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Natural resource is anything which a people can use which come from natural
environment. After the life began to start in the earth, those life start to depend
upon the things that exist freely in nature to survive. Natural resource come in any
forms. It may be solid, liquid or gas. It may also be metallic or non-metallic,
organic or inorganic and it ay be renewable or non-renewable. These are air,
water, wood, oil, coal, iron, forests, fossil fuels, animals, minerals etc.

Water= energy, drinking water

Oil = Energy, fuel

Forest = wood, food and medicine, cotton, home of wildlife, rubber

Rocks = construction, shelter

Soil = Agriculture

Animals = recreation, food, wool

Types of Natural resources

On the On the
On the
basis of basis of On the
basis of
developme distributio basis of
origin availability
nt n

Internation Multinatio Inexhaustib

Biotic Abiotic Potential Actual National
al nal

Non -

On the basis of availability

1. Exhaustible : The natural resources which can easily be exhausted after

heavy consumption of the natural resources.

(a) Renewable resources

(b) Non renewable resources

A. Renewable resource

Renewable resources are those that are constantly available like water or
can be reasonably recovered and replaced like vegetative lands. They have
ability to renew themselves and regenerate. E.g. sunlight, wind, soil, water,
soil, livestock and forest. Renewable resources are supposed to have
continuous supply. Renewable resources have higher rate of decomposition
than the rate of their consumption. Therefore these resources cause lesser
B. Non-renewable resource

Non renewable resources are those that cannot be renewed or regenerated

after their use completely. Thus they have to be used economically and
wisely. Non renewable resources cant be expected to have continuous
supplies. These resources have higher rate of consumption by the people
for the economic purpose and to gain profit. E.g. fossil fuels

2. Inexhaustible : The natural resource which doesnot get scarce at any cost is
called inexhaustible natural resource., Sunlight, air.

On the basis of origin

1. Biotic : Biotic natural resources are those which are made up of the living
components. agricultural crops.

2. Abiotic : Abiotic natural resources are those natural resources which are
obtained from non-living components. air, water, sunlight.

On the basis of development

1. Potential : The natural resources which are for our future generation is
known as potential natural resources. fossil fuels.

2. Actual : Quality or quantity wise if the natural resource is available for

the present time then it is known as actual natural resources.

On the basis of distribution

1. National : The natural resources within the territory of a particular

state or nation is known as national natural resources. mines,
coal consupttion.

2. Multinational: The natural resources which are of both the nation is

known as multinational natural resources. These resources are used
by more than one nation. migratory birds, river water.
3. International : The natural resources which are being used by any
person in the world is known as international natural resources. Sunlight.

Why should we conserve natural resources (Importance of

natural resources)
 For the improvement of national economy

 For the beautification of the natural environment

 Conservation of plant and animal diversity

 To maintain the ecosystem

 Provide things for our livelihood.

 To balance the environment

1. Forest – Major Natural Resources of Nepal

Forest is one of the major natural resources of Nepal. About 25.4% of Nepal’s land
is covered by forest. This figure is according to FAO in 2005. Nepal’s forest has
been classified as protected, conserved and production forest. Forest is the main
source of firewood in Nepal. Similarly, paper, furniture and timber industry are
dependent on the forest. Many medicinal herbs are available in the forest. It is
also the home of the different animals and birds. Forest, in fact, supports the
whole life cycle of the environment.

There are many forest conservation areas in Nepal which have been the home to
many animals, birds, and vegetation. It has added beauty to our country
since many tourists come to visit this lovely forest. Similarly, it has also been
helpful in controlling the landslides and soil erosion in the Hilly and Terai
areas of Nepal. But in some couple of years, deforestation rate is so high
that we are losing our natural forest. This is the reason that the
temperature of the major cities of Nepal has increased and it also leads to
the natural calamities. We should protect our natural forest so that we can
live a healthy life.

2. Soil/Land- Major Natural Resources of Nepal

Nepal occupies only 0.1 percentage of the total land of the world. Its total area
is 147,181 sq. Km. It is divided into three parts – Terai, Hilly, and Himalayan.
The soil is one of the most important parts of Nepal as most of the Nepalese
still are depended on agriculture and farming. Only 17% of total land is
cultivable which is in Terai and Hilly while 38% of the land is rocky, Mountains
and snow filled that is in Himalayan. So, people of Terai and Hilly are
dependent upon agriculture.

Terai land is more fertile. So, agriculture is more productive in Terai, It is also
called the green belt of Nepal since most of the agricultural products are
cultivated in Terai and exported to Hilly and Himalayas. They cultivate rice,
wheat, jute, paddy, tobacco, sugarcane, oilseed, potatoes, coconut, maize
etc. Similarly, in hilly areas, rice, paddy, potatoes, wheat, maize are grown.
Himalayan areas are not good for agriculture, however, there are large
medicinal herbs available in the Himalayan forest.

