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# AUTOMOBILE ENGINEERING

Vision:

## Committed to serve the society by state of art engineering education to develop

attitude, skills and values while establishing development in pioneer areas of automobile
engineering.

Mission:

##  To provide a scholarly and vibrant learning environment for achieving professional

competency.
 To create successful professional who contribute their knowledge, skills and attitude
to design, re-design, research and development in the automobile industry.
 To make their noteworthy contributions in developing the society through continuous
learning, teaching methodology.

VEHICLE DYNAMICS
Dynamics:

 Kinematics (x,v,a,t)
 Kinetics (F,x,v,a,t)

𝐹⃗ = 𝑚𝑎⃖

F = - FI

F + FI = 0

ƩF=0 (static)

## The above is called D’Alerbert principle.

𝑡2
∫𝑡 𝑑𝑡 = 𝑚𝑣→ Impulse momentum.
1

##  Work = joule = F×x (Nm)

 Power = work/sec = watts
 Moment = F× perpendicular distance (Nm)
 Momentum = mv
 Frequency = cycle/ second
 Time period = time taken for one complete cycle
 Natural frequency = without external force
 Forced frequency = under the influence of external force
 Damper = F/v = Ns/m

UNIT – 1

INTRODUCTION
Fundamental of vibrations:

Vibration:

## To and flow motion of system is known as vibration.

Causes of vibration:

##  Unbalanced centrifugal force in the rotating system

 Elastic nature of a system
 External excitation
 Winds may be cause vibration of some systems such as automobile, aeronautical,
electrical lines etc.,

##  Removing external excitation, if possible

 Using shock absorbers
 Dynamic absorbers
 Resting the system on the proper vibration isolators.

## Important terms in vibration:

1. Periodic time:
A motion which a repeats itself after equal interval of time.
2. Time period:
Time taken to complete one cycle.It is expressed as seconds.
3. Frequency:
Number of cycle per unit time.It is expressed as hertz.
4. Amplitude:
The maximum displacement of a vibrating body from its equilibrium position
is known as amplitude.
5. Natural frequency:
Where no external force acting on the system of that giving an
Initial displacements the body vibrates. This vibration is called free vibration and the
corresponding frequency is known as natural frequency.
It is expressed as Hertz (HZ).
𝜔𝑛 = 2𝜋𝑓𝑛
𝜔𝑛
𝑓𝑛 = 2𝜋

## 6. Fundamental mode of vibration:

Fundamental mode of vibration of a system is the mode having lowest natural
frequency.
7. Degrees of freedom:
Number of independent coordinates to define a motion of the system.
Eg:
 Single degree of freedom
 Two degree of freedom
 Multi degree of freedom
Continuous system:
A system having infinite number of degree of freedom is known as continuous system.
Eg:
 Simply supported beam
 Cantilever beam
Multi degree of freedom system:
A system having more than two natural frequency is known as multi degree of freedom
system.
Simple harmonic motion:
A motion of the body to and flow about the fixed point.
Damping:
It is the resistance to the force of vibrating body. The vibration associated with this resistance
is known as damped vibration.
Damper (C) = force/velocity = Ns/m
Resonance:
When the frequency of the external excitation is equal to natural frequency of the vibrating
body, the amplitude of vibration becomes excessively large is called resonance.

ɷ = 𝜔𝑛
2𝜋𝑁
= √𝐾/𝑚 (A is maximum)
60

Phase difference:
Suppose there are two vectors 𝑥1 and 𝑥2 having frequencies ɷ each. The vibrating motion
can be expressed as

𝑥1 = 𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡

𝑥1 = 𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
In above equations the term Φ is known as phase difference.
Vibrating analysis:
In vibration analysis,the derivation of the equation of motion is most important from this
equation,we can determine various parameters of vibrating system.

##  Newton’s or equilibrium method

 Energy method
 Rayleigh’s method

mẍ(Accelerating
m force)

## Accelerating force = - (restoring force)

mẍ = -kx

mẍ + kx = 0

The above second order linear differential equation is known as equation of motion system.

mẍ + kx = 0

Divided by m ẍ + kx/m = 0

ẍ + 𝜔𝑛2 𝑥 = 0

## Where, 𝜔𝑛2 = 𝑘/𝑚

𝜔𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚

Energy method:
The total energy of the vibrating system is constant.

## Kinetic energy + potential (strain) energy = constant

1
Kinetic energy of a system = 2 𝑚𝑣 2

1
K.E = 2 𝑚𝑥2

0+𝑥
= kx × ( )
2

P.E = k𝑥 2 /2

## K.E + P.E = constant

1 𝑥2
𝑚𝑥2 + k 2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2

## Differentiate the above equation with respect to time.

1 1
𝑚 × 2𝑥 × 𝑥̈ + 𝑘 × 2𝑥 × 𝑥 = 0
2 2

𝑥 [ 𝑚𝑥̈ + 𝑘𝑥] = 0

𝑚𝑥̈ + 𝑘𝑥 = 0

Divided by m ẍ + kx/m = 0

ẍ + 𝜔𝑛2 𝑥 = 0

## Where, 𝜔𝑛2 = 𝑘/𝑚

𝜔𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚

Rayleigh’s method:

According to this method, the maximum kinetic energy of the system is equal to
potential energy of the system at extreme position.

𝐾𝐸𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 𝑃𝐸𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑟𝑒𝑚𝑒

1 1
𝑚𝑣 2 = 𝑘𝑥 2
2 2
1 1
𝑚(ɷ𝐴)2 = 𝑘𝐴2
2 2
𝑚𝜔2 = 𝑘

, 𝜔𝑛2 = 𝑘/𝑚

𝜔𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚

Types of vibration:

 Longitudinal vibration:
The particles of the objects vibrate along the axis. Eg: spring.
 Transverse vibration:
The particles of the objects vibrate perpendicular the axis.
Eg: cantilever beam, leaf spring
 Torsional vibration:
The particles of the objects vibrate about a rotational axis (ɵ).
Eg: torsion bar, pendulum.

Springs in series:

𝑘1

𝑘2

𝑘3

If the springs in series, the total deflection is equal to sum of the deflection of individual
springs.

## We know that, ɷ𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚

x = 𝑥1 + 𝑥2 + 𝑥3 (1)

x = ɷ/k

## Substitute above in equation (1),

𝜔 𝜔 𝜔 𝜔
= + + + ………….
𝑘 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3

1 1 1 1
ɷ (𝑘) = ɷ (𝑘 + + )
1 𝑘2 𝑘3

1 1 1 1
= + + + ………..
𝑘𝑒 𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3

## (k = 𝑘𝑒 , 𝑘𝑒 = 𝑒𝑞𝑢𝑖𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑠𝑝𝑟𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠).

Springs in parallel:

𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3

If the springs in parallel, the total spring force is equal to sum of spring force of
individual springs.

Problem:

𝟐𝟎𝟎𝟎𝑵/𝒎 m = 5kg.

𝑘1 𝑘2

𝑘3

Solution:

## 4000 + 𝑘3 = 6000 (parallel)

𝑘𝑒 = 6000 N/m
ɷ𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚 = √(6000/5) = 34.64 rad/s
ɷ𝑛
ƒ𝑛 = = 34.64/ 2π = 5.51 Hz.
2𝜋
2) Determine the natural frequency of the following system. K = 𝟐 × 𝟏𝟎𝟓 N/m, m =
20kg.

kkk

k
k

m
Solution:
k + k = 2k 1/2k + 1/k = 2k/3
2k/3 + k = 5k/3 3/5k + 1/k = 5k/8
5k/8 + k = 13/8 8/13k + 1/k = 13k/21
ƒ𝑛 = 1/2π ×√𝑘/𝑚 = 1/2π × √(13k/21m)
= 1/2π × √(13 × 2 × 105 / 21 × 20)
ƒ𝑛 = 12.53 Hz.
3) Determine the natural frequency of the following system.
ɵ

Solution: m
Total energy of the system = constant
K.E of the pulley (M) + K.E of the mass (m) + P.E of the spring = constant
1 1 1
𝐼ɵ2 + 𝑚𝑥 2 + 2 𝑘𝑥 2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2 2
1 1 1
𝐼ɵ2 + 𝑚𝑟 2 ɵ2 + 𝑘𝑟 2 ɵ2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2 2 2
Where, x= rɵ, ẋ = rɵ̇
Differentiate the above equation with respect to time

1 1 1
𝐼 × 2ɵ × ɵ̈ + 𝑚𝑟 2 × 2ɵ × ɵ̈ + 𝑘𝑟 2 × 2ɵ × ɵ = 0
2 2 2
2 2
ɵ̇ [Iɵ̈ + m𝑟 ɵ̈ + k𝑟 ɵ̇] = 0
[I + m𝑟 2 ] ɵ̈ + k𝑟 2 = 0
ɵ̈ + [k𝑟 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )] = 0
ɵ̈ + 𝜔𝑛2 ɵ = 0
Where, 𝜔𝑛2 =[k𝑟 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )]
ɷ𝑛 = √[k𝑟 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )]
1
ƒ𝑛 = 2𝜋 × √[k𝑟 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )]
Where, I = m𝑟 2 /2
I = m𝑘 2 , (dynamics), (rotation-mass moment of inertia)
I = π𝑑4 /64, (statics), (deflection-area moment of inertia)

𝑥2
ɵ

𝑥1 m

## Total energy of the system = constant

KE of the pulley + KE of the mass + PE energy of the spring = constant
1 1 1
𝐼ɵ2 + 𝑚𝑥 2 + 𝑘𝑥 2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2 2 2
1 1 1
𝐼ɵ2 + 𝑚𝑟 2 ɵ2 + 𝑘𝑅 2 ɵ2 = 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡
2 2 2
Differentiate the above equation with respect to time

