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A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

1.1INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER - 1

Consumer behaviour focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources like time, money, effort consumption related items. That includes what they buy it, why they buy it, when they buy it, where they buy it, how often they buy it, how often they use it, how they evaluate it after the purchase and the impact of such evaluations on future purchases, and how they dispose of it. Profits from customer relationships are the major aspect of all businesses. So the basic objective of any business is profit maximisation through customer satisfaction. But it is always difficult to get customer satisfaction. A customer may state his needs and wants and yet may act otherwise. He may not be aware of his deeper motivations and may change his mind at any stage. In spite of such diversities among consumers there are many similarities among them. To find these, the study of target customerswants Perceptions and shopping and buying behaviour will be helpful as it will provide the information necessary for developing new products, prices channels of communication and other marketing elements. In the majority of markets, however, buyers differ enormously in terms of their Buying dynamics. The task faced by the marketing strategist in coming to terms with these differences is complex. In consumer markets, for example, not only do buyers typically differ in terms of their age, income, educational levels and geographical location, but more fundamentally in terms of their personality, their lifestyle and their expectations. Consumer behaviour is a rapidly growing field of research and teaching, in addition to considerable value of marketing managers and others who are professionally concerned with buying activity. An important reason for studying consumer behaviour is evaluation of consumer groups with unsatisfied needs and desires. The essence of modern marketing concept is that all elements of business should be geared for the satisfaction of consumers. The challenge to marketers is to determine the relative influence of the various factors and to adapt and apply skilfully the so called information to a proper marketing mix. In other words, the total marketing effort must be so designed that the consumer perceives its various features as providing an answer to his perceived problems and felt needs.

as providing an answer to his perceived problems and felt needs. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
as providing an answer to his perceived problems and felt needs. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Consumer analysis seeks to determine the underlying current and cross currents in the consumer‘s minds. It focuses on the causes rather than the results of effective marketing strategy and tactics employed by the firms that are successful in the markets. Consumer behaviour is defined as the behaviour that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, using, evaluating and disposing of products and services that they expect will satisfy their needs. In order to succeed in any business in today‘s competitive market, marketers have to know everything they can, about consumers. They must know what the buyers want, what the buyers think, how they work, how they spend their leisure time, and so on. They need to also understand the personal and group influences that affect consumer decisions and how these decisions are made by consumers.

Consumer behaviour studies open up many avenues for students planning for a career in marketing. A person with thought knowledge of consumer behaviour understands the underlying reasons why consumers are loyal to a brand. Study about the psychology and sociology of consumers helps brand managers and product managers in preparing strategies for their business. Thus, studying consumer behaviour can lead to a career in brand or product management in a marketing company.

The term consumer behaviour refers to ―the action of consumers in the market place and the underlying motives for those actions. Marketers expect that by understanding what causes consumers to buy particular goods and services they will be able to determine which products are needed in the market place, which are obsolete, and how best to present the goods to the consumer‖.

Consumer behaviour deals with two different categories of consumers. They are.

1. Household

consumers

2. Organisational consumers

The household buyers buy goods and services for his or her own personal use, for the use of

the household, or as a gift for a friend. All these final consumers combine to make up the consumer market. The organisational buyer includes profit and non profit companies, government agencies and institutions, all of which buy products, equipment and services to run their organisations, or for further production. End use consumption is perhaps the most pervasive of all types of buying consumer buying behaviour as it involves every individual human being.

buying behaviour as it involves every individual human being. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
buying behaviour as it involves every individual human being. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Buying decision of consumer:

It is based on internal and external influences, they are as follows

Internal influences: Consumer behaviour is influenced by: demographics,

psychographics (lifestyle), personality, motivation, knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings.

External influences:

Consumer behaviour is influenced by: culture, sub-culture, locality, royalty, ethnicity, family, social class, reference groups, lifestyle, and market mix factors.

DEFINITION

One "official" definition of consumer behavior is "The study of individuals, groups, or organizations and the processes they use to select, secure, use, and dispose of products, services, experiences, or ideas to satisfy needs and the impacts that these processes have on the consumer and society." Although it is not necessary to memorize this definition, it brings up some useful points:

Behaviour occurs either for the individual, or in the context of a group (e.g., friends‘ influence what kinds of clothes a person wears) or an organization (people on the job make decisions as to which products the firm should use).

Consumer behaviour involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer, because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption. Since many environmental problems result from product disposal (e.g., motor oil being sent into sewage systems to save the recycling fee, or garbage piling up at landfills) this is also an area of interest.

Consumer behaviour involves services and ideas as well as tangible products.

The impact of consumer behaviour on society is also of relevance. For example, aggressive marketing of high fat foods, or aggressive marketing of easy credit, may have serious repercussions for the national health and economy.

have serious repercussions for the national health and economy. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
have serious repercussions for the national health and economy. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

There are four main applications of consumer behavior:

The most obvious is for marketing strategyi.e., for making better marketing campaigns. For example, by understanding that consumers are more receptive to food advertising when they are hungry, we learn to schedule snack advertisements late in the afternoon. By understanding that new products are usually initially adopted by a few consumers and only spread later, and then only gradually, to the rest of the population, we learn that (1) companies that introduce new products must be well financed so that they can stay afloat until their products become a commercial success and (2) it is important to please initial customers, since they will in turn influence many subsequent customers‘ brand choices.

A second application is public policy. In the 1980s, Accutane, a near miracle cure for acne, was introduced. Unfortunately, Accutane resulted in severe birth defects if taken by pregnant women. Although physicians were instructed to warn their female patients of this, a number still became pregnant while taking the drug. To get consumers‘ attention, the Federal Drug Administration (FDA) took the step of requiring that very graphic pictures of deformed babies be shown on the medicine containers.

Social marketing involves getting ideas across to consumers rather than selling something. Marty Fishbein, a marketing professor, went on sabbatical to work for the Centres for Disease Control trying to reduce the incidence of transmission of diseases through illegal drug use. The best solution, obviously, would be if we could get illegal drug users to stop. This, however, was deemed to be infeasible. It was also determined that the practice of sharing needles was too ingrained in the drug culture to be stopped. As a result, using knowledge of consumer attitudes, Dr. Fishbein created a campaign that encouraged the cleaning of needles in bleach before sharing them, a goal that was believed to be more realistic.

As a final benefit, studying consumer behaviour should make us better consumers. Common sense suggests, for example, that if you buy a 64 liquid ounce bottle of laundry detergent, you should pay less per ounce than if you bought two 32 ounce bottles. In practice, however, you often pay a size premium by buying the larger quantity. In other words, in this case, knowing this fact will sensitize you to the need to check the unit cost labels to determine if you are really getting a bargain.

cost labels to determine if you are really getting a bargain. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
cost labels to determine if you are really getting a bargain. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

RESEARCH BACK GROUND

The study is chosen to know the consumer buying behaviour associated with the various different packages of coca cola soft drinks. The behaviour levels of consumers are associated with the product are brand name of the company, quality of the product, advertisements and other factors. The focus is on to know the factors which influences the consumers to buy the soft drinks of preferred pack in coca cola company. The factors include brand name of the company, price and quality of the product, advertisements, sales promotional activities and other minor aspects. The study also focuses on the personal opinion of the consumers on the pack and company and the satisfaction level of the product they purchased as well as the opinion on the other products of other companies. The study also focused on their expectation of the consumers and their buying behaviour which is useful for the company.

and their buying behaviour which is useful for the company. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
and their buying behaviour which is useful for the company. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

1.2 COMPANY PROFILE

THE COCA-COLA COMPANY History:

The Coca-Cola Company traces its beginning to 1886, when an Atlanta, Georgia pharmacist, Dr. John Pemberton, began to produce coca-cola syrup for sale in the fountain drink. However, with the exemption of an independent bottling operation established in 1894

in Viking,Mississippi,the history of large scale bottling did not begin until 1899 when two

Chattanooga businessmen , Joseph B. Whitehead and Benjamin F. Thomas ,secured the executive rights to bottle and sell coca cola for most of the United States from the Coca-cola company.

BUSINESS:

Coca-cola enterprises are in the business of Marketing, Producing and Distributing liquid non-alcoholic refreshments to customers in their franchise tern tones. In 1994 they distributed approximately 1.7 billion equivalent cases of the product throughout their territories, which comprise of 38 states and the District of Columbia in the United States. Their territory also extended too many foreign countries. The Coca-cola Enterprise and the Coca-Cola Company are in business partnership. The Coca-Cola Company develops the product; while as a bottler the Coca-cola Enterprise combines the product concentrates with other ingredients and packages the beverages in bottles, cans and fountain containers.

MANAGEMENT PHILOSOPHY:

CORPORATE AREA

The major concept of management philosophy is to remain in the beverage industry and not diversify into other areas. The management believes in investing in non capital- intensive areas. In fact, the beverage industry requires little capital, and produces maximum returns. The returns from the foreign markets are tapped to the most.

The returns from the foreign markets are tapped to the most. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
The returns from the foreign markets are tapped to the most. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

FINANCIAL AREA

The corporate objectives are to increase the shareowners value. The management believes that in increasing the shareholders value it requires consistent growth in financial results complemented by effective use of the cash flow.

MARKETING AREA

Here the management is committed to superior market place execution. This is achieved by decentralized operating structure that places the responsibilities, authority and the accountability as close to the customer and consumer as possible.

