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Arabic verb conjugations

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Verb conjugations for standard and Egyptian Arabic

This page contains information about the different kinds of verbs in Arabic and conjugation
tables for each kind in both standard and Egyptian Arabic.

First of all, there are two moods/tenses in Arabic.


the perfect/past (‫ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬al-maaDi) - used to indicate actions that have been completed.
This conjugation involves adding suffixes to the "base" form of the verb.
the imperfect/present (‫ اﻟﻤﻀﺎرع‬al-muDaari3) - used to indicate actions that have not been
completed yet. This conjugation requires the addition of prefixes and, in some cases,
suffixes as well.

Note: There are no infinitive forms of verbs in Arabic. Instead, typically the masculine third-
person perfect form is used (ex. ‫درس‬, to study, actually means "he studied").

There are two main classes of verbs in Arabic: sound (‫ ﺻﺤﯿﺢ‬SaHiiH) and weak (‫ ﻣﻌﺘﻞ‬mu3tall).
Here's an outline of the types of verbs:

‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬al-fi3l aS-SaHiiH) Sound verbs - don't have a ‫ و‬or ‫ ي‬as one of the three root
letters
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ اﻟﺴﺎﻟﻢ‬al-fi3l aS-SaHiiH as-saalim) Regular sound verbs
Irregular sound verbs:
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻀﻌﻒ‬al-fi3l al-muDa33af) Geminate/doubled verbs - where the
second and third radicals of the root are the same
‫ دّق‬daqqa - ‫ ﺪّق‬yadiqqu (to knock)
‫ رّد‬radda - ‫ ﺮّد‬yaruddu (to reply)
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻬﻤﻮز‬al-fi3l al-mahmuuz) Hamzated verbs - where ‫ ء‬is one of the
consonants
‫ أﻛﻞ‬akala - ‫ ﯾﺄﻛﻞ‬ya'kulu (to eat)
‫ ﺳﺄل‬sa'ala - ‫ ﯾﺴﺄل‬yas'alu (to ask)
‫ ﺑﺪأ‬bada'a - ‫ ﯾﺒﺪأ‬yabda'u (to begin)

‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻌﺘﻞ‬al-fi3l al-mu3tall) Weak verbs - have a ‫ و‬or ‫ ي‬as one or more of the root
radicals
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬al-fi3l al-mitaal) Assimilated verbs - begin with ‫ و‬or ‫( ي‬usually ‫ ;)و‬in the
imperfect and in other situations the ‫ و‬often disappears
‫ وﺿﻊ‬waDa3a - ‫ ﯾﻀﻊ‬yaDa3u (to put)
‫ وﺻﻞ‬waSala - ‫ ﯾﺼﻞ‬yaSilu (to arrive)
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻷﺟﻮف‬al-fi3l al-ajwaf) Hollow verbs - the second radical is either a ‫ و‬or ‫ ;ي‬in
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the perfect, the ‫ و‬or ‫ ي‬is replaced by an alif
‫ ﺑﺎع‬baa3a - ‫ ﯾﺒﯿﻊ‬yabii3u (to sell)
‫ ﻋﺎد‬3aada - ‫ ﯾﻌﻮد‬ya3uudu (to return)
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ‬al-fi3l al-naaqiS) Defective verbs - where the final root radical is either ‫و‬
or ‫ ي‬a
‫ ﻧﺴﻰ‬nasiya - ‫ ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬yansa (to forget)
‫ ﺑﺪا‬bada - ‫ ﯾﺒﺪو‬yabdu (to appear, seem)

Sound verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬al-fi3l aS-SaHiiH)
Sound verbs don't have a ‫ و‬or ‫ ي‬as one of the three root letters.

Regular sound verbs


‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ اﻟﺴﺎﻟﻢ‬al-fi3l aS-SaHiiH as-saalim)
This is the first type of sound verb.
Regular sound verbs - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﻜﺘﺐ‬- ‫( ﻛﺘﺐ‬to write)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I wrote (katabtu ) ‫ﻛﺘﺒُﺖ‬ (katabt) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬

you (masc.) wrote (katabta ) ‫ﻛﺘﺒَﺖ‬ (katabt) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬

you (fem.) wrote (katabti) ‫ﻛﺘﺒِﺖ‬ (katabti) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﻲ‬

he wrote (kataba) ‫ﻛﺘَﺐ‬ (katab) ‫ﻛﺘﺐ‬

she wrote (katabat ) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬ (katabit) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺖ‬

Dual we wrote (katabna) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎ‬

you wrote (katabtuma ) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) wrote (katabaa) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺎ‬

they (fem.) wrote (katabataa) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﺎ‬

Plural we wrote (katabna) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎ‬ (katabna) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) wrote (katabtum) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﻢ‬ (katabtuu) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) wrote (katabtunna) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﺘﻦ‬

they (masc.) wrote (katabuu) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﻮا‬ (katabuu) ‫ﻛﺘﺒﻮا‬

