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the study of heat and

energy changes that
accompany physical and
chemical processes.
Thermodynamics has several types of Applications in
our daily life:
Importance of Studying Thermodynamics

• Thermodynamics also involves study of various

types of power plants:
• thermal power plants
• nuclear power plants
• hydroelectric power plants
• power plants based on renewable energy sources
like solar, wind, geothermal, tides, water waves.
is energy used up?
Energy Conversions

• interconversion of energy
from one form to another.

• no energy is lost, energy is


Fireflies convert
chemical energy to
light energy
An endothermic
process absorbs
heat and cools the An exothermic reaction is
a chemical reaction that
surroundings. releases energy by light or
Endothermic and exothermic
Endothermic vs Exothermic
Can you site an example wherein there is an
endothermic and exothermic process?
endothermic (from the sun)
exothermic - respiration
Is a branch of physical
science that deals with
the relationship between
heat work and other
forms of energy.
Energy = capacity to
do work
Is a branch chemistry
which focuses mainly
on the study of heat
released or absorbed in
a chemical reaction.
The law of conservation of energy
states that “ energy cannot be created nor destroyed , it is
only changed from one form to another.”

- the energy of the universe is constant.

- controls energy changes that occur when

chemical or physical changes take place.
History of
In 1780, Two scientists, A French
chemist Antoine Lavoisier and A
French mathematician , Pierre Simon
Laplace, presented a law which states
that “ the energy change
accompanying any transformation is
equal and opposite to energy change
accompanying the reverse process”,
which is called Lavoisier-Laplace

• Energy changes in a chemical reaction.

• A chemical reaction may release or
Example: melting and boiling processes.

• The history of thermodynamics is an important

components in the history of physics, chemistry and
science in general. Its development is coupled with the
proposals of the laws of thermodynamics.
• The first law of thermodynamics was based from the law
of conservation of energy which was improved from the
thermodynamic system.
First law of Thermodynamics
States that “ the change in the internal energy of a
closed system is equal to the difference between the
heat given to the system and the amount of work done
by the system on its surroundings.”

• Energy that is lost by the system is

gained by its surroundings and vice
versa, which means energy is

- is a measure of energy in
a thermodynamic system.
- includes the energy
required to create a
system; internal energy.

• SI unit for energy is joule, J = N x m

• Kilojoule= 1000joules

• Non-SI unit calorie (cal)

• 1 cal = 4.184 joules
• 1kcal = 4.184KJ

It is equal to the energy transferred to (or work

done on) an object when a force of one
newton acts on that object in the direction of its
motion through a distance of one meter (1
newton meter or N · m).

• Is the part of the universe under the study.

-is the rest of the universe outside the system.
Closed system – is an isolated system that
does not exchange any matter and energy
with its surroundings.
Allows transfer of energy (heat)but not mass.
Open System – can exchange mass and
energy. usually in the form of heat, with its
Isolated system – which does not allow the
transfer of either mass or energy.
The first law of thermodynamics can be
expressed as the “ total energy of a system is
equal to zero”
∆Usystem = -∆U surroundings

∆U - energy
• * the system absorbs heat , q>0 = ( +q)

• * the system releases energy q< 0= (-q)

• * work done on the system by its surrounding

w>0 = (+w)

• * work is done by the system and loses energy,

w < 0 (-w)
Internal energy of the system

• Internal energy of the system is a

thermodynamic quantity and is
defined as the sum of all kinetic and
potential energy of all the elements
making up the system.
Law of Thermodynamics Equation

• ∆U = q + W
• ∆U = is the total change in internal energy of
the system
• q = is the heat exchanged between the system
and its surroundings.
• W = is the work done by or on the system
Law of Thermodynamics Equation

1. ∆U = q + W
• W = -p∆V ( specially known as pressure-volume work)
2. ∆U = q + (-p∆V ) or
∆U = q - p∆V

• P = is the external pressure on the system

• ∆V= change in volume
Law of Thermodynamics Equation
W = -p∆V
1. ∆U = q + W

2. ∆U = q + (-p∆V)
• ∆U = q -p∆V
Sample problem 1
• A gas system has constant pressure. The surroundings
around the system lose 62 joules (J) of heat and does 474
joules of work on the system. What is the internal energy
of the system in calories?

q= 62J ( + because system gains heat)
w = 474 J ( + because w done on the sytem)
∆U = ?
Sample problem 1
q= 62J ( + because system gains heat)
w = 474 J ( + because w done on the sytem
∆U = ?
Solution: 1 cal = 4.184 J
∆U =q + W 128.11
= 62J + 474 J 536J x 1 cal
= 536 J ----> calorie 4.184 J cal
example problem 2
• A system has constant volume (∆V=0) and heat of the
surroundings increases by 188 calories.

a. Heat of the sytem positive or negative?

b. Determine the value of internal energy of the system in
Given :
q = - 188 cal
∆U = q + W
∆U = q -p∆V
example problem 2
Given : ∆U = ?
∆U = q -p∆V
∆V=0 = -188 cal - 0
q = - 188 cal = -188 cal
∆U = ?
∆U = q -p∆V
Cal to J -786.59
-188 cal x 4.184J Joules
1 cal
• is a measure of energy in thermodynamics system
• It includes the energy required to create a system,
known as the internal energy and the amount of
energy required to make room for it by displacing its
environment and establishing its volume and pressure.
• - SI unit is joule
• -British Thermal Unit (BTU)
• - Calories (cal)
• Note:
• It is not possible to determine the
exact value of enthalpy in a system.
( so it is the change of enthalpy that
is actually measured)
∆H ( cHange in entHalpy)

• ∆H ( change in enthalpy) is equal to the heat

absorbed or released by the system at constant
pressure, qp
• ∆H = H final – H initial = qp

• A negative ∆H means the reaction is exothermic,

while a positive ∆H means that the reaction is
Thermochemical Equation
• - is
a balanced stoichiometric
chemical equation that includes
the enthalpy changes as well as
the mass relationship.
Thermochemical Equation
• - stoichiometric coefficients is the
number of moles of a substance.
• always specify the physical states
of all reactants and products.
• A + B ---- C + heat , exothermic
• A + B+ heat -- C , endothermic
Practice problem EXOTHERMIC

CH4(g) + 2 O2 ----- CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) ∆H= - 890.4 KJ

• A. How much heat is released in burning 27.5 g

• B. How much heat is created by 79.2g O2
1CH4(g) + 2 O2 ----- 1CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) ∆H= - 890.4 KJ

How much heat is released in burning 27.5 g CH4?

27.05gCH4 x 1 mol CH4 x -890.4 KJ = 1530.38 KJ

16g CH4 1 mol CH4
1CH4(g) + 2 O2 ----- 1CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l) ∆H= - 890.4 KJ

B. How much heat is created by 79.2g O2

79.2g O2 x 1 mol CH4 x -890.4 KJ = 1101.87 KJ

32g O2 2 mol 02

P4(s) + 5 O2 ----- P4 O10 (s) ∆H= - 3013 KJ

• Calculate the heat involved when 266g of white
phosphorus P4 burn in air.