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Chapter III

METHODOLOGY

Locale of the Study


This study was conducted in University of Eastern

Philippines is one of the public universities in the

Philippines. The University is the only comprehensive state

university in Eastern Visayas offering the biggest number of

undergrads, graduate degree programs, short-term courses and

certificates among the higher education institutions in the

area. University of Eastern Philippines is the very first

State University in the Visayas. Its main campus is in

Catarman, Northern Samar.

UEP has campuses in three municipalities of Northern Samar,

Catarman, Laoang, and Catubig. The following colleges,

schools, and institutes comprise the Catarman campus:

1. College of Agriculture, Fisheries and Natural Resources,

which offers the BS Agriculture, BS Agricultural

Education, BS Agribusiness, BS Fisheries, and BS

Forestry degrees.

2. College of Arts and Communication, which offers the AB

major in Language and Literature Teaching, AB Political

Science, AB major in Sociology, BS Criminology, BS


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Community Development, BS Development Communication,

and BS Public Administration degrees.

3. College of Business Administration, which offers the BS

Accountancy, BS Business Administration major in

Management, BS Business Administration major in

Marketing, BS Business Economics, BS in Cooperatives,

BS Entrepreneurship, and BS Hotel and Restaurant

Management degrees.

4. College of Education, which offers the Bachelor in

Elementary Education (with various specializations) and

Bachelor in Secondary Education (with various majors)

degrees.

5. College of Engineering, which offers BS Civil

Engineering, BS Electrical Engineering, BS Industrial

Engineering, and BS Mechanical Engineering degrees.

6. College of Law, which offers the Bachelor of L'aws

degree.

7. College of Nursing, which offers the BS in Nursing, BS

in Radiologic Technology degrees and BS Pharmacist

degrees.

8. College of Science, which offers BS Biology, BS

Chemistry, BS Environmental Studies, BS Information


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Technology, BS Marine Biology, and BS Mathematics

degrees.

9. College of Veterinary Medicine, which offers Doctor of

Veterinary Medicine and Bachelor of Science in Meat

Technology degrees.

10. Graduate School

11. Institute of Land and Water Resources Management,

which offers the BS Agricultural Engineering degree.

The Catarman campus also has laboratory schools for both

elementary and secondary levels.

Dr. Rolando Delorino, PhD is the present president of

University of Eastern Philippines.

The University of Eastern Philippines takes pride and honor

for being the lone comprehensive and the biggest state

university in the entire Eastern Visayas region, catering to

the human resources and socio-economic development of its

service area through the years. As an old but dynamic

institution of higher learning, it has gone through

significant stages of development until it finally attained

a university status and became one of the nationally known

higher education institutions in the country.


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The researchers choose University of Eastern Philippines

because it will be easy for them to gather the data since

they all came from the aforementioned university.

Research Design
This study used the descriptive-correlational

method as the research design for it aimed to determine the

difference between the different sanitation practices and the

perceptions of Grade 12- ABM students of University of Eastern

Philippines. It is descriptive because it described the

profile of the respondents, different street foods sold by

the vendors and bought by the students, different sanitation

practices and importance of sanitation or hygiene. It is

correlational because it tried to find out the difference

that exist between the sanitation practices of street food

vendors and the perception of the Grade 12 Accountancy,

Business and Management students of University of Eastern

Philippines.

Variable of the Study

This study has two variables, the independent and the

dependent variables. Independent variables consist of the

socio-economic profile of the respondents, street foods sold


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by street food vendors, different sanitation practices and

the importance of hygiene. These are the independent

variables because they are the cause, influence, or which

affects the outcomes. Dependent variables are the Perception

of the Grade 12- ABM students of University of Eastern

Philippines. They are the dependent variables because they

depend on the independent variables. They are the outcomes or

results of the influence of the independent variable.

Socio - economic Profile- It is an individual's or group's

position within a hierarchical social structure.

Socioeconomic status depends on a combination of variables,

including occupation, education, income, wealth, and place of

residence (Sariful Islam, 2017).45

Sex- This refers to one’s biological identity and is

categorized as male and female.

Age- It is used to determine the differences of the

respondents according to their age level. For ABM students,

it is categorized as 15 – 16 years old, 17 – 18 years old,

and 19 – 20 years old. For street food vendors age was

45
Sariful Islam (2017). Socio- Economic profile of students of University of Dhaka. Retrieved on
January 13, 2018. Retrieved from www.academia.edu/16367867/Socio-
Economic_Profile_of_the_Students_of_University_of_Dhaka
43

categorized as 15 - 20 years old, 21 - 26 years old, 27 - 32

years old, 33 - 38 years old and 39 above.

