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SYSTEM

It must supply energy practically everywhere the customer demands.

The load demands vary with time. The system must able to supply this

ever changing demand.

The delivered energy must meet certain minimum requirements in

regard to quality. The following factors determine the quality:

a) The system frequency must be kept around 50Hz with

a variation of +0.05Hz to -0.05Hz.

b) The magnitude of the bus voltages are maintained within

prescribed limit around the normal value. Generally the

voltage variation should be limited to +5 to -5%.

The energy must be available with high reliability.

The energy must be delivered without overloading any element in the

power system.

The energy must be delivered at minimum cost.

1

REAL POWER (P): The real power, P is

defined as the average value of P and

therefore, physically, means the useful

power being transmitted. Its magnitude

depends very strongly on the power

factor cosΦ.

REACTIVE POWER (Q):The reactive

power, Q is by definition equal to the

peak value of that power component

that travels back & forth on the line,

resulting in zero average, and therefore

capable of no useful work.

2

TYPE OF LOADS:

TYPE OF LOAD PHASOR PHASE POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD

ANGLE P Q

I

V R I V Ф = 0° P>0 Q=0

I V

V L Ф Ф = +90° P=0 Q>0

I

I I

C P=0

V Ф = - 90° Q<0

Ф V

I R

V V

L Φ 0°<Φ<+90° P>0 Q>0

I

V R L

3

TYPE OF LOADS:

TYPE OF LOAD PHASOR PHASE POWER ABSORBED BY THE LOAD

ANGLE P Q

I

V R

C I

Φ V -90°<Φ<0° P>0 Q<0

C

V R

Tuned to

Resonance

IL = Ic

I

V L PL = Pc

C

Energy travels -90°<=Φ<=+90° P=0 Q=0

Ic IL

Back & forth

Between C&L

4

TYPE OF LOADS

• Inductive load absorbs positive Q. i.e., an

inductor consumes

reactive power.

• Capacitive load absorbs negative Q. i.e., a

capacitor generates reactive power.

• Sign change in Q simply means a 180° phase shift.

• Resistive load consumes real power.

• Inductive load consumes positive reactive power

• Capacitive load consumes negative reactive power.

• Combination of R & L load consumes real &

positive reactive power.

• Combination of R & C load consumes real &

negative reactive power.

• Reactive power is bi-directional power. It travels from

source to load as well as load to source.

5

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR

1. Terminal Voltage : 11,000 V

2. Rated MVA : 137.5

3. Rated p.f. (cos Ф) : 0.8 Lagging

4. Rated Armature Current : 7220 A

5. Rated Field Current : 1500 A

6. Short Circuit Ratio : 0.5

• II) CALCULATED VALUES:

1. MW = MVA X p.f. = 137.5 X 0.8 = 110 MW

2. MVAR = MVA X SCR = 137.5 X 0.5 = 68.75 MVAR (Max. permissible zero

p.f. leading MVAR)

3. Ф = cos-1(0.8) = 36.87°

4. To ensure operational safety, there should be a margin of at least 12.5 %

(given by the manufacturer) of the power rating of the generator

between

the working point & the theoretical stability (load angle ‘δ’) limit line. The

operational limit of a generator rated at 0.8 p.f. lagging can be tabulated

below:

p.u. MW 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

p.u. MW + Margin 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

6

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR

REAL POWER

p.u. MW

Unity p.f.

Leading p.f. Lagging p.f.

VAR IMPORT VAR EXPORT

OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction

FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

δ=90° B

1.0

P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

3 °)

(δ=6

THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE

0.7 0.7

GIN

ST

NT

AT

E

MAR

RR

OR

0.6 0.6

CU

T

EN

%

CU

RR

RE

12.5

R

CU

TU

RE

0.5 0.5

ROTO

LD

MA

NT

ITH

FIE

AR

R)

LIM

IT W

R C

0.4 R (O

R)

0.4

IT

(O

TO

UR

LIM

RO

OR

REN

L

AT

TA 0.3

ITY

0.3

TO

ST

.87°

T LIM

BIL

L

TA

STA

0.2 0.2 TO

IT

Ф=36

AL

CT IC

0.1 0.1

PR A

A E F H C

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

REACTIVE POWER SCR MVA X SCR REACTIVE POWER

MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE

p.u. MVAR (leading) MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.

p.u. MVAR (lagging)

7

CAPABILITY DIAGRAM OF A 110 MW ALTERNATOR

REAL POWER

p.u. MW

Unity p.f.

Leading p.f. Lagging p.f.

VAR IMPORT VAR EXPORT

OD : Field Current required for Armature Reaction

FGDHF : Capability Diagram of the 110 MW Alternator

δ=90° B

1.0

P.F.= 0.8 LAGGING

0.9 0.9

0.8 0.8

3°)

(δ=6

THEORITICAL STABILITY LIMIT LINE

0.7 0.7

R GIN

ST

NT

AT

E

RR

OR

0.6

MA

0.6

CU

T

EN

2.5 %

CU

RR

RE

RR

CU

TU

0.5 0.5

ROT

H 1

EN

D

MA

EL

FI

T

WIT

AR

OR

R)

L IM

0.4 R (O

R)

0.4

IMIT

CUR

IT

(O

TO

RO

OR

Y L

RENT

L

AT

0.3 TA 0.3

TO

BIL IT

ST

7°

L

LIMIT

TA

.8

STA

0.2 0.2

TO

Ф= 36

AL

CTIC

0.1 0.1

PRA

0.5

0.4

0.6

0.2

0.3

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

A F H C

0.1

1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 O 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0

REACTIVE POWER SCR MVA X SCR REACTIVE POWER

p.u. MVAR (leading) MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE p.u. MVAR (lagging)

MVAR IN ZERO p.f. LEADING.

8

III) COMPARISON

Actual MVAR=6 (i.e. 6/137.5=0.044p.u.)

DATE: 09.08.2004

TIME: 11:00 Hrs.

Arm. Current = 0.36p.u. X 7220A=2599A

MW = 50

Field Current=0.475p.u. X 1500A=712.5A

MVAR = 6

p.f.=cos(6.5°)=0.994 lag

Armature Current = 2600A

Load Angle ‘δ’=33.4°

Field Current = 710A

V=(MVA X 106)/(√3 X Iarm.)

p.f.= 0.98 lag

=(√(MW +MVAR ) X 10 )/(√3 X

2 2 6

Iarm.)

δ = -- (No measurement)

=(√(50 +6 ) X 10 )/(√3 X 2599) = 11.12KV

2 2 6

V = 11.2 KV

9

CAPABILITY CURVE

• Rotor current limit

Class of insulation (to take care of rotor insulation)

• Stator current limit

Class of insulation for stator.

• MW load limit

Turbine limit (steam power generation capability)

Turbine is designed for MW load only .

• Minimum load angle limit

Leading p.f. operation

Stability limit of generation

K. Stator end heating limit

Stressing stator winding & heating of stator

10 to 20 MVAR (leading p.f.) is safe

Rotor is relieved from stress

Stator end winding heated due to capacitive effect

Remove capacitor banks in load centres

In NCTPS 210 MW unit, running the generator at -64 MVAR

load for ½ an hour. Not able to reduce the load.

10

USEFULNESS OF CAPABILITY DIAGRAM FOR

EXCITATION CONTROL

regarding full load rotor current (excitation),

maximum rotor angle during steady state leading

p.f. zone operation (<75°) etc., are essential for

proper setting of the various limiters in the

excitation control system.

Capability diagram give the basic information

regarding the limiting zones of the operation so

that limiters can be set / commissioned suitably

for safe operation of the units.

11

FREQUENCY IS RELATED TO REAL POWER ( P – f )

12

EFFECT ON OTHER LOADS:

AT HIGHER FREQUENCY, THE REMAINING LOAD ROTATES AT

HIGHER SPEED AND TAKES MORE CURRENT.

HENCE THE LOAD DEMAND INCREASES.

POWER GENERATION AT HIGHER FREQUENCY EQUALS THE LOAD

DEMAND POWER.

TO DECREASE THE FREQUENCY, THE VALVE MUST BE CLOSED

SLIGHTLY.

EXAMPLE: PUMP SET (INDUCTION MOTOR)

At high frequency, the speed of IM increases.

Ns = 120f / P Nr = Ns ( 1 - s )

The current taken by the IM will be more. Hence the demand on the system

increases.

INPUT VALVES FREQUENCY REAL POWER

13

VOLTAGE IS RELATED TO REACTIVE POWER ( Q – V )

G1

1 V1 V2 2

I jX

P jQ

2. Transmission line has reactance only i.e. jX.

3. Power flow is P Q.

Take V1 as reference.

V2=V1-jXI -----------------------------------(1)

V1 * I = P jQ

I = (P-jQ) / V1 ------------------------------(2)

Substitute (2) in (1)

V2 = V1 – jX [(P/V1) – j(Q/V1)]

V2 = [V1 – (X/V1)Q] – j(X/V1)P] 14

VECTOR DIAGRAMS:

V2 = V1- X Q - j X P

V1 V1

V1 V1 V1

X Q X 2X Q

V1 Q V1

V1

X P XP

V2 V1

V2 V1

2X P

V2 V1

POWER.