THE BRAND

Coca-cola consistently ranks in the world‘s most valuable brands. The brand value is about $39billion.This is the greatest heritage of the company. As far as the branch management concerned, we find that Coca-cola ranks itself as the third only after Microsoft and Louis Vinton.

COCA-COLA INDIA

Coca-cola returned to India after 16 years, in 1993.The brand promotion was in between 1994-96.The bottling acquisition occurred in between 1997-99.Its quest for profitability started from 2000 onwards. In India Coke have its concentrate plants at pune producing 10 brands. Its company-owned bottling operations are at six operating regions, 29 operating areas with 26 plants, 10 green fields, and 3000 associates. It enjoys a business of over Rs.3000 crores in India.

ANDHRA PRADESH REGION

AP has merged as the single biggest state in terms of overall CSD sales volume as well as in terms of manufacturing facilities. Up to 18-20 percent of the company‘s sales volumes are from AP.

Coca-Cola now in total consists of five operating locations for CSD brands and KINLEY packed water at Moula-Ali, Vijayawada, Srikalahasti and Vishakhapatnam having a turnover of over 750 crores with 3 plants, 2 Green fields and 1500 associates. The company also has two contract packers for its water business.

The company also has two contract packers for its water business. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
The company also has two contract packers for its water business. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Thumps-Up now has a leading position in CSD market in AP, with a market share of nearly 50percent.AllCoca-Cola`s CSD brands put together now accounted for 75 percent of the overall CSD market.

INDIAN BRANDS:

For the local market in India coke has in addition the following brands:

COCA-COLA:

It is the world‘s favourite drink, the world‘s most valuable brand. Coca-Cola has truly remarkable heritage. From a humble beginning in 1886, it is now the flagship brand of the largest manufacturer, marketer, and distributor of non-alcoholic beverages in the world.

THUMPS-UP:

Thumps-Up is the leading carbonated soft drink and most trusted brand in India. Originally introduces in 1977, Thumps-Up was acquired by the Coca- Cola company in 1993. Thumps-Up is known for its strong, Fizzy taste and its confident, mature and uniquely masculine attitude. This brand clearly seeks to separate the men from the boys.

LIMCA:

Lime n Lemony Limca, the drink of that can cast a tangy refreshing spell on any one, anywhere. Born in 1977, Limca has been the original thirst choice, of millions of consumers for over 3 decades.

FANTA:

The orange drink of the Coca-Cola Company, lies seen as one of the favourite drinks since 1940`s Fanta entered the Indian market in the year.

SPRITE :

Worldwide sprite is ranked as the No.4 soft drink and is sold in more than 190 countries. In India Sprite was launched in year 1999 and today it

countries. In India Sprite was launched in year 1999 and today it SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
countries. In India Sprite was launched in year 1999 and today it SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

has grown to one of fastest growing soft drinks, leading the clear line category.

DIET COKE:

Was launched in1982 to target the market of the light products.

THE NON-CARBONATED MARKET:

1. MINUTE MAID: Offers frozen concentrated fruit juice launched in 1988.

2. MAAZA : Maaza was launched in 1976 here was a drink that offered the same real taste of fruit juice and was available through out the year. In 1993 maaza was acquired by Coca-Cola India, maaza currently dominated the fruit drink.

3. Nimbu Fresh: Recently launched fruit drink in January. 4. KINLEY: packaged drinking water.

INDIAN PRODUCT RANGE:

Cola Cola:

Glass: 200ml.300ml.500ml.1000ml PET bottle: 500ml, 1.25litres, 2 liters, 2.25 lit, 500ml+100ml CAN: 330ml Fountain: various sizes

Thums-Up:

Glass: 200ml.300ml.500ml.1000ml PET bottle: 500ml, 1.25 liters, 2 liters, 2.25 lit, 500ml+100ml CAN: 330ml Fountain: various sizes

Sprite:

Glass: 200ml.300ml. PET bottle: 500ml, 1.25 liters, 2 liters, 2.25 lit, 500ml+100ml CAN: 330ml Fountain: various sizes

liters, 2.25 lit, 500ml+100ml CAN: 330ml Fountain: various sizes SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
liters, 2.25 lit, 500ml+100ml CAN: 330ml Fountain: various sizes SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Fanta :

Glass: 200ml.300ml. PET bottle: 500ml, 1.25 liters, 2 liters, 2.25 lit, 500ml+100ml CAN: 330ml Fountain: various sizes

Limca :

Glass: 200ml.300ml. PET bottle: 500ml, 1.25 ltr, 2 liters, 2.25 ltr, 500ml+100ml CAN: 330ml Fountain: various sizes

Minute Maid Pulpy Orange:

Available in 3 PET packages: 400ml, 1 liters and 1.25 liters

Maaza:

PET: 250ml, 600ml, 1.2 ltr, RGB: 200ml, 250 ml Pocket maaza : 200ml.

Kinley :

PET: 500ml, 1000ml, 2000 ml

Nimbu fresh:

Available in 2 packages: 400ml and 1000ml

2000 ml Nimbu fresh : Available in 2 packages: 400ml and 1000ml SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
2000 ml Nimbu fresh : Available in 2 packages: 400ml and 1000ml SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

INDUSTRY PROFILE

Soft drinks trace their history back to the mineral waters found in natural springs. Ancient societies believed that bathing in natural springs and/or drinking mineral waters could cure many diseases. Early scientists who studied mineral waters included Jābir ibn Hayyān, Alkindus, Rhazes, Paracelsus, Robert Boyle, Friedrich Hoffmann, Antoine Laurent Lavoisier, Hermann Boerhaave, William Brownrigg, Gabriel F. Venel, Joseph Black, and David Macbride.

The earliest soft drinks were sherbets developed by Arabic chemists and originally served in the medieval Near East. "Alkaline Substances", "A kind of Saltwort" from which soda is obtained, probably from Arabic suwwad, the name of a variety of saltwort exported from North Africa to Sicily in the Middle Ages, related to sawad "black," the color of the plant. These were juiced soft drinks made of crushed fruit, herbs, or flowers. From around 1265, a popular drink known as Dandelion & Burdock appeared in England, made from fermented dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) and burdock (Arctium lappa) roots, and is naturally carbonated. The drink (similar to sarsaparilla) is still available today, but is made with flavorings and carbonated water, since the safrole in the original recipe was found to be carcinogenic.

The first marketed soft drinks (non-carbonated) in the Western world appeared in the 17th century. They were made from water and lemon juice sweetened with honey. In 1676, the Compagnie des Limonadiers of Paris was granted a monopoly for the sale of lemonade soft drinks. Vendors carried tanks of lemonade on their backs and dispensed cups of the soft drink

to thirsty Parisians.

Carbonated drinks:

In late 18th century, scientists made important progress in replicating naturally carbonated mineral waters. In 1767, Englishman Joseph Priestley first discovered a method of infusing water with carbon dioxide to make carbonated water [6] when he suspended a bowl of distilled water above a beer vat at a local brewery in Leeds, England. His invention of carbonated water, (also known as soda water), is the major and defining component of most soft drinks. Priestley found water thus treated had a pleasant taste, and he offered it to friends as a refreshing drink. In 1772, Priestley published a paper entitled Impregnating Water with Fixed Air in which he describes dripping oil of vitriol (or sulfuric acid as it is now called) onto

oil of vitriol (or sulfuric acid as it is now called) onto SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
oil of vitriol (or sulfuric acid as it is now called) onto SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

chalk to produce carbon dioxide gas, and encouraging the gas to dissolve into an agitated bowl of water.

Another Englishman, John Mervin Nooth, improved Priestley's design and sold his apparatus for commercial use in pharmacies. Swedish chemist Torbern Bergman invented a generating apparatus that made carbonated water from chalk by the use of sulfuric acid. Bergman's apparatus allowed imitation mineral water to be produced in large amounts. Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius started to add flavors (spices, juices and wine) to carbonated water in the late 18th century.

Soda fountain pioneers:

Artificial mineral waters, usually called "soda water," and the soda fountain made the biggest splash in the United States. Beginning in 1806, Yale chemistry professor Benjamin Silliman sold soda waters in New Haven, Connecticut. He used a Nooth apparatus to produce his waters. Businessmen in Philadelphia and New York City also began selling soda water in the early 1800s. In the 1830s, John Matthews of New York City and John Lippincott of Philadelphia began manufacturing soda fountains. Both men were successful and built large factories for fabricating fountains.

Soda fountains vs. bottled sodas:

The drinking of either natural or artificial mineral water was considered a healthy practice. The American pharmacists selling mineral waters began to add herbs and chemicals to unflavored mineral water. They used birch bark (see birch beer), dandelion, sarsaparilla, fruit extracts, and other substances. Flavorings were also added to improve the taste. Pharmacies with soda fountains became a popular part of American culture. Many Americans frequented the soda fountain on a daily basis. Due to problems in the U.S. glass industry, bottled drinks were a small portion of the market in the 19th century. (They were certainly known in England, though. In The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, published in 1848, the caddish Huntingdon, recovering from months of debauchery, wakes at noon and gulps a bottle of soda-water. In America, most soft drinks were dispensed and consumed at a soda fountain, usually in a drugstore or ice cream parlor. In the early 20th century, sales of bottled soda increased exponentially. In the second half of the 20th century, canned soft drinks became an important share of the market.

canned soft drinks became an important share of the market. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
canned soft drinks became an important share of the market. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Soft drink bottling industry:

Over 1,500 U.S. patents were filed for either a cork, cap, or lid for the carbonated drink bottle tops during the early days of the bottling industry. Carbonated drink bottles are under great pressure from the gas. Inventors were trying to find the best way to prevent the carbon dioxide or bubbles from escaping. In 1892, the "Crown Cork Bottle Seal" was patented by William Painter, a Baltimore machine shop operator. It was the first very successful method

of keeping the bubbles in the bottle.

