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1. Describe the electron bond structures for solid materials.

Solid materials are distinguished and categorized by the nature of the

interactions holding the discrete molecules or atoms together. Based on the
nature of the forces that hold the component atoms, molecules, or ions together,
solids may be formally classified as molecular, covalent (network), ionic, or

a. Molecular Solids – Molecular Solids are formed when molecules are

arranged in a specific pattern and held together by relatively weak
intermolecular forces. Molecular solids also have localized electrons
(localized within the bonds in each molecule) and as such, do not conduct

b. Network Solids - are solids that are held together by covalent bonds. As
such, they have localized electrons (shared between the atoms) and the
atoms are arranged in fixed geometries. Distortion away from this
geometry can only occur through a breaking of covalent sigma bonds. As
a result, the melting point of covalent solids is extremely high. They also
tend to be extremely hard substances that will break into pieces rather than
smoothly change shape. We say that they are stiff and brittle.

c. Ionic Solids - Ionic Solids are solids composed of oppositely charged ions.
They consist of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions.
When Ionic Solids are dissolved in water the cations and the
anions separate, they become free to move about in the water allowing
the solution to conduct electrical current.
d. Metallic Solids - Metallic solids are solids composed of metal atoms that are
held together by metallic bonds. These bonds are like huge molecular
orbitals that span across the whole solid. This means the electrons in
metallic solids are delocalized so it is possible to move the nuclei (the
cations) without a huge amount of energy which makes the solid a good
conductors of electricity.

2. Differentiate intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors.

An intrinsic semiconductor, also known as the pure semiconductor, can be

described as genuine semiconductor without any subsequent considerable
dopant varieties present. The no of free electrons in conduction band and
valance band are exactly equal and small. Electrical conductivity is function of
temperature alone.

Extrinsic semiconductors are prepared by doping small quantity of impurity

atoms to the intrinsic semi conducting materials. The no of free electrons and
holes is never equal. There is excess of electrons in n-type semiconductor and
excess of holes in p-type semiconductor. Electrical conductivity depends upon
temperature as well as quantity of impurity atoms doped to the structure.

3. Describe the dielectric behavior of materials

A dielectric material is an electrical insulator that can be polarized by an

applied electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field, electric
charges do not flow through the material as they do in an electrical conductor
but only slightly shift from their average equilibrium positions causing dielectric
polarization. Because of dielectric polarization, positive charges are displaced in
the direction of the field and negative charges shift in the opposite direction. This
creates an internal electric field that reduces the overall field within the dielectric
itself. If a dielectric is composed of weakly bonded molecules, those molecules
not only become polarized, but also reorient so that their symmetry axes align to
the field.

4. Describe the phenomena of ferroelectricity and piezoelectricity

Ferroelectricity is a property of certain materials that have a spontaneous electric

polarization that can be reversed by the application of an external electric field.
Ferroelectricity ceases in a given material above a characteristic temperature
because the heat agitates the dipoles sufficiently to overcome the forces that
spontaneously align them

Piezoelectricity is a property of certain materials of generating a voltage when

subjected to pressure and, conversely, of undergoing mechanical stress when
subjected to an electric field. Piezoelectric effect is to exert a pressure or pull on
the piezoelectric material, which distorts the surface of the piezoelectric material,
forming an electric charge at both ends of the piezoelectric material.
Materials Science


Submitted by:
Johne Rhezl E. Gacayan

Submitted to:
Engr. Albert Revilla