1 1 1
𝐼 × 2ɵ × ɵ̈ + 𝑚𝑟 2 × 2ɵ × ɵ̈ + 𝑘𝑅 2 × 2ɵ × ɵ = 0
2 2 2
ɵ̇ [Iɵ̈ + m𝑟 2 ɵ̈ + k𝑅 2 ɵ̇] = 0
[I + m𝑟 2 ] ɵ̈ + k𝑅 2 = 0
ɵ̈ + [k𝑅 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )] = 0
ɵ̈ + 𝜔𝑛2 ɵ = 0
Where, 𝜔𝑛2 =[k𝑅 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )]
ɷ𝑛 = √[k𝑅 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )]
1
ƒ𝑛 = 2𝜋 × √[k𝑅 2 / (I+ m𝑟 2 )]

## Free damped vibration:

kc

Spring force = kx
Damping force = cẋ
Accelerating = mẍ
C = F/ẋ = Ns/m
Accelerating force = -(Restoring force)
mẋ = -(cẋ+kx)
mẍ+cẋ + kx = 0 (1)
The above second order linear differential equation is known as equation of free
damped vibration.
Let, x = 𝑒 𝑢𝑡
dx/dt = ẋ = u 𝑒 𝑢𝑡
𝑑2 𝑥
= 𝑥̈ = 𝑢2 𝑒 𝑢𝑡
𝑑𝑡 2
Substitute above in equation (1)
m𝑢2 𝑒 𝑢𝑡 + 𝑐 u 𝑒 𝑢𝑡 + 𝑘𝑒 𝑢𝑡 = 0
𝑒 𝑢𝑡 (m𝑢2 + 𝑐𝑢 + 𝑘) = 0
m𝑢2 + 𝑐𝑢 + 𝑘 = 0
−𝑏 ± √𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐
𝑢1,2 =
2𝑎
−𝑐 ± √𝑐 2 − 4𝑚𝑘
𝑢1,2 =
2𝑚
−𝑐 𝑐2 4𝑚𝑘
= ± √( 2 − ( 2 ))
2𝑚 4𝑚 4𝑚
−𝑐 𝑐 𝑘
𝑢1,2 = ± √((2𝑚)2 − )
2𝑚 𝑚
−𝑐 𝑐 𝑘
𝑢1 = + √((2𝑚)2 − )
2𝑚 𝑚

−𝑐 𝑐 𝑘
𝑢2 = − √((2𝑚)2 − )
2𝑚 𝑚
𝑐 𝑘
From 𝑢1 =>(2𝑚)2 − 𝑚
 Over damping:
𝑐 𝑘
If, (2𝑚)2 > 𝑚, the roots 𝑢1 and 𝑢2 are real but negative. The mass moves slowly
to the equilibrium position. This motion is known as aperiodic motion.
 Under damping:
𝑐 𝑘
If, (2𝑚)2 < 𝑚, the roots 𝑢1 and 𝑢2 are complex conjugate. This type of motion is
known as under damping or smaller damping.
−𝑐 𝑐 𝑘
𝑢1,2 = ± 𝑖√((2𝑚)2 − )
2𝑚 𝑚

𝑐 2 𝑘
ɷ𝑑 = √((2𝑚) − )
𝑚
𝑐 𝑘
Apply under damping condition, (2𝑚)2 < 𝑚,
𝑘 𝑐
ɷ𝑑 = √(𝑚 − (2𝑚)2 )
𝑐 𝑘
Let, a = 2𝑚 𝜔𝑛2 = 𝑚

ɷ𝑑 = √(𝜔𝑛2 − 𝑎2 )
ƒ𝑑 = ɷ𝑑 /2𝜋
 Critical damping:
𝑐 𝑘
If, (2𝑚)2 = , the roots 𝑢1 and 𝑢2 are same. The mass moves rapidly to its
𝑚
equilibrium position. This motion is known as periodic motion.
𝑐 𝑘
For critical damping, (2𝑚)2 = 𝑚
𝐶𝑐2 = 4𝑚2 × 𝑘/𝑚 =>𝐶𝑐 = 2√𝑚𝑘
𝐶𝑐2 = (2𝑚)2 × ɷ2𝑛
𝐶𝑐 = 2𝑚 × ɷ𝑛
Damping factor:
It is defined as ratio of damping co-efficient to critical damping co-efficient.
𝐶 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜 − 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
𝜀= =
𝐶𝑐 𝑐𝑟𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑐𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 𝑐𝑜 − 𝑒𝑓𝑓𝑖𝑐𝑖𝑒𝑛𝑡
Logarithmic decrement:
It is defined as the natural logarithm of amplitude reduction factor.
𝑥1
𝛿 = 𝑙𝑛
𝑥2
If number of cycle is given,
1 𝑥1
𝛿 = 𝑙𝑛
𝑛 𝑥2
The successive amplitude of vibrating system is given by
𝑥1 = 𝐴𝑒 −𝑎𝑡
𝑥2 = 𝐴𝑒 −𝑎(𝑡+𝑡𝑝 )
𝐴𝑒 −𝑎𝑡
𝛿 = 𝑙𝑛
𝐴𝑒 −𝑎(𝑡+𝑡𝑝 )
𝛿 = 𝑎𝑡𝑝
On simplifying, we get
2𝜋𝜀
𝛿 = √(1−𝜀2 )
Problem:
1) A vibrating system is defined by following parameter m = 3kg, k = 100 N/m, C=
3Ns/m. Determine a) Damping factor
b) Damped frequency
c) Logarithmic decrement
d) Ratio of consecutive amplitudes
e) Number of cycle after the original amplitude is reduced
to20%.
Solution:
a) Damping factor:
𝐶𝑐 = 2𝑚 × ɷ𝑛 = 2×3×5.77 = 34.64 Ns/m
100
𝜔𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚 = √ = 5.77 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
3
𝐶 3
𝜀= = = 0.088
𝐶𝑐 34.64

b) Damped frequency:
ɷ𝑑 = √(𝜔𝑛2 − 𝑎2 ) = √(5.772 − 0.52 )
ɷ𝑑 = 5.74 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

c) Logarithmic decrement:
2𝜋𝜀 2𝜋 × 0.088
𝛿= =
√(1 − 𝜀 2 ) √(1 − 0.0882 )
𝛿 = 0.545

## d) Ratio of successive amplitudes:

𝑥1
𝛿 = 𝑙𝑛
𝑥2
𝑥1
= 1.72
𝑥2

e) Number of cycle:
1 𝑥1
𝛿= 𝑙𝑛
𝑛 𝑥2
1 𝑥1
𝛿= 𝑙𝑛
𝑛 0.2𝑥1
𝑛 = 2.95 ~ 3

## 2) Determine the suitable expression of equation of motion of the damped vibrating

system as shown in figure. Find the critical damping co-efficient when a = 0.1m,
b=0.13m, k = 4900N/m and m = 1.5Kg.

C K
k

M
ɵ

a
b

Solution:
Spring force = kx = kb ɵ
Damping force = cẋ = ca ɵ̇
Accelerating force = mẍ (linear motion)
Accelerating torque = Iɵ̈ (angular motion)
= m𝑎2 ɵ̈
Accelerating torque = - (Restoring torque)
= - [(damping force × distance) + (spring force × distance)]
2 2 2
m𝑎 ɵ̈ = - (c𝑎 ɵ + k𝑏 ɵ)
m𝑎2 ɵ̈ + c𝑎2 ɵ + k𝑏 2 ɵ = 0
Divided by m𝑎2 , ɵ̈ + cɵ̇/m + k𝑏 2 ɵ/m𝑎2 = 0
a=1 b = c/m c = k𝑏 2 /m𝑎2
−𝑏 ± √𝑏2 −4𝑎𝑐
ɵ= 2𝑎
−𝑐 𝑐 4𝑘𝑏 2
± √(( )2 − )
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚𝑎2
𝜃=
2
−𝑐 𝑐 𝑘𝑏 2
𝜃= ± √(( )2 − )
2𝑚 2𝑚 𝑚𝑎2
From the above equation for critical damping
𝐶𝑐 𝑘𝑏 2
(2𝑚)2 − =0
𝑚𝑎2
𝐶𝑐 2 𝑘𝑏 2
( ) =
2𝑚 𝑚𝑎2
𝑘𝑏 2 2
𝐶𝑐 = 4𝑚 ×
𝑚𝑎2
= (4× 1.5 × 4900 × 0.13 )/0.12
2

𝐶𝑐 = 222.90 Ns/m

3) Derive the equation of motion of the following system and find critical damping
co – efficient. m = 1.5 Kg, k = 4900 Ns/m, a = 6 cm and b = 14 cm.