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they (fem.) wrote (katabna) ‫ﻛﺒﺘﻦ‬

Regular sound verbs - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﻜﺘﺐ‬- ‫( ﻛﺘﺐ‬to write)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I write (aktubu) ‫أﻛﺘﺐ‬ (aktib) ‫أﻛﺘﺐ‬

you (masc.) write (taktubu ) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ‬ (tiktib) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ‬

you (fem.) write (taktubiina ) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒﯿﻦ‬ (tiktibi ) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒﻲ‬

he writes (yaktubu) ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺐ‬ (yiktib ) ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺐ‬

she writes (taktubu ) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ‬ (tiktib) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺐ‬

Dual we write (naktubu) ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺐ‬

you write (taktubaani) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒﺎن‬

they (masc.) write (yaktubaani) ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺒﺎن‬

they (fem.) write (taktubaani) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒﺎن‬

Plural we write (naktubu) ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺐ‬ (niktib) ‫ﻧﻜﺘﺐ‬

you (masc.) write (taktubuuna) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒﻮن‬ (tiktibuu) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒﻮا‬

you (fem.) write (taktubna) ‫ﺗﻜﺘﺒﻦ‬

they (masc.) write (yaktubuuna) ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺒﻮن‬ (yiktibuu) ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺒﻮا‬

they (fem.) write (yaktubna) ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺒﻦ‬

Sound verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬al-fi3l aS-SaHiiH)

There are two types of irregular sound verbs. The first is:
Geminate/doubled verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻀﻌﻒ‬al-fi3l al-muDa33af)
Verbs where the second and third radicals of the root are the same.

Geminate verbs - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﺮّد‬- ‫( رّد‬to reply)


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English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I replied (radadtu) ‫رددُت‬ (raddeit) ‫رّدﯾﺖ‬

you (masc.) replied (radadta) ‫رددَت‬ (raddeit) ‫رّدﯾﺖ‬

you (fem.) replied (radadti) ‫رددِت‬ (raddeiti ) ‫رّدﯾﺘﻲ‬

he replied (radda) ‫رّد‬ (radd) ‫رّد‬

she replied (raddat) ‫رّدت‬ (raddit) ‫رّدت‬

Dual we replied (radadna ) ‫رددﻧﺎ‬

you replied (radadtuma) ‫رددﺗﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) replied (raddaa) ‫رّدا‬

they (fem.) replied (raddataa) ‫رّدﺗﺎ‬

Plural we replied (radadna ) ‫رددﻧﺎ‬ (raddeina ) ‫رّدﯾﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) replied (radadtum) ‫رددﺗﻢ‬ (raddeituu) ‫رّدﯾﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) replied (radadtunna) ‫رددﺗﻦ‬

they (masc.) replied (radduu) ‫رّدوا‬ (radduu) ‫رّدوا‬

they (fem.) replied (radadna ) ‫رددن‬

Note that in fuSHa, the doubled consonant is separated into two consonants for all the
conjugations except the highlighted ones. In 3ammiyya, though, the doubled consonant stays
doubled.
Geminate verbs - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﺮّد‬- ‫( رّد‬to reply)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I reply (aruddu) ‫أرّد‬ (arodd) ‫أرّد‬

you (masc.) reply (taruddu) ‫ﺗﺮّد‬ (tirodd) ‫ﺗﺮّد‬

you (fem.) reply (taruddiina) ‫ﺗﺮّدﯾﻦ‬ (tiroddi) ‫ﺗﺮّدي‬

he replies (yaruddu) ‫ﯾﺮّد‬ (yirodd) ‫ﯾﺮّد‬

she replies (taruddu) ‫ﺗﺮّد‬ (tirodd) ‫ﺗﺮّد‬

Dual we reply (naruddu ) ‫ﻧﺮّد‬

you reply (taruddani) ‫ﺗﺮّدان‬

they (masc.) reply (yaruddaani) ‫ﯾﺮّدان‬

they (fem.) reply (taruddaani) ‫ﺗﺮّدان‬

Plural we reply (naruddu ) ‫ﻧﺮّد‬ (nirodd) ‫ﻧﺮّد‬

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you (masc.) reply (tarudduuna) ‫ﺗﺮّدون‬ (tirodduu) ‫ﺗﺮّدوا‬

you (fem.) reply (tardudna) ‫ﺗﺮددن‬

they (masc.) reply (yarudduuna ) ‫ﯾﺮّدون‬ (yirodduu) ‫ﯾﺮّدوا‬

they (fem.) reply (yardudna) ‫ﯾﺮددن‬

In fuSHa, the doubled consonant remains doubled for the imperfect conjugations, with the
exception of the second- and third-person feminine plural conjugations. In 3ammiyya, the
doubled consonant again remains doubled for everything.

Sound verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﺼﺤﯿﺢ‬al-fi3l aS-SaHiiH)

The second type of irregular sound verb is:


Hamzated verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻬﻤﻮز‬al-fi3l al-mahmuuz)
Verbs where ‫ ء‬is one of the root consonants.