3. Water- Major Natural Resources of Nepal

Water is one of the major natural resources of Nepal. In fact, it is the second
richest country in water resources after Brazil. There are many sources of water,
especially like mountains, glaciers, and snow. Since Nepal is a landlocked country,
it has no any sources of water from sea or oceans. However, nature has provided
abundance sources of water. There are many large rivers like Karnali, Seti, Koshi,
Gandaki, Bhotekoshi, Sunkoshi and many small ponds, waterfalls and small
streams. There are also many lakes like Rara, Phewa, Tilicho, Shey pho ks undo
lakes which are also the sources of water.Water has been used especially in the
generation of electricity, irrigation projects, drinking and household works. But
still, the people of Nepal are not able to get adequate water resources. The capital
city Kathmandu is still scarce of water and electricity. However, in the present
days, there has been no lack of electricity but if the hydroelectricity projects are
not completed in time, it is sure to face major load shedding in the coming days.
The on-goingMelamchi project is also set to quench the thrust of people of
Kathmandu soon. Hope, our government will properly utilize the water resources
of our country.
4. Minerals- Major Natural Resources of Nepal

More than 80% of the land in Nepal is Mountainous. It has been researched that
there are various minerals resources like metallic, non-metallic, decorative stones,
fuel metals in the mountainous region. Similarly, minerals like gold, mica,
limestone, and iron ore, copper are found in various parts of Nepal. It is even
researched that Nepal has petroleum resources at Nepalgunj, Pyuthan, Dailekh.
Limestone found in Hetauda, Chovar, Surkhet has been used for the cement
production by the major cement factories. Kathmandu valley, Mustang and few
others districts of Nepal are supposed to be the major sources of natural gasses
but they are not confirmed yet.

Due to the lack of well-skilled technology and the manpower, Nepal is not able to
extract the minerals. If Nepal government gives priority to the mining industries,
then there will establish a large number of mining industries in Nepal that can
generate employment opportunities and the people of Nepal should not have to
go abroad for works. Even the international companies are interested in
establishing such industries but due to the lack of proper rules and regulations
and uncertain government, they are not getting the good environment to invest.

These are the major the natural resources of Nepal. Our country is rich in natural resources but we are
not able to utilize it. We are the second richest country in water but we lack adequate drinking water. We
lack the electricity as many rivers are flowing freely through which we can generate thousands of
electricity. We have the natural vegetation but we lack the medicinal industries. We have many minerals
resources but we have to export from next countries since we have no any mining industries. We have
the most cultivable land in Terai but we have to export foods from India.This is all due to the lack of
proper utilization of our natural resources. Until we don’t utilize it, the economy of our country will not