Automatic production of glass bottles:

In 1899, the first patent was issued for a glass-blowing machine for the automatic production of glass bottles. Earlier glass bottles had all been hand-blown. Four years later, the new bottle-blowing machine was in operation. It was first operated by the inventor, Michael Owens, an employee of Libby Glass Company. Within a few years, glass bottle production increased from 1,400 bottles a day to about 58,000 bottles a day.

Home-Packs and vending machines:

During the 1920s, the first "Home-Packs" were invented. "Home-Packs" are the familiar six- pack cartons made from cardboard. Automatic vending machines also began to appear in the

1920s.

PRODUCTION

Soft drink production:

Soft drinks are made either by mixing dry ingredients and/or fresh ingredients (e.g. lemons, oranges, etc.) with water. Production of soft drinks can be done at factories, or at home.

Soft drinks can be made at home by mixing either a syrup or dry ingredients with carbonated water. Carbonated water is made using a home carbonation system or by dropping dry ice into water. Syrups are commercially sold by companies such as Soda-Club.

Ingredient quality:

Of most importance is that the ingredient meets the agreed specification on all major parameters. This is not only the functional parameter, i.e. the level of the major constituent, but the level of impurities, the microbiological status and physical parameters such as color, particle size, etc.

and physical parameters such as color, particle size, etc. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
and physical parameters such as color, particle size, etc. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Soft drink packaging:

STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR Soft drink packaging: U.S. containers in 2008. Various sizes from
STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR Soft drink packaging: U.S. containers in 2008. Various sizes from

U.S. containers in 2008. Various sizes from 8-67.6 US floz (237 ml -2 l) shown in can, glass and plastic bottles

In the United States, soft drinks are sold in 3, 2, 1.5, 1 liter, 500 ml, 8, 12, 20 and 24 U.S.

fluid ounce plastic bottles, 12 U.S. fluid ounce cans, and short eight-ounce cans. Some Coca- Cola products can be purchased in 8 and 12 U.S. fluid ounce glass bottles. Jones Soda and Orange Crush are sold in 16 U.S. fluid ounce (1 U.S. pint) glass bottles. Cans are packaged in a variety of quantities such as six packs, 12 packs and cases of 24, 36 and 360. With the advent of energy drinks sold in eight-ounce cans in the US, some soft drinks are now sold in similarly sized cans. It is also common for carbonated soft drinks to be served as fountain drinks in which carbonation is added to a concentrate immediately prior to serving.

In Europe, soft drinks are typically sold in 2, 1.5, 1 litre, 500 ml plastic or 330 ml glass bottles; aluminum cans are traditionally sized in 330 ml, although 250 ml slim cans have become popular since the introduction of canned energy drinks and 355 ml variants of the slim cans have been introduced by Red Bull more

recently. Cans and bottles often come in packs of six or four. Several countries have standard recyclable packaging with a container deposit, typically ranging from 0.15 to 0.25. The bottles are smelted, or cleaned and refilled; cans are crushed and sold as scrap aluminium.

In Australia, soft drinks are usually sold in 375 ml cans or glass or plastic bottles. Bottles are

usually 390 ml, 600 ml, 1.25 or 2 liters. However, 1.5 liters bottles have more recently been used by the the Coca-Cola Company. South Australia is the only state to offer a container recycling scheme, recently having lifted the deposit from 5 cents to 10 cents. This scheme is

lifted the deposit from 5 cents to 10 cents. This scheme is SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
lifted the deposit from 5 cents to 10 cents. This scheme is SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

also done in the Philippines; people usually buy glass bottles and return them in exchange for a small amount of money.

In Canada, soft drinks are sold in cans of 236 ml, 355 ml, 473 ml, and bottles of 591 ml, 710

ml, 1 l, 1.89 l, and 2 l. The odd sizes are due to being the metric near-equivalents to 8, 12, 16,

20, 24 and 64 U.S. fluid ounces. This allows bottlers to use the same-sized containers as in the U.S. market. This is an example of a wider phenomenon in North America. Brands of more international soft drinks such as Fanta and Red Bull are more likely to come in round- figure capacities.

In India, soft drinks are available in 200 ml and 300 ml glass bottles, 250 ml and 330 ml cans,

and 600 ml, 1.25 l, 1.5 l and 2 l plastic bottles.

Health effect:

The consumption of sugar-sweetened soft drinks is associated with obesity type 2 diabetes, dental cavities, and low nutrient levels. [11] Experimental studies tend to support a causal role for sugar-sweetened soft drinks in these ailments, [10][11] though this is challenged by other researchers. [12][13] "Sugar-sweetened" includes drinks that use High-fructose corn syrup, as well as those using sucrose.

Many soft drinks contain ingredients that are themselves sources of concern: caffeine is linked to anxiety and sleep disruption [14] when consumed in excess, and the health effects of high-fructose corn syrup and artificial sweeteners remain controversial. Sodium benzoate has been investigated as a possible cause of DNA damage and hyperactivity. Other substances have negative health effects, but are present in such small quantities that they are unlikely to pose any substantial health risk. Benzene belongs to this category: the amount of benzene in soft drinks is small enough that it is unlikely to pose a health risk. [15]

In 1998, the Center for Science in the Public Interest published a report titled Liquid Candy:

How Soft Drinks are Harming Americans' Health. The report examined statistics relating to the soaring consumption of soft drinks, particularly by children, and the consequent health ramifications, including tooth decay, nutritional depletion, obesity, type-2 (formerly known

as "adult-onset") diabetes, and heart disease. It also reviewed soft drink marketing and made various recommendations aimed at reducing soft drink consumption. [16]

There have been a handful of published reports describing individuals with severe hypokalemia (low potassium levels) related to chronic extreme consumption (4-10 L/day) of colas. [34]

chronic extreme consumption (4-10 L/day) of colas . [ 3 4 ] SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
chronic extreme consumption (4-10 L/day) of colas . [ 3 4 ] SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Nutritional value:

Unless fortified, they also contain little to no vitamins, minerals, fiber, protein, or other essential nutrients. Soft drinks may also displace other healthier choices in people's diets, such as water, milk, fruit juice, [37] and vegetable juice.

Soft Drinks in India:

[ 3 7 ] and vegetable juice. Soft Drinks in India : Euro monitor International's Soft

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Soft drinks witnesses‘ healthy growth in India

Soft drinks recorded robust double digit off-trade value growth in 2009, which was higher than that witnessed in 2008. Bottled water and fruit/vegetable juice continued to grow strongly as more consumers turned to these products in the search of healthier options. Carbonates also witnessed good sales growth as the long summer helped to fuel sales. Energy drinks has witnessed a slowdown in sales growth as its is a premium priced product type and therefore not considered a necessity. Importantly, more consumers refrained from spending on non-essential items in the wake of the economic downturn.

Manufacturers diversify on a health and wellness platform

Manufacturers continued to focus on health and wellness products in 2009, introducing green tea versions of powder concentrates and RTD tea. There were also a number of launches in terms of new products and flavors in fruit/vegetable juice. The only new product launch in carbonates was Grappo Fizz by Parle Agro Pvt Ltd. Non-cola carbonates performed very well as these products are perceived by consumers to be less of a health threat than cola

carbonates. Even in niche categories like energy drinks, sugar-free versions were introduced

as manufacturers try to attract health conscious and diabetic consumers.

Coca-Cola India continues to lead soft drinks

consumers. Coca-Cola India continues to lead soft drinks SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page
consumers. Coca-Cola India continues to lead soft drinks SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Coca-Cola India Pvt Ltd continued to lead soft drinks in 2009, followed by PepsiCo India Holdings Pvt Ltd in off-trade value terms. The launch of Nimbooz by 7-Up (PepsiCo India) helped the company retain its

leading position in the terms of off-trade value sales. Coca-Cola India and PepsiCo India continued to invest in soft drinks in India. However, domestic players such as Parle Agro, Parle Bisleri Ltd and Dabur India Ltd continued to provide tough competition to the leading multinationals. One competitive edge that domestic players hold is that unlike Coca-Cola India and PepsiCo India the bulk of their business does not come from carbonates, but instead from fruit/vegetable juice and bottled water, which are recording much more dynamic volume and value growth. Thus, while the leading multinationals retained their leading positions in off-trade value terms, they continued to record slight off-trade value share reductions in 2009, while these leading domestic players grew their shares.

Marginal slowdown in supermarkets/hypermarkets

The growth in supermarkets/hypermarkets boosted the soft drinks industry over much of the review period. However, due to the economic downturn, the off-trade volume share of supermarkets/hypermarkets decreased in 2009. This in turn affected some of the more niche and premium product types like energy drinks and reconstituted 100% juice which enjoyed high visibility through this distribution channels. However, this trend is not expected to continue as the economy recovers since consumers will revert to their previous shopping patterns.