Hamzated verbs - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﺄﻛﻞ‬- ‫( أﻛﻞ‬to eat)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I ate (akaltu ) ‫أﻛﻠُﺖ‬ (akalt) ‫اﻛﻠﺖ‬

you (masc.) ate (akalta ) ‫أﻛﻠَﺖ‬ (akalt) ‫اﻛﻠﺖ‬

you (fem.) ate (akalti) ‫أﻛﻠِﺖ‬ (akalti) ‫اﻛﻠﺘﻲ‬

he ate (akala) ‫أﻛﻞ‬ (akal) ‫اﻛﻞ‬

she ate (akalat) ‫أﻛﻠﺖ‬ (aklit) ‫اﻛﻠﺖ‬

Dual we ate (akalna) ‫أﻛﻠﻨﺎ‬

you ate (akaltuma) ‫أﻛﻠﺘﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) ate (akalaa) ‫أﻛﻼ‬

they (fem.) ate (akalataa) ‫أﻛﻠﺘﺎ‬

Plural we ate (akalna) ‫أﻛﻠﻨﺎ‬ (akalna) ‫اﻛﻠﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) ate (akaltum) ‫أﻛﻠﺘﻢ‬ (akaltuu) ‫اﻛﻠﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) ate (akaltunna) ‫أﻛﻠﺘﻦ‬

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they (masc.) ate (akaluu) ‫أﻛﻠﻮا‬ (akaluu) ‫اﻛﻠﻮا‬

they (fem.) ate (akalna) ‫أﻛﻠﻦ‬

Note that in 3ammiyya, people usually say ‫( ﻛﻞ‬kal) rather than ‫( اﻛﻞ‬akal). However, for the sake
of direct comparison with fuSHa, I went with the latter variation for this table.
Hamzated verbs - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﺄﻛﻞ‬- ‫( أﻛﻞ‬to eat)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I eat (akulu) ‫أﻛﻞ‬ (aakul) ‫اﻛﻞ‬

you (masc.) eat (ta'kulu) ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻞ‬ (taakul) ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻞ‬

you (fem.) eat (ta'kuliina) ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻠﯿﻦ‬ (takli) ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻠﻲ‬

he eats (ya'kulu) ‫ﯾﺄﻛﻞ‬ (yaakul ) ‫ﯾﺎﻛﻞ‬

she eats (ta'kulu) ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻞ‬ (taakul) ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻞ‬

Dual we eat (na'kulu) ‫ﻧﺄﻛﻞ‬

you eat (ta'kulaani) ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻼن‬

they (masc.) eat (ya'kulaani) ‫ﯾﺄﻛﻼن‬

they (fem.) eat (ta'kulaani) ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻼن‬

Plural we eat (na'kulu) ‫ﻧﺄﻛﻞ‬ (naakul) ‫ﻧﺎﻛﻞ‬

you (masc.) eat (ta'kuluuna) ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻮن‬ (taklu) ‫ﺗﺎﻛﻠﻮا‬

you (fem.) eat (ta'kulna) ‫ﺗﺄﻛﻠﻦ‬

they (masc.) eat (ya'kuluuna) ‫ﯾﺄﻛﻠﻮن‬ (yaklu) ‫ﯾﺎﻛﻠﻮا‬

they (fem.) eat (ya'kulna) ‫ﯾﺄﻛﻠﻦ‬

Note that while in fuSHa the hamza is kept in the imperfect conjugations, in 3ammiyya it is
elided into a long alif.
Hamzated verbs 2 - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﺴﺄل‬- ‫( ﺳﺄل‬to ask)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I asked (sa'altu) ‫ﺳﺄﻟُﺖ‬ (sa'alt) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬

you (masc.) asked (sa'alta) ‫ﺳﺄﻟَﺖ‬ (sa'alt) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬

you (fem.) asked (sa'alti) ‫ﺳﺄﻟِﺖ‬ (sa'alti) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻲ‬

he asked (sa'ala ) ‫ﺳﺄل‬ (sa'al) ‫ﺳﺄل‬

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she asked (sa'alat) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬ (sa'alit) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺖ‬

Dual we asked (sa'alna) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﻨﺎ‬

you asked (sa'altuma) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) asked (sa'alaa) ‫ﺳﺄﻻ‬

they (fem.) asked (sa'alataa ) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺘﺎ‬