MORE “Q ” FLOW WILL AFFECT THE VOLTAGE

EXCITATION MORE LAGGING MVAR GEN. VOLTAGE

REACTIVE POWER INJECTION AT LOAD SIDE BY USING SHUNT

CAPACITORS, IMPROVES THE VOLTAGE.

SENDING END VOLTAGE (FERRANTI EFFECT) DUE TO CAPACITIVE

LOAD. CONNECT SHUNT REACTORS TO CONTROL VOLTAGE.

CONDITION CAPACITORS VOLTAGE

CONDITION REACTORS

THE REACTIVE POWER.

SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER.

16

POWER DIAGRAM (CAPABILITY DIAGRAM):

In Δ ABC, BC=E

Sinδ B

E In Δ BCD, BC=IXd

MW

d

CosФ δ Φ

IX

A

Φ V D C E Sinδ = IXd CosФ

I MVAR Multiply both sides by V

Xd

EV Sinδ = VI CosФ = REAL

Xd POWER

At δ=90°, We get the maximum power i.e. the theoritical stability line.

• CASE-I I: In Δ ABC, CD=AC – AD; In Δ BCD, CD=IXd SinФ

In Δ ABC, AC=E Cosδ & AD = V

IXd SinФ = E Cosδ - V ; Multiply both sides by V , We get

Xd

EV Cos δ – V2 = VI Sin Ф = REACTIVE POWER

Xd Xd 17

SHORT CIRCUIT RATIO ( SCR ):

SCR = FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO PRODUCE RATED VOLTAGE ON O.C.

FIELD CURRENT REQUIRED TO CIRCULATE RATED CURRENT ON S.C.

S.C.C.

O.C.C.

PER UNIT CURRENT

PER UNIT VOLTAGE

a b

1.0

C

E

AD AE DE

c AB AC BC

A D B

o Fo Fc FIELD CURRENT

SCR = o Fo c Fo c Fo 1 1

1

o Fs b Fs a Fo a Fo / c Fo Per unit voltage on open circuit

Xd

Corresponding per unit current on short circuit

18

TYPICAL S.C.R. VALUES:

For 500 MW T.G., SCR= 0.48

For 210 MW T.G., SCR= 0.49

For 110 MW T.G., SCR= 0.50

For 60 MW T.G., SCR= 0.59

The SCR value may have to be raised to 1.0 to 1.5, if the loading is likely to be

capacitive i.e. leading MVAR supply.

For modern Turbo-alternator, the SCR is normally between 0.48 to 0.7

EFFECT OF S.C.R. ON MACHINE PERFORMANCE:

Higher value of SCR has higher stability limit.

Better voltage regulation for high SCR.

High value of SCR has a long air gap which means that the mmf required by

field is large. Hence machine with higher SCR is costlier to build.

TRANSPORTATION

SCR AIR GAP WEIGHT SIZE

PROBLEM

Present trend is to build low value of SCR since fast acting excitation

system available.

19

GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS

• T.G. CAPACITY IN M.W.:

50

60

62.5

100

110

120

200

210 – Weight: 250 tonnes

235

250

500

800 future

20

1000 future

GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS

• T.G. TERMINAL VOLTAGE IN KV :

10.5

11 – ETPS 60 MW, 110 MW

13.8

15 – Neyveli-Stage I

15.75 – BHEL 210 MW

16 – Nuclear 235 MW

18.4 – NTPC 210 MW

21 – 500 MW

22 - 500 MW

33 (or) 34 – Future (800 MW/1000 MW)

requires 800 KV line (year 2010)

21

GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS

Higher capacity Hydro machine in India : 250 MW, KOINA (Maharastra),

Air cooled.

Advantage : Reduction of cost of Generation.

Limitations : (i) Transportation problem

(bigger size)

(ii) Do not have adequate

transmission lines.

400 KV.

1600 MVA, 1200 KV.

22

GENERATOR – IMPORTANT TIPS

commission)

IS 5422

8760 hrs/year.

104 start/stop times.

Total life time : 25 years.

Capital O/H : Once in 4 to 5 years (25 days).

Annual O/H : < 10 days.

23

VOLTAGE VERSUS VAR/POWER FACTOR REGULATION ON

SYNCHRONOUS GENERATORS

Member, IEEE Senior Member, IEEE

Southern California Edison Co. Basler Electric Company

Abstract - When paralleled to the utility bus, the early morning, but drops progressively through the day

synchronous generators can be controlled using either as system loading increases. In other cases, high

terminal voltage or var/power factor control. Selection reactances in the transmission and distribution line can

is dependent upon the size of the generator and the cause undesirable voltage drops with increased system

stiffness of the connecting utility bus. loading. This reduces the available voltage at the load,

forcing local area generators to supply more VArs into the

For large generators where the kVA is significant, utility bus to meet the demands of the system.

these machines are usually terminal voltage regulated

and dictate the system’s bus voltage. Depending upon the impedance of the transmission or

distribution line at the area of the local generating station,

When smaller terminal voltage regulated generators and the voltage regulation of the system bus, a smaller

are synchronized to a stiff utility bus, the system generator tied into the utility bus can become either

voltage will not change as the smaller generator shares severely overloaded or underexcited. The severity depends

reactive loading. However, if the system voltage upon the magnitude and direction of the system voltage

changes significantly, the smaller generator, with its change.

continuous acting terminal voltage regulator, will

attempt to maintain the voltage set point. As the

voltage regulator follows its characteristic curve, it II. TYPES OF EXCITATION SYSTEM REGULATION

may cause either over or under excitation of the

smaller generator. Voltage variations are not uncommon in the utility system.

When they are minor, the reactive droop compensation

Excessive system voltage may cause a small generator within the voltage regulator will assure reactive load

to lose synchronizing torque, while low system voltage sharing between the generator and the interconnected bus.

may cause excessive heating on the generator or This prevents large changes in reactive current for any one

excessive overcurrent operation of the excitation generator. Excessive reactive current can result in either

system. overload or loss of generator synchronism. Reactive droop

compensation is accomplished by the addition of a current

Maintaining a constant reactive load on the smaller transformer in one of the generator output leads. With the

generating unit can reduce the generator field current proper orientation of this signal into the voltage regulator

variations and, thus, reduce the maintenance of the sensing circuit, the control system becomes sensitive to

collector rings and brushes. reactive current flow. The compensation circuit has the

same effect as adding approximately 10% impedance in

This paper illustrates the effect of changing system series with the generator whose automatic voltage

bus voltage on small generators utilizing voltage regulator provides 1/2% voltage regulation.

versus VAr/power factor regulation.

In Fig. 1, a generator is equipped with a solid state voltage

INDEX TERMS: Synchronous generator, excitation regulator having reactive voltage droop compensation. The

systems, voltage regulators, var/power factor controllers graph illustrates the effect of bus voltage changes on the

reactive/ampere load on the generator. If the bus voltage

I. INTRODUCTION drops by 6%, the reactive/ampere generator load will

change from zero to 70%. A further decrease to 10% could

When synchronous generators are tied to a utility bus, exceed the kVA rating of the generator, causing excessive

conditions may exist in which it is not desirable for a heating in the field winding and the power semiconductors

generator to use a terminal voltage regulator with reactive of the excitation system. The increase in field heating is

droop compensation. These conditions occur where the proportional to the increase of lagging reactive/ampere

transmission or distribution voltage may be sensitive to load.

local load fluctuations. The bus voltage may be normal in

Fig. 1. Voltage Regulator Droop Versus Var/PF Control Regulation

may increase, causing a leading power factor condition on

the generator. Here, insufficient reactive droop

compensation may cause the generator to become

underexcited, and the voltage regulator circuit can cause

potential loss of machine synchronism. To avoid these

possible scenarios, a maximum excitation limiter is used to

prevent excessive rotor heating when the bus voltage Fig. 2. Generator Capability Curve

drops very low, while a minimum excitation limiter is utilized

to prevent generator potential loss of synchronism when Fig. 2 is used for explanation in describing the controller’s

the system bus voltage rises excessively. operation. A vector 0-D is used to represent full 0.8 power

factor output of a generator. With “var” control, if kilowatts

For these conditions that can dramatically affect small are decreased progressively, the vector O-D will move in a

machine performance, a more favorable method of control horizontal manner to 0-C’, 0-B’ and finally 0-A’, regulating

is the use of a VAr or power factor control. There are the var quantity regardless of kW changes. Changing the

several schemes used today from a continuous analog-

controller to regulate ”Power Factor ” causes the cos ∅ to

type, a SCADA or meter relay output contacts scheme (a

be regulated. As kW decreases, the operating point will

non-continuous acting method) to digital regulators. Any of

move proportionally from D to D’ and finally to D”,

these methods will cause the generator to be regulated at a

decreasing the ”var” component, but maintaining a constant

programmed quantity of VArs or power factor. The major

angle ∅.

difference between the schemes is the response time of

the controller to modify the voltage set point. In Fig. 1, the

var controller is used in lieu of the terminal voltage

III. SYSTEM TESTING AT THE PORTAL

regulator with reactive droop compensation. Notice the

POWERHOUSE

effect of bus voltage changes on system vars in voltage

regulation mode, while the var controller can be set to

To illustrate the system performance variation between

regulate the generator at a programmed level of 70% vars

voltage regulation with the voltage set point reactive droop

and maintain it, regardless of bus voltage changes that

compensation versus var/power factor control, tests were

may occur. The controller provides essentially infinite

conducted on a 10.4 MW hydro-turbine generator. The

droop.

generator utilizes a 100 kW static exciter regulator

equipped with an automatic voltage regulator and reactive

droop compensation working directly into the main field.

