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An expository essay

Globalization describes a process by which national and regional economies,

societies, and cultures have become integrated through the global network of trade,
communication, immigration and transportation. Globalization was often primarily focused on
the economic side of the world, more recently the term has been expanded to include a
broader range of areas and activities such as culture, media, technology, socio-cultural,
political, and even biological factors, like climate change. There are some global challenges
that our world is facing today.

Beside that, main challenge that our world facing nowadays is sustainable
development and climate change. Climate change may be the most daunting problem that
humankind has ever encountered, and economic globalization is accelerating it. Climate
change has been defined as the composition of the atmosphere which surrounds the planet
is altering as a result of the emissions of tonnes of polluting gases which is called
greenhouse gases from industry, transportation, agriculture and consumer practices.
Because of this thickening blanket of gases,the atmosphere is gradually warming.

Moreover, the entire planet will be affected by the climatic changes. The impacts that
predicted is melting of the glaciers and polar ice sheets. It contribute to sea level rise and it
also exposes more dark ocean waters, which absorbs more sunlight than ice, and thus heats
the ocean more, triggering a cycle of melting and heating. The next impact is the oceans are
getting hotter, expanding, and becoming more acidic. Oceans absorb 30 million tons of Co2
each day, increasing their acidity. The oceans are getting hotter, because they soak up 90%
of the extra heat in the atmosphere. This causes the oceans to expand, and this also
contributes to higher sea levels. Meanwhile, the higher concentration of Co2 in the ocean
makes the water more acidic.

Furthermore, there are many factors that cause climate change. One of the factor is
After that, the links between climate change and sustainable development are strong.
Sustainable development is a process where meeting the needs of the present without
compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. There are three
dimensions to sustainable development. There are economic, social and environmental.

I will focus much on the environmental role as it is contributing to protecting and

enhancing our natural, built and historic environment; and, as part of this, helping to improve
biodiversity, use natural resources prudently, minimise waste and pollution, and adapt to
climate change including moving to a low carbon economy.

In industrialised countries, there are a wide range of steps which could be taken to
increase conservation and energy efficiency and thereby dramatically reduce the amount of
fossil fuels used. Many technologies already exist for more efficient electrical lighting,
appliances, automobiles and further technological development could occur if adequate
resources were directed. Alternative, renewable energy sources are becoming more
economically viable. Urban planning designs have been developed that would reorient
community living so that people were less dependent on having to use their individual
automobile and public transportation would be more attractive, efficient and economical.

Scientists are studying how to create sunshades in space, build towers to suck CO2
from the air, sequester CO2 underground, spread iron powder in oceans to increase
phytoplankton, and reuse carbon at power plants to produce cement and grow algae for
biofuels. Large-scale geoengineering, such as spraying aerosols into the atmosphere to
reduce sunlight, could have unintended and irreversible side effects, such as making the
daytime sky significantly brighter and whiter. Other suggestions include retrofitting coal
plants to burn leaner and to capture and reuse carbon emissions, raising fuel efficiency
standards, and increasing vegetarianism (the livestock sector emits more GHGs than
transportation does).