1955 2012 Essential Commodity Deems drinking water an Water
Protection Act 1955 essential commodity and Aid
(2012 BS) strictly protects drinking Nepal,
water. 2005
( Awasyak bastu Prohibits any unauthorized
samrachhyan ain use or misuse, stealing,
2012) damaging etc. of drinking
1963 2020 Muluki Ain 1963 (2020 Sets out the order of priority Water
BS) of use of water for irrigation Aid
Regulates traditional farmer Nepal,
managed irrigation systems 2005
1982 2039 Soil and Watershed Defines "Soil and Watershed Original
Conservation Act, Conservation" as acts to text
2039(1982) prevent or save any area from
( bhu tatha jalachar being destroyed from natural
samrachhyan Ain calamities such as flood,
2039) landslide and soil-erosion and
keep the volume and flow of
water in a normal condition or
keep on maintaining
cleanliness by preventing the
flow of water from being
The Act permit to carry out by
a conservation officer to
maintain the soil fertility and
the cleanliness of water and
environment in a balanced
manner and carry out such
other soil and watershed
conservation related acts as
prescribed by Government of
Classification of lands within
conserved watershed area
Farming to be done by
following land use system
Prohibit acts of throwing away
solid wastes or similar other
detritus contaminating the
environment or build a site for
collecting or keeping such
solid wastes or detritus.
Powers to shift industry,
business and settlement of
habitation within a conserved
watershed area or to acquire
the land where such industry,
business and settlement of
action is situated
1987 2044 Solid Waste Establishes the Solid Waste Water
(Management and Management and Resource Aid
Resource Mobilization Center as the Nepal,
Mobilization) Center responsible authority for the 2005
Act 1987 (2044 BS) management of solid waste.
( Fohor Maila Ain Deals with the pollution of
2044) water by solid waste.
1989 2046 Solid Waste Deals with the collection, Water
(Management and transportation and disposal of Aid
Resource solid waste. Nepal,
Mobilization) 2005
Regulation 1989 (2046 Deals with the provision of
BS) public toilets and bath houses.
1989 2046 Nepal Water Supply Establishes the Nepal Water Water
Corporation Act 1989 Supply Corporation as the Aid
(2046 BS) perpetual, autonomous Nepal,
( Nepal Khanepani government controlled 2005
Sansthaan Ain 2046) corporation responsible for
the supply of drinking water.
Prohibits certain acts and
penalties/punishment for
1990 2047 The Constitution of Guarantees the right to life Water
the Kingdom of Nepal and property. Aid,
1990 (2047 BS) Provides for the acquisition of Nepal
property under certain 2005
circumstances and for
1992 2049 Water Resource Act The umbrella Act governing Water
1992 (2049 BS) water resource management. Aid
( Jalshrot Ain 2049) Declares the order of priority Nepal,
of water use. 2005
Vests ownership of water in
the State.
Provides for the formation of
water user associations and
establishes a system of
Prohibits water pollution.
1992 2049 Electricity Act 1992 Governs the use of water for Water
(2049 BS) hydropower production. Aid
( Bidhyut Ain 2049) Establishes a system of Nepal,
licensing 2005
1992 2049 Industrial Enterprises Requires permission for the Water
Act 1992 (2049 BS) extension and diversification Aid
( Audhyogik of environmentally sensitive Nepal,
Byabashaya Ain 2049) industries. 2005
Provides financial incentives
for industrial enterprises that
minimize harmful effects on
the environment.
1993 2049 Forest Act, 2049 The trees cannot be felled in Original
(1993) such a way that it may cause text
( Ban Ain 2049) significant adverse effect in
the environment or damage
or loss publicly or soil erosion
in the watershed area.
Government of Nepal may
impose restriction on
collection, cutting,
consumption, transportation
sale, distribution or foreign
export of the prescribed forest
products for the protection of
bio-diversity and environment
upon publishing a notice in
the Nepal Gazette
1993 2050 Water Resource The umbrella Regulation Water
Regulation 1993 (2050 governing water resource Aid
BS) management. Nepal,
Sets out the procedure to 2005
register a Water User
Association and to obtain a
Sets out the rights and
obligations of Water User
Associations and license
Establishes the District Water
Resource Committee.
1997 2053 Environment Defines "Pollution" as the Original
Protection Act 1996 activities that significantly text
(2053 BS) degrade, damage the
environment or harm on the
beneficial or useful purpose of
the environment, by changing
the environment, directly or
To carry out Initial
Environmental Examination or
Environmental Impact
Prohibition on
Implementation of Proposal
Without Approval
To submit Proposal for
Prevention and Control of
Pollution (Nobody shall create
pollution in such a manner as
to cause significant adverse
impacts on the environment
or likely to be hazardous to
public life and people's health)
Designate Environmental
Inspectors to inspect as to
whether or not the acts of
mitigation, avoidance or
control of pollution have been
carried out in accordance with
this Act or the Rules framed
under this Act.
Protection of National
Declare Environment
Protection Area
Establishment of a laboratory
to help in the activities related
to environment protection
and pollution control.
To allow collection of samples
to study, examine or analyze
the pollution, sound, heat and
wastes to be or likely to be
generated from any industry,
factory, machine, vehicle etc.
Establishment and operation
of environment protection
Power to constitute
environment protection
Punishments ( e.g., cash
penalty up to one hundred
thousand Nepalese Rupees)
1997 2054 Environment Lists the water related Water
Protection Regulation projects required to conduct Aid
1997 (2054 BS) an EIA or IEE. Nepal,
Deals with the control of 2005
water pollution and pollution
control certificate
1998 2055 Drinking Water Regulates the use of drinking Water
Regulation 1998 (2055 water. Aid
BS) Provides for the formation of Nepal,
Drinking Water User 2005
Associations and sets out the
procedure for registration.
