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Nickel Base Alloy GTD-222, a New Gas

Turbine Nozzle Alloy

General Electric Company
Schenectady, New York
This paper summarizes the key properties of GTD-222 (1), a new cast nickel base nozzle alloy developed
by GE for use in land based gas turbines. GTD-222 is being introduced as a replacement for FSX-414 in
second and third stage nozzles of certain machines. Presented in this paper are comparisons of the
tensile, creep-rupture, and fatigue properties of GTD- 222 versus FSX-414. In addition, the results of a
long term thermal stability study, high temperature oxidation and hot corrosion evaluation as well as
weldability results will be discussed.


This paper outlines the studies conducted to assess the mechanical properties, environmental behavior
and weldability of GTD-222, a new investment cast nickel base gas turbine nozzle alloy. GTD- 222 is being
introduced as a replacement for cobalt base alloy FSX-414 in selected second and third stage nozzles.
Experience with latter stage FSX-414nozzles indicated that creep deflection due to higher firing
temperatures required more frequent maintenance attention than desired. A program was initiated to
identify an alternate material to FSX-414 with improved creep resistance and reasonable weldability
and oxidation/hot-corrosion resistance. An improvement of 20OF in creep resistance over FSX-414 was
the goal established for the new material. This challenge dictated that a cast nickel base alloy be used.
GTD-222 is a gamma prime strengthened nickel base superalloy which is vacuum heattreated in two
steps: 210OF for four hours followed by turbine bucket alloy; Nimonic 263 is a wrought gamma prime
strengthened alloy used in gas turbine combustion system hardware; Waspaloy is a candidate filler


Figures 1 and 2 compare tensile strength and ductility, respectively, of four of the alloys in Table 1. At gas
turbine operating temperatures, the ranking in terms of descending order of strength is: IN-738, GTD-
222, Nimonic 263, and FSX-414. In terms of ductility, Nimonic 263, a wrought alloy, is most ductile
followed by FSX-414, with GTD- 222, and IN-738 having nearly the same ductility.


Thermal aging studies were conducted to assess the effect of long term exposure on GTD-222 stability.
Isothermal exposures were conducted at 140OF and 160OF for up to 8000 hours. The aging effect was

assessed by means of Charpy impact data using un-notched Charpy bars. Fully machined Charpy bars,
along with Charpy specimen blanks, were aged in air atmosphere furnaces and removed for test
after the following time intervals: 100, 500, 1000, 2000, 4000, and 8000 hours. Charpy specimens were
machined from the specimen blanks and tested at room temperature along with the aged fully machined
specimens. Comparisons of impact data derived from the two specimen configurations permitted
surface and volumetric effects to be evaluated.

The goal of the creep program was to develop 0.2% to 0.5% creep properties of GTD- 222. All tests were
conducted on bare specimens. Over sixty tests representing material from three heat lots of GTD-222
were evaluated in the program over the temperature range from 1400F to 1700F, with a limited number
of tests approaching 10,000 hours. Creep tests were conducted under constant load conditions using a
lever arm creep stand. Specimen temperature was maintained within plus or minus 3 degrees F
over the gage length of the specimen. Specimens were radiant heated using electric resistance furnaces.
Test specimens were threaded end bars with an overall length of 8 inches. The gage section was 5.4
inches in length with a cross sectional area of 0.1 square inches. Specimens were machined from cast
slabs of GTD-222 that had been solution heat treated and aged prior to machining. An initial creep
program was conducted to assess the effect of two heat treatments: (a) a four step procedure requiring
fifty hours of furnace time, and (b) a simpler two step heat treatment totalling 12 hours. That program
revealed that both heat treatments produced the same creep response in GTD-222.Therefore, the
simpler two step heat treatment was selected, consisting of a 210OF/4hr. solution cycle followed by an
aging heat treatment at 1475F for 8 hours, the same heat treatment as used for Nimonic 263


An extensive low cycle fatigue test program was also conducted on GTD-222. The goal of the LCF
program was to characterize the strain control fatigue properties of GTD- 222 over the operating range of
the nozzle applications. All tests were conducted under total strain control conditions using a closed
loop, servo-controlled, hydraulically actuated fatigue machine. Threaded end, uniform 0.25 inch gage
diameter LCF induction-heated specimens were used for the entire test program. These specimens were
also machined from cast slabs, and finished by low stress grinding. Isothermal LCF tests were conducted
in air at 1200F, 1400F, 1500F, and 1600F. Two basic strain vs. time waveshapes were used in the program.
The first was a fully reversed sawtooth wave with a frequency of 20 cycles per minute(CPM). The 20 CPM
wave is commonly used to assess time-independent LCF material properties. The other basic waveshape
used was the compression hold period. This waveshape is used to assess the effects of
time dependent inelastic strain on the LCF resistance of a material. Thermal-mechanical fatigue (TMF)
testing more closely models the time-temperature strain history experienced by actual hardware
than isothermal LCF tests. In the TMF test both strain and temperature are varied throughout the cycle
whereas in the LCF test only strain is varied and the temperature is held constant. A simple linear out-of-
phase (LOP) cycle with a two minute hold in compression at the maximum temperature was
used in this program. The term linear out of phase refers to the temperature ramping in a
linear fashion to the maximum value while the strain ramps in a linear fashion to its minimum value. The
TMF program used the same specimen as used in the isothermal program.