Also included is a minimum/maximum excitation limiter and

a var/power factor controller.

California on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada

Mountains. It derives power from the upper San Joaquin

River basin drainage area. The generator is a lone,

unattended machine, connected at the end of a radial line.

Portal PowerHouse generates at 4,800 Vac then is stepped

up to 34.4 kV into a medium voltage distribution line. The

area distribution voltage is dependent upon the utility bus

voltage. The change in the bus voltage can cause

significant reactive current to flow between the Portal

generator and the interconnected bus. Based upon these

conditions, the excitation system was equipped with

var/power factor control. See Fig. 3.

the system performance between voltage, var and power

factor control. During the test, transformer taps at the 34.4

kV distribution level, approximately 20 miles from the Portal

Powerhouse, were raised and lowered to adjust the system

voltage. The data collected illustrates the effect of the

system voltage change on the 10.4 MW generator. Fig. 4. Per Unit Change in Generator Voltage

Performance data included generator terminal voltage and

line current, generator Mvar and MW, phase angle between

the generator line to line voltage and line current, system

voltage measured at the transformer tap changer, and

generator field voltage and field current.

settings, four lower, a neutral and three raise. Each

representing a 2 1/2% voltage step change. After the data

was recorded, all generator quantities- were normalized to

reflect 100% MW, zero Mvars - 100% MVA, at rated field

current and voltage, rated generator terminal voltage and

normal system line voltage.

measured at the terminals of the machine versus field

voltage and field current.

Fig. 5. MW Component

The generator output voltage changed 2.0% while field

excitation changed approximately 25% over the same

range. As the transformer taps were progressively reduced,

the automatic voltage regulator sensed the lowering system

voltage and reacted by pushing more dc power into the

field. When the transformer tap changed to its highest

position, system voltage measured at the tap changing

transformer likewise raised. Here the automatic voltage

regulator reduced the field excitation into the rotor to

reduce the generator voltage. As the automatic voltage

regulator attempted to keep the generator voltage constant,

the generator reactive current flowed into the generator

(VArs buck) thus causing the phase angle between the

generator voltage and current to increase.

essentially constant as the governor regulated the power

from the turbine. MVA, however, changed approximately

3% as the voltage regulator varied its output response to

maintain generator terminal voltage.

curve characteristic as field excitation is varied by the

command of the automatic voltage regulator. The reactive

current magnitude of the generator output is extremely high

at the minimum transformer tap (vars boost) due to the

large voltage difference between the generator and bus

voltage. As the transformer tap is moved to the maximum

position, raising the bus voltage, the action of the automatic

voltage regulator reduces the field excitation. This action Fig. 6. Var Control Test Per Unit Change in Generator Voltage

again creates a voltage difference between the generator

and bus voltage, causing the reactive current magnitude to

be high but in the opposite polarity. Here, the vars are

Phase Generator System Generator Field WATTS MVA

being absorbed into the generator (vars buck). Angle Voltage Bus Current Current

Change Voltage

The difference in generator voltage and system bus voltage

is noted in Fig. 5. While the voltage regulation of the 20° 2.0% 6.4% 5.4% 25.3% 0.53% 2.7%

generator is 2.0%, the regulation of the system bus voltage

varied 6%. The difference in regulation, is due to the Table 1. Change for Generator Quantities in Voltage Regulation

voltage drop caused by the reactances in the distribution Mode

line between the generator and the changing transformer

tap, and the impedance of the generator step up

transformer. Table 1 illustrates the percent change of the

various quantities as the transformer tap range is moved

through eight different positions.

B. Var Control

excitation system was switched from voltage regulation to

var control. In the VAr mode, the excitation system was

regulated to keep the reactive current constant. New

performance data was generated using the same

transformer tap range. Figs. 6 and 7 illustrate the effect of

VAr control on the generator while Table 2 tabulates the

data and shows the percentage change in the measured

quantities.

Phase Generator System Generator Field WATTS MVA

Angle Voltage Bus Current Current

Change Voltage

system into power factor control. Here, the power angle is

regulated by comparing the real power (watts) and the

reactive power (vars). Final tests were limited to four

transformer taps due to problems with the tap changer

system. For clarity, the data in Table 3 compares the same

tap settings using voltage, var, and power factor regulation.

Figs. 8 and 9 graphically illustrate the data taken during the

test.

differences are again predominant between voltage

regulation and power factor control.

to the voltage regulator mode. Fig. 6 shows a substantial

difference in the reaction of the generator terminal voltage

to the change in system voltage, as compared with Fig. 5.

Since the generator voltage was no longer the sensed

parameter of the excitation system, the generator terminal

voltage rose and fell in near unison with the system bus

voltage. A greater change of approximately 8% in

generator terminal voltage is noted because it depicts the

action of the var controller regulating reactive current in lieu

of generator voltage.

drastically with terminal voltage regulation, Fig. 7 illustrates

the phase angle held essentially constant due to the

regulated var and the regulated watt components. When

the generator terminal voltage increased or decreased, the

generator current decreased and increased respectively

due to the turbine governor holding a constant load (MW)

or torque and the var controller holding the reactive power

at zero.

control mode. A close examination of these trends as

Fig. 8. Power Factor Control Minimum Phase Angle, Minimum

compared to the field characteristics in Fig. 4 reveals an Change

inverse relationship of field power between the two modes

of regulation. This inverse characteristic exhibited in the var

mode demonstrates the var controller’s ability to decrease

rotor heating when the system voltage is low, and pole slip

when the system voltage is high.

Fig. 9. Power Factor Control, Per Unit Change in Generator

Voltage

Control Mode Phase Angle Generator System Bus Generator Field Current WATTS MVA

Change Voltage Voltage Current

FACTOR

In comparing power factor to var control, the data indicates and the collector rings. If the current load is excessive, too

nearly identical performance. much film may form, causing excessive brush decay and

particle decomposition. This results in arcing, uneven heat

IV. OTHER FACTORS AFFECTING MACHINE distribution on the brush, and brush bounce. However, if

PERFORMANCE the current density is too low, too little film will form,

creating excessive friction over the collector ring. This

A. Brush Life for Synchronous Generators again results in excessive brush wear, brush chatter, and

actual brush breakage.

For both old and new generators, where brushes are

utilized, it is important that a machine’s performance be For those generators where voltage regulation control is

optimized to insure long life at minimum maintenance The utilized, it is not uncommon to see generator field excitation

manner in which a generator is operated can influence the change extensively under extreme operating conditions.

brush life and hence the related maintenance. Brushes are Data in Fig. 4 illustrate this phenomenon. For these

used to transfer the dc field current and voltage from either systems under those conditions, brush life is expected to

a rotating exciter or static exciter system to the rotor’s be shorter. Here a smaller machine would enjoy a

collector rings. Brush selection is based upon a certain maintenance advantage if equipped with a var or power

current density range where it can establish and maintain a factor controller.

satisfactory film important for lubrication. The lubrication

helps ensure a good sliding surface between the brushes

B. Other Voltage Control Equipment become overloaded or possibly lose synchronizing torque

unless limiters are utilized when the bus voltage changes

In large generator systems, voltage regulating units are from one extreme to another.

desirable because they stabilize the system’s terminal

voltage. Smaller generators have little impact on changing Data presented in this paper did not show the generator

the bus voltage, and in fact can lead to system coordination actually overloaded or extremely underexcited because of

problems. These problems occur typically where capacitor the controlled testing at the site. It did, however, show the

and transformer banks are simultaneously used for voltage tendency for a machine that is terminal voltage regulated to

control. see larger field current swings when degradation of the bus

voltage does occur.