Soft drinks is expected to record healthy sales growth in the forecast period

Soft drinks is expected to witness a healthy double-digit total volume CAGR growth over the forecast period. As consumer awareness and understanding of the variety of soft drinks increases and as manufacturers continue to be innovative, soft drinks is expected to perform well. Products on the health and wellness platform and niche categories can expect to see good sales growth in the forecast period.

can expect to see good sales growth in the forecast period. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
can expect to see good sales growth in the forecast period. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Social and environmental responsibility

Company guiding vision

Coca-Cola re entered India in 1993. The vision of the company is to lead beverage revolution in the world and provide it‘s consumer quality beverages at affordable price. As on June 2007, Company has 65 manufacturing locations across 18 states of the country

The company has one single environmental system, echo system, implemented at all its operations across the world. The eKO system is a tool that integrates environment management with business planning cycle.

The eKO system primarily comprises of two main facets namely:

Environment

Occupational Safety and Health (OSH)

Both the facets are aligned with international management system standards, ISO 14001 for Environment Management and OSHAS 18001 for Safety Management.

As on June 2007, 32 manufacturing units are certified to ISO 14001 & 10 units are certified

to OHSAS 18001 Standards.

At the core of The Coca-Cola Environmental Management System are five values that affirm the responsibilities of The Coca-Cola Company and serve as guidelines for our business partners around the world. Each of these values is supported by specific requirements and practices that govern our daily operations and are fundamental to achieving results consistent with environmental leadership. Our five values are:

Some of the prime environmental considerations followed in business decisions are:

Environmental due diligence before acquiring land.

Environmental impact assessment before commencing operations.

Ground water and environmental surveys before selecting sites.

Diligent compliance with all regulatory environmental requirements.

Ban on purchase of refrigeration equipment containing CFCs (known to be Ozone depleting).

Installation of Effluent treatment plant at each manufacturing locations.

Separate collection and treatment domestic and industrial effluent as per company OR Local standard.

Separate discharge of industrial, domestic and storm water to prevent storm water pollution.

domestic and storm water to prevent storm water pollution. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
domestic and storm water to prevent storm water pollution. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

1.3 IDENTIFIED PROBLEM

The problem in the study is to know the consumers buying behaviour towards the newly launched 1.25lits pack of coca cola. In this competitive world there are more rival brands, rational consumers choose the product which satisfies them to the price they pay . on part of consumer satisfaction , they will buy the products repeatedly and market share will be increased by word of mouth and there increases the loyal consumers to the product. So this project guides the company in order to know the consumer buying behaviour and company can assured about the market share of the products.

and company can assured about the market share of the products. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
and company can assured about the market share of the products. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY:

PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:

To study the consumer buying behaviour towards 1.25lit pack of coca-cola soft drinks.

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

To identify the awareness of coca-cola 1.25lit pack soft drinks.

To find out the various factors that influences consumers in buying soft drinks.

To know the consumers opinion towards coca-cola 1.25lit pack soft drinks.

To suggest strategies for promoting the sales of 1.25lit pack coca-cola soft drinks.

for promoting the sales of 1.25lit pack coca-cola soft drinks. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
for promoting the sales of 1.25lit pack coca-cola soft drinks. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The study is use useful for the company in framing future strategies. The target customers are men and women in the age group of above 20 years. By this research it is more useful to know the personal opinion and also the consumer behaviour towards the packs of soft drinks. There are more number of branded products which has been highly attracted by general public and also a fair response to discount offers. The study brings out information about the consumer‘s preferences, the brands they prefer and the reason for their preference and which factor attracted them to buy the product. It also helps in understanding the customer‘s opinion about newly launched pack. By this study the requirements of the consumer can be known and also it will be useful to the company to design new products and innovative marketing strategies and promotional schemes.

and innovative marketing strategies and promotional schemes. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 21
and innovative marketing strategies and promotional schemes. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 21

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

1.6 NEED FOR THE STUDY

The most important activity of marketing is to study consumer market and also analyzing of buying behaviour. If the Company decides to build a position on quality and service, it must first analyze buying behaviour of the consumers, and the company can analyse their production status of goods.

The entry of various brands in soft drink industry has made severe cut throat competition. All organizations are coming out with new promotional tools on attracting features, which has severe impact on sales.

In order to retain and capture the market, the company wants to study why the consumer switches over to other brands and what can be the factors responsible. By knowing the factors the company can easily improve the present activities to reach the expectations of the consumer on retaining its position in the market.

of the consumer on retaining its position in the market. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
of the consumer on retaining its position in the market. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

1.7 DELIVERABLES

This project mainly concentrates on consumer buying behaviour and decisions to spend their available resources like time, money, effort consumption related items .That includes what they buy it, why they buy it, when they buy it, where they buy it, how often they buy it, how often they use it, they evaluate it after the purchase and the impact of such evaluations on future purchases, and how they dispose of it. And finally analyze the areas where attention is required. Effective results are based on the analysis and interpretations, through data collection method.

analysis and interpretations, through data collection method. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 23
analysis and interpretations, through data collection method. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 23

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

CHAPTER - 2

2.1 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

1. Russel bulk, assistant professor of business administration of Illinova University, journal

of consumer research. This paper suggests that explicit recognition of situational variables can substantially enhance the ability to explain and understand consumer behavioral acts. A definition and description of situations is offered, existing research is summarized, and implications for consumer research are considered.

2.Title:Consumer Behaviour in TourismAuthor(s):Luiz MoutinhoCitation:Luiz Moutinho, (1993) "Consumer Behaviour in Tourism", European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 21 Iss: 10, pp.5 - 44Keywords:ConsumerBehaviour,TouristIndustryArticle type:

Case studyDOI:10.1108/EUM0000000004718 (Permanent URL)Publisher:MCB UP LtdAbstract:

The analysis of consumer behavior requires the consideration of various processes internal and external to the individual. To understand behavior, it is necessary to examine the complex interaction of many influencing elements. This study deals with determinants of behavior, culture and reference group influences, the relationships between individuals and their environments, perceived risks, and family decision processes. It concludes with an illustration of tourist behavior modeling.

3. Consumer reactions to electronic shopping on the world wide web Source International

Journal of Electronic Commerce archive Volume 1 , Issue 2 (December 1996) table of contents Pages: 59 - 88 Year of Publication: 1996

ISSN:1086-4415

Authors Sirrka L. Jarvenpaa Peter A. Todd Publisher M. E. Sharpe, Inc. Armonk, NY, USA

Peter A. Todd Publisher M. E. Sharpe, Inc. Armonk, NY, USA SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
Peter A. Todd Publisher M. E. Sharpe, Inc. Armonk, NY, USA SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Bibliometrics Downloads (6 Weeks): n/a,

Downloads (12 Months): n/a,

Much fascination and speculation surrounds the impact of the World Wide Web on consumer shopping behavior. At the same time, there is little empirical evidence underlying all this speculation. This article provides one such data set. It reports on factors that consumers found salient as they browsed through selected electronic malls on the World Wide Web. We gathered consumers' reactions via an open-ended survey using a sample of 220 shoppers. We related the reactions to the factors of product perceptions, shopping experience, customer service, and perceived consumer risk, which we had identified from the existing literature on retail patronage behavior. This study translated these factors to the World Wide Web context and explored their relative salience.With respect to product perceptions, consumers were impressed by the breadth of stores on the World Wide Web but disappointed with the depth of a merchant's offerings. The shopping experience was reported to be generally enjoyable, but at the same time frustrating. Consumers also reported that they could perceive the potential for time savings and reduced effort compared with traditional forms of shopping, but that, at present, goal-directed shopping was difficult. Nearly everyone in the sample had something negative to say about customer service on the World Wide Web, judging that the sites were not designed to be responsive to their needs and that the presentation of goods and services seemed intangible. Risk was cited as a barrier to shopping on the World Wide Web, but was not as salient to our sample as product perceptions, shopping experience, and customer service. Overall, the results suggest that World Wide Web merchants need to think more about how they perform on the factors known to affect consumer behavior; namely, product perceptions, shopping experience, and customer service. We offer advice for enhancing the design of World Wide Web retail sites.

4.Journal of Consumer Psychology Volume 1, Issue 3, 1992, Pages 239-260 , doi:10.1016/S1057-7408(08)80038-1 Need for Cognition and Advertising: Understanding the Role of Personality Variables in Consumer Behavior

the Role of Personality Variables in Consumer Behavior Curtis P. Haugtvedt , , Richard E. Petty

Curtis P. Haugtvedt , , Richard E. Petty and John T. Cacioppo The Ohio State University, USA,Three studies were conducted to examine the role of need for cognition on attitudes formed as a result of exposure to advertisements. Prior research on

as a result of exposure to advertisements. Prior research on SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
as a result of exposure to advertisements. Prior research on SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

need for cognition has used only long messages, counterattitudinal topics, or employed instructions that specifically told participants to evaluate products. Results of our studies reveal that need for cognition also affects the processes of attitude change when no explicit evaluation instructions are provided and when exposures are to relatively short, unfamiliar advertising messages presented in either self-paced or externally controlled formats. Consistent with prior research, attitudes of high need for cognition individuals were based more on an evaluation of product attributes than were the attitudes of low need for cognition persons (Studies 1 and 2). In addition, the attitudes of low need for cognition individuals were based more on simple peripheral cues inherent in the ads than were the attitudes of high need for cognition persons (Study 3). Implications for the study of personality variables in consumer behavior are discussed.