K
k

o W
ɵ
C

Solution:
Accelerating torque = - (restoring torque)
Iɵ̈ = - [(kx × a) + (cẋ × b)]
m𝑏 2 ɵ̈ = - [(kaɵ × a) + (caɵ̇ × a)]
m𝑏 2 ɵ̈ = -( c𝑎2 ɵ̈ + c𝑎2 ɵ̈)
m𝑏 2 ɵ̈ + c𝑎2 ɵ̈ + c𝑎2 ɵ̈ = 0
Divided by m𝑏 2 , ɵ̈ + c𝑎2 ɵ̈/ m𝑏 2 + c𝑎2 ɵ̈/ m𝑏 2 = 0
−𝑐𝑎2 𝑐𝑎2 4𝑘𝑎2
𝑚𝑏 2
± √((𝑚𝑏2 )2 − 𝑚𝑏 2
)
𝜃=
2
−𝑐 𝑎2 𝑐 𝑎2 𝑘𝑎2
𝜃= × 2 ± √(( × 2 )2 − )
2𝑚 𝑏 2𝑚 𝑏 𝑚𝑏 2
𝐶𝑐 𝑎2 𝑘𝑎2
For critical damping, (2𝑚 × 𝑏2 )2 − 𝑚𝑏2 = 0
𝐶𝑐 𝑎2 2 𝑘𝑎2
( × ) =
2𝑚 𝑏2 𝑚𝑏 2
𝑘𝑏 2
𝐶𝑐 2 = × 4𝑚2
𝑚𝑎2
𝑏2
= 4km × 𝑎2
= (4 × 4900 × 1.5× 142 ) / 62
𝐶𝑐 = 400Ns/m.
Forced vibration:
A system vibrates under the influence of external force is known as forced vibration
and the corresponding frequency is known as forced frequency. Eg: calling bell, horn.
K c

m
Spring force = kx
Damping force = cẋ
Accelerating force = mẍ
External force = F sin 𝜔𝑡
Equation of motion, mẍ + cẋ + kx = F sin 𝜔𝑡 (1)
Let, x = A sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷)
ẋ = Acos(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷) × 𝜔
𝜋
= A 𝜔 sin[2 − (𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷)]
ẍ = A 𝜔[- sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷)] × 𝜔
= A ɷ2 [- sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷)]
ẍ = A ɷ2 [ sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷) + 𝜋]
𝜋
mɷ2 A[ sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷) + 𝜋] + c 𝜔Asin[ 2 − (𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷)] + k A sin(𝜔𝑡 − 𝛷) = Fsin 𝜔𝑡

mɷ2 A d

bcɷA

Fc
a

Φ kA
ɷt

## From triangle oab,

𝑜𝑏 2 = 𝑜𝑎2 + 𝑎𝑏 2
𝑜𝑏 2 = (𝑜𝑐 − 𝑎𝑐)2 + 𝑎𝑏 2
𝐹 2 = (𝑘𝐴 − 𝑚ɷ2 𝐴)2 + 𝑐ɷ𝐴2
F = A √ [(k-mɷ2 ) + (cɷ)2 ]
= A k √[(1 − 𝑚ɷ2 /k) + (cɷ/𝑘)2 ]
F = A k √[(1 − (ɷ/ɷ𝑛 )2 )2 + (cɷ/𝑘)2 ] (2)
From above equation,
c ɷ/𝑘 = multiply and divided by 2m &𝑐𝑐
= (c × 2m × ɷ × 𝑐𝑐 ) / (𝑐𝑐 × k × 2m )
= (ε × 2 × ɷ × 2mɷ𝑛 ) / (ɷ𝑛 2 × 2m )
= 2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛
Substitute above in equation (2),
F = A k √[(1 − (ɷ/ɷ𝑛 )2 )2 + (2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 ]
𝐹
A=
𝑘√((1− (ɷ/ɷ𝑛 )2 )2 −(2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )

𝐹/𝑘
=
2 2
√((1− ( ɷ ) ) +(2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )
ɷ𝑛

𝑥𝑠
A=
2 2
√((1− ( ɷ ) ) +(2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )
ɷ𝑛

𝐴 1
=
𝑥𝑠 2 2
√((1− ( ɷ ) ) +(2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )
ɷ𝑛

## Where, 𝑥𝑠 = static deflection = F/k

𝐴
= Magnification factor
𝑥𝑠
Magnification factor:
It is a ratio of amplitude of forced vibration to static deflection of the system.
Phase angle:
From Triangle oab,
𝑎𝑏
tan Φ = 𝑜𝑏
c ɷ𝐴
= 𝑘𝐴−𝑚ɷ2 𝐴
c ɷ𝐴
= 𝑘𝐴(1−𝑚ɷ2 /𝑘)
c ɷ/𝑘
= ɷ 2
1−( )
ɷ𝑛
2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛
tan Φ = ɷ 2
1−( )
ɷ𝑛

## Unbalanced force due to rotating mass:

𝑚𝑢 ɷ2 𝑒

𝑚𝑢 𝑚𝑢
𝑚𝑢 ɷ2 𝑒
e
e
m
e
, m
kc

kc
We know that,
𝐹/𝑘
A=
2 2
√((1− ( ɷ ) ) +(2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )
ɷ𝑛

## Where, F = external excitation = 𝑚𝑢 ɷ2 𝑒

𝑚𝑢 = unbalanced mass due to rotation
e = eccentricity
ɷ𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚
ɷ𝑛 2 = 𝐾/𝑚
k = ɷ𝑛 2 𝑚
𝑚𝑢 ɷ2 𝑒/ɷ𝑛 2 𝑚
A=
2 2
√((1− ( ɷ ) ) +(2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )
ɷ𝑛

𝐴 ɷ2 /ɷ𝑛 2
=
(𝑚𝑢 𝑒)/𝑚 2 2
√((1− ( ɷ ) ) +(2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )
ɷ𝑛

Vibration isolation:
A process of reducing the vibration of machines and Hence reducing the transmitted
force to the foundation using vibrating isolation materials.
Eg: rubber cork.

## Transmissibility and transmissibility ratio:

𝑓𝑜𝑟𝑐𝑒 𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑛𝑠𝑚𝑖𝑡𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑡𝑜 𝑡ℎ𝑒 𝑓𝑜𝑢𝑛𝑑𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐹𝑇
T.R = =
𝑒𝑥𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑒𝑐𝑖𝑡𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝐹
It is the ratio of force transmitted to the foundation to applied force.

F sin 𝜔𝑡

k c

𝐹𝑇
cɷA

kA

## Force transmitted to the foundation:

1. Spring force (kA)
2. Damping force (cɷA)
From the triangle,
𝐹𝑇 = √(𝑘𝐴)2 + (cɷA)2
𝐹𝑇 = 𝑘𝐴 √1 + (cɷ/k)2

We know that, = 2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛
k
ɷ
Force transmitted to the foundation 𝐹𝑇 = 𝑘𝐴 √1 + (2 ε ɷ )2
𝑛

We know that,
Applied force or external force F = kA √[(1 − (ɷ/ɷ𝑛 )2 )2 + (2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 ]
ɷ 2
𝑘𝐴 √1+(2 ε )
𝐹𝑇 ɷ𝑛
Transmissibility, T.R = =
𝐹 kA √[(1− (ɷ/ɷ𝑛 )2 )2 + (2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 ]
ɷ
√1+(2 εɷ )2
𝑛
=
√[(1− (ɷ/ɷ𝑛 )2 )2 + (2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 ]
ɷ 𝐹𝑇 √1+(2 εr)2
Let, r = ɷ , T.R = =
𝑛 𝐹 √[(1− 𝑟 2 )2 + (2 ε 𝑟)2 ]

ε = 0.125

ε=0

ε = 0.25

T.R
ε = 0.5
ε=1
ε=2
ε=2
ε = 0.5ε = 1
ε = 0.125ε = 0.25
0 1 √2 2 3 ε=0
r = ɷ/ ɷ𝑛

Case (i):
When r <√2, T.R > 1, for all values of ε. This means that, 𝐹𝑇 is always more than the
applied force.
Case (ii):
When r >√2, T.R < 1, for all values of ε. This means that, 𝐹𝑇 is always less than the applied
force.
Case (iii):
When r =√2, T.R = 1, for all values of ε. This means that, 𝐹𝑇 is equal to the applied
force.
Case (iv):
When r >√2, T.R increased as the damping is also increased.
Thus, it is conclude that for the vibration isolation damper should not be used.

Problem
1. An electric motor is supported on a spring and a dashpot. The spring has a
stiffness of 6400 N/m and the dashpot offers resistance of 500N at 4m/s. The
unbalanced mass 0.5 kg rotates at 5cm radius and the total mass of vibrating
system is 20 kg. The motor runs at 400rpm. Determine a) damping factor b)
Amplitude of vibration and phase angle c) Resonance speed and resonance
amplitude d) force extorted by the spring and dashpot on the motor.
Given:
K = 6400 N/m F= 500 N at 4 m/s
m =20 kg e = 5 cm
𝑚𝑢 = 0.5 kg N = 400 rpm
Solution:
i. Damping factor:
𝐶
𝜀=
𝐶𝑐
C = F/ẋ = 500/4 = 125 Ns/m
ɷ𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚 = √6400/20
𝐶𝑐 = 2m ɷ𝑛 = 2 × 20 × 17.88
125
𝜀= = 0.175
715.54
ii. Amplitude of vibration and phase angle:
𝐴 ɷ2 /ɷ𝑛 2
=
(𝑚𝑢 𝑒)/𝑚
2 2
√((1 − ( ɷ ) ) + (2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛 )2 )
ɷ 𝑛

## 2𝜋𝑁 400 𝑟𝑎𝑑

ɷ= = (2 × π × ) = 41.88
60 60 𝑠
ɷ 41.88
𝑟= = = 2.34
ɷ𝑛 17.88
𝐴 2.34 2
=
(0.5 × 5 × 10−2 )/20 √((1 − 2.342 )2 + (2 × 0.175 × 2.34)2 )
𝐴 = 1.55 × 10−3 𝑚
A = 1.55 mm
2 ε ɷ/ ɷ𝑛
Phase angle Φ = 𝑡𝑎𝑛−1 [ ɷ 2
]
1− ( )
ɷ𝑛

Φ = -10.36𝑜
Positive value Φ = -10.36𝑜 + 180𝑜 = 169. 63𝑜
iii. Resonance speed and resonance amplitude:
ɷ = ɷ𝑛
2𝜋 𝑁𝑟 = 17.88
𝑁𝑟 = (17. .88 × 60)/2π
𝑁𝑟 = 170 𝑟𝑝𝑚.
Amplitude: for resonance r = 1, ɷ = ɷ𝑛
𝐴 𝑟2
=
(𝑚𝑢 𝑒)/𝑚 √((1− 𝑟 2 )2 +(2 ε 𝑟)2 )
𝐴𝑟 1
=
(𝑚𝑢 𝑒)/𝑚 2ε
𝐴𝑟 1
=
(0.5×5×10−2 )/20 2 ×0.175
−3
𝐴𝑟 = 3.57 × 10 𝑚
iv. Force extorted by the spring and dashpot:
𝐹 = √((𝑘𝐴)2 + (cɷ𝐴)2 )
= √((6400 × 1.55)2 + (125 × 41.88 × 1.55)2 )
F = 12.81 kN