In these systems where a small voltage regulated

generator is utilized, nuisance switching may result VI. REFERENCES

between the voltage correcting equipment and the

interconnected smaller generator that uses a terminal 1. National Trademark Brush Digest, Union Carbide

voltage regulator. These system disturbances are caused Corporation, Carbon Products Division

by excessive voltage correction from capacitor and/or

transformer banks trying to compensate for the smaller 2. Eberly, T.W., Schaefer, R.C., “Minimum/Maximum

generator’s limited capacity to help keep system bus Excitation Limiter Performance Goals for Small

voltage constant. Secondly, it may cause unacceptable Generation”, presented at IEEE Power Engineering Society

reactive current exchanges between the smaller generator ’95.

and the utility bus depending upon the magnitude and

direction of the voltage change. 3. Jackson, J.Y. “Interpretation and Use of Generator

Reactive Capability Diagrams”, IEEE Transaction On

For these systems, a compromise may be needed between Industry and General Applications, Vol. IGA-7, No. 6,

both the voltage regulator and the Var/PF controller Nov./Dec. 1971.

operation. During a system disturbance, the voltage

regulator may need to provide voltage bus support and, 4. Godhwani, A., Kim, K., Basler, M.J., “Design, Test and

after the event, return back to the Var/PF control set point. Simulation Results of a VAr/Power Factor Controller

Today, with digital control, compromises can be resolved Implemented in a Modern Digital Excitation System”,

easily by adjusting gains within the excitation system to presented at 1998 IEEE Summer Meeting Panel Session.

provide optimum control for either application. A high gain

voltage regulator will provide fast transient response to 5. M. J. Basler, R.C. Schaefer, K. Kim, and R. Glenn,

improve the system voltage transient stability and help "Voltage Regulator with Dual PID Controllers Enhances

improve relay tripping coordination during a fault. After the Power System Stability," presented at Hydrovision, 2002.

system stabilizes, the Var/PF controller can maintain the

Var or power factor set point without operator intervention. 6. A. Godhwani, M.J. Basler, and T.W. Eberly,

"Commissioning and Operational Experience with a

Modern Digital Excitation System," in IEEE Transactions on

V. CONCLUSION Energy Conversion, Vol. 13, No. 2, June 1998.

The use of var/power factor controllers on generating units 7. IEEE Std 421.2-1990, IEEE Guide for Identification,

connected to the transmission system is not always Testing, and Evaluation of the Dynamic Performance of

desirable unless other considerations are made. In the Excitation Control Systems, New York, NY: IEEE.

case of a large system disturbance, the var/power factor

controllers will degrade the system’s ability to recover from 8. IEEE Std 421.4 1990, IEEE Guide for Specification for

low voltage conditions. Excitation Systems, New York, NY: IEEE.

For large machine applications where constant vars are 9. R.C. Schaefer, "Voltage Regulator Influence on

desired, but the advantages provided by a terminal voltage Generator Stability", Presented at Waterpower Conference,

regulator are needed to provide voltage stability, additional 1991.

provisions will be required for the var controller. For these

applications, the var/power factor controller must be 10. R.C. Schaefer and K. Kim, "Digital Excitation System

equipped with a slow integrated var function. In this case, Provides Enhanced Tuning Over Analog Systems,"

the advantages of both a terminal voltage regulator and presented at IEEE/IAS Pulp and Paper Conference, 2000.

var/power factor operation can be achieved. During the

initial disturbance, the voltage regulator will contribute to 11. F.P. de Mello, C. Concordia, "Concept of Synchronous

the voltage stability of the system, then after some time Machine Stability as Affected by Excitation Control", IEEE

delay, the var control assumes command. Transactions On PAS, Vol. PAS-88, No. 4, April, 1969, pp.

316-329.

There are many factors affecting generator behavior when

it is tied to a utility bus. System bus voltage fluctuation and

area load distribution can cause small generators to

Route 143, Box 269, Highland, Illinois U.S.A. 62249

If you have any questions or need Tel +1 618.654.2341 Fax +1 618.654.2351

No. 1300 North Zhongshan Road

Wujiang Economic Development Zone

additional information, please contact e-mail: info@basler.com Suzhou, Jiangsu Province - P.R. China 215200

Tel +86(0)512 6346 1730 Fax +86(0)512 6346 1760

Basler Electric Company. e-mail: beichina@basler.com

Our web site is located at: P.A.E. Les Pins, 67319 Wasselonne Cedex FRANCE

Tel +33 3.88.87.1010 Fax +33 3.88.87.0808

http://www.basler.com e-mail: beifrance@basler.com

e-mail: info@basler.com

Synchronous Generator

Capability Curve

Sudarsanan.S

Graduate Engg. Trainee

Kalki communications Technologies

Introduction

Synchronous Machines

Generator Capability

Capability Curve

Importance

Synchronous Machines

Constant speed.

Operating Modes

Excitation

Synchronous Machines

Non-salient pole generator

• Large power (100 - 400 MVA)

• Application

Synchronous Machines

Salient pole generator

supply

plants

Capability Curve

Plot of Complex Power

Stator And Rotor Heat Limit

External Limits

Capability Curve - Importance

Ensure Protection

Construction of Generator

Nature of Excitation Circuit

System Condition

Influence of Voltage and Power Regulation

Rotor Acceleration

Rotor and Stator Overheating

Over voltage on Rotor

Synchronous Generator Capability Curve

Volts V =Rated Phase Voltage

B

I θ AB E =Generated Emf

A

volts

jX S

Ia =Armature Current

θ o

VΦ A Ra =Armature Resistance

I OA

A Xs =Sync.Reactance

=Load Angle

The generator phasor diagram Xs =Xa+Xl

Xa =Armature Reactance

E=Vt+IaRa+IajXs =E

Xl =Leakage Reactance

Ra<<0

E=Vt+IajXs =E|_

AB

cos θ =

XsIA

AB = X s I A cos θ

OA

sin θ = or OA = X s I A sin θ

XSIA

Real Power R eactive Po wer

P3Φ = 3VΦ I A cos θ Q 3Φ = 3VΦ I A sin θ

Apparent Power

S 3 Φ = 3VΦ I A

Capability Curve-Construction

Phasor Diagram to Power Diagram

Volts

B

AB

Volt to Volt amp = 3Vo/Xs

I θ

A

volts Phasor Orgin = -Vo

jX S

θ VΦ A

I OA

A

3E AVΦ

DE =

Xs

I

A

3V P = 3VΦ I A cosθ

S=

θ 3V 2

x Q = 3VΦ I A sin θ

corresponding power units

The origin of the phasor diagram is at − VΦ on the

horizontal axis, so the origin on the power diagram is at

3VΦ VΦ2

Q3Φ = ( −VΦ) = −3

Xs XS

The field current is proportional to the machine’s flux, and

flux is proportional to Generated Emf E

3E AVΦ

DE =

Xs

The armature current Ia is proportional to XsIa ,and the

length corresponding to XsIa on the power diagram is

S = 3VΦ I A

Capability Curve-Non Salient Pole Generator

Capability Curve-Salient Pole Generator

Conclusion

Capability Curve

Thanks

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:

CAPABILITY

SIPAT SAMPLE SYSTEM: p.u. on Gen Base

Seoni

Z1bu=0.0111 Z=0.055

Z1=Z2=0.098, Z0=0.36

GEN: X"d=0.17,

Xd=2.1, X2=0.21

GT:21/765KV

Z=0.147 Z1=Z2=0.19, Z0=0.608

UT: 21/11KV Z1bu=0.0212

Z=1.503

Z1=Z2=0.082, Z0=0.26

Korba

IBT

Z1bu=0.0212

ST

11 / 132 KV Ranchi, Z1bu=0.0212

Zsys (normal)= 0.182

Zsys (Both Seoni line out)= 0.231

THE SAMPLE SYSTEM

Tutorial Objectives:

• Develop understanding of the parameters that define normal operation of the

generator

• Analyze the various malfunctions that can befall a generator

Operation Scenario:

• The variation in system configuration and voltage have a significant effect on

the operation of the generator and associated auxiliary equipment

• Impact of change in system configuration is shown in sample system diagram

• Impact of change in system voltage is discussed in next slide

THE SAMPLE SYSTEM

Light Load Periods:

• Voltage drop through system components such as lines and transformers is

minimal

• Generators may be required to operate with reduced field current,

consuming excess Vars from the system

High load Periods:

• The increased voltage drop caused by flow of Watts and Vars through

highly inductive components, causes system voltage to fall

• The voltage drop caused by an amp of reactive current is greater than that

caused by an amp of real current

• The system voltage regulation is amplified by the reactive characteristic of

the long high voltage (HV) transmission lines

• At peak system load, generators operate near full field current, supplying

Vars to support system voltage

• When the system is in normal configuration, a portion of the generators‟

reactive capability should be held in reserve to boost voltage in the event

of a forced outage of a major tie line or generator

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

• 500 MW at 0.85 power factor, 21 kV

• Nameplate rating defines only one limiting point of operation for the

machine

• A reduction in MVAR output would allow some increase in MW output

and a reduction in MW would allow higher MVAR output

• These allowable variations are defined by the generator capability curve

which defines the Watt/Var (P/Q) operating limit as a function of

coolant pressure. The actual coolant pressure for an operating unit is

often less than the design maximum pressure

• Capability curve is normally plotted at the rated terminal voltage for the

generator

• Capability curve is a composite of three distinct limits as shown in the

next slide

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Sample Generator Capability Curve

0.8

A

0.6 0.85PF

0.4

B

0.2

-0.2 C

-0.4

0.9PF

-0.6 D

Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU

-0.8

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

MW (PU)

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

• Right hand section (B-C):

It represents the limit imposed by the ampere rating of the stator winding

• Top section (A-B):

The ampere rating of the field winding limits the output of Vars into the

power system termed as lagging Vars

• Bottom section (C-D):

It defines the maximum Vars the generator can consume from the power

system termed as leading Vars.

