Terminal voltage is provided operating range of


95-105 % but capability curves are only available for rated
voltage (100%).
• It is possible to estimate portions of the capability curve for
voltages other than rated voltage.
Lag(O/E) STATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

1
0.8 The Length of Ra in MVA =
Rated KA x Rated KV x √3
0.6 0.85 PF

0.4 - Et = 0.95
Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

0.95 Ra - Et = 1.0
0.2
Ra
0 - Et = 1.05
1.05 Ra
-0.2
-0.4
0.9 PF
-0.6
-0.8
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
MW (pu)
FIELD LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE
Lag(O/E)
1
0.8
1.05 Rf
0.6 1.052 C 0.85 PF C = -Et2 / Xd
1.0 Rf
0.4 0.95 Rf C
Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

0.952 C R = Et x EI / Xd
0.2
0
-0.2
-0.4
0.9 PF
-0.6
-0.8
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
MW (pu)
LEADING VAR LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE
Lag(O/E)
1
0.8 Centre (P,Q) =
0.6 0.85 PF (0 , K1 x Et2 / Xd)

0.4 Radius =
Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

K2 x Et / Xd
0.2
0 • K1 and K2 are
derived from
-0.2 Et= 1.05 published curves.
-0.4 Et= 1.0 • Leading Var
capability is
0.9 PF
-0.6 markedly reduced
Et= 0.95 as Et increases.
-0.8
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
MW (pu)
TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
STABILITY LIMITS
CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY

Classical View:

EI * Es ES2 ( Xd  Xq )
PE  Sin  sin 2
Xd  Xs 2( Xd  Xs )( Xq  Xs )
For Xd  Xq
EI
EI * Es
PE  Sin I(Xd+Xs)
Xd  Xs δ

Es

• Generator is operating at fixed excitation on manual regulator


• Stability limit is found by changing system parameters very slowly to eliminate
oscillatory parameters and need for damping.
• Stability limit occurs when δ=90 for salient machines and δ<90 for non-salient
machines.
CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY

1.8
E=100%
1.6
Pe=Electrical Power
1.4
Power (PU)

1.2 Reduced E
1
0.8 Pm=Mechanical Power
0.6
0.4 Operating point
0.2
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Degrees

Power Angle Curve


MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS

Eq

Ir * Xq
β

Ir Et Ix * Xq
Ix α
I
Ir * Xs
Es

Ix * Xs

Generator current Voltage Vector Diagram defines Es and Eq in terms of Et, Ir and Ix.
MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS
P Q
Ir  , Ix 
Et Et
With Xd  Xq , the Stability Limit occurs when     900
tan   tan 
tan(    )   , 1  tan  tan   0
1  tan  tan 
IrXq IrXs
tan   , tan  
Et  IxXq Et  IxXs
IrXs IrXq
0 1
Et  IxXs Et  IxXq
E2 (  Xd  Xs )QE 2
t E 2  Q2  t  P2
XdXs t XdXs
2 2
 E2   E2 
 t  
1

1 
   t  1
 
1 
  Q  P
2
 2  Xd Xs    2  Xs Xd  
   
E2  1 1  E 2
 1 1 
C  0, t    R  t   
2  Xs Xd  2  Xd Xs 
MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS
Circle Diagram of Manual Regulator Steady State Limit

Et 2  1 1 
C j   
2  Xe Xd 
Et 2  1 1 
R   
2  Xe Xd 

Weak System

Strong System

Above circle defines stability criterion against which MEL limit is usually evaluated
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
• AVR rapidly varies field voltage in response to system
condition.
• The change in field voltage for a given change in terminal
voltage defines the gain of regulator (ke)
• The regulator time constant (Te) and generator field time
constant defined the speed of field current response which
ultimately determines the response at generator output
terminal.
• AVR sharply increases synchronizing power.
• But, the gain and speed of AVR reduce system damping
torque.
• In the absence of adequate damping torque, minor system
oscillations may grow in magnitude until connected
generators and tie lines trip.
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
(Simplified Block diagram)

Ts  K1 ( s ) Δ
Tsyn is in phase with  Ρδ=ω Δδ
Td ( s )  D *  ( s ) ΔTm Δ
Δ
 leads  by 90 0

Td is in quadrature with 

• The Synchronizing and damping


Ta ( s )  Tm ( s )  Ts ( s )  Td ( s ) torque produced as a result of the
1 interaction of the generator and
 ( s )  Ta ( s ) * system determine the stability of the
Ms
power system.
 ( s )  314  ( s ) • The boundary of steady state stability
s
occurs when Tsync=0
Ta  Tm  K1  D *  • The boundary of dynamic stability
occurs when Td=0
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