2. A vibrating body of mass 150 kg supported on spring of total stiffness 1050 N/m
as rotating a unbalanced force of 525 N at a speed of 600 rpm. If the damping
factor is 0.3. Determine a) amplitude caused unbalanced force and its phase
angle b) transmissibility c) actual force transmissibility to the foundation.
Given:
m = 150 kg F = 525 N
k = 1050 N/m ε = 0.3
N = 6000 rpm.
Solution:
i) Amplitude and phase angle:

## 2𝜋𝑁 6000 𝑟𝑎𝑑

ɷ= = (2 × π × ) = 628.31
60 60 𝑠
1050
ɷ𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚 = √ 150 = 2.64 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
ɷ 628.31
𝑟= = = 238
ɷ𝑛 2.64
We know that,
𝐹/𝑘
A=
√((1− 𝑟 2 )2 +(2 ε 𝑟)2 )
525/1050
=
√((1− 2382 )2 +(2 ×0.3× 238)2 )
A = 0.0088 mm
ii) Transmissibility:
𝐹𝑇 √1+(2 εr)2
T.R = =
𝐹 √[(1− 𝑟 2 )2 + (2 ε 𝑟)2 ]
√1+(2 ×0.3×238)2
=
√[(1− 2382 )2 + (2×0.3×238 )2 ]
−3
T.R = 2.58 × 10
iii) Actual force transmitted to the foundation:
𝐹𝑇
T.R = =>𝐹𝑇 = 𝐹 × T. R
𝐹
= 525 × 2.58 × 10−3
𝐹𝑇 = 1.34 N.

3. A weight of an electric motor is 125 kg and it runs @ 1500 rpm. The armature
weight is 35 kg and its centre of gravity is lies on 0.05 cm from the axis of
rotating. The motor is mounted on 5 springs on a negligible damping. The force
𝟏 𝒕𝒉
transmitted is of the impressed force. Assume that weight of the motor is
𝟏𝟏
equally distributed among all the 5 spring. Determine a) stiffness of each spring
b) dynamic force transmitted to the foundation c) natural frequency of the
system.
Given:
𝑚𝑚𝑜𝑡𝑜𝑟 = 125 𝑘𝑔 N = 1500 rpm
𝑚𝑎𝑟𝑚 = 35 𝑘𝑔 e = 0.05 cm
1
𝐹𝑇 = 𝐹ε = 0
11
No of spring = 5
Solution:
i) Transmissibility:
𝐹𝑇 1 √1+(2 εr)2
T.R = = =
𝐹 11 √[(1− 𝑟 2 )2 + (2 ε 𝑟)2 ]
1 1
=
11 1 − 𝑟2
1 1 ɷ 2 1
= =>ɷ2 −𝑛ɷ 2= 11
𝑟 2 −1 11 𝑛

## 2𝜋𝑁 1500 𝑟𝑎𝑑

ɷ= = (2 × π × ) = 157.08
60 60 𝑠
ɷ2 − ɷ𝑛 2 = 11ɷ𝑛 2
12ɷ𝑛 2 = 157.082
ɷ𝑛 = 45.34 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
We know that,
ɷ𝑛 = √𝑘/𝑚
45.34 = √𝑘/160
K = 160 × 45.342
Total stiffness k = 328914.49 N/m
𝑘
Stiffness of each spring 𝑘1 = 𝑛
3228914.49
= = 65782.8 N/m
5
ii) Force transmitted to the foundation:
𝐹𝑇 1 𝐹
T.R = = =>𝐹𝑇 = 11
𝐹 11
Applied force F = 𝑚𝑢 ɷ2 𝑒
= 35 × 157.082 × 0.05 × 10−2
F = 431.8 N
431.8
𝐹𝑇 = = 39.25 𝑁
11
iii) Natural frequency:
ɷ
ƒ𝑛 = 2𝜋𝑛
45.34
= 2𝜋
ƒ𝑛 = 7.216 Hz.

UNIT – 3
MULTI DEGREE OF SYSTEM

## Two degree of freedom systems:

A system having only two natural frequency is known as two degree of freedom
system.
𝑥1 𝑥2
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2

𝑥1 𝑥2
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2

## Free body diagram mass 𝑚1 ,

𝑚1 𝑥̈1

𝑚1
𝑘1 𝑥1 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )

## Equation of motion is given by

Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0 (1)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚2 ,
𝑚2 𝑥̈2

𝑚2
𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )𝑘3 𝑥2
Equation of motion is given by
Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘3 𝑥2 = 0 (2)
From equation (1),
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + (𝑘1 + 𝑘2 )𝑥1 − 𝑘2 𝑥2 = 0(3)
From equation (2),
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 − 𝑘2 𝑥1 + (𝑘2 + 𝑘3 )𝑥2 = 0 (4)
Equations (3) & (4) can be written in matrix form,

𝑚1 0 𝑥̈1 (𝑘 +𝑘 ) −𝑘2 𝑥1 0
[ ][ ] + [ 1 2 ] [𝑥 ] = [ ]
0 𝑚2 𝑥̈2 −𝑘2 (𝑘2 + 𝑘3 ) 2 0

## Free damped vibration of two degree of freedom system:

𝑥1 𝑥2
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2

𝑐1 𝑐2𝑐3
Free body diagram of mass𝑚1 ,
𝑚1 𝑥̈1

𝑘1 𝑥1 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )
𝑚1
𝑐1 𝑥1 𝑐2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )

## 𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑐1 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0(1)

Free body diagram of mass𝑚2 ,
𝑚2 𝑥̈2

𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )𝑘3 𝑥2
𝑚2
𝑐2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )𝑐3 𝑥2

## 𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑐2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )+𝑐3 𝑥2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘3 𝑥2 = 0 (2)

From (1),
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + (𝑐1 + 𝑐2 )𝑥1 − 𝑐2 𝑥2 + (𝑘1 + 𝑘2 )𝑥1 − 𝑘2 𝑥2 = 0(3)
From (2),
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 − 𝑐2 𝑥1 + (𝑐2 + 𝑐3 )𝑥2 − 𝑘2 𝑥1 + (𝑘2 + 𝑘3 )𝑥2 = 0 (4)

## 𝑚1 0 𝑥̈1 (𝑐 +𝑐 ) −𝑐2 𝑥 (𝑘 +𝑘 ) −𝑘2 𝑥1 0

[ ][ ] + [ 1 2 ] [ 1] + [ 1 2 ] [𝑥 ] = [ ]
0 𝑚2 𝑥̈2 −𝑐2 (𝑐2 + 𝑐3 ) 𝑥2 −𝑘2 (𝑘2 + 𝑘3 ) 2 0

## Forced vibrations of two degrees of freedom system:

𝐹1 (𝑡)𝐹2 (𝑡)
𝑥1 𝑥2
𝑘1 𝑘2
𝑚1 𝑚2

𝑐1 𝑐2
Free body diagram of 𝑚1 ,

𝐹1 (𝑡)

𝑘1 𝑥1 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )
𝑚1
𝑐1 𝑥1 𝑐2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )

𝑚1 𝑥̈1
Restoring force = applied force

## 𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑐1 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 𝐹1 (𝑡)(1)

Free body diagram of mass𝑚2 ,
𝐹2 (𝑡)

𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )
𝑚2
𝑐2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )

𝑚2 𝑥̈2
Restoring force = applied force

## 𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑐2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )+𝑐3 𝑥2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘3 𝑥2 = 𝐹2 (𝑡) (2)

From (1),
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + (𝑐1 + 𝑐2 )𝑥1 − 𝑐2 𝑥2 + (𝑘1 + 𝑘2 )𝑥1 − 𝑘2 𝑥2 = 𝐹1 (𝑡) (3)
From (2),
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 − 𝑐2 𝑥1 + (𝑐2 + 𝑐3 )𝑥2 − 𝑘2 𝑥1 + (𝑘2 + 𝑘3 )𝑥2 = 𝐹2 (𝑡) (4)

## 𝑚1 0 𝑥̈1 (𝑐 +𝑐 ) −𝑐2 𝑥 (𝑘 +𝑘 ) −𝑘2 𝑥1 𝐹 (𝑡)

[ ][ ] + [ 1 2 ] [ 1] + [ 1 2 ] [𝑥 ] = [ 1 ]
0 𝑚2 𝑥̈2 −𝑐2 (𝑐2 + 𝑐3 ) 𝑥2 −𝑘2 (𝑘2 + 𝑘3 ) 2 𝐹2 (𝑡)

## Semi definite system:

In two degrees of freedom system, one of the natural frequency is zero, then the
system is known as semi definite system.
𝑥1 𝑥2
k
𝑚1 𝑚2

𝑚1 𝑥̈1

𝑘(𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) 𝑚1

𝑚1 𝑥̈1

𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) 𝑚1

## The equation of motion is given by,

𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘(𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0(1)
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) = 0 (2)
Let,
𝑥1 = 𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥2 = 𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
. 𝑥̈1 = −𝐴1 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥̈2 = −𝐴2 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
Substitute above terms in equation (1) & (2),
𝑚1 [−𝐴1 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)] + 𝑘[𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) − 𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)] = 0
sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)[−𝑚1 𝐴1 𝜔2 + 𝑘𝐴1 − 𝑘𝐴2 ] = 0;
(𝑘 − 𝑚1 𝜔2 )𝐴1 − 𝑘𝐴2 = 0 (3)

## 𝑚2 [−𝐴2 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)] + 𝑘[𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) − 𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)] = 0

sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)[−𝑚2 𝐴2 𝜔2 + 𝑘𝐴2 − 𝑘𝐴1 ] = 0;
−𝑘𝐴1 + (𝑘 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 )𝐴2 = 0 (4)
Equations (3) & (4) can be written in matrix form,
(𝑘 − 𝑚1 𝜔2 ) −𝑘 𝐴1 0
[ 2 ] [𝐴 ] = 
−𝑘 (𝑘 − 𝑚2 𝜔 ) 2
2
(𝑘 − 𝑚1 𝜔 ) −𝑘 0
| 2 | = 
−𝑘 (𝑘 − 𝑚2 𝜔 )
(𝑘 − 𝑚1 𝜔 )(𝑘 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 ) − 𝑘 2 = 0
2

𝑘 2 − 𝑚2 𝑘𝜔2 − 𝑚1 𝑘𝜔2 + 𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔4 − 𝑘 2 = 0
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔4 − 𝑚2 𝑘𝜔2 − 𝑚1 𝑘𝜔2 = 0
𝜔2 [𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔2 − 𝑚2 𝑘 − 𝑚1 𝑘] = 0
𝜔2 = 0ɷ = 0
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔2 − 𝑚2 𝑘 − 𝑚1 𝑘 = 0
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔2 = 𝑘(𝑚1 + 𝑚2 )
𝑘(𝑚1 + 𝑚2 )
𝜔2 =
𝑚1 𝑚2
𝑘(𝑚1 + 𝑚2 )
𝜔= √
𝑚1 𝑚2
From the above terms (𝜔) it can be seen that one of the natural frequency of the system
is equal to zero, the system is not oscillating. There is no relative motion between 𝑚1 & 𝑚2
and it can move as a rigid body.