5. The effect of expertise on the relation between implicit and explicit attitude measures: An information availability/accessibility perspective Sandor Czellar and David Luna Department of Marketing, Faculty of Business and Economics, University of Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland Department of Marketing, Zicklin School of Business, Baruch College, One Bernard Baruch Way, New York, NY 10010, USA Received 12 October 2009; revised 24 June 2010; accepted 30 June 2010. Three experiments investigate expertise as a moderator of the relationship between implicit and explicit attitude measures. Prior research suggests that greater expertise leads to stronger implicitexplicit relations; however, a cognitive view of expertise can also predict a weaker implicitexplicit relation. Our framework helps to resolve that seeming contradiction on the basis of the availability/accessibility of attributes versus attitudes in explicit attitude measures. We show that object specificity and contextual factors (e.g., instructions and prior evaluations in a survey) differentially affect the availability/accessibility of global attitudes and attribute information for novices versus experts, thus determining how expertise moderates the implicitexplicit relation.

how expertise moderates the implicit – explicit relation. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page
how expertise moderates the implicit – explicit relation. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page

A

STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

6.

Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.015 |

Aesthetic principles and cognitive emotion appraisals: How much of the beauty lies in the eye

of the beholder?

Minu Kumar and Nitika Garg College of Business, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94132, USA School of Business Administration, P.O. 1848, University, MS 38677-1848, USA Received 17 July 2009; revised 29 June 2010;

accepted 30 June 2010.

Although the aesthetic properties of a product have often been linked to consumers‘ emotional responses, theory and empirical evidence are yet to fully explain how and why aesthetic properties of a product evoke an emotional response. Drawing on an eclectic literature, we propose hypotheses connecting aesthetic principles with the subconscious cognitive appraisals associated with emotions. Specifically, we empirically test the relationships between the aesthetic principle of harmony and cognitive appraisals (attentional activity and pleasantness), while exploring the moderating role of typicality. Our results suggest that harmony and typicality interact to affect appraisals of pleasantness and attentional activity. Specifically, consumers tend to prefer designs that balance the levels of attentional resources needed and pleasantness in visually evaluating the design. This work advances the growing literature in product design and aesthetics by providing an understanding of the mechanisms through which aesthetic principles might prompt emotional responses in consumers.

7. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.019 |

The influence of involvement on the endowment effect: The moveable value function Najam U. Saqib, Norman Frohlich and Edward Bruning College of Business and Economics, Qatar University, P.O. Box 2713, Doha, Qatar I.H. Asper School of Business, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada R3T

5V4

Department of Social and Preventive Medicine at the University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada

Medicine at the University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
Medicine at the University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Received 12 August 2008; revised 22 June 2010; accepted 30 June 2010. Available online 27 July 2010. The endowment effect is based on the loss aversion built into Prospect Theory's asymmetric value function. This paper posits that the level of consumer involvement with a decision is a moderator of the endowment effect. It is proposed that high involvement increases the slope differential between the loss and gain regions of the value function, enhancing loss aversion. The research further posits that higher involvement is accompanied by higher arousal and cognitive processing which produces stronger negativity in thoughts. The argument for these effects is discussed in the context of evolutionary theory. We conclude that consumers are more loss averse in high versus low involvement conditions.

8. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.017 | Motivational determinants of transportation into marketing narratives

Brent McFerran , Darren W. Dahl , Gerald J. Gorn and Heather Hone , Stephen M. Ross School of Business, University of Michigan, 701 Tappan Street, Ann Arbor, MI, 48109-1234, USA Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, 2053 Main Mall, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada V6T 1Z2 Faculty of Business and Economics, The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong College of Business Administration, San Diego State University, 5500 Campanile Drive, San Diego, CA, 92182-8239, USA Received 3 June 2009; revised 25 June 2010; accepted 30 June 2010.

This paper identifies factors that facilitate narrative transportation, where people become immersed in the storyline of an advertisement. Specifically, using a lottery context, this

research shows that consumers who feel lucky or believe in personal good luck are motivated

to engage in transportation, a process that is intensified as the attractiveness of the outcome

process that is intensified as the attractiveness of the outcome SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
process that is intensified as the attractiveness of the outcome SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

increases. Further, this research shows that highly transported consumers (a) become more focused on ad outcomes and less on the low personal probability of winning, and that (b) attempts to attenuate consumers‘ transportation are most efficacious if undertaken before the ad (and transportation) begins.

9. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.018 |

Communal and exchange relationship perceptions as separate constructs and their role in motivations to donate Jennifer Wiggins Johnson , and Pamela E. Grimm Kent State University, Department of Marketing, P.O. Box 5190, Kent, OH, 44242, USA Received 24 June 2009; revised 25 June 2010; accepted 30 June 2010.

Researchers have operationalized communal and exchange relationship perceptions as either mutually exclusive categories or opposite ends of a continuum. This research conceptualizes these relationships as distinct constructs that should be measured separately. We develop multi-item measures of communal and exchange relationship perceptions and find that they are actually positively correlated. We also examine the way communal and exchange relationship perceptions combine to influence intrinsic, extrinsic, and social motivations to donate, a category stipulated in economics, but not in psychology. We find that both relationship perceptions influence consumer attitudes toward donating through a mix of intrinsic, extrinsic, and social motivations.

10. Journal of Consumer Psychology, Profits and halos: The role of firm profitability information in consumer inference Steven S. Posava , Michal Herzenstein, Frank R. Kardes and Suresh Sundaram Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA Received 10 December 2008; revised 23 June 2010;

OH, USA Received 10 December 2008; revised 23 June 2010; SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
OH, USA Received 10 December 2008; revised 23 June 2010; SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

accepted 30 June 2010. Three experiments investigated the consequences of the presence of information that a manufacturing firm is profitable on consumers' judgments of the firm and the consequences for perceptions of advertising, products, and choice intention. When profitability is present in the advertising context, consumers form more favorable advertiser judgments, which drive perceptions of greater advertisement credibility, which lead to more favorable product inferences, and ultimately stronger purchase intentions. The third experiment additionally shows that profitability information interacts with a warranty to drive judgments and choice. The implication of our findings is that firms should consider highlighting their profitability to enhance advertising effectiveness.

11. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.007 |

Effects of product unit image on consumption of snack foods Adriana V. Madzharov , and Lauren G. Block Baruch College, the City University of New York, New York, NY, USA Received 30 October 2009; revised 21 June 2010; accepted 23 June 2010.

Across a series of three studies, we demonstrate that the number of product units displayed on a package biases consumers' perceptions of product quantity (i.e., the number of snack items the package contains) and actual consumption. Specifically, we demonstrate that consumers use an anchoring heuristic to infer that packages that display a greater number of product units (e.g., 15 pretzels vs. 3 pretzels) have a higher product quantity inside. Importantly, we demonstrate that actual consumption of the food product follows this anchor judgment. The studies demonstrate that these effects are moderated by level of visual processing and that they are robust even in the presence of verbal information.

12. Journal of Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2010.06.005

J. Edward Russo and Anne-Sophie Chaxel Cornell University Received 26 May 2010; revised 21 June 2010;

Cornell University Received 26 May 2010; revised 21 June 2010; SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
Cornell University Received 26 May 2010; revised 21 June 2010; SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

accepted 22 June 2010.

A persuasive message that favors one option in a binary choice can enhance the apparent

value of its target by biasing the interpretation of subsequent information. The message installs its target as the initial leader in preference and lets the predecisional distortion of

information defend that leadership position. An experiment that contrasts showing TV commercials before and after objective product information demonstrates this process. Ratings of the importance of the commercials to the choice indicate that people are aware of advertising's direct effect on their choice but not of its indirect effect through the biased evaluation of the product information.

effect through the biased evaluation of the product information. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
effect through the biased evaluation of the product information. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

CHAPTER - 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Research is a growing need in any organization of the present world. It is helpful in identifying the consumer needs and wants so as to launch a product or to bring about improvements in the existing products. This is done to gain competitive edge over others. Success of the research depends upon the methodology adopted. The study was based on descriptive research.

The research methodology deals with the

1. Data collection

2. Research technique

3. Sampling methods

4. Analysis and Interpretation of research work.

RESEARCH DESIGN:

A research design is purely and simply the frame work of plan for a study the guides the collection and analysis of data. It is a blue print for a complete study. It resembles the architects blue print map for a constructing a house.

3.1 TYPE OF PROJECT

DESCRIPTIVE REASEARCH DESIGN

A descriptive research is undertaken in order to ascertain and be able to describe the

characteristics of the variable of interest in a situation. Descriptive research is also undertaken

to understand the characteristics of organisations that follow certain common practices. The

goal of a descriptive research is to offer to the researcher a profile or to describe relevant aspects of the phenomena of interest from an individual, organisational, industry-oriented, or other perspective.

organisational, industry-oriented, or other perspective . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 32
organisational, industry-oriented, or other perspective . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 32

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

A sample is a subset of population and it comprises some members selected from it. sampling is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population.

Sample survey:

A survey which is carried out using a sampling method, i.e., in which a proportion only and not the whole population, is surveyed.

Sampling designs:

There are two types of sampling designs. They are probability and non- probability sampling.

Probability sampling: In probability sampling the elements in the population

have some known chance or probability of being selected as sample subjects.