Ta  Tm  K1  D * 


Substituting Ta ( s )  sM ( s )
And  ( s )  s ( s ) / 314
And solving for  ( s )
Tm ( s )
 ( s ) 
 M 2 D 
k1 s  s  1
 314 k1 314 k1 
 n e nt sin n 1   2t 
1
L 1
 s 2 2    2  
  1  1
  2 n 
 n 
314 k1
Natural Frequency , n 
M
Dn
Damping Factor ,  
628k1
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR
STABILITY LIMITS
• The Rotor Angle Δδ varies as an exponentially
decreasing sinusoidal function.
• Damping factor, ξ, controls rate of decay and
frequency of oscillation.
• If ξ = 0, oscillation is sustained at a fixed
magnitude at natural frequency.
• If ξ = -ve, oscillation grows without bound and
instability occurs
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
(Including generator flux linkages but no AVR)

Δ
Ta( s )  k1 ( s )
* Δδ
k3 ΔTm Δ
Tb( s )  k 2 Ee( s )
1  sk 3T ' do Δ Δ
Ee( s )  Efd( S )  k 4 ( s )
Tc( s )  Tm( s )  Ta( s )  Tb( s ) ΔEfd

314 * ρδ=ω
 ( s )  2
Tc( s )
Ms den(s)=1 +sK3T’do
Electrical Torque Te( s )  Ta( s )  Tb( s )
k1 ( s )(1  sk 3T ' do)  k 2k 3[Efd( S )  k 4 ( s )]
Te 
1  sk 3T ' do
(1  sk 3T ' do)[k1 ( s )(1  sk 3T ' do)  k 2k 3(Efd( S )  k 4 ( s ))]
Te 
(1  s 2 k32T '2do )
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
With Manual regulator, Efd  0 and substituting s  j
j (T ' dok 2 k32 k 4) ( s )  (k1  k 2k 3k 4  T '2do  2 k32 k1) ( s)
Te( s ) 
T '2do  2 k32  1
(k1  k 2k 3k 4  T '2do  2 k32 k1) ( s ) (T ' dok 2 k32 k 4) ( s)
T ( s ) sync  , T ( s )damp  j
T 'do  k3  1
2 2 2
T '2do  2 k32  1
For steady state   0
Te( s ) sync  (k1  k 2k 3k 4) ( s )
For the Limit of static stability,
2 2
 Et2  1 1   Et2  1 1  
Te( s ) sync  0,           Q   P 2

 2  Xd Xs   2  Xs Xd  
314k1
For the Limit of dynamic stability,   n 
M
314k1
jMT ' dok2 k32 k 4 
T ( s )damp  0  M
314T ' dok1k32  M
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

The torque equations for the system under AVR control are derived from the expanded
Block Diagram
For steady state   0 Δ
and T ( s) sync  0
T ( s) sync  * Δδ
{k 4  ke[k 5  (k 4  k 5ke)k 6k 3]}k 3k 2 ΔTm Δ
(k 3k 6ke  1) 2
Δ
For the Limit of dynamic stability, ΔEfd
  n
T ( s)damp  0 ΔE’q Δet
Ee
T ( s)damp  0 
Δet ref
jk 3k 2{Te[k 4k 3TeT ' do 2  (k 5  k 6k 4k 3)ke]
 (k 4  k 5ke)k 3T ' d 0}
[k 3(TeT ' do 2  k 6ke)  1]2  (Te  k 3T ' do) 2  2 * ρδ=ω
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
EqoEo
k1  [ re sin o  ( Xe  X ' d ) cos o ]
A
iqoEo
 A [( Xq  X ' d )( Xe  Xq ) sin o  re ( Xq  X ' d ) cos o]
r Eo  ( Xq  X ' d )( Xe  Xq ) 
k 2  eA 1  
 A 
 ( Xd  X ' d )( Xe  Xq )   1
k 3  1  
 A 
Eo ( Xd  X ' d )
k4  [( Xe  Xq ) sin o  re cos o]
A
edo  re Eo sin o  ( Xe  X ' d ) Eo cos o 
k5  Xq  
eto  A 
eqo  re Eo cos o  ( Xe  Xq ) Eo sin o 
 X 'd  
eto  A 
eqo  X ' d ( Xe  Xq )  edo re
k6  1  Xq
eto  A 
 eto A All k factors except
2 k3 vary with load
A  re  ( Xe  X ' d )( Xq  Xe )
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