Plural we asked (sa'alna) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﻨﺎ‬ (sa'alna) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) asked (sa'altum) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻢ‬ (sa'altuu) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) asked (sa'altunna) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﺘﻦ‬

they (masc.) asked (sa'aluu) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﻮا‬ (sa'aluu) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﻮا‬

they (fem.) asked (sa'alna) ‫ﺳﺄﻟﻦ‬

Hamzated verbs 2 - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﺴﺄل‬- ‫( ﺳﺄل‬to ask)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I ask (as'alu ) ‫أﺳﺄل‬ (as'al) ‫أﺳﺄل‬

you (masc.) ask (tas'alu) ‫ﺗﺴﺄل‬ (tis'al ) ‫ﺗﺴﺄل‬

you (fem.) ask (tas'aliina) ‫ﺗﺴﺄﻟﯿﻦ‬ (tis'ali) ‫ﺗﺴﺄﻟﻲ‬

he asks (yas'alu) ‫ﯾﺴﺄل‬ (yis'al) ‫ﯾﺴﺄل‬

she asks (tas'alu) ‫ﺗﺴﺄل‬ (tis'al ) ‫ﺗﺴﺄل‬

Dual we ask (nas'alu) ‫ﻧﺴﺄل‬

you ask (tas'alaani) ‫ﺗﺴﺄﻻن‬

they (masc.) ask (yas'alaani) ‫ﯾﺴﺄﻻن‬

they (fem.) ask (tas'alaani) ‫ﺗﺴﺄﻻن‬

Plural we ask (nas'alu) ‫ﻧﺴﺄل‬ (nis'al) ‫ﻧﺴﺄل‬

you (masc.) ask (tas'aluuna) ‫ﺗﺴﺄﻟﻮن‬ (tis'aluu) ‫ﺗﺴﺄﻟﻮا‬

you (fem.) ask (tas'alna) ‫ﺗﺴﺄﻟﻦ‬

they (masc.) ask (yas'aluuna) ‫ﯾﺴﺄﻟﻮن‬ (yis'aluu) ‫ﯾﺴﺄﻟﻮا‬

they (fem.) ask (yas'alna) ‫ﯾﺴﺄﻟﻦ‬

Hamzated verbs 3 - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﻘﺮأ‬- ‫( ﻗﺮأ‬to read)

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English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I read (qara'tu) ‫ﻗﺮأُت‬ ('areit) ‫ﻗﺮﯾﺖ‬

you (masc.) read (qara'ta) ‫ﻗﺮأَت‬ ('areit) ‫ﻗﺮﯾﺖ‬

you (fem.) read (qara'ti) ‫ﻗﺮأِت‬ ('areiti) ‫ﻗﺮﯾﺘﻲ‬

he read (qara'a) ‫ﻗﺮأ‬ ('ara) ‫ﻗﺮا‬

she read (qara'at) ‫ﻗﺮأت‬ ('arit) ‫ﻗﺮت‬

Dual we read (qara'na) ‫ﻗﺮأﻧﺎ‬

you read (qara'tuma) ‫ﻗﺮأﺗﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) read (qar'aa) ‫ﻗﺮآ‬

they (fem.) read (qara'taa ) ‫ﻗﺮأﺗﺎ‬

Plural we read (qara'na) ‫ﻗﺮأﻧﺎ‬ ('areina) ‫ﻗﺮﯾﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) read (qara'tum) ‫ﻗﺮأﺗﻢ‬ ('areituu) ‫ﻗﺮﯾﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) read (qara'tunna) ‫ﻗﺮأﺗﻦ‬

they (masc.) read (qara'uu) ‫ﻗﺮأوا‬ ('aruu) ‫ﻗﺮوا‬

they (fem.) read (qara'na) ‫ﻗﺮأن‬

Again, note that while the hamza is kept in the fuSHa conjugations, it is elided in 3ammiyya.
Hamzated verbs 3 - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﻘﺮأ‬- ‫( ﻗﺮأ‬to read)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I read (aqra'u) ‫أﻗﺮأ‬ (a'ra) ‫أﻗﺮا‬

you (masc.) read (taqra'u) ‫ﺗﻘﺮأ‬ (ti'ra ) ‫ﺗﻘﺮا‬

you (fem.) read (taqra'iina) ‫ﺗﻘﺮﺋﯿﻦ‬ (ti'ri) ‫ﺗﻘﺮي‬

he reads (yaqra'u) ‫ﯾﻘﺮأ‬ (yi'ra) ‫ﯾﻘﺮا‬

she reads (taqra'u) ‫ﺗﻘﺮأ‬ (ti'ra ) ‫ﺗﻘﺮا‬

Dual we read (naqra'u) ‫ﻧﻘﺮأ‬

you read (taqra'aani ) ‫ﺗﻘﺮآن‬

they (masc.) read (yaqra'aani) ‫ﯾﻘﺮآن‬

they (fem.) read (taqra'aani ) ‫ﺗﻘﺮآن‬

Plural we read (naqra'u) ‫ﻧﻘﺮأ‬ (ni'ra) ‫ﻧﻘﺮا‬

you (masc.) read (taqra'uuna) ‫ﺗﻘﺮأون‬ (ti'ru ) ‫ﺗﻘﺮوا‬

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you (fem.) read (taqra'na ) ‫ﺗﻘﺮأن‬

they (masc.) read (yaqra'uuna) ‫ﯾﻘﺮأون‬ (yi'ru) ‫ﯾﻘﺮوا‬

they (fem.) read (yaqra'na) ‫ﯾﻘﺮأن‬

Weak verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻌﺘّﻞ‬al-fi3l al-mu3tall)

A verb is "weak" if one of the letters from the verb's three root letters is ‫ و‬,‫ا‬, or ‫ي‬. There are
three different classes of weak verbs; let's begin with:
Assimilated verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬al-fi3l al-mitaal)
Verbs where the first radical is a long vowel (usually ‫)و‬.