Co-ordinate coupling:
When suddenly applied brakes on the moving car or automobile, two motions of a car
body occur simultaneously, one of the translatory (x) and the other angular (ɵ). This type of
unbalanced in the system occurs because of centre of gravity (G) of car, centre of rotation
don’t co-ordinate. This type of effect is known as co-ordinate coupling.
The uneven road surface make of unwanted excessive excitation frequency but this
whole is not transmitted to the car body. Though the front and rear wheels move up and down
frequently. This is because of springs and isolated.
𝑙2 𝑙1

ɵ G
𝑘2 𝑘1

𝑘2 (x − 𝑙2 ɵ)𝑘1 (𝑥 + 𝑙1 ɵ)
Iɵ̈
The equations of motion of a co-ordinate coupling is given by,
Inertia force + spring force of 𝑘1 + spring force of 𝑘2 = 0
mẍ + 𝑘1 (𝑥 + 𝑙1 ɵ)mẍ+ 𝑘2 (x − 𝑙2 ɵ) = 0 (1)

From (1),

From (2),

## Iɵ̈ + (𝑘2 𝑙2 − 𝑘1 𝑙1 )𝑥 − (𝑘1 𝑙1 2 − 𝑘2 𝑙2 2 )ɵ = 0 (4)

The above both equations have x and ɵ terms, so they are the coupled equations. The
above equations so that the system has rotary as well as translatory motion, if

𝑘2 𝑙2 − 𝑘1 𝑙1 = 0

𝑘2 𝑙2 = 𝑘1 𝑙1

## mẍ + (𝑘1 + 𝑘2 )𝑥 = 0 (5)

Iɵ̈−(𝑘1 𝑙1 2 − 𝑘2 𝑙2 2 )ɵ = 0 (6)

Equations (5) & (6) translator & angular motion can be exist independently. There are
called uncoupled differential equation. This is called dynamic coupling.

## The natural frequency of such system of,

𝑘1 +𝑘2
From equation (1), ɷ𝑛 = √ 𝑚
2
𝑘 𝑙 +𝑘2 𝑙2 2
From equation (2), ɷ𝑛 = √ 1 1 𝐼
If the coupling term, 𝑘1 𝑙1 - 𝑘2 𝑙2 is non-zero, the coupling so from known as static form
and elastic form.
The solution of the equation (3) & (4),
𝑥 = 𝐴 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)ɵ = 𝛷 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
. 𝑥̈ = −𝐴𝜔 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)ɵ = − 𝛷𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
2

## Substitute above terms in equation (3) & (4),

−𝑚𝐴𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) + (𝑘1 + 𝑘2 )𝐴 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) + (𝑘1 𝑙1- 𝑘2 𝑙2 ) 𝛷 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) = 0
[(𝑘1 + 𝑘2 ) − 𝑚𝜔2] A + (𝑘1 𝑙1- 𝑘2 𝑙2 ) 𝛷 = 0 (7)

## -I𝜔2 𝛷 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) + (𝑘2 𝑙2 − 𝑘1 𝑙1) 𝐴 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) - (𝑘1 𝑙1 2 + 𝑘2 𝑙2 2 ) 𝛷 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) = 0

(𝑘2 𝑙2 − 𝑘1 𝑙1) 𝐴 – [I𝜔2 + (𝑘1 𝑙1 2 + 𝑘2 𝑙2 2 ) ] Φ = 0 (8)
Equation (7) & (8) can be written in matrix form,
(𝑘1 +𝑘2 ) − 𝑚𝜔2 𝑘1 𝑙1 − 𝑘2 𝑙2 𝐴 0
[ 2 2 2 ][ ] = [ ]
𝑘2 𝑙2 − 𝑘1 𝑙1 −[𝐼𝜔 + (𝑘1 𝑙1 + 𝑘2 𝑙2 )] 𝛷 0
(𝑘1 +𝑘2 ) − 𝑚𝜔2 𝑘1 𝑙1 − 𝑘2 𝑙2 0
| 2 2 2 | = [ ]
𝑘2 𝑙2 − 𝑘1 𝑙1 −[𝐼𝜔 + (𝑘1 𝑙1 + 𝑘2 𝑙2 )] 0
On solving above equation we will get two frequencies.

Vibration absorbers:
When a structure extremely excited as undesirable vibration, it becomes necessary to
eliminate them by coupling some vibration system to it. The vibrating system is known as
vibration absorber or dynamic vibration absorber.
In such cases the excitation is nearly equal to the natural frequency of the structure or
machine vibrations absorbers are used to control structural resonance.
𝑘
If the excitation frequency (ɷ) is nearly closed to the natural frequency (ɷ=ɷ𝑛 = √𝑚1 )
1

of the system, the amplitude of vibration would be very large because of resonance as shown
in figure 1.

𝑘1 /2𝑘1 /2

𝑥1 F sin 𝜔𝑡 𝑚1

i) Main system

𝑘1 /2𝑘1 /2
𝑥1 𝑚1
F sin 𝜔𝑡

𝑘2

𝑚2
𝑥2
ii) Main system with vibration absorber
A spring mass system (𝑚2 − 𝑘2 ) is coupled to the main system as shown in figure 2.
This spring mass system act as vibration absorber and reduces the amplitude of 𝑚1 to zero, if
its natural frequency is equal to excitation frequency.
𝑘 𝑘
ɷ = ɷ𝑛 = √𝑚1 = √𝑚2
1 2

𝑘1 𝑘2
√ =√
𝑚1 𝑚2
When this condition is fulfilled the absorber is called tuned absorber. Figure 1 is a
single degree of freedom after coupling the spring mass system, it becomes to two degrees of
freedom system.
Free body diagram of mass (𝑚1 ),

𝑚1 𝑥̈1

𝑚1
𝑘1 𝑥1 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )

## Equation of motion is given by,

𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) =Fsin 𝜔𝑡 (1)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚2 ,
𝑚2 𝑥̈2

𝑚2
𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )
Equation of motion is given by,
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) = 0 (2)
For solution of the system,
Let,
𝑥1 = 𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑥2 = 𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑡
. 𝑥̈1 = −𝐴1 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑥̈2 = −𝐴2 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
Substitute above terms in equation (1) & (2),
𝑚1 [−𝐴1 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡] + 𝑘1 𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘2 [𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡 − 𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑡] =Fsin 𝜔𝑡
sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)[−𝑚1 𝐴1 𝜔2 + (𝑘1 +𝑘2 )𝐴1 − 𝑘2 𝐴2 ] = Fsin 𝜔𝑡
[(𝑘1 +𝑘2 )−𝑚1 𝜔2 ]𝐴1 − 𝑘2 𝐴2 = 𝐹 (3)

## 𝑚2 [−𝐴2 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡] + 𝑘2 [𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑡 − 𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡] = 0

sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)[−𝑚2 𝐴2 𝜔2 + 𝑘2 𝐴2 − 𝑘2 𝐴1 ] = 0; sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) = 0
−𝑘2 𝐴1 + (𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 )𝐴2 = 0 (4)
From equation (4),
(𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 )𝐴2 = 𝑘2 𝐴1
𝑘2 𝐴1
𝐴2 =
𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔 2
Substitute above term in equation (3),
𝑘2 𝐴1
[(𝑘1 +𝑘2 )−𝑚1 𝜔2 ]𝐴1 − 𝑘2 [𝑘 2
]=𝐹
2 −𝑚2 𝜔

## [(𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 )[(𝑘1 +𝑘2 ) − 𝑚1 𝜔2 ] − 𝑘2 2 ]𝐴1

=𝐹
𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔 2
𝐹(𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 )
𝐴1 =
(𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔 2 )[(𝑘1 +𝑘2 ) − 𝑚1 𝜔 2 ] − 𝑘2 2
On solving we get,
𝐹(𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 )
𝐴1 =
𝑘1 𝑘2 − 𝑘2 𝑚2 𝜔 2 − 𝑘1 𝑚1 𝜔 2 − 𝑘2 𝑚2 𝜔 2 − 𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔 4
Substitute 𝐴1 value in 𝐴2 ,
𝑘2 𝐹
𝐴2 =
𝑘1 𝑘2 − 𝑘2 𝑚2 𝜔 2 − 𝑘1 𝑚1 𝜔 2 − 𝑘2 𝑚2 𝜔 2 − 𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔 4

Let,
β = 𝑘1 𝑘2 − 𝑘2 𝑚2 𝜔2 − 𝑘1 𝑚1 𝜔2 − 𝑘2 𝑚2 𝜔2 − 𝑚1 𝑚2 𝜔4
therefore,
𝐹(𝑘2 −𝑚2 𝜔2 )
𝐴1 = (5)
𝛽
𝑘2 𝐹
𝐴2 = (6)
𝛽
From (5),
𝐹(𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 )
=0
𝛽
(Inorder to have the amplitude of mass has zero.)
F ≠ 0; β ≠ 0
𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 = 0
𝑘2
𝜔2 =
𝑚2
𝑘
𝜔 = √𝑚2 (7)
2
Thus, if the mass and the spring constant of absorber system or select in a such a way
that equation (7) is satisfied, it becomes a dynamic absorber system.