• Besides specialized computer based study programs,


electronic spread sheets and iterative solvers can be used to
determine stability limits.
• One such spreadsheet downloaded from CRC Publishers is
provided in the program content.
• The parameters including system voltage Eo, generator
terminal voltage Eto and real and reactive current
components are used to calculate K factors. These
parameters are calculated from standard generator vector
diagram and applicable equations are given in next slide
• Steady state and dynamic stability limits are found using
Excel‟s “Goal Seek” tool to find the value of Q&P
necessary to produce Zero Tsync or Tdamp.
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

p Q
Ipo  , Igo 
eto eto
Eqo  (eto  IqoXq ) 2  ( IpoXq ) 2
Eo  (eto  Ipo re  IqoXe ) 2  ( IpoXe  Iqo re ) 2

sin o 
etoIpo( Xq  Xe )  re Xq I 2po   2
I qo   etoIqore
EqoEo

cos o  eto
[eto  Iqo( Xq  Xe )  Ipore ]  XeXq I 2po   2
I qo 
EqoEo
[ Ipo(eto  IqoXq )  IqoIpoXq ]
iqo 
Eqo
[ I 2po Xq  Iqo(eto  IqoXq )]
ido 
Eqo
eqo  eto  [(eto  IqoXq ) / Eqo ]
edo  iqoXq
STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS

Manual-SS

AVR Gain Ke = 10

AVR-Dyn

AVR-SS
STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS

Manual-SS

AVR-Dyn Ke =30

AVR-SS
Ke = 10 or 30 AVR-Dyn Ke = 10
TRANSIENT STABILITY

Ability of system to remain synchronized following an abrupt change such as a


fault or switch of a key line

Eg * Es
Power Angle Equation: Pe  Sin
ZT
ZT  X ' d  X TR  Zs

Slip (S, %) Generator Impedance (Xg) Remark


0 Xd
0.33 2X‟d Range of slip for a typical
50 X‟d event of loss of synchronism

100 X‟‟d

X‟d value is typically used in power angle equation to construct swing loci
because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter
TRANSIENT STABILITY

2.5

Pe – Both Lines In
2
Power (PU)

1.5 Pe – One Line Out

1 Pm

0.5
δ1 δ2

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Degrees

Power Angle Plot


TRANSIENT STABILITY

Pe – Both Lines In

Pe – One Line Out

A C D Pm
A2

A1
B

Power Angle with line switching


TRANSIENT STABILITY: Power Angle Plot for Fault Condition

Initial Operating point


Both Lines In

Open CB1

Open CB2 Line B Out

E
A3 F
Pm O J Pm
A2 Bkr 1 tripped
A1 D
C
Fault Both Lines In
A B

Line A
E
Line B Es Stability exists when
g
A3 > (A1+A2)
1 2
TRANSIENT STABILITY

Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic:


• Graphical representation for the system impedance trajectory as seen at
generator terminal

Eg  Es
I 
Xg  X TR  Zs
VR  Eg  IXg
Eg  Es
VR  Eg  Xg
Xg  X TR  Zs
Letting n  Eg / Es and 1  cos  j Sin
V ( n  cos )  j Sin
Z R  R  ( Xg  X TR  Zs) n  Xg
I ( n  cos )  Sin 
2 2

For Eg  Es ( n  1)
Xg  X TR  Zs  
ZR   1  j Cot   Xg
2  2
TRANSIENT STABILITY
Eg X‟d Xsys Es
Xtr
X
B Es
Zsys

Xtr δ=60°
-R R
δ=120° δ=90° P
X‟d

Swing Impedance Path

A Eg
TRANSIENT STABILITY

• At δ =180°, pole slip occurs. There exists a critical swing


angle for any system from which the system cannot
recover. As a thumb rule, critical swing angle δc is
considered to be 120°.
• The plots consider variation of δ but, all other system
parameters are held constant.
• In reality, swing locus shows the effect of rotor oscillation
and changes in Eg.
• Eg is controlled by generator constants and type of
excitation (manual or automatic), governor action,
mechanical damping of nearby units, shunt loads, shunt
capacitance effect and generator saliency.
• Computer simulations are required to obtain accurate
impedance (swing) plots.
• If a system has one or two generators isolated from other
machines, impedance plot can be derived using Excel
Workbook provided in the program.
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Stable Swing With Manual Regulator)
0.5
"-0"

0.99
0 1.09 1.39
0.39
0.29 0.89
0.49

-0.5

0.59
X

0.69

-1 1.29
1.19

0.79

-1.5

-2
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
R
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Stable Swing With Auto Regulator)
1.5
0.99
1
1.09
0.89
0.5 1.19
0.69
0 0.59
0.29
-0.5 "-0"
X