Assimilated verbs - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﺼﻞ‬- ‫( وﺻﻞ‬to arrive)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I arrived (waSaltu) ‫وﺻﻠُﺖ‬ (wiSilt) ‫وﺻﻠﺖ‬

you (masc.) arrived (waSalta) ‫وﺻﻠَﺖ‬ (wiSilt) ‫وﺻﻠﺖ‬

you (fem.) arrived (waSalti) ‫وﺻﻠِﺖ‬ (wiSilti) ‫وﺻﻠﺘﻲ‬

he arrived (waSala ) ‫وﺻﻞ‬ (wiSil) ‫وﺻﻞ‬

she arrived (waSalat) ‫وﺻﻠﺖ‬ (wiSlit) ‫وﺻﻠﺖ‬

Dual we arrived (waSalna) ‫وﺻﻠﻨﺎ‬

you arrived (waSaltuma) ‫وﺻﻠﺘﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) arrived (waSalaa) ‫وﺻﻼ‬

they (fem.) arrived (waSalataa ) ‫وﺻﻠﺘﺎ‬

Plural we arrived (waSalna) ‫وﺻﻠﻨﺎ‬ (wiSilna) ‫وﺻﻠﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) arrived (waSaltum) ‫وﺻﻠﺘﻢ‬ (wiSiltuu) ‫وﺻﻠﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) arrived (waSaltunna) ‫وﺻﻠﺘﻦ‬

they (masc.) arrived (waSaluu) ‫وﺻﻠﻮا‬ (wiSiluu) ‫وﺻﻠﻮا‬

they (fem.) arrived (waSalna) ‫وﺻﻠﻦ‬

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Note that weak verbs beginning with a ‫ و‬are just like regular verbs regarding perfect
conjugations.
Assimilated verbs - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﺼﻞ‬- ‫( وﺻﻞ‬to arrive)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I arrive (aSilu) ‫أﺻﻞ‬ (awSil) ‫أوﺻﻞ‬

you (masc.) arrive (taSilu) ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ (tiwSil) ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬

you (fem.) arrive (taSiliina) ‫ﺗﺼﻠﯿﻦ‬ (tiwSili) ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻲ‬

he arrives (yaSilu) ‫ﯾﺼﻞ‬ (yiwSil) ‫ﯾﻮﺻﻞ‬

she arrives (taSilu) ‫ﺗﺼﻞ‬ (tiwSil) ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻞ‬

Dual we arrive (naSilu) ‫ﻧﺼﻞ‬

you arrive (taSilaani) ‫ﺗﺼﻼن‬

they (masc.) arrive (yaSilaani) ‫ﯾﺼﻼن‬

they (fem.) arrive (taSilaani) ‫ﺗﺼﻼن‬

Plural we arrive (naSilu) ‫ﻧﺼﻞ‬ (niwSil) ‫ﻧﻮﺻﻞ‬

you (masc.) arrive (taSiluuna) ‫ﺗﺼﻠﻮن‬ (tiwSilu) ‫ﺗﻮﺻﻠﻮا‬

you (fem.) arrive (taSilna) ‫ﺗﺼﻠﻦ‬

they (masc.) arrive (yaSiluuna) ‫ﯾﺼﻠﻮن‬ (yiwSilu) ‫ﯾﻮﺻﻠﻮا‬

they (fem.) arrive (yaSilna ) ‫ﯾﺼﻠﻦ‬

Note that in the imperfect mood, an assimilated verb drops its first letter in fuSHa. In
3ammiyya, however, the initial letter remains.

Weak verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻌﺘّﻞ‬al-fi3l al-mu3tall)

The second kind of weak verb is:


Hollow verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻷﺟﻮف‬al-fi3l al-ajwaf)
Verbs where the second radical is either a ‫( و‬as with ‫ ﯾﻘﻮل‬- ‫ )ﻗﺎل‬or ‫( ي‬as with ‫ ﯾﺒﯿﻊ‬- ‫ ;)ﺑﺎع‬in the
perfect, the ‫ و‬or ‫ ي‬is replaced by an alif.