Non- probability sampling: The elements in the population do not have any

probability attached to their being chosen as sample subjects. This means that the findings from the study of the sample cannot be confidently generalized to the population.

the sample cannot be confidently generalized to the population. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
the sample cannot be confidently generalized to the population. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

3.2 TARGET RESPONDENTS

SAMPLE

A sample is a finite part of a statistical population whose properties are studied to gain information about the whole. When dealing with people, it can be defined as a set of respondents (people) selected from a larger population for the purpose of a survey.

A population is a group of individual‘s persons, objects, or items from which samples are taken for measurement. Sample size of the project is going to be 60 for the project.

SAMPLING

Sampling is the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample, or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population.

Population:

TIRUPATI

Sample Size: 120

The sample size used is 120 but 4 of them has not responded so the total sample size is 116. The Sampling Technique that is used in the project is:

is 116. The Sampling Technique that is used in the project is: SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
is 116. The Sampling Technique that is used in the project is: SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

3.3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY:

Time duration for this project study was not adequate.

Customers response level was not that much confident so, the answer was not that much accurate.

Customers belonging to only one unit in BENGALURU are chosen for survey.

belonging to only one unit in BENGALURU are chosen for survey . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
belonging to only one unit in BENGALURU are chosen for survey . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

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3.4 PROPOSED SAMPLING METHOD Convenience sampling:

It refers to the collection of information from members of the population who are conveniently available to provide it. The most easily accessible members are chosen as subjects. Convenience sampling is the best way of getting some basic information quickly and efficiently.

way of getting some basic information quickly and efficiently. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
way of getting some basic information quickly and efficiently. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

3.5 DATA PROCESSING:

Data is collected from two sources:

1. Primary Data :

1. Primary Data

2. Secondary Data

The primary data are those, which are collected afresh and for the first time and thus happen to be original in character.

2. Secondary Data:

o

The Secondary data consists of information that already exists somewhere having been collected for another purpose and researcher begins the research work by first going through the secondary data.

o

Here Secondary data is collected from the COMPANY, Company‘s website.

COLLECTION OF DATA THROUGH QUESTIONNAIRE:

This method of data collection is quite popular. In this method a set or a series of questions in logical order is asked to the respondents and the researcher collects the desired information. The questions may be asked verbally or in writing and the responses may be either form and it is mainly constructed for the purpose of mailing.

Questionnaires need to be carefully developed, tested and debugged before they are administered on a large scale.

and debugged before they are administered on a large scale. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
and debugged before they are administered on a large scale. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

After collecting data we have arranged and managed it on a SPSS sheet and analysed it using various tool of this software. The basic research techniques used are:

3.6 TOOLS FOR DATA ANALYSIS:

Analysis techniques are used to obtain finding and arrange information in a logical sequence from the raw data collected. After the tabulation of data the tools provide a scientific and mathematical solution to a complex problem.

1.

CHART Bar charts and pie charts are used for analysis to get a clear idea about the tabulated data.

2.

PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS Percentage analysis shows the entire population in terms of percentages. It reveals the number of belonging is a particular category or the number of people preferring a particular thing, etc., in terms of percentage. In this study, the number of people who responded in a particulars manner is interpreted in the form of percentages.

Each table has been calculated on the basis of percentage.

Percentage

No of respondents

=

------------------------------ * 100

Total respondents

= ------------------------------ * 100 Total respondents SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 38
= ------------------------------ * 100 Total respondents SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 38

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Descriptive analysis – here we have calculated the frequency for the respondent‘s reply

to each question. This is the most important analysis as far as marketing research is concerned because we are basically concerned with what customer thinks of the problem. Along with it we have also calculated various measures of location and dispersion to summarize the data in a more understandable form. Help of bar graphs and pie chart has also been taken.

Cross tabulations cross tabs give the relation between the two variables in a tabular

form. It is a very effective tool for data analysis as we can simultaneously study two or three variables are draw conclusions based on it.

Chi square test it is done to understand if there is any significant relation between the

variables which have been used in the cross tabs.

between the variables which have been used in the cross tabs. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
between the variables which have been used in the cross tabs. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

CHAPTER 4

4.1 STATISTICAL TOOL

4.1.1 Percentage Analysis

DATA ANALYSIS

THE TABLE SHOWS THE AGE GROUPS RESPONDENTS

age

number of

percentage

respondents

10-20yrs

45

39.79%

20-30yrs

34

29.31%

30-40yrs

19

16.37%

40-50yrs

11

9.48%

50 & above

7

6.03%

TABLE: 4.1.1.1 showing the age groups of the respondents

AGE GROUP

45.00% 39.79% 40.00% 35.00% 29.31% 30.00% 25.00% 20.00% 16.37% 15.00% 9.48% 10.00% 6.03% 5.00% 0.00%
45.00%
39.79%
40.00%
35.00%
29.31%
30.00%
25.00%
20.00%
16.37%
15.00%
9.48%
10.00%
6.03%
5.00%
0.00%
10-20yrs
20-30yrs
30-40yrs
40-50yrs
50 & above
pecentage

age

CHART: 4.1.1.1 showing the age group of the respondents

age CHART: 4.1.1.1 showing the age group of the respondents SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
age CHART: 4.1.1.1 showing the age group of the respondents SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

INFERENCE:

The figure depicts that 39.79% of the respondent age is in between 10 -20 years and 29.31% of the respondent age is 20-30 years and 16.37% of the respondent age is 30-40 years and 9.48% is 40-50yrs and only 6.03% is above 50 yrs age.

Since majority of the respondents are in the age group of 10-20 coca cola company can concentrate on this particular segment for furthering the business.

on this particular segment for furthering the business. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page
on this particular segment for furthering the business. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

THE TABLE SHOWS THE GENDER WISE CLASSIFICATION

GENDER

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

MALE

76

66%

FEMALE

40

34%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.2 showing gender wise classification of respondents

140 116 120 p e 100 r c 76 80 e n 60 t 40
140
116
120
p
e
100
r
c
76
80
e
n
60
t
40
a
40
g
e
20
66%
34%
100%
0
MALE
FEMALE
TOTAL
gender

Chart: 4.1.1.2 showing the gender wise classification of respondents

INFERENCE:

The table represents that 116 number of the respondents are male and female.in that 76 number of the respondents are male i.e. 66%and the remaining 40 of the respondents are female i.e.34%.

Since the majority of consumers are male, company can more focus on this segment.

of consumers are male, company can more focus on this segment. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
of consumers are male, company can more focus on this segment. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

THE TABLE SHOWS RESPONSES FOR CONSUMPTION OF COCACOLA

CATEGORY

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

YES

112

96%

NO

4

4%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.3 showing responses for consumption of Coca-Cola

120 100 80 yes 60 no 40 20 0 Number of respondents In percentage
120
100
80
yes
60
no
40
20
0
Number of respondents
In percentage

Chart: 4.1.1.3 showing responses for consumption of coca-cola

INFERENCE:

The table depicts that number of respondents for the answer yes is more than the answer no to the product user. For YES 96% of consumers responded where as for NO 4% of the consumers responded.

responded where as for NO 4% of the consumers responded. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
responded where as for NO 4% of the consumers responded. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWS THE FREQUENCY

OF CONSUMPTION

FREQUENCY

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

ONCE IN A WHILE

73

62.93%

ON OCCASIONS

43

37.06%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.4 showing the frequency of consumption

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS ONCE IN A WHILE ON OCCASIONS TOTAL
NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS ONCE IN A WHILE ON OCCASIONS TOTAL

ONCE IN A WHILENUMBER OF RESPONDENTS ON OCCASIONS TOTAL

ON OCCASIONSNUMBER OF RESPONDENTS ONCE IN A WHILE TOTAL

TOTALNUMBER OF RESPONDENTS ONCE IN A WHILE ON OCCASIONS

Chart: 4.1.1.4 showing the frequency of consumption

INFERENCE:

The diagram depicts that the frequency to the products of cocacola is greater in once

in a while than on occasions.

So it can be said the users of the drinks are once in a while according to conditions of climate.

drinks are once in a while according to conditions of climate. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
drinks are once in a while according to conditions of climate. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWING THE PREFERABLE OCCASIONS TO HAVE SOFT DRINKS

CATEGORY

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

PARTIES

62

53.44%

WEDDING OCCASIONS

21

18.10%

DINNERS

12

10.34%

FESTIVALS

10

8.62%

FAREWELLS

11

9.48%

Table: 4.1.1.5 Showing preferable occasions to have soft drinks

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PARTIES WEDDING OCCASSIONS DINNERS FESTIVALS FAREWELL DAYS

PARTIESNUMBER OF RESPONDENTS WEDDING OCCASSIONS DINNERS FESTIVALS FAREWELL DAYS

WEDDING OCCASSIONSNUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PARTIES DINNERS FESTIVALS FAREWELL DAYS

DINNERSNUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PARTIES WEDDING OCCASSIONS FESTIVALS FAREWELL DAYS

FESTIVALSNUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PARTIES WEDDING OCCASSIONS DINNERS FAREWELL DAYS

FAREWELL DAYSNUMBER OF RESPONDENTS PARTIES WEDDING OCCASSIONS DINNERS FESTIVALS

Chart: 4.1.1.5 Showing preferable occasions to have soft drinks

INFERENCE:

The diagram depicts that the preferable occasions to have soft drinks has been greater during the parties, compared to the wedding occasions, dinners, festivals, fare well days.

to the wedding occasions, dinners, festivals, fare well days. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
to the wedding occasions, dinners, festivals, fare well days. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWING THE DIFFERENT PACKAGES OF SOFT DRINKS SUIT FOR OCCASIONAL CONSUMPTION

DIFF PACKAGES

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

1.25LIT

46

40%

1.5LIT

15

13%

2LIT

26

22%

ALL THE ABOVE

29

25%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.6 showing the different packages for occasional consumption

Different packages Number of

respondents

Different packages Number of respondents 1.25lit 1.5lit 2lit All the above
Different packages Number of respondents 1.25lit 1.5lit 2lit All the above
Different packages Number of respondents 1.25lit 1.5lit 2lit All the above

1.25litDifferent packages Number of respondents 1.5lit 2lit All the above

1.5litDifferent packages Number of respondents 1.25lit 2lit All the above

2litDifferent packages Number of respondents 1.25lit 1.5lit All the above

All the aboveDifferent packages Number of respondents 1.25lit 1.5lit 2lit

Chart: 4.1.1.6 showing the different packages for occasional consumption

INFERENCE:

The diagram depicts that the packages of capacity 1.25 L, 2 L, 1.50 L are consumed in lower order level and in the mixed proportion of all the three are also included in the users mind set.