-1
-1.5
-2 0.39

-2.5
-3
0.49
-3.5
-0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5
R
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Unstable Swing With Manual Regulator)
0.2

0 0.39 0.29 0.89


0.49 1.09
1.19 0.99
0.79
1.29
-0.2

-0.4
X

0.69
-0.6

1.39
-0.8 0.59

-1

-1.2
-0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7
R
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Unstable Swing With Auto Regulator)
0.2

0.89
0 1.09 0.79 1.39
0.29
0.39 0.69
-0.2

1.19
-0.4
X

0.59 1.29
-0.6
"-0"
-0.8

0.49
-1
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
R
TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Event:
• Normally, all generators within an interconnected power system operate at like
frequency with their magnetic poles coupled through interaction with the
network
• Interconnecting force is elastic allowing some angular play between generators
in response to system disturbances
• A loss of synchronism occurs when the bonding force is insufficient to hold a
generator or group of generators in step with rest of the power system

Causes:
Loss of synchronism can occur when
• Equipment outages or low voltage weaken the system or
• The force is inadequate to restrain extreme rotor excursions following a system
fault or switching
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Mechanism:
• A loss of synchronism results from some form of system instability
• When the manual regulator is in service, the systems can be vulnerable to the
loss of steady state or dynamic stability. When AVR is in service, minimum
excitation limiter (MEL) is provided to prevent these types of instability
• However, a generator is most likely to loose transient stability. This is the ability
of the system to remain synchronized following an abrupt change such as a fault
or switch of a key line
• Out of step generator or generators operate at slightly different frequencies. A
generator that pulls out of step ahead of the system with a slip frequency of 4
Hz, will be operating at a speed of 1+slip/50= 1.08 pu or 8% over speed.
• The system and generator voltage vectors sweep past one another at slip
frequency, producing a pulsating current with peak magnitude potentially
greater than a 3 phase fault at the generator terminal
I= (Eg ‫ ﮮ‬δ– Es)/ (Xg+Xtr+Zs)
• If Eg=Es, no current will flow when δ =0. System will appear as an open circuit
with infinite impedance. As δ increases, so will the current untill the system
reaches a separation of 1800. At this point, the driving voltage will be twice
normal, the sum of Eg and Es, and the current will be at a maximum.
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

• Electrically, this condition is identical to that produced by a 3 phase fault located


one half the electrical distance to the remote terminal or at Z= 0.5(Xg+Xtr+Zs).
This imaginary fault location is called the electrical center of the system
• The location of electrical center denotes the severity of the event with respect to
the generator. When it is located in the GSU transformer or generator itself, it
represents an event equivalent to a GSU fault or generator fault with severe
stress to local equipment
• The location of the system electrical center is not fixed. The center will move
away from the generator as the system impedance increases due to equipment
outages.
• The center is also slip dependent because Xg varies slip frequency.
• Electrical center also varies with system and generator voltages.
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Turbine Generator Damage:


• As the electrical center moves from the system into generator, the current
magnitude increases and with it thermal and mechanical stress on the generator
and GSU transformer.
• On a strong system, Xtr+Xs can be less than Xg: the electrical centre will lie
within generator and current at 1800 exceeds that of a 3 phase fault at the
generator terminals.
• During out of step event, Xg=X‟d but with low Xtr and Xs, the out of step
current can exceed the designed machine withstand limit (sub transient fault
current at the generator terminal). The absence of DC offset current does lessen
the stress from that of the fault case
• The point is that as the location of electrical center moves towards the neutral
end of generator, current induced thermal and mechanical stress can approach
design limit. The generator is exposed to these conditions each slip cycle. After
a severe event, restacking of the stator core may be required. Local hot spots
may also damage stator windings
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Generator rotor:
• Slip frequency will induce currents in the rotor. Prolonged exposure to these
currents will cause thermal damage to damper windings, rotor teeth, wedges and
rotor body.

Torque pulsations:
• The current pulsations associated with each slip cycle causes severe torque
transients in the turbine generator shaft. The stress is at a maximum during
initial period of each torque pulsation. This is the period when shaft damage
normally occurs.
• The fatigue life of the shaft can be used up after a few pole slip events.
• If slip cycle frequency coincides with a normal frequency of one of the shaft
sections, shaft failure can result
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Excitation System:
• Prolonged asynchronous operation can also cause diode failures within the
excitation system. During each pole slip, these diodes will experience high
voltage as they block reversed rotor current. The over voltage stresses insulation
and can result in breakdown

