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Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

Chemical Engineering Department

CDB 2023 - Heat Transfer Design
Part Two Assignment

1. A radiation shield that has the same emissivity ε3 on both sides is placed between
two large parallel plates, which are maintained at uniform temperatures of
T1 = 650 K and T2 = 400 K and have emissivities of ε1 = 0.6 and ε2 = 0.9,
respectively. Determine the emissivity of the radiation shield if the radiation heat
transfer between the plates is to be reduced to 15 percent of that without the

2. Five identical thin aluminium sheets with emissivities of 0.1 on both sides are
placed between two very large parallel plates, which are maintained at uniform
temperatures of T1 = 800 K and T2 = 450 K and have emissivities of ε1 = ε2 = 0.1,
respectively. Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer between the two
plates per unit surface area of the plates and compare the result to that without
the shield.

3. Water is to be boiled at sea level in a 30-cm-diameter mechanically polished

AISI 304 stainless steel pan placed on top of a 3-kW electric burner. If 60% of
the heat generated by the burner is transferred to the water during boiling,
determine the temperature of the inner surface of the bottom of the pan. Also,
determine the temperature difference between the inner and outer surfaces of
the bottom of the pan if it is 6 mm thick.
4. In a gas-fired boiler, water is boiled at 150°C by hot gases flowing through
50-m-long, 5-cm-outer-diameter mechanically polished stainless steel pipes
submerged in water. If the outer surface temperature of the pipes is
165°C, determine (a) the rate of heat transfer from the hot gases to water,
(b) the rate of evaporation, (c) the ratio of the critical heat flux to the present
heat flux, and (d) the surface temperature of the pipe at which critical heat flux
occurs.

5. Saturated ammonia vapour at 10°C condenses on the outside of a 2-cm-outer-

diameter, 8-m-long horizontal tube whose outer surface is maintained at _10°C.
Determine (a) the rate of heat transfer from the ammonia and (b) the rate of
condensation of ammonia.

6. The condenser of a steam power plant operates at a pressure of 4.25 kPa. The
condenser consists of 100 horizontal tubes arranged in a 10 x 10 square array.
The tubes are 8 m long and have an outer diameter of 3 cm. If the tube
surfaces are at 20°C, determine (a) the rate of heat transfer from the steam to
the cooling water and (b) the rate of condensation of steam in the condenser.

7. Water at an average temperature of 107°C and an average velocity of 3.5 m/s

flows through a 5-m-long stainless steel tube (k = 14.2 W/m · °C) in a boiler.
The inner and outer diameters of the tube are Di = 1.0 cm and Do = 1.4 cm,
respectively. If the convection heat transfer coefficient at the outer surface of
the tube where boiling is taking place is ho = 8400 W/m2 · °C, determine the
overall heat transfer coefficient Ui of this boiler based on the inner surface area
of the tube.

8. A double-pipe parallel-flow heat exchanger is to heat water (Cp = 4180 J/kg ·

°C) from 25°C to 60°C at a rate of 0.2 kg/s. The heating is to be accomplished
by geothermal water (Cp = 4310 J/kg · °C) available at 140°C at a mass flow
rate of 0.3 kg/s. The inner tube is thin-walled and has a diameter of 0.8 cm. If
the overall eat transfer coefficient of the heat exchanger is 550 W/m 2 · °C,
determine the length of the heat exchanger required to achieve the desired
heating.

9. A shell-and-tube heat exchanger with 2-shell passes and 12-tube passes is

used to heat water (Cp = 4180 J/kg · °C) with ethylene glycol
(Cp = 2680 J/kg · °C). Water enters the tubes at 22°C at a rate of 0.8 kg/s and
leaves at 70°C. Ethylene glycol enters the shell at 110°C and leaves at 60°C. If
the overall heat transfer coefficient based on the tube side is 280 W/m2 · °C,
determine the rate of heat transfer and the heat transfer surface area on the
tube side.

10. Hot oil (Cp = 2200 J/kg · °C) is to be cooled by water (Cp = 4180 J/kg · °C) in a
2-shell-pass and 12-tube-pass heat exchanger. The tubes are thin-walled and
are made of copper with a diameter of 1.8 cm. The length of each tube pass in
the heat exchanger is 3 m, and the overall heat transfer coefficient is
340 W/m2· °C. Water flows through the tubes at a total rate of 0.1 kg/s, and the
oil through the shell at a rate of 0.2 kg/s. The water and the oil enter at
temperatures 18°C and 160°C, respectively. Determine the rate of heat transfer
in the heat exchanger and the outlet temperatures of the water and the oil.
11. Cold water (Cp = 4180 J/kg · °C) leading to a shower enters a thin-walled
double-pipe counter-flow heat exchanger at 15°C at a rate of 0.25 kg/s and is
heated to 45°C by hot water (Cp = 4190 J/kg · °C) that enters at 100°C at a rate
of 3 kg/s. If the overall heat transfer coefficient is 950 W/m 2 · °C, determine the
rate of heat transfer and the heat transfer surface area of the heat exchanger
using the ε–NTU method.

12. A cross-flow heat exchanger consists of 40 thin walled tubes of 1-cm diameter
located in a duct of 1 m x 1 m cross-section. There are no fins attached to the
tubes. Cold water (Cp = 4180 J/kg · °C) enters the tubes at 18°C with an
average velocity of 3 m/s, while hot air (Cp = 1010 J/kg · °C) enters the channel
at 130°C and 105 kPa at an average velocity of 12 m/s. If the overall heat
transfer coefficient is 130 W/m2 · °C, determine the outlet temperatures of both
fluids and the rate of heat transfer.