So it gives the clear idea that the production can be given importance to all the packages and as mixed variants.

be given importance to all the packages and as mixed variants. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
be given importance to all the packages and as mixed variants. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWING WHEATHER 1.25LIT PACK IS A BETTER REPLACEMENT FOR 1.5LIT PACK.

REPLACEMENT

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

YES

114

98%

NO

2

2%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.7 showing 1.25lit pack is a better replacement for 1.5lit pack

Replacement catagory Number of

respondents

Replacement catagory Number of respondents Yes No Total

YesReplacement catagory Number of respondents No Total

NoReplacement catagory Number of respondents Yes Total

TotalReplacement catagory Number of respondents Yes No

Chart: 4.1.1.7 showing 1.25lit pack is a better replacement for 1.5lit pack

INFERENCE:

Totally 98 % of respondents told 1.25lit pack is better replacement for 1.5lit pack

So the company can concentrate more on 1.25lit pack.

1.5lit pack So the company can concentrate more on 1.25lit pack. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
1.5lit pack So the company can concentrate more on 1.25lit pack. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWING THE REASON FOR SELECTION

REASON

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

PRICE

44

38%

PACKING

11

10%

QUANTITY

19

16%

ALL THE ABOVE

42

36%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.8 showing the reason for selection

120

100

80

60

40

20

0

120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Reason for selection Number of respondents Reason for selection

Reason for selection Number of respondents120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Reason for selection In percentage

Reason for selection In percentage120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Reason for selection Number of respondents

Chart: 4.1.1.8 showing the reason for selection

INFERENCE:

From the above chart it depicts that the reaso for selecting the product od cocacola is

all the elements that are interlinkled to the product and so the compay has to give importance

to all the elements of the product.

has to give importance to all the elements of the product. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
has to give importance to all the elements of the product. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWING THE AVAILABILITY OF 1.25LIT PACK

AVAILABILITY OF PACK

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

ALL THE TIME

96

83%

RARELY

15

13%

NOT AVAILABLE

5

4%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.9 showing the availability of 1.25lit pack

TOTAL NOT AVAILABLE IN PERCENTAGE NUMBER OF RARELY RESPONDENTS ALL THE TIME 0 20 40
TOTAL
NOT AVAILABLE
IN PERCENTAGE
NUMBER OF
RARELY
RESPONDENTS
ALL THE TIME
0
20
40
60
80
100
120

Chart: 4.1.1.9 showing the availability of 1.25lit pack

INFERENCE:

From the above chart it depicts that the aailability of the product is always there and

so the product should be optimally available to the customers in all needs .

should be optimally available to the customers in all needs . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
should be optimally available to the customers in all needs . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

THE TABLE SHOWING WHEATER 1.25LIT PACK IS AFFORDABLE PRICE

AFFORDABLE

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

YES

113

97%

NO

3

3%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.10 showing wheather 1.25lit pack is affordable price

120 100 80 NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 60 IN PERCENTAGE 40 20 0 YES NO TOTAL
120
100
80
NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
60
IN PERCENTAGE
40
20
0
YES
NO
TOTAL

Chart: 4.1.1.10 showing wheather 1.25lit pack is affordable price

INFERENCE:

From the above chart it depicts that the price of the product is affordable and the company to maintain thier cost of production and find the wasy that can still more reduce the price of the product.

the wasy that can still more reduce the price of the product. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
the wasy that can still more reduce the price of the product. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

THE TABLE SHOWING THE AWARENESS OF THE PROMOTIONAL SCHEME RUNNING ON THIS PACK

AWARENESS

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

YES

77

66%

NO

39

34%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.11 showing the awareness of the promotional scheme running on this pack

120 100 80 NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS 60 IN PERCENTAGE 40 20 0 YES NO TOTAL
120
100
80
NUMBER OF
RESPONDENTS
60
IN PERCENTAGE
40
20
0
YES
NO
TOTAL

Chart: 4.1.1.11 showing the awareness of the promotional scheme running on this pack

INFERENCE:

From the above chart it depicts that the percentasge of the awareness of the product is 77% and it should made more that all the customer of the soft drinks should be aware of our product.

the customer of the soft drinks should be aware of our product. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
the customer of the soft drinks should be aware of our product. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWING THE MEDIA OF PROMOTION

MEDIA

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

TV ADVERTISEMENTS

45

58%

POS MATERIALS

1

1.5%

OUTDOOR MEDIA

1

1.5%

BY RETAILERS

30

39%

TOTAL

77

100%

Table: 4.1.1.12 showing the media of promotion

Media of promotion Number of

respondents

Media of promotion Number of respondents Tv advertisements POS materials Outdoor media By retailers Total

Tv advertisementsMedia of promotion Number of respondents POS materials Outdoor media By retailers Total

POS materialsMedia of promotion Number of respondents Tv advertisements Outdoor media By retailers Total

Outdoor mediaMedia of promotion Number of respondents Tv advertisements POS materials By retailers Total

By retailersMedia of promotion Number of respondents Tv advertisements POS materials Outdoor media Total

TotalMedia of promotion Number of respondents Tv advertisements POS materials Outdoor media By retailers

Chart: 4.1.1.12 showing the media of promotion

INFERENCE:

From the above chart it depicts that people are aware to the television advertisement rather than the outdoormedia , so the compay can tyake steps to increase the ways to familiraise the product among the pulic

to increase the ways to familiraise the product among the pulic SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
to increase the ways to familiraise the product among the pulic SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

THE TABLE SHOWING THE MOST PREFERRED PRODUCT

PREFERENCE

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

PEPSI &CO(1LIT-33/-)

5

4%

COCA COLA CO(1.25LIT-

111

96%

33/-)

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.13 showing the most preferred product

140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Pepsi &co(1lit- Coca cola Total 33/-) co(1.25lit-33/-)
140
120
100
80
60
40
20
0
Pepsi &co(1lit-
Coca cola
Total
33/-)
co(1.25lit-33/-)

Preference of product In percentage60 40 20 0 Pepsi &co(1lit- Coca cola Total 33/-) co(1.25lit-33/-) Preference of product Number of

Preference of productPepsi &co(1lit- Coca cola Total 33/-) co(1.25lit-33/-) Preference of product In percentage Number of respondents

Number of respondents

Chart: 4.1.1.13 showing the most preferred product

INFERENCE:

From the aboe chart it depicts that the consumers are always rational consumers and always prefer to that in all the line of the prodcts , so the company has to make decisin on that variate.

prodcts , so the company has to make decisin on that variate. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
prodcts , so the company has to make decisin on that variate. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

TABLE SHOWING THE BRAND PREFERENCE

PREFERENCE

NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS

IN PERCENTAGE

COCA COLA

12

10%

THUMS UP

26

22%

SPRITE

52

45%

FANTA

16

14%

LIMCA

11

9%

TOTAL

116

100%

Table: 4.1.1.14 showing the brand preference

Coca cola Thums up Sprite Fanta Limca Total

Coca colaThums up Sprite Fanta Limca Total

Thums upCoca cola Sprite Fanta Limca Total

SpriteCoca cola Thums up Fanta Limca Total

FantaCoca cola Thums up Sprite Limca Total

LimcaCoca cola Thums up Sprite Fanta Total

TotalCoca cola Thums up Sprite Fanta Limca

Chart: 4.1.1.14 showing the brand preference

INFERENCE:

From the above chart it depicts that brand preference for the basis type of product is less and it has more concentration of the range of the company products and now the company has to focus to familiraise the main product of the company

has to focus to familiraise the main product of the company SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
has to focus to familiraise the main product of the company SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A

STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

CHI-SQUARE TEST Age and frequency of consumption

The analysis is done to know whether there is significant relationship between the age

of the respondents and frequency of consumption of

soft drinks.

NULL HYPOTHESIS:

There is no significant relationship between age of the respondents and their frequency of consumption of soft drinks.

ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS:

There is a significant difference relationship between age of the respondents and their frequency of consumption of soft drinks.

CHI-SQUARE TEST

Gender and occasion preferred

The analysis is done to know whether there is significant relationship between the gender and the occasion they preferred to have the soft drink .