This limit is the result of heating in the end laminations of the stator core

which is caused by the flux that flares from the end of the stator when the

generator is operating at low field current

• Hydro units are of salient pole construction and do not have end core

regions

• The leading Var limit is determined by the current rating of the stator

winding

GENERATOR CAPABILITY

Overexcited 0.8

A

0.6 0.85PF

0.4

B

0.2

MVAR(PU)

-0.2

C

-0.4 Steam Gas

Underexcited

Turbine

-0.6 0.9PF

-0.8 D Hydro

Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU

-1

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

MW (PU)

VOLTAGE LIMITATIONS

GSU limits:

• No load requirement:

Voltage limit at no load= 110% rated voltage for any tap position

• Rated load requirement:

GSU is operating on 784.125 kV tap with impedance of 14.7%

I= kVA/Esec= 1.0/1.05= 0.952 ﮮ-36.90= 0.76-j0.57

Ep=1.05+j0.147(0.76-j0.57)= 1.13 + j 0.11 = 1.135 <5.1°

• Therefore max allowable continuous voltage on GSU primary (LV)

winding is 13.5% as defined by requirement of 0.8 pf, rated load with

105% rated voltage at secondary terminals

Generator limit:

• ANSI/ IEEE C50.12 and C50.13 define permissible operating range of

cylindrical rotor or salient pole machines to be ±5% rated voltage

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

• The Var output is function of Et, Esys and Zsys. It is common to encounter voltage

limitation before generator Var limit is reached.

• The relationship between P and Q, Esys and Zsys is often represented by power circle

diagram

• Centre= Et2/Zsys

• Radius= Et*Esys/Zsys

+Q

• If resistance is neglected, the center is Center = Et2/Zs

located on Var out axis as shown in

figure Radius=Et*Esys/Zsys

Zsys

Esys

(P,Q)

Et P

-Q

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

1 • The MW output

of generator is

O/E

Turbine Limit torque available

0.6 from turbine.

0.85

• Centre= Et2/Zsys • The Var output is

Reactive (pu)

Esys and Zsys. It

Et= 1.05 is common to

0.2 encounter voltage

Stator Limit limitation before

0 generator Var

limit is reached.

-0.2 Et= 0.95 • The relationship

between P and Q,

-0.4 Esys and Zsys is

U/E

0.9

by power circle

-0.6 diagram

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Esys= 1.0

Power (pu) Zsys= 18.2% (Gen Base)

Practical operating limits: System normal

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

Practical operating limits: Seoni Bus outaged

O/E 1

0.8

0.6 0.85

Reactive (pu)

0

-0.2

-0.4

U/E

0.9

-0.6

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Power (pu)

SYSTEM LIMITATIONS

Practical operating limits: All lines in, vary grid voltage

O/E 1

0.8

Esys = 0.96

0.6 0.85

Reactive (pu)

Esys = 0.96

0

Esys = 1.0

-0.2

-0.4 Esys = 1.055

U/E

0.9

-0.6

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

Power (pu)

GENERATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

95-105 % but capability curves are only available for rated

voltage (100%).

• It is possible to estimate portions of the capability curve for

voltages other than rated voltage.

Lag(O/E) STATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

1

0.8 The Length of Ra in MVA =

Rated KA x Rated KV x √3

0.6 0.85 PF

0.4 - Et = 0.95

Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

0.95 Ra - Et = 1.0

0.2

Ra

0 - Et = 1.05

1.05 Ra

-0.2

-0.4

0.9 PF

-0.6

-0.8

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

MW (pu)

FIELD LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

Lag(O/E)

1

0.8

1.05 Rf

0.6 1.052 C 0.85 PF C = -Et2 / Xd

1.0 Rf

0.4 0.95 Rf C

Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

0.952 C R = Et x EI / Xd

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

0.9 PF

-0.6

-0.8

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

MW (pu)

LEADING VAR LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE

Lag(O/E)

1

0.8 Centre (P,Q) =

0.6 0.85 PF (0 , K1 x Et2 / Xd)

0.4 Radius =

Lead(U/E) MVAR(pu)

K2 x Et / Xd

0.2

0 • K1 and K2 are

derived from

-0.2 Et= 1.05 published curves.

-0.4 Et= 1.0 • Leading Var

capability is

0.9 PF

-0.6 markedly reduced

Et= 0.95 as Et increases.

-0.8

0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

MW (pu)

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:

STABILITY LIMITS

CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY

Classical View:

EI * Es ES2 ( Xd Xq )

PE Sin sin 2

Xd Xs 2( Xd Xs )( Xq Xs )

For Xd Xq

EI

EI * Es

PE Sin I(Xd+Xs)

Xd Xs δ

Es

• Stability limit is found by changing system parameters very slowly to eliminate

oscillatory parameters and need for damping.

• Stability limit occurs when δ=90 for salient machines and δ<90 for non-salient

machines.

CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY

1.8

E=100%

1.6

Pe=Electrical Power

1.4

Power (PU)

1.2 Reduced E

1

0.8 Pm=Mechanical Power

0.6

0.4 Operating point

0.2

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Degrees

MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS

Eq

Ir * Xq

β

Ir Et Ix * Xq

Ix α

I

Ir * Xs

Es

Ix * Xs

Generator current Voltage Vector Diagram defines Es and Eq in terms of Et, Ir and Ix.

MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS

P Q

Ir , Ix

Et Et

With Xd Xq , the Stability Limit occurs when 900

tan tan

tan( ) , 1 tan tan 0

1 tan tan

IrXq IrXs

tan , tan

Et IxXq Et IxXs

IrXs IrXq

0 1

Et IxXs Et IxXq

E2 ( Xd Xs )QE 2

t E 2 Q2 t P2

XdXs t XdXs

2 2

E2 E2

t

1

1

t 1

1

Q P

2

2 Xd Xs 2 Xs Xd

E2 1 1 E 2

1 1

C 0, t R t

2 Xs Xd 2 Xd Xs

MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS

Circle Diagram of Manual Regulator Steady State Limit

Et 2 1 1

C j

2 Xe Xd

Et 2 1 1

R

2 Xe Xd

Weak System

Strong System

Above circle defines stability criterion against which MEL limit is usually evaluated

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

• AVR rapidly varies field voltage in response to system

condition.

• The change in field voltage for a given change in terminal

voltage defines the gain of regulator (ke)

• The regulator time constant (Te) and generator field time

constant defined the speed of field current response which

ultimately determines the response at generator output

terminal.

• AVR sharply increases synchronizing power.

• But, the gain and speed of AVR reduce system damping

torque.

• In the absence of adequate damping torque, minor system

oscillations may grow in magnitude until connected

generators and tie lines trip.

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

(Simplified Block diagram)

Ts K1 ( s ) Δ

Tsyn is in phase with Ρδ=ω Δδ

Td ( s ) D * ( s ) ΔTm Δ

Δ

leads by 90 0

Td is in quadrature with

Ta ( s ) Tm ( s ) Ts ( s ) Td ( s ) torque produced as a result of the

1 interaction of the generator and

( s ) Ta ( s ) * system determine the stability of the

Ms

power system.

( s ) 314 ( s ) • The boundary of steady state stability

s

occurs when Tsync=0

Ta Tm K1 D * • The boundary of dynamic stability

occurs when Td=0

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

Substituting Ta ( s ) sM ( s )

And ( s ) s ( s ) / 314

And solving for ( s )

Tm ( s )

( s )

M 2 D

k1 s s 1

314 k1 314 k1

n e nt sin n 1 2t

1

L 1

s 2 2 2

1 1

2 n

n

314 k1

Natural Frequency , n

M

Dn

Damping Factor ,

628k1

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR

STABILITY LIMITS

• The Rotor Angle Δδ varies as an exponentially

decreasing sinusoidal function.

• Damping factor, ξ, controls rate of decay and

frequency of oscillation.

• If ξ = 0, oscillation is sustained at a fixed

magnitude at natural frequency.

• If ξ = -ve, oscillation grows without bound and

instability occurs

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

(Including generator flux linkages but no AVR)

Δ

Ta( s ) k1 ( s )

* Δδ

k3 ΔTm Δ

Tb( s ) k 2 Ee( s )

1 sk 3T ' do Δ Δ

Ee( s ) Efd( S ) k 4 ( s )

Tc( s ) Tm( s ) Ta( s ) Tb( s ) ΔEfd

314 * ρδ=ω

( s ) 2

Tc( s )

Ms den(s)=1 +sK3T’do

Electrical Torque Te( s ) Ta( s ) Tb( s )

k1 ( s )(1 sk 3T ' do) k 2k 3[Efd( S ) k 4 ( s )]

Te

1 sk 3T ' do

(1 sk 3T ' do)[k1 ( s )(1 sk 3T ' do) k 2k 3(Efd( S ) k 4 ( s ))]

Te

(1 s 2 k32T '2do )

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

With Manual regulator, Efd 0 and substituting s j

j (T ' dok 2 k32 k 4) ( s ) (k1 k 2k 3k 4 T '2do 2 k32 k1) ( s)

Te( s )

T '2do 2 k32 1

(k1 k 2k 3k 4 T '2do 2 k32 k1) ( s ) (T ' dok 2 k32 k 4) ( s)

T ( s ) sync , T ( s )damp j

T 'do k3 1

2 2 2

T '2do 2 k32 1

For steady state 0

Te( s ) sync (k1 k 2k 3k 4) ( s )

For the Limit of static stability,

2 2

Et2 1 1 Et2 1 1

Te( s ) sync 0, Q P 2

2 Xd Xs 2 Xs Xd

314k1

For the Limit of dynamic stability, n

M

314k1

jMT ' dok2 k32 k 4

T ( s )damp 0 M

314T ' dok1k32 M

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

The torque equations for the system under AVR control are derived from the expanded