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Hollow verbs - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﺰور‬- ‫( زار‬to visit)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I visited (zurtu) ‫زرُت‬ (zurt) ‫زرت‬

you (masc.) visited (zurta) ‫زرَت‬ (zurt) ‫زرت‬

you (fem.) visited (zurti ) ‫زرِت‬ (zurti ) ‫زرﺗﻲ‬

he visited (zaara) ‫زار‬ (zaar) ‫زار‬

she visited (zaarat) ‫زارت‬ (zaarit) ‫زارت‬

Dual we visited (zurna) ‫زرﻧﺎ‬

you visited (zurtuma) ‫زرﺗﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) visited (zaaraa) ‫زارا‬

they (fem.) visited (zaarataa ) ‫زارﺗﺎ‬

Plural we visited (zurna) ‫زرﻧﺎ‬ (zurna) ‫زرﻧﺎ‬

you (masc.) visited (zurtum) ‫زرﺗﻢ‬ (zurtuu) ‫زرﺗﻮا‬

you (fem.) visited (zurtunna ) ‫زرﺗﻦ‬

they (masc.) visited (zaaruu) ‫زاروا‬ (zaaru) ‫زاروا‬

they (fem.) visited (zurna) ‫زرن‬

Note that the long vowel is dropped in all conjugations but those for the third-person singular,
dual, and plural masculine. When the long vowel is dropped, it is replaced by a short version of
the long consonant used in the imperfect conjugation. For example, the imperfect conjugation
of ‫ زار‬zaara is ‫ ﯾﺰور‬yazuuru, so a short "u" is used. Other examples: the imperfect conjugation
of ‫ ﻛﺎن‬kaana is ‫ ﯾﻜﻮن‬yakuunu, so a short "u" is used for the perfect conjugations where the long
vowel is dropped. But the imperfect conjugation of ‫ ﺳﺎر‬saara is ‫ ﯾﺴﯿﺮ‬yasiiru, so a short "i" would
be used in those instances.
Hollow verbs - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﺰور‬- ‫( زار‬to visit)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I visit (azuuru) ‫أزور‬ (azuur) ‫أزور‬

you (masc.) visit (tazuuru) ‫ﺗﺰور‬ (tizuur) ‫ﺗﺰور‬

you (fem.) visit (tazuuriina) ‫ﺗﺰورﯾﻦ‬ (tizuuri) ‫ﺗﺰوري‬

he visits (yazuuru) ‫ﯾﺰور‬ (yizuur ) ‫ﯾﺰور‬

she visits (tazuuru) ‫ﺗﺰور‬ (tizuur) ‫ﺗﺰور‬

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Dual we visit (nazuuru) ‫ﻧﺰور‬

you visit (tazuuraani) ‫ﺗﺰوران‬

they (masc.) visit (yazuuraani ) ‫ﯾﺰوران‬

they (fem.) visit (tazuuraani) ‫ﺗﺰوران‬

Plural we visit (nazuuru) ‫ﻧﺰور‬ (nizuur) ‫ﻧﺰور‬

you (masc.) visit (tazuuruuna) ‫ﺗﺰورون‬ (tizuuru) ‫ﺗﺰوروا‬

you (fem.) visit (tazurna) ‫ﺗﺰرن‬

they (masc.) visit (yazuuruuna) ‫ﯾﺰورون‬ (yizuuru) ‫ﯾﺰوروا‬

they (fem.) visit (yazurna) ‫ﯾﺰرن‬

Note that here the long vowel is dropped only for the feminine second and third-person plurals.

Weak verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻤﻌﺘّﻞ‬al-fi3l al-mu3tall)

The third kind of weak verb is:


Defective verbs
‫( اﻟﻔﻌﻞ اﻟﻨﺎﻗﺺ‬al-fi3l an-naaqiS)
Verbs where the final root radical is either a ‫ و‬or ‫ي‬. There are three types of defective verbs:

Verbs with a ‫ و‬as the last root letter (ex. ‫ ﯾﺒﺪو‬- ‫ ﺑﺪا‬bada - yabdu, "to seem, appear")
Verbs with a ‫ ي‬as the last root letter and a kasra (short "i") as the middle vowel in the
past/perfect tense, of the form "fa3iya - yaf3a" (ex. ‫ ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬- ‫ ﻧﺴﻰ‬nasiya - yansa, "to forget")
Verbs with a ‫ ي‬as the last root letter and a fatHa (short "a") as the middle vowel in the
past/perfect tense, of the form "fa3a - yaf3i" (ex. ‫ ﯾﺠﺮي‬- ‫ ﺟﺮى‬jara - yajri, "to run")
Note that in Cairene Arabic, verbs of the type "fa3al" are often pronounced differently
from standard Arabic in the past tense. While standard pronunciation would be "fa3al,"
Cairene pronunciation would be "fi3il." So "jara" becomes "giri."