Power System:
• A loss of synchronism by one or more units will result in cyclic voltage
fluctuations as generators slip poles
• These voltage dips can cause disruption to customers served from the grid.
Induction motors may stall and synchronous motors may loose synchronism.
Other processes would be disrupted when the voltage dips cause the motor
contactors to drop out
TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
LOSS OF FIELD
LOSS OF FIELD

Event:
Excitation to the generator field winding fails

Causes:
Equipment failure, inadvertent opening of the field breaker, an open or short
circuit in the excitation system, or slip ring flashover

Mechanism:
• If and Eg decay at a rate determined by the field circuit time constant
• Var output decreases and becomes negative as generator draws increasing
reactive from power system to replace excitation formerly provided by the field
circuit. Var consumption can exceed the generator MVA rating
• The reduction in Eg also weakens the magnetic coupling between rotor and
stator. At some point during the decay, the coupling will become too weak to
transmit prime mover output power to the electrical system i.e. loss of steady
state stability occurs
LOSS OF FIELD

2.5 Field Current = 100% FL

2
Power (PU)

1.5 80% FL

60% FL
1 Pm

0.5
40% FL
δ at FL
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Degrees
LOSS OF FIELD
EgEs
Power Swing Equation : Pe  sin 
XT
X T  transfer impedance  Xg  Xtr  Xsyst , Xg  effective generator reactance

• The effect of decaying Eg is to reduce amplitude of power angle curve with time
• The intersection of Pe and Pm define the operating angle (δ) of the generator
rotor with respect to the system voltage
• δ increases to maintain power equilibrium
• When δ reaches 900 electrical, power output is at maximum. If decay beyond this
point renders the generator incapable of transmitting all the mechanical power to
the electrical system
• The excess mechanical power is dissipated by acceleration of the generator rotor.
As speed increases beyond synchronous speed, synchronism is lost
• As speed increases, turbine output decreases as dictated by droop setting of the
governor and electrical power increases as dictated by the slip torque
characteristic of the power system.
• Eventually, Pm and Pe will reach a new equilibrium, with generator operating
above synchronous speed as an induction generator drawing excitation from the
power system in the form of Vars
LOSS OF FIELD

• A loss of synchronism following a field failure is not a high speed phenomenon


• Typically, it will take a fully loaded steam turbine generator several seconds to
loose synchronism
• Final slip is affected by the droop setting of the governor, system impedance and
initial loading. For a machine initially operating at full load, final slip is
typically in the 2 to 5% range.
• The power output of the induction generator is less than the pre failure power
output

Impact of LOF operation:


• The final or steady state slip of the induction generator is important because it
determines Xg which in turn defines the impact of post LOF operation
• A LOF event can be represented by XT, a series circuit including Xg, Xtr and
Xsyst. Xg decreases with increasing slip and slip increases with initial generator
load.
• Thus, the higher the initial load, the greater the asynchronous current and more
severe the consequences to both the generator and the connected system
LOSS OF FIELD

Other factors affecting LOF severity:


• The initial load is the major factor in determining the potential damage from a
LOF event.
• At first glance, a strong power system would appear to offer high post fault
currents. This is not necessarily true. A reduction in Zs will reduce the final slip
frequency and increase the power output from the induction generator. Because
of lower final slip, Xg will increase thereby reducing the stator current. Thus, a
failure on a strong system may actually be less damaging than a failure on a
weak system
• A LOF event is more likely to be initiated by a shorted field circuit than an open
field circuit. The former will produce higher stator current, larger reactive intake
and generally more severe consequences than would be experienced with an
open field circuit.
LOSS OF FIELD

• When machines are connected directly to a common bus, the potential for
damage increases. As If decays on the unit with failed excitation, AVR on
healthy machines will initiate full field forcing to support the falling bus voltage.
This increases the Var supply to the faulted machine. The situation is aggravated
when the units are connected to a strong system. An IEEE study documents a
study of 2 generators connected to a common bus and a moderate strength power
system. The unit with failed excitation saw a peak MVA loading in excess of 2
pu and peak stator current in excess of 2.5 pu. The healthy unit was also severely
stressed with a peak MVA of 1.5 pu and peak current of 2 pu
• A LOF on a hydro unit at light load may not result in a loss of synchronism
since salient pole machines can carry up to 25% rated load following a loss of
field without loss of synchronism. However, once a salient pole machine looses
synchronism, it accelerates rapidly to a high slip. The slower acting hydro
governor and the fact that a salient pole machine makes an inefficient induction
generator causes this response. If the hydro generators field is lost near full load,
the effects are the same as for steam turbine units.
LOSS OF FIELD