## Derivation of equation of motion using Lagrange’s method:

According to Lagrange’s method,
𝑑 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝑇 𝜕𝐶 𝜕𝑉
[ ]− + + =0
𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
Where,
1
T – Total kinetic energy = Ʃ 2m𝑥2
1
C – Total damping energy = Ʃ 2c𝑥2
1
V – Total potentil energy = Ʃ k𝑥 2
2

𝑥1 𝑥2
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2

𝑐1 𝑐2𝑐3
1 2 1 2
Total kinetic energy T = 2 𝑚1 𝑥1 + 2 𝑚2 𝑥2
1 1 1
Total damping energy C = 2 𝑐1 𝑥1 2 +2 𝑐2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )2 + 𝑐 𝑥 2
2 3 2
1 1 1
Total potential energy V = 2 𝑘1 𝑥1 2 + 𝑘 (𝑥 − 𝑥2 )2 + 2 𝑘3 𝑥2 2
2 2 1
𝜕𝑇
= 𝑚1 𝑥1
𝜕𝑥1
𝑑 𝜕𝑇
[ ] = 𝑚1 𝑥̈1
𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑥1
𝜕𝑇
=0
𝜕𝑥1
𝜕𝐶
= 𝑐1 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )
𝜕𝑥1
𝜕𝑉
= 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )
𝜕𝑥1
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 − 0 + 𝑐1 𝑥1 + 𝑐2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0

𝜕𝑇
= 𝑚2 𝑥2
𝜕𝑥2
𝑑 𝜕𝑇
[ ] = 𝑚2 𝑥̈2
𝑑𝑥 𝜕𝑥2
𝜕𝑇
=0
𝜕𝑥2
𝜕𝐶
= 𝑐2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑐3 𝑥2
𝜕𝑥2
𝜕𝑉
= 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘3 𝑥2
𝜕𝑥2
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 − 0 + 𝑐2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑐3 𝑥2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) + 𝑘3 𝑥2 = 0

Problem:
1) Determine the frequency of the system as shown in figure. 𝑘1 = 𝑘2 = 40 𝑁/𝑚.
K = 60 N/m, 𝑚1 = 𝑚2 = 10 kg.
𝑥1 𝑥2
𝑘1 k𝑘2
𝑚1 𝑚2

Solution:
Equation of motion for mass (𝑚1 ),
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘(𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0 (1)
Equation of motion for mass (𝑚2 ),
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘2 𝑥2 = 0 (2)
Let,
𝑥1 = 𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥2 = 𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
. 𝑥̈1 = −𝐴1 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥̈2 = −𝐴2 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
Substitute above terms in equation (1) & (2),
−𝑚1 𝐴1 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) + 𝑘1 𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) + k[𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) − 𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)] = 0
−𝑚1 𝐴1 𝜔2 + 𝑘1 𝐴1 +k𝐴1 − 𝑘𝐴2 = 0
(𝑘1 + 𝑘−𝑚1 𝜔2 ) 𝐴1 − 𝑘𝐴2 = 0 (3)
2
−𝑚2 𝐴2 𝜔 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) + k[𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) − 𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)] + 𝑘2 𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) = 0
−𝑚2 𝐴2 𝜔2 +k𝐴2 − 𝑘𝐴1 + 𝑘2 𝐴2 = 0
− 𝑘𝐴1 + (𝑘2 + 𝑘−𝑚2 𝜔2 ) 𝐴2 = 0 (4)
Equation (3) & (4) can be written in matrix form,
𝑘 + 𝑘−𝑚1 𝜔2 −𝑘 𝐴1 0
[ 1 2 ] [𝐴 ] = 
−𝑘 𝑘2 + 𝑘−𝑚2 𝜔 2
2
𝑘 + 𝑘−𝑚1 𝜔 −𝑘 0
| 1 2 | = 
−𝑘 𝑘2 + 𝑘−𝑚2 𝜔
2 0
|40 + 60 − 10𝜔 −60
2 | = 
−60 40 + 60 − 10𝜔
(100 - 10𝜔2 ) (100 - 10𝜔2 ) -3600 = 0
𝜔4 − 20𝜔2 + 64 = 0
−𝑏 ± √𝑏 2 − 4𝑎𝑐
𝜔2 =
2𝑎
20 ± √(−20)2 − (4 × 1 × 64)
𝜔2 =
2×1
𝜔2 = 16, 4
2) Derive the equation of motion of the vibrating system as shown in figure.
𝒌𝟏 = 𝟗𝟖𝟎𝟎 𝑵/𝒎, 𝒌𝟐 = 𝟏𝟗𝟔𝟎𝟎 𝑵/𝒎,𝒎𝟏 = 𝟏𝟗𝟔 𝒌𝒈, 𝒎𝟐 = 𝟒𝟗 𝒌𝒈. Determine
natural frequency of the system.

𝑘1 𝑘2
𝑚2

𝑚1
Solution:
Equation of motion for mass (𝑚1 ),
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0 (1)
Equation of motion for mass (𝑚2 ),
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) = 0 (2)
Let,
𝑥1 = 𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑥2 = 𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑡
. 𝑥̈1 = −𝐴1 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑥̈2 = −𝐴2 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
Substitute above terms in equation (1) & (2),
−𝑚1 𝐴1 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘1 𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘2 [𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡 − 𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑡] = 0
−𝑚1 𝐴1 𝜔2 + 𝑘1 𝐴1 + 𝑘2 𝐴1 − 𝑘2 𝐴2 = 0
(𝑘1 + 𝑘2 −𝑚1 𝜔2 ) 𝐴1 − 𝑘2 𝐴2 = 0 (3)
2
−𝑚2 𝐴2 𝜔 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘2 [𝐴2 sin 𝜔𝑡 − 𝐴1 sin 𝜔𝑡] = 0
−𝑚2 𝐴2 𝜔2 + 𝑘2 𝐴2 − 𝑘2 𝐴1 = 0
− 𝑘2 𝐴1 + (𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 ) 𝐴2 = 0 (4)
Equation (3) & (4) can be written in matrix form,
𝑘 + 𝑘2 −𝑚1 𝜔2 −𝑘2 𝐴1 0
[ 1 2 ] [𝐴 ] = 
−𝑘2 𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔 2
2
𝑘 + 𝑘2 −𝑚1 𝜔 −𝑘2 0
| 1 2 | = 
−𝑘2 𝑘2 −𝑚2 𝜔
2
|117600 − 196𝜔 −19600 | = 
−19600 19600 − 49𝜔2 0
2 2 2
(117600 - 196𝜔 ) (19600 - 49𝜔 ) - 19600 = 0
𝜔4 − 1000𝜔2 + 240000 = 0
1000 ± √(−1000)2 − (4 × 1 × 240000)
𝜔2 =
2×1
𝜔2 = 723.60, 276.40
𝜔𝑛
𝑓𝑛 = Hz.
2𝜋
𝜔 26.89
𝑓𝑛1 = 2𝜋1 = = 4.28 𝐻𝑧.
2𝜋
𝜔 16.62
𝑓𝑛2 = 2𝜋2 = = 2.65 𝐻𝑧.
2𝜋

## Multi degrees of freedom system:

If a system having more than two frequencies are known as multi degrees of freedom
system.
Derive the characteristics equation for the following system:
𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝑚3
Free body diagram mass 𝑚1 ,
𝑚1 𝑥̈1

𝑚1
𝑘1 𝑥1 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 )

## Equation of motion is given by

Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0 (1)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚2 ,
𝑚2 𝑥̈2

𝑚2
𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )𝑘3 (𝑥2 − 𝑥3 )
Equation of motion is given by
Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘3 (𝑥2 − 𝑥3 ) = 0 (2)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚3 ,
𝑚3 𝑥̈3

𝑚3
𝑘3 (𝑥3 − 𝑥2 )
Equation of motion is given by
Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚3 𝑥̈3 + 𝑘3 (𝑥3 − 𝑥2 ) = 0 (3)
Equations (1), (2) & (3) are known as characteristics equation or equation of motion.

## Derive the characteristics equation for the following system:

m
𝑥1

k m

k𝑥2

m
𝑥3 k
k/2 k/2
Free body diagram of mass (𝑚1 ),
𝑚𝑥̈1

𝑘(𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) 𝑚1
𝑘𝑥1 𝑘(𝑥1 − 𝑥3 )

## Equation of motion is given by

Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚𝑥̈1 + 𝑘𝑥1 + 𝑘(𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) + 𝑘(𝑥1 − 𝑥3 ) = 0 (1)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚2 ,
𝑚𝑥̈2

𝑘𝑥2 𝑚2
𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥3 )
Equation of motion is given by
Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚𝑥̈2 + 𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥3 ) + k𝑥2 = 0(2)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚3 ,
𝑚𝑥̈3

𝑘(𝑥3 − 𝑥1 ) 𝑚3
𝑘𝑥3 𝑘(𝑥3 − 𝑥2 )
Equation of motion is given by
Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚𝑥̈3 + 𝑘(𝑥3 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘(𝑥3 − 𝑥2 ) + 𝑘𝑥3 = 0(3)
Equations (1), (2) & (3) are known characteristics equation or equation of motion.