NULL HYPOTHESIS:

There is no significant relationship between gender of the respondents and the occasion preferred for the consumption of soft drinks.

ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS:

There is a significant difference relationship between gender of the respondents and the occasion preferred for the consumption of soft drinks.

and the occasion preferred for the consumption of soft drinks. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
and the occasion preferred for the consumption of soft drinks. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Analysis for age and frequency of consumption

gender Male Female Total occasion Parties 30 21 51 Meeting friends 20 8 28 During
gender
Male
Female
Total
occasion
Parties
30
21
51
Meeting friends
20
8
28
During summer
18
7
25
Thirsty
5
3
8
Anytime
3
1
4
Total
76
40
116
Calculation for gender and occasion preferred
Observed(O)
Expected(E)
(O-E)
(O-E)2
(O-E)2/E
30
33
-3
9
0.2727
21
18
3
9
0.5
20
18
2
4
0.222
8
10
-2
4
0.4
18
16
2
4
0.25
7
9
-2
4
0.444
5
5.24
-0.24
0.0576
0.0109
3
2.75
0.25
0.0625
0.0227
3
2.62
0.38
0.1444
0.0551
1
1.37
-0.37
0.1369
0.0999
Total
2.2773

Calculated value of chi-square was found to be 2.2773

2.2773 Calculated value of chi-square was found to be 2.2773 SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
2.2773 Calculated value of chi-square was found to be 2.2773 SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

DEGREE OF FREEDOM =(R-1) (C-1) =(5-1) (2-1)

=4*1

=4

Table value at 5% level of significance at degree of freedom 4 is 9.488

2.2773<9.488

Since calculated value of chi-square is lesser than the table value, null hypothesis is accepted and alternate hypothesis is rejected.

Result:

There is no significant relationship between gender of respondents and preference of occasion for consumption of soft drinks.

and preference of occasion for consumption of soft drinks. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
and preference of occasion for consumption of soft drinks. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

4.1.1 KARL PEARSON CORRELATION ANALYSIS

The analysis is done to know whether there is significant relationship in gender of the respondents and the selection of specific brand in coca-cola.

NULL HYPOTHESIS:

There is no significant relationship between the gender of the respondents and the selection of specific brand in coca-cola company.

ALTERNATE HYPOTHESIS:

There is a significant difference relationship between gender of the respondents and the selection of specific brand in coca-cola company.

Analysis for gender and selection of brand

variable Male Female brands x y xy X2 Y2 Coke 08 04 32 64 16
variable
Male
Female
brands
x
y
xy
X2
Y2
Coke
08
04
32
64
16
Thums up
18
08
144
324
64
Sprite
38
14
532
1444
196
Fanta
08
08
64
64
64
Limca
05
06
30
25
36
Total
76
40
802
1921
376

Standard deviation of x = √∑x2/n –(∑x/n)2 =√1921/5 –(76/5)2

=12.4

Standard deviation of y=√∑y2/n-(∑y/n)2

=√376/5-(40/5)2

deviation of y=√∑y2/n - (∑y/n)2 =√376/5 -(40/5)2 SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 58
deviation of y=√∑y2/n - (∑y/n)2 =√376/5 -(40/5)2 SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 58

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Cov(x,y)

=3.35

=∑xy/n-(∑x/n)(∑y/n)

=802/5-(76/5)(40/5)

=160.4-121.6

=38.8

Coefficient of correlation r =Cov(xy)/⌐x*⌐y

=38.8/41.54

=0.9340

since the ‗r‘ value exist between -1 and +1 the correlation is present

Result:

There is a significant relationship exist between the gender and the choice of selecting the brand in the coca- cola company.

and the choice of selecting the brand in the coca- cola company. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
and the choice of selecting the brand in the coca- cola company. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

CHAPTER - 5 FINDINGS AND SUGGETIONS

5.1 Findings:

96% of the consumers purchase coca cola soft drinks and its other brands due to brand image and next comes to quality.

Coca cola has got wide range of brands compared to other competitive companies like Pepsi co and Agro Company.

98% of the respondents feel that the 1.25lit pack is the better replacement for 1.5 lit.

About 60% of the consumers purchase sprite brand.

96% of the respondents revealed that 1.25 lit packs is having best affordable price.

Out of 116 customers interviewed, most of the respondents were in the age group of 10-20 i.e., 39.79% with the majority of respondents being male ie, 66% and most of them are college students.

38% of the customers are satisfied with the price offered by coca cola company

It was seen that 45% prefer sprite and 22% prefer thums up as a very popular brands of coca cola.

58% of the Respondents are thinking that T.V advertisements are the most effective than any other media for advertisement.

Consumers are less aware of Rs. 5/- of promotional scheme running on this pack.

Respondents expect good taste, low price and more awareness.

From the survey it is clear that most of the consumers have come to know about this product through 58% advertisements and 39% through retailers.

53.44% of the customers purchase coca cola soft drinks for the purpose of parties and in summer season.

From the survey it is evident that most of the consumers are not aware of 1.25lit pack and its price off.

The availability of 1.25 lit. Frizz pack is less in Rural areas

The availability of 1.25 lit. Frizz pack is less in Rural areas SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF
The availability of 1.25 lit. Frizz pack is less in Rural areas SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

5.2Suggestions:

On the basis of the findings and observation these are the some of the suggestion:

First and foremost the company should pay attention to its advertising, strategy though it is the number one brand in soft drink industry. As most of the consumers are not aware of its different types of offers provided by the company. Through advertising media such as T.V and outdoor media can create awareness in the people.

The company should provide service in the areas where the packs are not available always. Because some of the respondents opinion is there is no availability of pack in rural areas.

Though most of the people agree with the consistency of the quality they wish to maintain the same quality.

Finely the relation that exists between the customer and the company is based on trust and confidence for goods and goodwill, it is a very delicate alliance, and nut also needed one. So coca cola cannot displease its consumers who is in turn goodwill earners for the company.

Coco Cola Company can introduce new models in the market. Its products need

new look as was suggested by many respondents.

Specially 1.25 lit pack needs more promotional schemes to increase it sales.

All the time the pack should be available to rural areas at their convenience.

pack should be available to rural areas at their convenience . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
pack should be available to rural areas at their convenience . SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

5.3Conclusion:

Based on the Results and Findings we can conclude that

Today, coca cola is the number one brand from other brands in the global market. Coca cola company brands have become the symbol of quality and brand image.

Besides, sales of different brands are also increasing every year. For the increasing demand,

they have also increased srikalahasthi, athmakur.

production capacities of existing units in moula-ali, Vijayawada,

Coca Cola Company has got good brand image all over the world, most of the consumers are satisfied with quality, price and so on.

of the consumers are satisfied with quality, price and so on. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
of the consumers are satisfied with quality, price and so on. SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

BIBILIOGRAPHY

Philip Kotler, marketing management , principles of marketing, seventh edition, 2003

Suja R.Nair, consumer behaviour, Himalaya Publishing house, Edition 2006

Etzel, Walker, Stanton and Pandit, Marketing concepts, Tata MC Graw-hill, thirteenth edition.

C.R.Kothari, Research and methodology , second edition New Age International Publication.

Journals and Publications of KMF

Company records

Websites:

 www.KMFNandinicoop.com  www.indiandairy.com SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 63
 www.KMFNandinicoop.com  www.indiandairy.com SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page 63

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

Consumer buying behavior on 1.25lit pack in coca cola

1.

Name:

2.

Age group:

 

a. 10-20yrs

b. 20-30yrs

c. 30-40yrs

d. 40-50yrs

e. 50 and above

3.

Do you consume coca cola soft drinks?

 

a.

Yes

b. no

4.

How often will you consume soft drinks?

 
 

a. Once in a while

 

b. on occasions

5.

What are the occasions do you prefer to have a soft drink as a part?

a. Parties

b.wedding occasions

c. Dinners

d.Festivals

e. Farewell days

6.

What are the packs do you think will suit for occasional consumption?

 

a.1.25lit

 

b.1.5lit

c.2lit

d. all the above

7.

What is the special thing you have find in 1.25 lit pack?

 

a.

price

b. packing

c.

quantity

d. all the above

8.

Do you think 1.25lit pack is a better replacement for 1.5lit pack?

 

a. yes

 

b. no

9. Is that pack is available at your convenience?

a.

all the time

b. rarely

c.

not available

10. Is the price of 1.25lit pack is affordable?

a.

yes

b. no

11. Do you aware of the Rs 5 price off promotional scheme running on this pack?

12. If yes

a.

yes

b. no

By which media you came to know?

a.

TV advertisements

b.POS materials

c.

outdoor media

d. By retailers

b.POS materials c. outdoor media d. By retailers SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page
b.POS materials c. outdoor media d. By retailers SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY Page

A STUDY ON THE CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR

13. If you are given a chance which product do you prefer the most?

a.

Pepsi co(1lit-Rs33)

[

]

b.

coca cola(1.25lit-Rs33) [

]

14. Which brands you like most in 1.25lit Pack?

a. Coca-cola

 

(

)

b. Thums up (

)

c. Sprite

 

(

)

d.

Fanta

(

)

e. Limca

(

)

15. Suggetions if any?

Thanks for your co-operation

( ) 15. Suggetions if any? Thanks for your co-operation SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND
( ) 15. Suggetions if any? Thanks for your co-operation SRI SAI INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING AND