Defective verbs 1 (third letter ‫ )و‬- perfect mood

‫ ﯾﺮﺟﻮ‬- ‫( رﺟﺎ‬to implore, request, hope)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I implored (rajawtu) ‫رﺟﻮُت‬ (rageit) ‫رﺟﯿﺖ‬

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you (masc.) implored (rajawta) ‫رﺟﻮَت‬ (rageit) ‫رﺟﯿﺖ‬

you (fem.) implored (rajawti ) ‫رﺟﻮِت‬ (rageiti) ‫رﺟﯿﺘﻲ‬

he implored (raja ) ‫رﺟﺎ‬ (raga) ‫رﺟﺎ‬

she implored (rajat) ‫رﺟﺖ‬ (ragyit) ‫رﺟﯿﺖ‬

Dual we implored (rajawna) ‫رﺟﻮﻧﺎ‬

you implored (rajawtuma) ‫رﺟﻮﺗﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) implored (rajawaa) ‫رﺟﻮا‬

they (fem.) implored (rajataa) ‫رﺟﺘﺎ‬

Plural we implored (rajawna) ‫رﺟﻮﻧﺎ‬ (rageina) ‫رﺟﯿﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) implored (rajawtum ) ‫رﺟﻮﺗﻢ‬ (rageitu) ‫رﺟﯿﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) implored (rajawtunna ) ‫رﺟﻮﺗﻦ‬

they (masc.) implored (rajaw) ‫رﺟﻮا‬ (ragyu) ‫رﺟﯿﻮا‬

they (fem.) implored (rajawna) ‫رﺟﻮن‬

Defective verbs 1 (third letter ‫ )و‬- imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﺮﺟﻮ‬- ‫( رﺟﺎ‬to implore, request, hope)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I implore (arju ) ‫أرﺟﻮ‬ (argu) ‫أرﺟﻮ‬

you (masc.) implore (tarju) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮ‬ (tirgu) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮ‬

you (fem.) implore (tarjiina) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﯿﻦ‬ (tirgi) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻲ‬

he implores (yarju) ‫ﯾﺮﺟﻮ‬ (yirgu) ‫ﯾﺮﺟﻮ‬

she implores (tarju) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮ‬ (tirgu) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮ‬

Dual we implore (narju) ‫ﻧﺮﺟﻮ‬

you implore (tarjuaani) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮان‬

they (masc.) implore (yarjuaani) ‫ﯾﺮﺟﻮان‬

they (fem.) implore (tarjuaani) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮان‬

Plural we implore (narju) ‫ﻧﺮﺟﻮ‬ (nirgu) ‫ﻧﺮﺟﻮ‬

you (masc.) implore (tarjuuna) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮن‬ (tirgu) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮا‬

you (fem.) implore (tarjuuna) ‫ﺗﺮﺟﻮن‬

they (masc.) implore (yarjuuna) ‫ﯾﺮﺟﻮن‬ (yirgu) ‫ﯾﺮﺟﻮا‬

they (fem.) implore (yarjuuna) ‫ﯾﺮﺟﻮن‬

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Note that the verb ‫ ﯾﺮﺟﻮ‬- ‫ رﺟﺎ‬is not used in colloquial Egyptian Arabic, except for ‫( أرﺟﻮك‬arguuk),
"Please; I beg you." However, I went ahead and used this verb for comparison's sake, since
defective verbs with a ‫ و‬as their third letter in standard Arabic tend to change to a‫ ي‬in dialect.
For instance:
"to complain," ‫ ﯾﺸﻜﻮ‬- ‫( ﺷﻜﺎ‬šaka - yašku) in standard Arabic, becomes ‫ ﯾﺸﻜﻲ‬- ‫( ﺷﻜﻰ‬šaka -
yiški) in dialect.
"to invade," ‫ ﯾﻐﺰو‬- ‫( ﻏﺰا‬ġaza - yaġzu) in standard Arabic, becomes ‫ ﯾﻐﺰي‬- ‫( ﻏﺰى‬ġaza - yiġzi)
in dialect.
"to invite/pray," ‫ ﯾﺪﻋﻮ‬- ‫( دﻋﺎ‬da3a - yad3u) in standard Arabic, becomes ‫ ﯾﺪﻋﻲ‬- ‫( دﻋﻰ‬da3a -
yid3i) in dialect.
"to survive, escape safely," ‫ ﯾﻨﺠﻮ‬- ‫( ﻧﺠﺎ‬naja - yanju) in standard Arabic, becomes ‫ ﯾﻨﺠﻲ‬- ‫ﻧﺠﻲ‬
(nigi - yingi) in dialect.

Defective verbs 2 ("fa3iya - yaf3a") - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬- ‫( ﻧﺴﻲ‬to forget)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I forgot (nasiitu ) ‫ﻧﺴﯿُﺖ‬ (niseit) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺖ‬

you (masc.) forgot (nasiita ) ‫ﻧﺴﯿَﺖ‬ (niseit) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺖ‬

you (fem.) forgot (nasiiti) ‫ﻧﺴﯿِﺖ‬ (niseiti) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺘﻲ‬

he forgot (nasiya ) ‫ﻧﺴﻲ‬ (nisi) ‫ﻧﺴﻲ‬

she forgot (nasiyat) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺖ‬ (nisyit ) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺖ‬

Dual we forgot (nasiina) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﻨﺎ‬

you forgot (nasiituma ) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺘﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) forgot (nasiyaa) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺎ‬

they (fem.) forgot (nasiyataa ) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺘﺎ‬