Block Diagram

For steady state 0 Δ

and T ( s) sync 0

T ( s) sync * Δδ

{k 4 ke[k 5 (k 4 k 5ke)k 6k 3]}k 3k 2 ΔTm Δ

(k 3k 6ke 1) 2

Δ

For the Limit of dynamic stability, ΔEfd

n

T ( s)damp 0 ΔE’q Δet

Ee

T ( s)damp 0

Δet ref

jk 3k 2{Te[k 4k 3TeT ' do 2 (k 5 k 6k 4k 3)ke]

(k 4 k 5ke)k 3T ' d 0}

[k 3(TeT ' do 2 k 6ke) 1]2 (Te k 3T ' do) 2 2 * ρδ=ω

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

EqoEo

k1 [ re sin o ( Xe X ' d ) cos o ]

A

iqoEo

A [( Xq X ' d )( Xe Xq ) sin o re ( Xq X ' d ) cos o]

r Eo ( Xq X ' d )( Xe Xq )

k 2 eA 1

A

( Xd X ' d )( Xe Xq ) 1

k 3 1

A

Eo ( Xd X ' d )

k4 [( Xe Xq ) sin o re cos o]

A

edo re Eo sin o ( Xe X ' d ) Eo cos o

k5 Xq

eto A

eqo re Eo cos o ( Xe Xq ) Eo sin o

X 'd

eto A

eqo X ' d ( Xe Xq ) edo re

k6 1 Xq

eto A

eto A All k factors except

2 k3 vary with load

A re ( Xe X ' d )( Xq Xe )

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

electronic spread sheets and iterative solvers can be used to

determine stability limits.

• One such spreadsheet downloaded from CRC Publishers is

provided in the program content.

• The parameters including system voltage Eo, generator

terminal voltage Eto and real and reactive current

components are used to calculate K factors. These

parameters are calculated from standard generator vector

diagram and applicable equations are given in next slide

• Steady state and dynamic stability limits are found using

Excel‟s “Goal Seek” tool to find the value of Q&P

necessary to produce Zero Tsync or Tdamp.

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS

p Q

Ipo , Igo

eto eto

Eqo (eto IqoXq ) 2 ( IpoXq ) 2

Eo (eto Ipo re IqoXe ) 2 ( IpoXe Iqo re ) 2

sin o

etoIpo( Xq Xe ) re Xq I 2po 2

I qo etoIqore

EqoEo

cos o eto

[eto Iqo( Xq Xe ) Ipore ] XeXq I 2po 2

I qo

EqoEo

[ Ipo(eto IqoXq ) IqoIpoXq ]

iqo

Eqo

[ I 2po Xq Iqo(eto IqoXq )]

ido

Eqo

eqo eto [(eto IqoXq ) / Eqo ]

edo iqoXq

STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS

Manual-SS

AVR Gain Ke = 10

AVR-Dyn

AVR-SS

STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS

Manual-SS

AVR-Dyn Ke =30

AVR-SS

Ke = 10 or 30 AVR-Dyn Ke = 10

TRANSIENT STABILITY

fault or switch of a key line

Eg * Es

Power Angle Equation: Pe Sin

ZT

ZT X ' d X TR Zs

0 Xd

0.33 2X‟d Range of slip for a typical

50 X‟d event of loss of synchronism

100 X‟‟d

X‟d value is typically used in power angle equation to construct swing loci

because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter

TRANSIENT STABILITY

2.5

Pe – Both Lines In

2

Power (PU)

1 Pm

0.5

δ1 δ2

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Degrees

TRANSIENT STABILITY

Pe – Both Lines In

A C D Pm

A2

A1

B

TRANSIENT STABILITY: Power Angle Plot for Fault Condition

Both Lines In

Open CB1

E

A3 F

Pm O J Pm

A2 Bkr 1 tripped

A1 D

C

Fault Both Lines In

A B

Line A

E

Line B Es Stability exists when

g

A3 > (A1+A2)

1 2

TRANSIENT STABILITY

• Graphical representation for the system impedance trajectory as seen at

generator terminal

Eg Es

I

Xg X TR Zs

VR Eg IXg

Eg Es

VR Eg Xg

Xg X TR Zs

Letting n Eg / Es and 1 cos j Sin

V ( n cos ) j Sin

Z R R ( Xg X TR Zs) n Xg

I ( n cos ) Sin

2 2

For Eg Es ( n 1)

Xg X TR Zs

ZR 1 j Cot Xg

2 2

TRANSIENT STABILITY

Eg X‟d Xsys Es

Xtr

X

B Es

Zsys

Xtr δ=60°

-R R

δ=120° δ=90° P

X‟d

A Eg

TRANSIENT STABILITY

angle for any system from which the system cannot

recover. As a thumb rule, critical swing angle δc is

considered to be 120°.

• The plots consider variation of δ but, all other system

parameters are held constant.

• In reality, swing locus shows the effect of rotor oscillation

and changes in Eg.

• Eg is controlled by generator constants and type of

excitation (manual or automatic), governor action,

mechanical damping of nearby units, shunt loads, shunt

capacitance effect and generator saliency.

• Computer simulations are required to obtain accurate

impedance (swing) plots.

• If a system has one or two generators isolated from other

machines, impedance plot can be derived using Excel

Workbook provided in the program.

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

(Stable Swing With Manual Regulator)

0.5

"-0"

0.99

0 1.09 1.39

0.39

0.29 0.89

0.49

-0.5

0.59

X

0.69

-1 1.29

1.19

0.79

-1.5

-2

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3

R

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

(Stable Swing With Auto Regulator)

1.5

0.99

1

1.09

0.89

0.5 1.19

0.69

0 0.59

0.29

-0.5 "-0"

X

-1

-1.5

-2 0.39

-2.5

-3

0.49

-3.5

-0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5

R

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

(Unstable Swing With Manual Regulator)

0.2

0.49 1.09

1.19 0.99

0.79

1.29

-0.2

-0.4

X

0.69

-0.6

1.39

-0.8 0.59

-1

-1.2

-0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7

R

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

(Unstable Swing With Auto Regulator)

0.2

0.89

0 1.09 0.79 1.39

0.29

0.39 0.69

-0.2

1.19

-0.4

X

0.59 1.29

-0.6

"-0"

-0.8

0.49

-1

-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1

R

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Event:

• Normally, all generators within an interconnected power system operate at like

frequency with their magnetic poles coupled through interaction with the

network

• Interconnecting force is elastic allowing some angular play between generators

in response to system disturbances

• A loss of synchronism occurs when the bonding force is insufficient to hold a

generator or group of generators in step with rest of the power system

Causes:

Loss of synchronism can occur when

• Equipment outages or low voltage weaken the system or

• The force is inadequate to restrain extreme rotor excursions following a system

fault or switching

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Mechanism:

• A loss of synchronism results from some form of system instability

• When the manual regulator is in service, the systems can be vulnerable to the

loss of steady state or dynamic stability. When AVR is in service, minimum

excitation limiter (MEL) is provided to prevent these types of instability

• However, a generator is most likely to loose transient stability. This is the ability

of the system to remain synchronized following an abrupt change such as a fault

or switch of a key line

• Out of step generator or generators operate at slightly different frequencies. A

generator that pulls out of step ahead of the system with a slip frequency of 4

Hz, will be operating at a speed of 1+slip/50= 1.08 pu or 8% over speed.

• The system and generator voltage vectors sweep past one another at slip

frequency, producing a pulsating current with peak magnitude potentially

greater than a 3 phase fault at the generator terminal

I= (Eg ﮮδ– Es)/ (Xg+Xtr+Zs)

• If Eg=Es, no current will flow when δ =0. System will appear as an open circuit

with infinite impedance. As δ increases, so will the current untill the system

reaches a separation of 1800. At this point, the driving voltage will be twice

normal, the sum of Eg and Es, and the current will be at a maximum.

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

one half the electrical distance to the remote terminal or at Z= 0.5(Xg+Xtr+Zs).

This imaginary fault location is called the electrical center of the system

• The location of electrical center denotes the severity of the event with respect to

the generator. When it is located in the GSU transformer or generator itself, it

represents an event equivalent to a GSU fault or generator fault with severe

stress to local equipment

• The location of the system electrical center is not fixed. The center will move

away from the generator as the system impedance increases due to equipment

outages.

• The center is also slip dependent because Xg varies slip frequency.

• Electrical center also varies with system and generator voltages.

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

• As the electrical center moves from the system into generator, the current

magnitude increases and with it thermal and mechanical stress on the generator

and GSU transformer.

• On a strong system, Xtr+Xs can be less than Xg: the electrical centre will lie

within generator and current at 1800 exceeds that of a 3 phase fault at the

generator terminals.

• During out of step event, Xg=X‟d but with low Xtr and Xs, the out of step

current can exceed the designed machine withstand limit (sub transient fault

current at the generator terminal). The absence of DC offset current does lessen

the stress from that of the fault case

• The point is that as the location of electrical center moves towards the neutral

end of generator, current induced thermal and mechanical stress can approach

design limit. The generator is exposed to these conditions each slip cycle. After

a severe event, restacking of the stator core may be required. Local hot spots

may also damage stator windings

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Generator rotor:

• Slip frequency will induce currents in the rotor. Prolonged exposure to these

currents will cause thermal damage to damper windings, rotor teeth, wedges and

rotor body.

