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Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer (CHEN 20111) Tutorial 3 – 20.10.



Tutorial No. 4
Academic year 2015-2016

T4.1. Use of general mass and momentum balances

The following step-by-step procedure is recommended to solve laminar fluid flow

problems from the general equation of Continuity and Motion.

1. Draw a diagram representing the physical system and all the data provided.
2. List all the pertinent variables and dimensions on the diagram and decide the
type of momentum transport and the direction of transport.
3. Sellect the appropriate coordinates systems and choose the location and
orientation (unless provided).
4. Sketch the velocity profile and define the boundary conditions.
5. Simplify the equation of Continuity and the equation of Motion and obtain the
differential equation that if integrated using the boundary conditions would give
you the velocity profile.

Integrate the resulting differential equation using boundary conditions and initial
conditions (if flow is transient) would be very time consuming and it is not the
objective of the tutorial. However, we recommend you try to do the integrals in your
own time as it may be required in the exam.

It is important to know how to obtaind the volumetric flow rate (related to the
average velocity profile over the cross sectional area) and the force exerted on the
confining surfaces.

T3.2 Exercises

Do the tasks mentioned in the previous section for the following fluid flows. Assume
in all cases that the flow is laminar, at steady state and neglect end effects. The fluid
is Newtonian with a constant density.

A. A circular cylindrical rod of length L and radius R rotating steadily about its
axis at an angular velocity  in an otherwise stagnant fluid.

Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer (CHEN 20111) Tutorial 3 – 20.10.15

B Coating experiment involving a flat photographic film that is being pulled up

from a processing bath by rollers with a steady velocity U at an angle  to the
horizontal. There is no net flow of liquid (as much is being pulled up by the film
as is falling by gravity). Use the proposed rectangular coordinates system.


Moving photographic film


C. A lubricant system consisting of two circular disks between which an oil flows
radially. The flow takes place because of a pressure difference P1 – P2
between the inner and outer radii r1 and r2, respectively. Use the proposed
cylindrical coordinate system. For this case sketch the velocity profile at r = r1
and r = r2.

Fluid in

z = +b

z = -b

r = r1
r = r2

Momentum, Heat and Mass Transfer (CHEN 20111) Tutorial 3 – 20.10.15

D. Stationary laminar flow through a horizontal annulus driven by a pressure




E. Flow out of a diffuser.



T3.1 Bird, Stewart and Lightfoot. Transport Phenomena. John Wiley & Sons, 1960,
Chapte 3.