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INTERMOLECULAR

FORCES
OF
ATTRACTION
Ser Loisse R. Mortel, RPh
TYPES IMPORTANT FOR ORGANIC CHEM

•London Dispersion Forces/ “Van der Waals”


•Dipole-dipole
• Hydrogen bond
•Ion-dipole
•Ion-ion
FACTORS THAT AFFECT IMF
Type of atoms present affect the POLARITY
• Purely hydrocarbon – nonpolar (and the more
carbons = less polar)
• With OH, NH, SH groups – polar (and the more of
these = more polar; Hbond > dd)

Surface area (SA) affects the QUANTITY


Affected by the stacking of molecules
• Linear – good stacking – abundance in IMF
• Branched – reduced stacking – decrease in IMF (and
even greater branching – even less IMF)
FACTORS THAT AFFECT IMF
Type of atoms present affect the POLARITY
•Purely hydrocarbon – nonpolar (and the
more carbons = less polar)
•With OH, NH, SH groups – polar (more
groups = more polar; Hbond > dd)
FACTORS THAT AFFECT IMF
Surface area affects the QUANTITY
Affected by the stacking of molecules
•Linear – good stacking – abundance in IMF
•Branched – reduced stacking – decrease in
IMF (and even greater branching – even less
IMF)
APPLICATIONS OF POLARITY AND IMFS

Water solubility
• More nonpolar IMF (VdW) – less soluble
• More polar IMF (dd or Hbond) – more soluble
NOTE: REVERSE these in oil solubility
• Branching – more space for water – more soluble

Boiling and melting point


• Stronger IMF (like dd or Hbond) – higher Tm/Tb
• Branching – less SA – less IMF – lower Tm/Tb
• More carbons – more VdW - higher Tm/Tb
APPLICATIONS OF POLARITY AND IMFS
Water solubility
• More nonpolar IMF (VdW) – less soluble
• More polar IMF (dd or Hbond) – more soluble
NOTE: REVERSE these in oil solubility
• Branching – more space for water – more soluble
ARRANGE BY INCREASING OIL
SOLUBILITY
APPLICATIONS OF POLARITY AND IMFS
Boiling and melting point
• Stronger IMF (like dd or Hbond) – higher Tm/Tb
• Tiebreaker 1a: More carbons – more VdW - higher Tm/Tb
• Tiebreaker 1b: Branching – less SA – less IMF – lower Tm/Tb
ARRANGE BY INCREASING Tb
BOILING POINTS
APPLICABILITY: BIOCHEMISTRY (FATS)
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