Torque pulsations:

• The current pulsations associated with each slip cycle causes severe torque

transients in the turbine generator shaft. The stress is at a maximum during

initial period of each torque pulsation. This is the period when shaft damage

normally occurs.

• The fatigue life of the shaft can be used up after a few pole slip events.

• If slip cycle frequency coincides with a normal frequency of one of the shaft

sections, shaft failure can result

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM

Excitation System:

• Prolonged asynchronous operation can also cause diode failures within the

excitation system. During each pole slip, these diodes will experience high

voltage as they block reversed rotor current. The over voltage stresses insulation

and can result in breakdown

Power System:

• A loss of synchronism by one or more units will result in cyclic voltage

fluctuations as generators slip poles

• These voltage dips can cause disruption to customers served from the grid.

Induction motors may stall and synchronous motors may loose synchronism.

Other processes would be disrupted when the voltage dips cause the motor

contactors to drop out

TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:

LOSS OF FIELD

LOSS OF FIELD

Event:

Excitation to the generator field winding fails

Causes:

Equipment failure, inadvertent opening of the field breaker, an open or short

circuit in the excitation system, or slip ring flashover

Mechanism:

• If and Eg decay at a rate determined by the field circuit time constant

• Var output decreases and becomes negative as generator draws increasing

reactive from power system to replace excitation formerly provided by the field

circuit. Var consumption can exceed the generator MVA rating

• The reduction in Eg also weakens the magnetic coupling between rotor and

stator. At some point during the decay, the coupling will become too weak to

transmit prime mover output power to the electrical system i.e. loss of steady

state stability occurs

LOSS OF FIELD

2

Power (PU)

1.5 80% FL

60% FL

1 Pm

0.5

40% FL

δ at FL

0

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180

Degrees

LOSS OF FIELD

EgEs

Power Swing Equation : Pe sin

XT

X T transfer impedance Xg Xtr Xsyst , Xg effective generator reactance

• The effect of decaying Eg is to reduce amplitude of power angle curve with time

• The intersection of Pe and Pm define the operating angle (δ) of the generator

rotor with respect to the system voltage

• δ increases to maintain power equilibrium

• When δ reaches 900 electrical, power output is at maximum. If decay beyond this

point renders the generator incapable of transmitting all the mechanical power to

the electrical system

• The excess mechanical power is dissipated by acceleration of the generator rotor.

As speed increases beyond synchronous speed, synchronism is lost

• As speed increases, turbine output decreases as dictated by droop setting of the

governor and electrical power increases as dictated by the slip torque

characteristic of the power system.

• Eventually, Pm and Pe will reach a new equilibrium, with generator operating

above synchronous speed as an induction generator drawing excitation from the

power system in the form of Vars

LOSS OF FIELD

• Typically, it will take a fully loaded steam turbine generator several seconds to

loose synchronism

• Final slip is affected by the droop setting of the governor, system impedance and

initial loading. For a machine initially operating at full load, final slip is

typically in the 2 to 5% range.

• The power output of the induction generator is less than the pre failure power

output

• The final or steady state slip of the induction generator is important because it

determines Xg which in turn defines the impact of post LOF operation

• A LOF event can be represented by XT, a series circuit including Xg, Xtr and

Xsyst. Xg decreases with increasing slip and slip increases with initial generator

load.

• Thus, the higher the initial load, the greater the asynchronous current and more

severe the consequences to both the generator and the connected system

LOSS OF FIELD

• The initial load is the major factor in determining the potential damage from a

LOF event.

• At first glance, a strong power system would appear to offer high post fault

currents. This is not necessarily true. A reduction in Zs will reduce the final slip

frequency and increase the power output from the induction generator. Because

of lower final slip, Xg will increase thereby reducing the stator current. Thus, a

failure on a strong system may actually be less damaging than a failure on a

weak system

• A LOF event is more likely to be initiated by a shorted field circuit than an open

field circuit. The former will produce higher stator current, larger reactive intake

and generally more severe consequences than would be experienced with an

open field circuit.

LOSS OF FIELD

• When machines are connected directly to a common bus, the potential for

damage increases. As If decays on the unit with failed excitation, AVR on

healthy machines will initiate full field forcing to support the falling bus voltage.

This increases the Var supply to the faulted machine. The situation is aggravated

when the units are connected to a strong system. An IEEE study documents a

study of 2 generators connected to a common bus and a moderate strength power

system. The unit with failed excitation saw a peak MVA loading in excess of 2

pu and peak stator current in excess of 2.5 pu. The healthy unit was also severely

stressed with a peak MVA of 1.5 pu and peak current of 2 pu

• A LOF on a hydro unit at light load may not result in a loss of synchronism

since salient pole machines can carry up to 25% rated load following a loss of

field without loss of synchronism. However, once a salient pole machine looses

synchronism, it accelerates rapidly to a high slip. The slower acting hydro

governor and the fact that a salient pole machine makes an inefficient induction

generator causes this response. If the hydro generators field is lost near full load,

the effects are the same as for steam turbine units.

LOSS OF FIELD

System Impact:

• A generator operating asynchronously without excitation can consume Vars in

the range of 0.4 to 1.9 times the unit name plate rating as slip increases from

near zero to 4%

• The impact of LOF on the system is determined by it‟s ability to withstand not

only the loss of real and reactive output, but to supply the large Var demand

imposed by the faulted generator after LOF.

• Inability of system to meet VAR demand of failed unit can result in a

widespread system outage

• Initially, excitation on nearby generators will go to full boost to supply reactive

to the generator with failed excitation and support the grid voltage, The large

Var influx can overload and trip the area transmission lines.

• If the failed generator is not disconnected, field current limiters on the adjacent

units will time out, initiating an immediate reduction in field current to

continuous rated value? The resulting reduction in area Var support is likely to

produce severe voltage degradation. System voltage collapse or multi machine

instability can result causing a regional system outage

LOSS OF FIELD

System Impact:

• Dynamic studies similar to those used in transient stability analysis are required

to determine accurately system response to a LOF event. These studies are time

consuming and expansive.

• A screening technique using a standard load flow can determine where full

dynamic studies are required.

• At the generator of interest, a worst case LOF event is simulated in load flow by

setting the reactive flow into the machine at (-)1.5 times the name plate MW

rating.

• If a Load flow solves with reasonable system voltages, the system is considered

capable of withstanding the LOF event

• However, if the solution fails to converge or severely depressed voltage results,

the event must then be modeled dynamically to determine if the system can

survive the field failure.

LOSS OF FIELD

Generator damage:

• The potential for generator damage following a LOF is dependent on generator

design and final slip during asynchronous operation.

• Although the asynchronous capabilities are not addressed in the standards,

modern expectations, particularly for conductor cooled machines are much

lower, with damage in as little as 10 second for some instances.

• The improved cooling techniques result in larger MVA ratings from a given

physical size. These machines have higher per unit impedance and lower inertia

than indirect cooled machines and therefore tend to operate at a higher slip. This

reduces Xg during asynchronous operation, increasing the stator and induced

rotor current

• Conductor cooled machine will also have lower thermal time constants, hence

faster temperature rise for a given current than indirect cooled machines

<=30% rated load 0.1-0.2% Damage unlikely

100% rated load 2-5% Exposed to damage

LOSS OF FIELD

• The large –Q and depressed Et following a LOF load can

give rise to Is well above rated. Peak currents of 2.5 pu have

been reported

• ANSI C50.12,13,14 defines a required short time O/L

capability for stator windings which is the limiting value to

prevent stator winding damages

LOSS OF FIELD

Rotor damage:

• Can occur as a result of rapid heating caused by currents induced in

rotor

• LOF by shorted field circuit: the induced current is divided between

rotor structure and the field winding. This reduces heating in rotor

structures

• The induced field current is generally below rated in salient pole

machines and only slightly above rated in a few cases with cylindrical

rotor machines

• LOF by open field circuit: maximum rotor heating occurs. Also,

damaging over voltage will be induced in the field circuit for all but very

low slip events.

• In a cylindrical rotor machine, induced currents flow along the length of

rotor body, creating heat in teeth, slot wedges, and, if present, the

amortisseur winding. Thermal damage is most likely to occur near the

ends of the rotor where currents converge to enter the retaining rings

• In a salient pole machine, induced currents are found in the amortisseur

bars located in each pole face

LOSS OF FIELD

• Thermal damage at the ends of the stator core of a cylindrical rotor machine

when operated at reduced field current.

• This limitation forms the leading Var boundary of the generator capability curve

• A LOF represents the extreme in field current reduction.

• A LOF from full load can result in leading Var loading in excess of the

generator‟s MVA rating. Typically, the generator manufacturer‟s capability

curve limits leading Var intake to about 40 to 60% of the generator rating

• The reduction in terminal voltage that accompanies a LOF markedly increases

the Var capability, but this increase is insufficient to accommodate a potential

2.0pu leading Var inflow.