System Impact:
• A generator operating asynchronously without excitation can consume Vars in
the range of 0.4 to 1.9 times the unit name plate rating as slip increases from
near zero to 4%
• The impact of LOF on the system is determined by it‟s ability to withstand not
only the loss of real and reactive output, but to supply the large Var demand
imposed by the faulted generator after LOF.
• Inability of system to meet VAR demand of failed unit can result in a
widespread system outage
• Initially, excitation on nearby generators will go to full boost to supply reactive
to the generator with failed excitation and support the grid voltage, The large
Var influx can overload and trip the area transmission lines.
• If the failed generator is not disconnected, field current limiters on the adjacent
units will time out, initiating an immediate reduction in field current to
continuous rated value? The resulting reduction in area Var support is likely to
produce severe voltage degradation. System voltage collapse or multi machine
instability can result causing a regional system outage
LOSS OF FIELD

System Impact:
• Dynamic studies similar to those used in transient stability analysis are required
to determine accurately system response to a LOF event. These studies are time
consuming and expansive.
• A screening technique using a standard load flow can determine where full
dynamic studies are required.
• At the generator of interest, a worst case LOF event is simulated in load flow by
setting the reactive flow into the machine at (-)1.5 times the name plate MW
rating.
• If a Load flow solves with reasonable system voltages, the system is considered
capable of withstanding the LOF event
• However, if the solution fails to converge or severely depressed voltage results,
the event must then be modeled dynamically to determine if the system can
survive the field failure.
LOSS OF FIELD

Generator damage:
• The potential for generator damage following a LOF is dependent on generator
design and final slip during asynchronous operation.
• Although the asynchronous capabilities are not addressed in the standards,
modern expectations, particularly for conductor cooled machines are much
lower, with damage in as little as 10 second for some instances.
• The improved cooling techniques result in larger MVA ratings from a given
physical size. These machines have higher per unit impedance and lower inertia
than indirect cooled machines and therefore tend to operate at a higher slip. This
reduces Xg during asynchronous operation, increasing the stator and induced
rotor current
• Conductor cooled machine will also have lower thermal time constants, hence
faster temperature rise for a given current than indirect cooled machines

Load before LOF Final slip Effect on generator


<=30% rated load 0.1-0.2% Damage unlikely
100% rated load 2-5% Exposed to damage
LOSS OF FIELD

Stator winding overload:


• The large –Q and depressed Et following a LOF load can
give rise to Is well above rated. Peak currents of 2.5 pu have
been reported
• ANSI C50.12,13,14 defines a required short time O/L
capability for stator windings which is the limiting value to
prevent stator winding damages
LOSS OF FIELD

Rotor damage:
• Can occur as a result of rapid heating caused by currents induced in
rotor
• LOF by shorted field circuit: the induced current is divided between
rotor structure and the field winding. This reduces heating in rotor
structures
• The induced field current is generally below rated in salient pole
machines and only slightly above rated in a few cases with cylindrical
rotor machines
• LOF by open field circuit: maximum rotor heating occurs. Also,
damaging over voltage will be induced in the field circuit for all but very
low slip events.
• In a cylindrical rotor machine, induced currents flow along the length of
rotor body, creating heat in teeth, slot wedges, and, if present, the
amortisseur winding. Thermal damage is most likely to occur near the
ends of the rotor where currents converge to enter the retaining rings
• In a salient pole machine, induced currents are found in the amortisseur
bars located in each pole face
LOSS OF FIELD

Stator end core damage:


• Thermal damage at the ends of the stator core of a cylindrical rotor machine
when operated at reduced field current.
• This limitation forms the leading Var boundary of the generator capability curve
• A LOF represents the extreme in field current reduction.
• A LOF from full load can result in leading Var loading in excess of the
generator‟s MVA rating. Typically, the generator manufacturer‟s capability
curve limits leading Var intake to about 40 to 60% of the generator rating
• The reduction in terminal voltage that accompanies a LOF markedly increases
the Var capability, but this increase is insufficient to accommodate a potential
2.0pu leading Var inflow.
• The voltage dependent Var limitation is circular on the P-Q plane with the
following characteristics:
Centre (Q,P) = 0, K1*et2/Xd Radius = K2*et/Xd
• Excessive end core heating would result in bluing of metallic end core structure,
charring of stator winding insulation and failure of the insulation medium
between laminations.
LOSS OF FIELD

