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FUNCTIONS OF CHIMNEY

1) To dispose the exhaust gases at suitable height so that no pollution will occur in the vicinity.
2) To produce the necessary draft required for the flow of gases.
DRAFT - is the difference between the absolute gas pressure at any point in a gas flow passage,(furnace, chimney, air heater
and etc.) and the ambient atmospheric pressure. Draft is positive if Pa  Pgas and is negative if Pa  Pgas.
D

D - diameter of chimney, m
H - height of chimney, m

Flue Gas

DRAFT(Dt):

1000H(ρa - ρg )
Dt  mm of H 2O
ρw

where: Dt - theoretical draft in mm of water


H - height of chimney or smokestack in meters
a - density of air in kg/m3
g - density of flue gas in kg/m3
w - density of gage fluid (water) in kg/m3
ACTUAL DRAFT(Da):
Da = Dt - DL mm of H2O
where: DL - draft losses, and usually expressible in percentage of the theoretical draft.
THEORETICAL VELOCITY(v):

v  2gh g m / sec
where: v - theoretical velocity of the flue gas in the chimney, m/sec
hg - draft in meters of flue gas
wDt
hg  m of flue gas
1000  g
ACTUAL VELOCITY OF FLUE GAS(v'):
v'  Kv m / sec

where: K - velocity coefficient, whose value ranges from 0.30 to 0.50


DIAMETER OF CHIMNEY(D):

4Q g
D meters
Kv

where: Qg - volume flow rate of flue gas, m3/sec


mg
Qg  m 3 / sec
g

mg = mass flow rate of flue gas, kg/se


MASS FLOW RATE OF FLUE GAS:
a) Without considering Ash loss:

A 
m g  m F   1
F 
b) Considering Ash loss

A 
m g  m F   1 - Ash loss 
F 
where ash loss in decimal

SAMPLE PROBLEMS
1. A boiler uses 2500 kg of coal per hour and air required for combustion is 16 kg per kg of coal. If ash loss is 10%, determine the
mass of gas entering the chimney. (42,250 kg/hr)
2.The gas density of chimney is 0.75 kg/m3 and air density is 1.15 kg/m3. If the driving pressure is0.25 KPa, determine the height of
the chimney. (63.71 m)
3.The actual velocity of a gas entering in a chimney is 8 m/sec. the gas temperature is 25C and pressure of 98 KPa with a gas
constant of 0.287 KJ.kg-K. Determine the chimney diameter if mass of gas is 50,000 kg/hr. (1.37 m)
4. A coal fired steam boiler uses 3000 kg of coal per hour. Air required for combustion is 15.5 kg per kg of coal at barometric pressure
of 98.2 KPa. The flue gas has a temperature of 285C and an average molecular weight of 30. Assuming an ash loss of 11% and
allowable gas velocity of 7.5 m/sec, find the diameter of the chimney. (1.91 m)
5. A power plant situated at an altitude having an ambient air of 96.53 KPa and 23.88C. Flue gases at the rate of 5 kg/sec enter the
stack at 200C and leaves at 160C. The flue gases gravimetric analysis are 18% CO2, 7% O2, and 75% N2. Calculate the height
of stack necessary for a driving pressure of 0.20 KPa. and the diameter of stack in meters.(H = 56.95 m; D = 0.95 m)
CHIMNEY & SMOKESTACKS
DRAFT(Dt):
1000H(ρ - ρ )
a g
D  mm of H O
t ρ 2
w
where: Dt - theoretical draft in mm of water
H - height of chimney or smokestack in meters
a - density of air in kg/m3
g - density of flue gas in kg/m3
w - density of gage fluid (water) in kg/m3
ACTUAL DRAFT(Da):
Da = Dt - DL mm of H2O
where: DL - draft losses, and usually expressible in percentage of the theoretical draft.
THEORETICAL VELOCITY(v):
v 2gh g m / sec
where: v - theoretical velocity of the flue gas in the chimney, m/sec
hg - draft in meters of flue gas
 wDt
hg  m of flue gas
1000 g
ACTUAL VELOCITY OF FLUE GAS(v'):
v'  Kv m / sec
where: K - velocity coefficient, whose value ranges from 0.30 to 0.50
DIAMETER OF CHIMNEY(D):
4Q g
D meters
Kv
where: Qg - volume flow rate of flue gas, m3/sec
mg
Qg  m 3 / sec
g
mg = mass flow rate of flue gas, kg/se
MASS FLOW RATE OF FLUE GAS:
a) Without considering Ash loss:
A 
m g  m F   1
F 
b) Considering Ash loss
A 
m g  m F   1 - Ash loss 
F 

where ash loss in decimal