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 Lexis and syntax : register analysis

 Advertising
 Genres
 Conceptual metaphors
 Intercultural communication

Essay 8-10 pages


1. Introduction
2. The vocabulary of the economy, finance and commerce of English language.
3. Lexical and syntactical peculiarities of Business English. Linguistic
characteristics of advertising language,
4. Genres of Business English.
5. Conceptual metaphors in Economics.
6. Negotiation and intercultural communication.


1)popular and colloquial language

Belt and suspenders

Front loading loads

Back loading loads

2)anglo saxon words




3)expressiveness of images

The image of a stream of a river to speak about the relationships between companies

4)names of animals

Bear market

Bull market

Bear’s hug
Teddy bear’s hug

5) names of colours

The big blue

Blue-collor worker

Red interest

6) Abbreviations and acronyms


ECB (European central bank)


Norman and old French worlds , mainly those of shipping like charter party (contrato
de flatamiento), avarafe (promedio)

Strong presence of trade lsw or mercantile law vocabulary. This cocabulary is often
derived from Latin


The language of finance

Commom words usefd to discurss economic matters


Lexical peculiarities

A) Types of vocabulary
 Technical vocabulary (very precise) we don’t need the context . e.g.
 Semi-technical vocabulary (to advise= to inform, to meet a deadline =
cumplir un plazo). Words that come from general English, but in a
specific context get a new meaning.
 General vocabulary

The latter two are the most common (Alcaraz Varó, E,)

B) The lexical characteristics of business English are as follows:

Those related to the meaning of the word (semantic lexicology):

o Definition
o Denotation and connotation (cheap/low cost)
o Semantic fields (synonymy, antonymy)
o Lexical collocations –set phrases

e.g. company cars, trade discounts,

Those related to the formation of words (morphological lexicology)

a) Derivation (affixes) e.g wholesale, rewrite

b) Composition e.g. tax collection (compound nouns)
c) Conversion e.g. ship/to ship. that means that our word can have another
grammatical category
d) Abbreviations
1. Clippings : ad advertisement
2. Acronyms : plc (public limited company)
3. Blends : travelogue (travel+ catalogue)
e) False friends : assistant (ayudante) , agenda (orden del día) and attend (asistir)
f) Metaphors
a tailor-made loan an implicit comparison between two things that unrelated
(traditionally speaking) – un préstamo hecho a medida

2.) Syntactical peculiarities

The most basic syntactic concepts in economics – business texts of written expression
are the following.

 Passive sentences: the figures have been prepared by our new accountants
 Nominalisation: the development of small business. A noun made from a verb.
 Personification : the new plan suggests that . giving human qualities to things.
 Long nominal group : six heavy mahogany-finished dressing tables had been
 Hypothetical expressions: if we pay the tax on time, we won’t be liable for any
further payment.
 Expressions of purpose : they moved to a greenfield site so that they would
have room to expand
 Causal and consecutive expressions : the company opened because they saw a
gap in the market. Interest rates are down again. Therefore, we can look at new
investments (as, since, as a result of, because of , sue to, thus , hence, etc)
 Expressions of concession : even though their resources were limited, their
results were excellent. (even though, although, even if, however , in spite

Set up a business : to start a business

Go to bankruptcy

CEO : chief executive officer = chairman


1. Self-employed people and partnerships

They are two types of organisation

The ones that have unlimited liability (Sole proprietorship vs partnership)

2. Limited liability they only lose the money , not their personal
Ltd , PLC Br , Inc (amE)
Larger companies than a partnership
The shares quote on the stock market
3. Mutuals
Building societies – bancos hipotecarios
4. Non- profit organizations

o Mortgage
o Subprime mortgage = toxic mortgage


It is followed by advertisers while creating and ad, it stands for the following functions

o ATTENTION (an advert should caught attention)

o INTEREST (create interest)
o DESIRE (create or arouse desire) – use of positive language /adjectives , good
o ACTION( provoke )

Nowadays : a minimalist approach

2 objectives : mainly to persuade and to give information about a specific product.


1. At the graphic level

1.1 Consistent use of initial capitalization

Toyota : I Love What You Do For Me

1.2 Sometimes full use of capitalization


2, at the phonological level

2.1 rhymes with brand name

A mars a day helps you work, rest and play (mars)

2.2. use of alliteration

Don’t dream it. Drive it. (jaguar)

3. At the lexical and morphological level

3.1 use of simple adjectives : new , real, safe, etc. real taste of tobacco
3.2 use of the loan word
your skin will be fully primed for an aromatic massage of essential oils
3.3 use of verbs and phrasal verbs: get , take , discorver, keep , look for, ask
for, help , etc.
keep a beautiful record od your World Travels
3.4 Use of second person addressee ‘you’
Hyundai : always there for you
3.5 Use of first person addresseer ‘’we’’ and ‘’us’’
Avis Rent A car : We Try harder
3.6 Use of ‘’every’’ , ‘’always’’, now
Always coca-cola
3.7 Formation of new words and phrases
Brand-new, shinning-clean, perfectly baked, nonsmokers,
hypersensitive, , aromessence, aromatherapy
3.8 Conversion
‘’ Get that ‘ feeling’’ ‘’Pepsi ‘ is the adjective
‘’TDK it’’ ‘’TDK’’ is the key

4. At the syntantic level

4.1Declarative sentence

Nobody does chicken like KFC

4.2 Imperative sentence

Don’t leave home without it (American express card)

4.3 exclamative sentences

don’t just apply! Style your lashes! (Maybelline mascara)

4.4 use of short simple sentences

LG: life’s good
4.5 ellipsis (subject or predicate can be omitted)
20& discount on advance dales (Have a…)
4.6 Parallellism
Have a break, have a kit kat.
4.7 use of simple present tense
debeers : a diamond is forever
4.8 passive sentences

These are the first arab bath in Europe to be reopened, they are located

4.9 syntactic inversion

enriched with the termal
4.10 purpose structures

to encourage relaxation and recover fore and energy . algae therapy


4.11 Numbers

4.12 use of unqualified comparison

Mattel : better choice, better toys

4.13 : use of auxiliary verbs (can, will)

You will discover unique, new sensations.

5. Stylistic resources
5.1 Metaphors
Welcome to the world of sensations.
5.2 simile
nothing cleans it up like orbit
5.3 rhetorical questions
for a relaxing end to a dun. Packed day, what better thatn the
marcellous SPA elysiym ? (creates desire)
5.4 hyperbole

a perfect sensation

it boast the very latest in therapeutic spa facilities

5.5 metonymy
I like Volvo = Volvo cars
5.6 personification

Spa Resort San Andrés welcomes you to its website .