Torque pulsations:
• Originate from the electrical and magnetic difference between the d- and q-axes.
• More severe for shorted field circuit than an open circuit condition
• The torque magnitude associated with a LOF is less severe than that
accompanying an out of step condition with full excitation, but mechanical
damage remains a significant concern following a LOF event
• Asynchronous operation exposes the generator and the prime mover to two
stress cycles each slip cycle.
• Fatigue is cumulative, and extended asynchronous operation can consume a
considerable portion of the fatigue life of the shaft and associated structures,
including the machine foundations
• These pulsations are also potentially resonant with shafts, turbine blades and
other components.
Thank you
MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER

0.8 0.85
0.6
0.4

0.2
Q

-0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0


0.95
-0.4
-0.6

-0.8 P
MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER

1
0.8
0.6 0.85

0.4
0.2
Q

0
-0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

-0.4 0.9
-0.6
P
-0.8
TRANSIENT STABILITY

Criterion for determination of non-recoverable Swings:


• Improved cooling techniques have increased generator impedance whereas
system impedance declined due to reinforcement
• Electrical Centers moved from transmission system into the GSU and the
generator itself
• Following a system disturbance, generator rotors experience angular
perturbations as they attempt to adjust a new steady state operating condition
• In a stable system rotor oscillations are damped ; initial angular displacement is
largest and proportional to the severity of disturbance
• There exists a maximum swing angle known as critical swing angle (δC) from
which the system can not recover
• System modeling on a transient stability program is best way to determine δC.
Tools and time to use them are generally not available to all and a less accurate
method is often adopted.
• A general assumption is made that δ>1200 is not recoverable and thereafter
instability is imminent
• The minimum system impedance and X‟d values are typically used to construct
swing loci because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter
TRANSIENT STABILITY

Swing Velocity:
• A fault changes system impedance instantaneously while impedance change
during a system transient is constrained by inertia and generator time constants
• GE publication GER-3179 (J Brady) lists the following average velocities for
the first half of the first slip cycle

Unit Type ωs, deg/sec ωs, slip cycles/sec


Steam units 1296-1728 3.6-4.8
Tandem units 250-400 0.694-1.11
Compound units 400-800 1.11-2.22

• Maximum acceleration occurs after each pole slip at the midpoint of the slip
cycle
• Plot indicates slip < 5Hz at the beginning of second slip cycle. This value is
good estimation of upper limit of slip being calculated for a light machine (H=3)
LOSS OF FIELD

• The full load LOF event depicted in figure in earlier slide is typical
• It produces cyclic Is with variation between 1.14 and 2.13pu each slip cycle
• In theory, the stator heating is related to the RMS current over a slip cycle.
• The incremental form for RMS current is
IRMS can be calculated from
1T 2
I RMS   I t incremental currents and slip
T0 cycle duration determine from
the spreadsheet

• In the case of the full load LOF event depicted in figure, the RMS current at final
slip was calculated as 1.74pu
• ANSI standards require that this current is limited to 22 sec to prevent winding
damage
• The stator waveform is not sinusoidal, because slip is not constant through the slip
cycle. Figure in next slide shows the stator current waveform for the same LOF
condition but with Xs reduced from 0.2 to 0.1.
• The incrementally calculated RMS current for this condition is 1.34pu. The
corresponding stator overload limit for this current is 50 sec from ANSI standards.
• This demonstrates that generator stress can increase with increased system
impedance
LOSS OF FIELD

• NPS current induces rotor currents at 2fs whereas frequency of asynchronously


induced rotor current is equal to slip frequency and is usually less than 5 Hz
• As frequency increases, skin effect increases the effective resistance of a
conductor . Thus, higher I2R and more heating per ampere are produced by NPS
operation than those by asynchronous operation
• The 2fs current produced by NPS current does not have sufficient penetration
into the rotor lots to induce current into the field winding. Therefore, the NPS
limit is, is, in effect, based on an open field circuit
• The NPS limits are based on the limiting temperature for pole face amortisseur
winding in salient pole machines and teeth or wedges in round rotor machine
with induced currents at 2fs. A realistic estimate of asynchronous limits requires
an adjustment of conductor resistance for lower frequency asynchronous case
• An AIEEE paper gives expression Tmax = CI2t/d2
Where Tmax= the limiting temperature for a component, C= constant for a
particular machine, I= stator current, and d= depth of penetration
• The physical differences between conducting structure in salient and round rotor
machines, result in different treatments for the resistance variation
LOSS OF FIELD

• The NPS short time limit is defined in terms of K, a constant representing the
maximum (I2eq)2*t value the machine can withstand
• The I2eq term refers to equivalent RMS pu NPS current in the event the current
is time variant
• IEEE standard C37.102:
K= 40 for salient pole machine
K= 10 for large conductor cooled machine
• For pole face amortisseurs on a salient pole machine and other small
conductors, „d‟ varies proportional to 1/√f
• Assume IRMS = 1.74pu at final slip under asynchronous operation