Number of years in the business- This refers to the years of

the operation of the street food vendors business It is

categorized as less than 1 years, more than 1 – 2 years, 2 –

3 years, more than 3 - 4 years and more than 5 years.

Monthly Income- This is the average monthly income earnings

of the respondents. It is categorized as less than P3,000 to

4,999, P5,000 to 6,999, P7,000 to 8,999 and P9,000 and above.

Weekly Allowance- This is the average weakly allowance of

the students. It is categorized as 500 to 1,000 pesos, 1,001

to 1,500 pesos, 1,501 to 2,000 pesos, and P 2,001 – 2,500.

Different Street Foods Sold- Street foods that are mostly

sold in University of Eastern Philippines are kwek-kwek,

fishballs, kikiam, cheese stick, dynamite, hotdog in lumpia

wrapper, hotdog tidbits, and turon.

Different Street Foods Bought- Street foods that are mostly

bought in University of Eastern Philippines are kwek-kwek,

fishballs, kikiam, cheese stick, dynamite, hotdog in lumpia

wrapper, hotdog tidbits, and turon.


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Different Sanitation Practices For Street Food Vendors- The

different sanitation practices used by the street food

vendors are the following; the working area is clean, the

utensils used are clean, using hairnet gloves and apron,

separation of cook foods and raw foods, provide spoons or

tong so hand do not touch food directly , areas are generally

clean and orderly free from odor, trash containers are clean

on the outside, all containers have tight fitting covers,

maintaining the cleanliness of grilled pan and making sure

it's not greasy and free from stain causing of coal,

previously held food on top of freshly cooked food.

Importance of Hygiene- Maintaining personal hygiene is

necessary for many reasons; personal, social, health,

psychological or simply as a way of life. Keeping a good

standard of hygiene helps to prevent the development and

spread of infections, illnesses and bad odors. Most people

are very conscious of personal hygiene (Russel HR Consulting,

2017).46

Street foods sold by street food vendors, different

sanitation practices and the importance of hygiene will be

46
Russel HR Consulting (2017). The importance of good personal hygiene. Retrieved on January
13, 2018. Retrieved from https://russellhrconsulting.co.uk/the-hr-headmistress-blog/the-importance-of-
good-personal-hygiene.html
45

the indicators. It identified the difference between them and

the perception of the Grade 12-ABM students of UEP.

Population and Sampling

The respondents of this study were street vendors and the

grade 12 ABM senior high school student in the University of

the Eastern Philippines. Since there are only few street food

vendors in UEP, the researchers choose to have the complete

enumeration sampling method.

The grade 12 students is divided into three (3) sections,

the section A with 31 students, section B 36 students and

section C 27 students. The total populations of the ABM strand

of the said school is 94. And a complete enumeration of street

food vendors of University of Eastern Philippines. To get the

populations (sample size), the researchers used the Sloven’s

Formula with 10% margin of error.

SECTION POPULATION SAMPLE SIZE

A 21 11

B 36 19

C 27 15

TOTAL 84 45
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Respondents of the Study

The respondents of this study wre the street food vendors

and the selected grade 12 ABM senior high school students. In

this study the total number of respondents from grade 12 ABM

students is 45, using Sloven’s formula with 5% margin of

error. While for the street food vendors the total population

or complete enumeration was used.

Research Instruments

The researchers used two mostly similar questionnaires,

the survey and interview questionnaires which are both

intended for the street vendors and the Grade 12 ABM students

of University of Eastern Philippines.

Survey Questionnaire. The main data gathering instrument

of the study was a structured questionnaire patterned from

Buted and Ylagan (2014), modified slightly to suit the present

study. Two sets of questionnaires were used composing three

(3) parts.

Set A was given to the street food vendors while Set B

was given to the students which includes the following parts:

Part I of the instrument was the profile of the

respondents in terms of sex, age, number of years in the


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business, and monthly family income for the Set A and weekly

allowance for the Set B.

Part II. Different sanitation practices for street food

vendors.

Interview. This was used to supplement and validate the

information or data gathered through the use of

questionnaire. The last part are interview questions about

the importance of hygiene.

Scoring and Interpretation of Data

The profile in terms of sex, age, number of years in the

business, monthly family income, weekly allowances, height,

weight, and the different street foods was determined by

respondents and scored using frequency counts & percentages.