Plural we forgot (nasiina) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﻨﺎ‬ (niseina) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) forgot (nasiitum) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺘﻢ‬ (niseitu ) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) forgot (nasiitunna) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﺘﻦ‬

they (masc.) forgot (nasuu) ‫ﻧﺴﻮا‬ (nisyu) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﻮا‬

they (fem.) forgot (nasiina) ‫ﻧﺴﯿﻦ‬

Defective verbs 2 ("fa3iya - yaf3a") - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬- ‫( ﻧﺴﻲ‬to forget)

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English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I forget (ansa) ‫أﻧﺴﻰ‬ (ansa) ‫اﻧﺴﻰ‬

you (masc.) forget (tansa) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻰ‬ (tinsa) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻰ‬

you (fem.) forget (tansayna) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﯿﻦ‬ (tinsi) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻲ‬

he forgets (yansa) ‫ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬ (yinsa) ‫ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬

she forgets (tansa) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻰ‬ (tinsa) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻰ‬

Dual we forget (nansa) ‫ﻧﻨﺴﻰ‬

you forget (tansaani) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﺎن‬

they (masc.) forget (yansayaani) ‫ﯾﻨﺴﯿﺎن‬

they (fem.) forget (tansayaani) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﯿﺎن‬

Plural we forget (nansa) ‫ﻧﻨﺴﻰ‬ (ninsa) ‫ﻧﻨﺴﻰ‬

you (masc.) forget (tansawna ) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻮن‬ (tinsu) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﻮا‬

you (fem.) forget (tansayna) ‫ﺗﻨﺴﯿﻦ‬

they (masc.) forget (yansawna) ‫ﯾﻨﺴﻮن‬ (yinsu) ‫ﯾﻨﺴﻮا‬

they (fem.) forget (yansayna ) ‫ﯾﻨﺴﯿﻦ‬

Defective verbs 3 ("fa3a - yaf3i") - perfect mood

‫ ﯾﺠﺮي‬- ‫( ﺟﺮى‬to run)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I ran (jaraytu) ‫ﺟﺮﯾُﺖ‬ (gireit) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺖ‬

you (masc.) ran (jarayta) ‫ﺟﺮﯾَﺖ‬ (gireit) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺖ‬

you (fem.) ran (jarayti) ‫ﺟﺮﯾِﺖ‬ (gireiti) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺘﻲ‬

he ran (jara ) ‫ﺟﺮى‬ (giri) ‫ﺟﺮي‬

she ran (jarat) ‫ﺟﺮت‬ (giryit) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺖ‬

Dual we ran (jarayna ) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﻨﺎ‬

you ran (jaraytuma) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺘﻤﺎ‬

they (masc.) ran (jarayaa ) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺎ‬

they (fem.) ran (jarataa) ‫ﺟﺮﺗﺎ‬

Plural we ran (jarayna ) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﻨﺎ‬ (gireina) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﻨﺎ‬

you (masc.) ran (jaraytum) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺘﻢ‬ (gireitu) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺘﻮا‬

you (fem.) ran (jaraytunna ) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﺘﻦ‬

they (masc.) ran (jaraw) ‫ﺟﺮوا‬ (giryu) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﻮا‬

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they (fem.) ran (jarayna ) ‫ﺟﺮﯾﻦ‬

Defective verbs 3 ("fa3a - yaf3i") - imperfect mood

‫ ﯾﺠﺮي‬- ‫( ﺟﺮى‬to run)

English Standard Arabic Egyptian Arabic

Singular I run (ajri) ‫أﺟﺮي‬ (agri) ‫أﺟﺮي‬

you (masc.) run (tajri) ‫ﺗﺠﺮي‬ (tigri) ‫ﺗﺠﺮي‬

you (fem.) run (tajriina) ‫ﺗﺠﺮﯾﻦ‬ (tigri) ‫ﺗﺠﺮي‬

he runs (yajri) ‫ﯾﺠﺮي‬ (yigri) ‫ﯾﺠﺮي‬

she runs (tajri) ‫ﺗﺠﺮي‬ (tigri) ‫ﺗﺠﺮي‬

Dual we run (najri ) ‫ﻧﺠﺮي‬

you run (tajriyaani) ‫ﺗﺠﺮﯾﺎن‬

they (masc.) run (yajriyaani) ‫ﯾﺠﺮﯾﺎن‬

they (fem.) run (tajriyaani) ‫ﺗﺠﺮﯾﺎن‬

Plural we run (najri ) ‫ﻧﺠﺮي‬ (nigri ) ‫ﻧﺠﺮي‬

you (masc.) run (tajruuna) ‫ﺗﺠﺮون‬ (tigru) ‫ﺗﺠﺮوا‬

you (fem.) run (tajriina) ‫ﺗﺠﺮﯾﻦ‬

they (masc.) run (yajruuna) ‫ﯾﺠﺮون‬ (yigru) ‫ﯾﺠﺮوا‬

they (fem.) run (yajriina) ‫ﯾﺠﺮﯾﻦ‬

← Main grammar page Verb tenses →

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