CI 2t Tmax
Tmax   Thermal limit  K  I 2t 
d2 Cf
Tmax I 2tf
 Kf  I tf 
2
 NPS limit  K I 2  
C 100
If machine in Figure 13.2 were limited by pole face amortisseur (K  40),
the expected rotor withstand for asynchronous operation at 5 Hz slip
100 K I 2  100 * 40
t 2
 2
 264 sec
I f 1.74 * 5
LOSS OF FIELD

• For a solid face cylindrical rotor having large diameter configuration, „d‟ varies
proportional to √(I/f)

Tmax I
Cylindrical rotor thermal limit  I 2t 
Cf
Tmax
and K  It  (Note resulting limitation is a function of It and not I 2t )
C
4 Itf Tmax
Practical upper limit for NPS current  4 pu  K I 2     NPS limit
100 C
If machine in Figure 13.2 were limited by tooth temperature (K  10),
the expected rotor withstand for asynchronous operation at 5 Hz slip
100 * K I 2  100 *10
t   28.7 sec
4 * If 4 *1.74 * 5
GENERATOR
CAPABILITY CURVE
By
Prof. C. Radhakrishna
CONTENTS
GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Reactive Capability Curves
Armature current limit
Field current limit
End region heating limit
Generator Characteristics

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GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE
Reactive Capability Curves
• Synchronous generators are rated in terms of the
maximum MVA output at a specified voltage and power
factor (usually 0.85 or 0.9 lagging) which they can carry
continuously without overheating.
• The active power output is limited by the prime mover
capability to a value within the MVA rating.
• The continuous reactive power output capability is limited
by three considerations: armature current limit, field
current limit, and end region heating limit.

Armature current limit


• One of the limitations on generator rating is the maximum
current that can be carried by the armature without
exceeding the heating limitations.

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Armature current limit
The per unit complex output power is
~ ~
S  P  jQ  E t I t *
 E t I t (cos   j sin  )
where φ is the power factor angle.

Figure 1 Armature current heating limit

Therefore, in the P-Q plane the armature current limit, as shown in


Figure 1, appears as a circle with centre at the origin and radius
equal to the MVA rating.
10/17/2010 10:20 AM 4
Field current limit
2
Because of the heat resulting from the R fd i fd power loss, the field
current imposes a second limit on the operation of the generator.

The constant field current locus may be developed by the steady-state


equivalent circuit developed earlier. With Xd=Xq=Xs , the equivalent
circuit of Steady-state model gives the relationship between Et, It and
Eq (equal to Xadifd). The corresponding phasor diagram, with Ra
neglected, is shown in Figure 2.

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Field current limit

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Field current limit
(1)

X ad
P  E t I t cos   E t i fd sin  i
Xs

2
Xad E
t t sin 
Q  EI Eit fd cosi  t

Xs Xs
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Field current limit

The relationship between the active and reactive powers for a


given field current is a circle centred at ( ) on the Q-axis
and with  E t2 / X sthe effect of the
as the radius. Therefore,
maximum( field
X ad / X s ) E t i fd rating on the capability of the machine may
current
be illustrated on the P-Q plane as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Field
current heating limit

In any balanced design, the thermal limits for the field and armature
intersect at a point A, which represents the machine nameplate MVA and
power factor rating.
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End region heating limit

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End region heating limit
• The localized heating in the end region of the armature imposes a third
limit on the operation of a synchronous machine.
• This limit affects the capability of the machine in the under excited
condition.
• This is illustrated in Figure 4, which also includes the limit imposed by
the armature current heating effects.
• The field current and armature current heating limits when plotted on a
P-Q plane depend on the armature voltage.

Figure 4 End region heating limit


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The above limits on the operation of the generator are those
imposed by the capabilities of the machine itself and are determined
by the design of the machine. Additional limits may be imposed by
power system stability limits.

Generator Characteristics
• During conditions of low-system voltages, the reactive power demand on
generators may exceed their field current and/or armature current limits.
• When the reactive power output is limited, the terminal voltage is no
longer maintained constant.
• On most generators, the armature current limit is realized manually by
operators responding to alarms.
• The operator reduces reactive and/or active power output to bring the
armature current within safe limits.
• On some generators, automatic armature current limiters with time delay
are used to limit reactive power output through the AVR.

REFERENCES :
[ 1 ] Prabha Kundur : “Power System Stability and control” , The EPRI
Power System Engineering Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.
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CONCLUSIONS

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THANK
YOU
10/17/2010 10:20 AM 17