• The voltage dependent Var limitation is circular on the P-Q plane with the

following characteristics:

Centre (Q,P) = 0, K1*et2/Xd Radius = K2*et/Xd

• Excessive end core heating would result in bluing of metallic end core structure,

charring of stator winding insulation and failure of the insulation medium

between laminations.

LOSS OF FIELD

Torque pulsations:

• Originate from the electrical and magnetic difference between the d- and q-axes.

• More severe for shorted field circuit than an open circuit condition

• The torque magnitude associated with a LOF is less severe than that

accompanying an out of step condition with full excitation, but mechanical

damage remains a significant concern following a LOF event

• Asynchronous operation exposes the generator and the prime mover to two

stress cycles each slip cycle.

• Fatigue is cumulative, and extended asynchronous operation can consume a

considerable portion of the fatigue life of the shaft and associated structures,

including the machine foundations

• These pulsations are also potentially resonant with shafts, turbine blades and

other components.

Thank you

MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER

0.8 0.85

0.6

0.4

0.2

Q

0.95

-0.4

-0.6

-0.8 P

MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER

1

0.8

0.6 0.85

0.4

0.2

Q

0

-0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0

-0.4 0.9

-0.6

P

-0.8

TRANSIENT STABILITY

• Improved cooling techniques have increased generator impedance whereas

system impedance declined due to reinforcement

• Electrical Centers moved from transmission system into the GSU and the

generator itself

• Following a system disturbance, generator rotors experience angular

perturbations as they attempt to adjust a new steady state operating condition

• In a stable system rotor oscillations are damped ; initial angular displacement is

largest and proportional to the severity of disturbance

• There exists a maximum swing angle known as critical swing angle (δC) from

which the system can not recover

• System modeling on a transient stability program is best way to determine δC.

Tools and time to use them are generally not available to all and a less accurate

method is often adopted.

• A general assumption is made that δ>1200 is not recoverable and thereafter

instability is imminent

• The minimum system impedance and X‟d values are typically used to construct

swing loci because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter

TRANSIENT STABILITY

Swing Velocity:

• A fault changes system impedance instantaneously while impedance change

during a system transient is constrained by inertia and generator time constants

• GE publication GER-3179 (J Brady) lists the following average velocities for

the first half of the first slip cycle

Steam units 1296-1728 3.6-4.8

Tandem units 250-400 0.694-1.11

Compound units 400-800 1.11-2.22

• Maximum acceleration occurs after each pole slip at the midpoint of the slip

cycle

• Plot indicates slip < 5Hz at the beginning of second slip cycle. This value is

good estimation of upper limit of slip being calculated for a light machine (H=3)

LOSS OF FIELD

• The full load LOF event depicted in figure in earlier slide is typical

• It produces cyclic Is with variation between 1.14 and 2.13pu each slip cycle

• In theory, the stator heating is related to the RMS current over a slip cycle.

• The incremental form for RMS current is

IRMS can be calculated from

1T 2

I RMS I t incremental currents and slip

T0 cycle duration determine from

the spreadsheet

• In the case of the full load LOF event depicted in figure, the RMS current at final

slip was calculated as 1.74pu

• ANSI standards require that this current is limited to 22 sec to prevent winding

damage

• The stator waveform is not sinusoidal, because slip is not constant through the slip

cycle. Figure in next slide shows the stator current waveform for the same LOF

condition but with Xs reduced from 0.2 to 0.1.

• The incrementally calculated RMS current for this condition is 1.34pu. The

corresponding stator overload limit for this current is 50 sec from ANSI standards.

• This demonstrates that generator stress can increase with increased system

impedance

LOSS OF FIELD

induced rotor current is equal to slip frequency and is usually less than 5 Hz

• As frequency increases, skin effect increases the effective resistance of a

conductor . Thus, higher I2R and more heating per ampere are produced by NPS

operation than those by asynchronous operation

• The 2fs current produced by NPS current does not have sufficient penetration

into the rotor lots to induce current into the field winding. Therefore, the NPS

limit is, is, in effect, based on an open field circuit

• The NPS limits are based on the limiting temperature for pole face amortisseur

winding in salient pole machines and teeth or wedges in round rotor machine

with induced currents at 2fs. A realistic estimate of asynchronous limits requires

an adjustment of conductor resistance for lower frequency asynchronous case

• An AIEEE paper gives expression Tmax = CI2t/d2

Where Tmax= the limiting temperature for a component, C= constant for a

particular machine, I= stator current, and d= depth of penetration

• The physical differences between conducting structure in salient and round rotor

machines, result in different treatments for the resistance variation

LOSS OF FIELD

• The NPS short time limit is defined in terms of K, a constant representing the

maximum (I2eq)2*t value the machine can withstand

• The I2eq term refers to equivalent RMS pu NPS current in the event the current

is time variant

• IEEE standard C37.102:

K= 40 for salient pole machine

K= 10 for large conductor cooled machine

• For pole face amortisseurs on a salient pole machine and other small

conductors, „d‟ varies proportional to 1/√f

• Assume IRMS = 1.74pu at final slip under asynchronous operation

CI 2t Tmax

Tmax Thermal limit K I 2t

d2 Cf

Tmax I 2tf

Kf I tf

2

NPS limit K I 2

C 100

If machine in Figure 13.2 were limited by pole face amortisseur (K 40),

the expected rotor withstand for asynchronous operation at 5 Hz slip

100 K I 2 100 * 40

t 2

2

264 sec

I f 1.74 * 5

LOSS OF FIELD

• For a solid face cylindrical rotor having large diameter configuration, „d‟ varies

proportional to √(I/f)

Tmax I

Cylindrical rotor thermal limit I 2t

Cf

Tmax

and K It (Note resulting limitation is a function of It and not I 2t )

C

4 Itf Tmax

Practical upper limit for NPS current 4 pu K I 2 NPS limit

100 C

If machine in Figure 13.2 were limited by tooth temperature (K 10),

the expected rotor withstand for asynchronous operation at 5 Hz slip

100 * K I 2 100 *10

t 28.7 sec

4 * If 4 *1.74 * 5

GENERATOR

CAPABILITY CURVE

By

Prof. C. Radhakrishna

CONTENTS

GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE

Reactive Capability Curves

Armature current limit

Field current limit

End region heating limit

Generator Characteristics

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 2

GENERATOR CAPABILITY CURVE

Reactive Capability Curves

• Synchronous generators are rated in terms of the

maximum MVA output at a specified voltage and power

factor (usually 0.85 or 0.9 lagging) which they can carry

continuously without overheating.

• The active power output is limited by the prime mover

capability to a value within the MVA rating.

• The continuous reactive power output capability is limited

by three considerations: armature current limit, field

current limit, and end region heating limit.

• One of the limitations on generator rating is the maximum

current that can be carried by the armature without

exceeding the heating limitations.

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 3

Armature current limit

The per unit complex output power is

~ ~

S P jQ E t I t *

E t I t (cos j sin )

where φ is the power factor angle.

Figure 1, appears as a circle with centre at the origin and radius

equal to the MVA rating.

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 4

Field current limit

2

Because of the heat resulting from the R fd i fd power loss, the field

current imposes a second limit on the operation of the generator.

equivalent circuit developed earlier. With Xd=Xq=Xs , the equivalent

circuit of Steady-state model gives the relationship between Et, It and

Eq (equal to Xadifd). The corresponding phasor diagram, with Ra

neglected, is shown in Figure 2.

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 5

Field current limit

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 6

Field current limit

(1)

X ad

P E t I t cos E t i fd sin i

Xs

2

Xad E

t t sin

Q EI Eit fd cosi t

Xs Xs

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 7

Field current limit

given field current is a circle centred at ( ) on the Q-axis

and with E t2 / X sthe effect of the

as the radius. Therefore,

maximum( field

X ad / X s ) E t i fd rating on the capability of the machine may

current

be illustrated on the P-Q plane as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Field

current heating limit

In any balanced design, the thermal limits for the field and armature

intersect at a point A, which represents the machine nameplate MVA and

power factor rating.

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 8

End region heating limit

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 9

End region heating limit

• The localized heating in the end region of the armature imposes a third

limit on the operation of a synchronous machine.

• This limit affects the capability of the machine in the under excited

condition.

• This is illustrated in Figure 4, which also includes the limit imposed by

the armature current heating effects.

• The field current and armature current heating limits when plotted on a

P-Q plane depend on the armature voltage.

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 10

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 11

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 12

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 13

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 14

The above limits on the operation of the generator are those

imposed by the capabilities of the machine itself and are determined

by the design of the machine. Additional limits may be imposed by

power system stability limits.

Generator Characteristics

• During conditions of low-system voltages, the reactive power demand on

generators may exceed their field current and/or armature current limits.

• When the reactive power output is limited, the terminal voltage is no

longer maintained constant.

• On most generators, the armature current limit is realized manually by

operators responding to alarms.

• The operator reduces reactive and/or active power output to bring the

armature current within safe limits.

• On some generators, automatic armature current limiters with time delay

are used to limit reactive power output through the AVR.

REFERENCES :

[ 1 ] Prabha Kundur : “Power System Stability and control” , The EPRI

Power System Engineering Series, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 1994.

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 15

CONCLUSIONS

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 16

THANK

YOU

10/17/2010 10:20 AM 17

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