Deals with licensing of use
drinking water.
Deals with the control of
water pollution and
maintenance of quality
standards for drinking water.
Sets out the conditions of
service utilization by
1999 2055 Local Self Governance Establishes a decentralized Water
Act 1999 (2055 BS) governance structure Aid
Sets out the powers, functions Nepal,
and duties of the VDC, 2005
Municipality and DDC in
relation to water and
1999 2056 Local Self Governance Sets out the powers, functions Water
Regulation 1999 (2056 and duties of VDC, Aid
BS) Municipality and DDC in Nepal,
relation to water and 2005
Establishes the procedure for
the formulation of water
related plan and project
2000 2056 Irrigation Regulation Deals with Irrigation Water Original
2000 (2056 BS) User Associations and the text
transfer of projects to
Irrigation Water User
The environmental effect
evaluation or preliminary
environment examination
shall be conducted as per
necessary under the prevailing
law through public hearing in
connection with the negative
impact on the environment
from the irrigation project.
In the course of using water
for irrigation from any
river/rivulet only the
remaining water shall be
utilized for irrigation purpose
upon leaving minimum water
in the same river/rivulet after
determining so that it will not
have negatively effects on the
local biodiversity.
Monitoring, study and
research work in the water
quality shall be conducted and
water in irrigation shall be
conserved effectively without
negative impact in the
Available ground water
resources shall, be developed
and utilized as like the surface
water reservoirs, and
arrangements shall be made
for conservation, promotion
and control in quality.
2002 2058 Water Resources Goal : Living conditions of WECS,
Strategy Nepal Nepali people are significantly 2002
improved in a sustainable
Drinking water is the basic
minimum need of all human
Entact and Enforce Standards
and Regulatory Mechanisms
for Water Quality and Effluent
Appropriate sanitation
services in rural and urban
areas will be provided through
community awareness
Ensure Compliance with
Enviromental Regulations
Implement and Enforce
Equitable Mechanisms for
Increase the access of the
population to drinking water
through rainwater harvesting
programmes, community-
based water supply and
sanitation sector projects,
Rural water supply
projects/water resource
management programmes, A
small town water
supply and sanitation
programme, a water quality
improvement programme etc
2003 2059 National Wetland Defines Wetlands as perennial Original
Policy 2003 water bodies that originate text
from underground sources of
water or rains. It means
swampy areas with flowing or
stagnant fresh or salt water
that are natural or man-made,
or permanent or temporary.
Wetlands also mean marshy
lands, riverine floodplains,
lakes, ponds, water storage
areas and agricultural lands.
Goals are 1) to conserve and
manage wetlands resources
wisely and in a sustainable
way with local people s
participation and 2) to put the
conservation and
management aspects of
wetlands conservation within
the framework of broader
environmental management.
Regulate the extraction of
underground water and
prevent water pollution.
Make provisions for
environmental impact
assessment according to
prevalent laws prior to
approving development
programs and activities
around wetlands.
Ensure environmental
protection by regularly
monitoring development
programs and activities
around wetlands
2004 2060 Rural Water Supply Recognizes that all people Water
and Sanitation have a right to access to basic Aid
National Policy water supply and sanitation Nepal,
services and that these 2005
services are necessary for
socio economic development
and to combat waterborne
2005 2062 National Water Plan- The National Water Plan WECS,
Nepal (NWP) has been prepared to 2005
operationalize the Water
Resources Strategy (WRS) of
Nepal , approved by the
HMGN in January 2002.
The major doctrines of the
NWP are integration,
coordination, decentralization,
popular participation and
implementation of water-
related programmes within
the framework of good
governance, equitable
distribution and sustainable
The NWP includes subsector-
wise action programmes in
water induced disasters,
environmental action plan on
management of watershed
and aquatic ecosystem, water
supply, sanitation and
hygiene, irrigation for
agriculture, hydropower
development, industries,
tourism, fisheries, and
navigational uses, water-
related information systems
(Decision Support System for
River Basin Planning and
Management), legal
frameworks, and institutional
Environment Management
Plan, a strategic document for
the implementation of
environmental protection
measures (including
downstream water pollution
and groundwater quality,
erosion/landslide and
sedimentation, water
pollution and sanitation, effect
on aquatic life and wetland
ecosystem), monitoring
(baseline, impacts, and
compliance), environmental
auditing and institutional and
procedural arrangements.
2006 2063 Water Supply Defines "Water supply Original
Management Board service" as the provision of text
Act, 2063 (2006) water to the users upon
processing and purifying the
natural water.
Defines "Sanitation service" as
an act of destroying,
discharging, processing or
purifying dirty water
discharged from human
beings or from domestic,
trade or industrial use and all
kinds of dirty substances
mixed with such water.
The Board prevents the
misuse of potable water and
prevent pollution of potable
The Board carry out, or cause
to be carried out, study,
research and survey on the
source, distribution of potable
water, and sanitation
The Board may punish a
person causing adverse effect
to the public health by
contaminating the potable
water, a fine of up to Twenty
Five Thousand Rupees in view
of the degree of the offence
2015 2072 The Constitution of Rights regarding clean Updated
the Nepal 2015(2072 environment, Right to by WECS,
BS) healthcare,Right to food Nepal
Policies regarding the
conservation, management
and use of natural resources
Policies regarding the basic
needs of citizens