𝑥2 𝑥1
𝑘2 𝑘1 /2
𝑚2

𝑚1

𝑚3
𝑥3
𝑘3 𝑘1 /2

## Free body diagram mass 𝑚1 ,

𝑚1 𝑥̈1

𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) 𝑚1
𝑘1 𝑥1 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥3 )

## Equation of motion is given by

Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0 (1)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚2 ,
𝑚2 𝑥̈2

𝑚2
𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 )
Equation of motion is given by
Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) = 0 (2)
Free body diagram of mass 𝑚3 ,
𝑚3 𝑥̈3

𝑚3
𝑘3 (𝑥3 − 𝑥1 )
Equation of motion is given by
Sum of the forces is equal to zero.
𝑚3 𝑥̈3 + 𝑘3 (𝑥3 − 𝑥1 ) = 0 (3)
Let,
𝑥1 = 𝐴1 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥2 = 𝐴2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥3 = 𝐴3 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥̈1 = −𝐴1 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥̈2 = −𝐴2 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
𝑥̈3 = −𝐴3 𝜔2 sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷)
Substitute above terms in equation (1), (2) & (3),
[−𝑚1 𝜔2 𝐴1 + 𝑘1 𝐴1 + 𝑘2 (𝐴1 − 𝐴2 ) + 𝑘3 (𝐴1 − 𝐴3 )] sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) = 0
[𝑘1 + 𝑘2 + 𝑘3 − 𝑚1 𝜔2 ]𝐴1 − 𝑘2 𝐴2 − 𝑘3 𝐴3 = 0 (4)
[−𝑚2 𝜔2 𝐴2 + 𝑘2 (𝐴2 − 𝐴1 )] sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) = 0
−𝑘2 𝐴1 + [𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 ]𝐴2 = 0 (5)
[−𝑚3 𝜔2 𝐴3 + 𝑘3 (𝐴3 − 𝐴1 )] sin(𝜔𝑡 + 𝛷) = 0
−𝑘3 𝐴1 + [𝑘3 − 𝑚3 𝜔2 ]𝐴3 = 0 (6)
Equations (4), (5) & (6) can be written in matrix form,

𝑘1 + 𝑘2 + 𝑘3 − 𝑚1 𝜔2 −𝑘2 −𝑘3 𝐴1 0
[ −𝑘2 𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 0 ] [𝐴2 ] = 
−𝑘3 0 𝑘3 − 𝑚3 𝜔2 𝐴3 0

𝑘1 + 𝑘2 + 𝑘3 − 𝑚1 𝜔2 −𝑘2 −𝑘3
| −𝑘2 𝑘2 − 𝑚2 𝜔2 0 |=0
2
−𝑘3 0 𝑘3 − 𝑚3 𝜔
Matrix method:
|𝜆𝐼 − 𝐶| = 0
Where,
λ = 𝜔2
I = Identity matrix
[𝐶] = Dynamic matrix
C = [𝑚−1 ][𝑘]
[𝑚] = Mass matrix
[𝑘] = Stiffness matrix
Proof:

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝑚3

Characteristics equation:
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + 𝑘1 𝑥1 + 𝑘2 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 + 𝑘2 (𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘3 (𝑥2 − 𝑥3 ) = 0
𝑚3 𝑥̈3 + 𝑘3 (𝑥3 − 𝑥2 ) = 0
The above equation can be written in matrix form,
𝑚1 𝑥̈1 + (𝑘1 + 𝑘2 )𝑥1 − 𝑘2 𝑥2 = 0
𝑚2 𝑥̈2 − 𝑘2 𝑥1 + (𝑘2 + 𝑘3 )𝑥2 − 𝑘3 𝑥3 = 0
𝑚3 𝑥̈3 − 𝑘3 𝑥2 + 𝑘3 𝑥3 = 0
𝑚1 0 0 𝑥̈1 𝑘1 + 𝑘2 −𝑘2 0 𝑥1 0
[ 0 𝑚2 0 ] [𝑥̈2 ] + [ −𝑘2 𝑘2 + 𝑘3 −𝑘3 ] [𝑥2 ] = 
0 0 𝑚3 𝑥̈3 0 −𝑘3 𝑘3 𝑥3 0
In general,
[𝑚][𝑥̈] + [𝑘][𝑥] = 0
[𝑘]
[𝑥̈] + [𝑥] = 0
[𝑚]
[𝑥̈] + [𝑚]−1 [𝑘][𝑥] = 0 (1)
Let,
𝑥 = 𝐴 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑥̈ = −𝐴 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
[𝑥̈] = −𝜔2 [𝑥]
Substitute above in equation (1),
−𝜔2 [𝑥] + [𝑚]−1 [𝑘][𝑥] = 0
[𝑚]−1 [𝑘][𝑥] − 𝜔2 [𝑥] = 0
Let,
[𝑐] = [𝑚]−1 [𝑘]
λ = 𝜔2
[𝑥][𝑐] − 𝜆 [𝑥] = 0
[𝑥][[𝑐] − 𝜆𝐼] = 0
[[𝑐] − 𝜆𝐼] = 0
𝑚1 0 0
Mass matrix [𝑚] = [ 0 𝑚2 0]
0 0 𝑚3

𝑘1 + 𝑘2 −𝑘2 0
Stiffness matrix [𝑘] = [ −𝑘2 𝑘2 + 𝑘3 −𝑘3 ]
0 −𝑘3 𝑘3
Let,
𝑚1 = 𝑚2 = 𝑚3 = 𝑚
𝑘1 = 𝑘2 = 𝑘3 = 𝑘
Dynamic matrix:
[𝑐] = [𝑚]−1 [𝑘]
𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑚
[𝑚]−1 =
|𝑚|
|𝑚| = 𝑚3
𝑇
𝑚2 0 0 𝑚2 0 0
𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑚 = [ 0 𝑚2 0 ] = [ 0 𝑚2 0 ]
0 0 𝑚2 0 0 𝑚2
1 1 0 0
[𝑚]−1 = [0 1 0]
𝑚
0 0 1

2 −1 0
[𝑘] = 𝑘 [−1 2 −1]
0 −1 1
1 1 0 0 2 −1 0
[𝑐] = [0 1 0] × 𝑘 [−1 2 −1]
𝑚
0 0 1 0 −1 1
𝑘 2 −1 0
[𝑐] = [−1 2 −1]
𝑚
0 −1 1
|𝜆𝐼 − [𝑐]| = 0
𝜆 0 0 𝑘 2 −1 0
[0 𝜆 0 ] − [−1 2 −1] = 0
𝑚
0 0 𝜆 0 −1 1
−2𝑘 𝑘
𝜆− 0
𝑚 𝑚
| |
𝑘 2𝑘 𝑘
𝜆− =0
| 𝑚 𝑚 𝑚 |
𝑘 𝑘
0 𝜆−
𝑚 𝑚
2 2 3
5𝑘𝜆 6𝑘 𝜆 𝑘
𝜆3 − + 2
− 3=0
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚
𝑥 3 − 5𝑥 2 + 6𝑥 − 1 = 0
x = 3.24, 0.198, 1.58
𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆1 = 0.198 ; ɷ12 = 0.198 => ɷ1 = 0.44 √
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆2 = 1.58 ; ɷ22 = 1.58 => ɷ2 = 1.256√
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆3 = 3.24 ; ɷ23 = 3.24 => ɷ3 = 1.8 √
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

## Closed coupled system:

A system having longitudinal or linear vibration and torsional vibration are known as closed
coupled system.
In this system the following terms are used to solve the problems.
i) Dynamic matrix:
[𝑐] = [𝑚]−1 [𝑘]
Where,
[𝑚] = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥
[𝑘] = 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 𝑚𝑎𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑥

|𝜆𝐼 − [𝑐]| = 0

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3
2k kk
2m 2m m

## Step 1: write equations of motion of the given system.

2𝑚𝑥̈1 + 2𝑘𝑥1 + 𝑘 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0
2𝑚𝑥̈2 + 𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘 (𝑥2 − 𝑥3 ) = 0
𝑚𝑥̈3 + 𝑘 (𝑥3 − 𝑥2 ) = 0

## Step 2: Arrange equations of motion into matrix form.

2𝑚𝑥̈1 + 3𝑘𝑥1 − 𝑘𝑥2 = 0
2𝑚𝑥̈2 − 𝑘𝑥1 + 2𝑘𝑥2 − 𝑘𝑥3 = 0
𝑚𝑥̈3 − 𝑘𝑥2 + 𝑘𝑥3 = 0
2𝑚 0 0 𝑥̈1 3𝑘 −𝑘 0 𝑥1 0
[ 0 2𝑚 0 ] [𝑥̈2 ] + [−𝑘 2𝑘 −𝑘] [𝑥2 ] = 
0 0 𝑚 𝑥̈3 0 −𝑘 𝑘 𝑥3 0
Step 3: To determine dynamic matrix.
[𝑐] = [𝑚]−1 [𝑘]
𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑚
[𝑚]−1 =
|𝑚|
2𝑚 0 0
[𝑚] = [ 0 2𝑚 0 ]
0 0 𝑚
|𝑚| = 4 𝑚3
𝑇
2 𝑚2 0 0 1 0 0
𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑚 = [ 0 2 𝑚2 0 ] = 2 𝑚 2 [0 1 0]
0 0 4 𝑚2 0 0 2
1 1 0 0
[𝑚]−1 = [0 1 0]
2𝑚
0 0 2

3 −1 0
[𝑘] = 𝑘 [−1 2 −1]
0 −1 1

1 1 0 0 3 −1 0
[𝑐] = [0 1 0 ] × 𝑘 [−1 2 −1]
2𝑚
0 0 2 0 −1 1
𝑘 3 −1 0
[𝑐] = [−1 2 −1]
2𝑚
0 −2 2

## Step 4: To determine Eigen values.

|𝜆𝐼 − [𝑐]| = 0

𝜆 0 0 𝑘 3 −1 0
[0 𝜆 0] − [−1 2 −1] = 0
2𝑚
0 0 𝜆 0 −2 2
−3𝑘 𝑘
𝜆− 0
2𝑚 2𝑚
| |
𝑘 𝑘 2𝑘
𝜆− =0
| 2𝑚 2𝑚 𝑚 |
𝑘 𝑘
0 𝜆−
𝑚 𝑚

3
7𝑘𝜆2 13𝑘 2 𝜆 𝑘3
𝜆 − + − =0
2𝑚 4𝑚2 2𝑚3

x = 0.2, 1.31, 2

## Step 5: Natural frequency of a system.

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆1 = 0.2 ; ɷ12 = 0.2 => ɷ1 = 0.447 √
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆2 = 1.31 ; ɷ22 = 1.31 => ɷ2 = 1.144√
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆3 = 2 ; ɷ23 = 2 => ɷ3 = 1.414 √
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

Model analysis:
It is one of the numerical methods to determine natural frequencies of multi degree
freedom of system. In which Eigen values and Eigen vector calculated and finally mode
shape of the multi degree system will be drawn.