The raw score of street food vendors to the questionnaire

about the different sanitation practices identified by the

researchers was tallied and used weighted mean to determine

their level of practices regarding the proper sanitation and

hygiene of street food vendors. The practices were classified

as follows together with their corresponding raw scores.


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Scale Mean Ranges Interpretation


5 4.21-5.00 Highly Practiced
4 3.41-4.20 High Practiced
3 2.61-3.40 Moderately
Practiced
2 1.81-2.60 Less Practiced
1 1.0-1.80 Least Practiced

The raw score of the students to the questionnaire about

the different sanitation practices identified by the

researchers was tallied and used weighted mean to determine

their level of awareness regarding the proper sanitation of

street food vendors. The practices was classified as follows

together with their corresponding raw scores.

Scale Mean Descriptive Rating Interpretation


Ranges
5 4.21-5.00 Strongly Agree Highly Aware
4 3.41-4.20 Agree High Aware
3 2.61-3.40 Undecided Moderately Aware
2 1.81-2.60 Disagree Less Aware
1 1.0-1.80 Strongly Disagree Least Aware

The raw score of the students and the street food vendors

to the questionnaire about the importance of hygiene by the

researchers was tallied and used weighted mean to determine

their level of importance regarding the proper sanitation of


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street food vendors. The answers was classified as follows

together with their corresponding raw scores.

Scale Mean Ranges Interpretation

1 4.21-5.00 Highly Important

2 3.41-4.20 High Important

3 2.61-3.40 Moderately Important

4 1.81-2.60 Less Important

5 1.0-1.80 Least Important

Validation of Research Instrument

The questionnaire that was used in gathering the

quantitative data and qualitative data, through interview,

from the street food vendors was adapted from an instrument

of the research of Buted et al. and from the study entitled

Sustainable Development Of Street Food Vendors Along Pabayo

Street, Cagayan De Oro City, and a survey on food safety in

street food vending impact found in the internet.

The questionnaire used in gathering the quantitative

data for the students came from a standardized questionnaire

while the qualitative questions were researcher-made. The

questionnaire itself had undergone pretests which was


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conducted in San Roque, Northern Samar. These pretests led

to minor revisions of the questionnaire to suit the current

study.

Data Gathering procedure

The data needed in the study were gathered by the

researchers through a series of steps.

Before the researchers would conduct the study, the

researchers asked permission from the College of Business

Administration Dean through sending a letter. Upon approval,

the researchers approached the respondents and informants.

The researchers clearly explained to the respondents each

indicator in the questionnaire and gave them enough time to

answer. After answering, they were subjected to an interview.

Upon retrieval, the data were tallied, tabulated, analyzed,

and interpreted using appropriate statistical tools like

frequency counts, weighted mean, and chi-square. Then, the

quantitative and qualitative data were integrated.

Statistical Treatment of Data

The following statistical tools were used in the data

analysis: frequency counts and percentage, and chi-square

with the formula presented below:


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Frequency Counts and Percentages. This was used for the

description of the socio-demographic profile of the students

in terms of sex, age, and weekly allowance; socio-demographic

profile of the street food vendors in terms of sex, age,

number of years in the business, and monthly income; different

street foods sold and bought; and different sanitation

practices of street food vendors. The formula:47

100
𝑃=𝐹×
𝑁

Where:

P = refers to the percentage of responses

F = refers to the frequency of responses

N = refers to the total number of respondents

Weighted Mean. This was used to determine the level of

practices regarding the proper sanitation and hygiene of

street food vendors and the level of awareness of the

respondents regarding the proper sanitation and hygiene of

street food vendors.

47 Antonio S. Broto, Statistics made Simple (Manila: MELBROS

Printing Center), 2003 Edition, p. 82. (cited by Rose Anne C. Loyogoy).


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Z-test. This was used to determine the significant difference

between the perception on sanitation practices of street food

vendors by the vendors and the students. The formula:48

𝑥̅1 − 𝑥̅2
Z=
𝑠2 𝑠2
√ + 2
1
𝑛 1 𝑛2

Where:

̅̅̅ = mean of sample 1


𝑋𝑖

𝑥2 = mean of sample 2
̅̅̅

𝑆 12 = variance of sample 1

𝑆22 = variance of sample 2

𝑛1 = size of sample 1

𝑛2 = size of sample 2

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Z-Score: Definition, Formula and Calculation. (n.d.). Retrieved January 12, 2018, from
http://www.statisticshowto.com/probability-and-statistics/z-score/