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Course Code:

Prelim Module SSCI 101 Credit Unit(s): 3


3rd TRIMESTER, SY 2018-2019
Lectures Unit (s): 1.5 Lab Unit (s): 0
Course Title: SOCIETY & CULTURE Date Issued: Page 1 of 2

Culture consists of the beliefs, behaviors, objects, and other characteristics common to the members of
a particular group or society.

Institution refers to clusters of rules and cultural meanings associated with specific social activities.

Popularly speaking, being cultured means being well‐educated, knowledgeable of the arts, stylish, and
well‐mannered.

High culture—generally pursued by the upper class—refers to classical music, theater, fine arts, and
other sophisticated pursuits.

Cultural capital, which means the professional credentials, education, knowledge, and verbal and social
skills necessary to attain the “property, power, and prestige” to “get ahead” socially.

Low culture, or popular culture—generally pursued by the working and middle classes—refers to sports,
movies, television sitcoms and soaps, and rock music.

Sociologists define society as the people who interact in such a way as to share a common culture.

The cultural bond may be ethnic or racial, based on gender, or due to shared beliefs, values, and
activities.

A theory is a set of ideas formulated (by reasoning from known facts) to explain something.

Paradigm – the practices that define a scientific discipline at certain point in time.

Theories and Paradigm in Understanding Society (Divine-Origin Theory, Social Evolution Theory, Social
Contract Theory, Structural-Functionalism Theory, Social Conflict Theory)

Divine Origin Theory State is established and governed by God himself. God may rule the state directly
or indirectly through some ruler who is regarded as an agent of God.

The divine right of kings or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political
legitimacy. It asserts that a monarch is subject to no earthly authority, deriving the right to rule directly
from the will of God.

Legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.

A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy. A monarch may exercise the highest authority
and power in the state, or others may wield that power on behalf of the monarch.

Auguste Comte, known as the father of Sociology

Positivism is a philosophical theory stating that certain ("positive") knowledge is based on natural
phenomena and their properties and relations. Thus, information derived from sensory experience,
interpreted through reason and logic, forms the exclusive source of all certain knowledge.

Prepared by: Noted by:

Joseph Noel A. De Leon, MA, RPm. Prof. Maria Rhodora S. Salazar


Faculty – College of Arts and Sciences Dean – College of Arts and Sciences
Course Code:
Prelim Module SSCI 101 Credit Unit(s): 3
3rd TRIMESTER, SY 2018-2019
Lectures Unit (s): 1.5 Lab Unit (s): 0
Course Title: SOCIETY & CULTURE Date Issued: Page 2 of 2

Social Evolution theory are theories of cultural and social evolution that describe
how cultures and societies change over time.

Social Contract theory is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment and usually
concerns the legitimacy of the authority of the state over the individual.

Thomas Hobbes was an English philosopher, considered to be one of the founders of modern political
philosophy.

Leviathan is a book written by Thomas Hobbes (1588–1679) and published in 1651 (revised Latin edition
1668) The work concerns the structure of society and legitimate government, and is regarded as one of
the earliest and most influential examples of social contract theory.

John Locke was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential
of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

Philosophy of mind is a branch of philosophy that studies the ontology, nature, and relationship of
the mind to the body.

Empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

Tabula rasa is the epistemological theory that individuals are born without built-in mental content and
that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer. Born in Geneva, his political
philosophy influenced the progress of the Enlightenment throughout Europe, as well as aspects of
the French Revolution and the development of modern political and educational thought.

Structural functionalism is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex
system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".

Social conflict theory is a Marxist-based social theory which argues that individuals and groups (social
classes) within society interact on the basis of conflict rather than consensus.

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using
a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social
transformation.

Karl Marx, the father of modern Sociology is likewise the father of conflict theory.

The Communist Manifesto is an 1848 political pamphlet by the German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich
Engels. the Manifesto was later recognized as one of the world's most influential political documents. It
presents an analytical approach to the class struggle (historical and then-present) and the conflicts
of capitalism and the capitalist mode of production, rather than a prediction of communism's potential future
forms.

Prepared by: Noted by:

Joseph Noel A. De Leon, MA, RPm. Prof. Maria Rhodora S. Salazar


Faculty – College of Arts and Sciences Dean – College of Arts and Sciences