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3
2k k k
2m m m

## Step 1: write equations of motion of the given system.

2𝑚𝑥̈1 + 2𝑘𝑥1 + 𝑘 (𝑥1 − 𝑥2 ) = 0
𝑚𝑥̈2 + 𝑘(𝑥2 − 𝑥1 ) + 𝑘 (𝑥2 − 𝑥3 ) = 0
𝑚𝑥̈3 + 𝑘 (𝑥3 − 𝑥2 ) = 0

## Step 2: Arrange equations of motion into matrix form.

2𝑚𝑥̈1 + 3𝑘𝑥1 − 𝑘𝑥2 = 0
𝑚𝑥̈2 − 𝑘𝑥1 + 2𝑘𝑥2 − 𝑘𝑥3 = 0
𝑚𝑥̈3 − 𝑘𝑥2 + 𝑘𝑥3 = 0
2𝑚 0 0 𝑥̈1 3𝑘 −𝑘 0 𝑥1 0
𝑥
[ 0 𝑚 0 ] [𝑥̈2 ] + [−𝑘 2𝑘 −𝑘] [ 2 ] = 
0 0 𝑚 𝑥̈3 0 −𝑘 𝑘 𝑥3 0
Step 3: To determine dynamic matrix.
[𝑐] = [𝑚]−1 [𝑘]
𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑚
[𝑚]−1 =
|𝑚|
2𝑚 0 0
[𝑚] = [ 0 𝑚 0 ]
0 0 𝑚
|𝑚| = 2 𝑚3
𝑇
𝑚2 0 0 1/2 0 0
𝑎𝑑𝑗 𝑚 = [ 0 2 𝑚2 0 ] = 2 𝑚2 [ 0 1 0]
0 0 2 𝑚2 0 0 1
1 1/2 0 0
[𝑚]−1 = [ 0 1 0]
𝑚
0 0 1

3 −1 0
[𝑘] = 𝑘 [−1 2 −1]
0 −1 1

1 1/2 0 0 3 −1 0
[𝑐] = [ 0 1 0] × 𝑘 [−1 2 −1]
𝑚
0 0 1 0 −1 1
𝑘 1.5 −0.5 0
[𝑐] = [−1 2 −1]
𝑚
0 −1 1

## Step 4: To determine Eigen values.

|𝜆𝐼 − [𝑐]| = 0

𝜆 0 0 𝑘 1.5 −0.5 0
[0 𝜆 0] − [−1 2 −1] = 0
𝑚
0 0 𝜆 0 −1 1

−1.5𝑘 0.5𝑘
𝜆− 0
𝑚 𝑚
| |
𝑘 2𝑘 𝑘
𝜆− =0
| 𝑚 𝑚 𝑚 |
𝑘 𝑘
0 𝜆−
𝑚 𝑚
2 2 3
4.5𝑘𝜆 5𝑘 𝜆 𝑘
𝜆3 − + − 3=0
𝑚 𝑚2 𝑚
𝑥 3 − 4.5𝑥 2 + 5𝑥 − 1 = 0

## x = 0.25, 1.35, 2.88

Step 5: Natural frequency of a system.
𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆1 = 0.25 ; ɷ12 = 0.25 => ɷ1 = 0.5√
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆2 = 1.35 ; ɷ22 = 1.35 => ɷ2 = 1.16√
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚

𝑘 𝑘 𝑘
𝜆3 = 2.88 ; ɷ23 = 2.88 => ɷ3 = 1.697 √
𝑚 𝑚 𝑚
Step 6: To determine Eigen vectors.

|𝜆𝐼 − [𝑐]|𝑋 = 0
Let,
𝑋 = 𝐴 sin ɷ𝑡
|𝜆𝐼 − [𝑐]|[𝐴] = 0
First model vector:
|𝜆1 𝐼 − [𝑐]|[𝐴1 ] = 0
𝑘 1 0 0 𝑘 1.5 −0.5 0 𝐴11
{0.25 [0 1 0] − [−1 2 −1]} [𝐴21 ] = 0
𝑚 𝑚 𝐴31
0 0 1 0 −1 1
𝑘 −1.25 0.5 0 𝐴11 0
{ [ 1 −1.75 1 ]} [𝐴21 ] = 
𝑚
0 1 −0.75 𝐴31 0
−1.25𝐴11 + 0.5 𝐴21 = 0
𝐴11 − 1.75𝐴21 + 𝐴31 = 0
𝐴21 − 0.75𝐴31 = 0
Assume𝐴11 = 1,
Then,
𝐴11 1
[𝐴21 ] = [2.5]
𝐴31 3.3
Second model vector:
|𝜆2 𝐼 − [𝑐]|[𝐴2 ] = 0
𝑘 1 0 0 𝑘 1.5 −0.5 0 𝐴12
{1.355 [0 1 0] − [−1 2 −1]} [𝐴22 ] = 0
𝑚 𝑚 𝐴32
0 0 1 0 −1 1
𝑘 −0.145 0.5 0 𝐴12 0
{ [ 1 −0.645 𝐴
1 ]} [ 22 ] = 
𝑚
0 1 0.355 𝐴32 0
−0.145𝐴12 + 0.5 𝐴22 = 0
𝐴12 − 0.645𝐴22 + 𝐴32 = 0
𝐴22 − 0.355𝐴32 = 0
Assume𝐴12 = 1,
Then,
𝐴12 1
[𝐴22 ] = [ 0.29 ]
𝐴32 −0.82
Third model vector:
|𝜆3 𝐼 − [𝑐]|[𝐴3 ] = 0
𝐴13
𝑘 1 0 0 𝑘 1.5 −0.5 0
{2.88 [0 1 0] − [−1 2 𝐴
−1]} [ 23 ] = 0
𝑚 𝑚 𝐴33
0 0 1 0 −1 1
𝐴13 0
𝑘 1.38 0.5 0
{ [ 1 0.88 1 ]} [ 𝐴23 ] = 
𝑚
0 1 1.88 𝐴33 0
1.383 + 0.5 𝐴23 = 0
𝐴13 + 0.88𝐴23 + 𝐴33 = 0
𝐴23 + 1.88𝐴33 = 0
Assume𝐴13 = 1,
Then,
𝐴13 1
[𝐴23 ] = [−2.76]
𝐴33 1.47
The required model matrix is given by,
1 1 1
[2.5 0.29 −2.76]
3.3 −0.82 1.47
Step 7: Model shapes.

𝑚1
1 1 1

𝑥1

## 2.5 𝑚2 0.29 -2.76

𝑥2
𝑚3 3.5 -0.82 1.47

𝑥3

## Influence co-efficient or flexibility co-efficient:

It is defined as the deflection of point ‘i’ due to a unit load at point ‘j’. Since the deflection is
increase proportionately with the load for a linear system.

𝑥𝑖𝑗 = 𝑎𝑖𝑗 𝐹𝑗

Where,

## 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13

𝑎
𝑎𝑖𝑗 = [ 21 𝑎22 𝑎23 ]
𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33

We know that,

[𝐹]
Stiffness matrix[𝑘] =
[𝑥]

[𝑥][𝑘] = [𝐹]

Substitute,
[𝑥] = [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ][𝐹]

## [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ][𝐹][𝑘] = [𝐹]

1
[𝑎𝑖𝑗 ][𝑘] = 1 => [𝑘] = [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ]

## Maxwell’s reciprocal theorem:

It is defined as the deflection at point ‘i’ due to unit load at point ‘j’ is equal to the deflection
at point ‘j’ due to unit load at point ‘i’.

[𝑥𝑖𝑗 ] = [𝑥𝑗𝑖 ]

## [𝑎𝑖𝑗 ][𝐹𝑖 ] = [𝑎𝑗𝑖 ][𝐹𝑖 ]

[𝑎𝑖𝑗 ] = [𝑎𝑗𝑖 ]
1) Determine the influence co-efficient or flexibility co-efficient for the following
system.

𝑥1 𝑥2 𝑥3
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝑚3

## 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13

𝑎
𝑎𝑖𝑗 = [ 21 𝑎22 𝑎23 ]
𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33

[𝑎][𝑘] = 𝐼

1
[𝑎] =
[𝑘]
𝑥1 = 𝑎11 𝑥2 = 𝑎21 𝑥3 = 𝑎31
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝑚3

𝐹1 = 1𝐹2 = 0𝐹3 = 0

## 𝑘2 (𝑎21 − 𝑎11 ) + 𝑘3 (𝑎21 − 𝑎31 ) = 0

𝑘3 (𝑎31 − 𝑎21 ) = 0

(𝑎31 − 𝑎21 ) = 0

𝑎31 = 𝑎21

𝑘2 (𝑎21 − 𝑎11 ) = 0

𝑎21 = 𝑎11

𝑎11 𝑘1 = 1

1
𝑎11 =
𝑘1

𝟏
𝒂𝟏𝟏 = 𝒂𝟐𝟏 = 𝒂𝟑𝟏 =
𝒌𝟏
𝑥1 = 𝑎12 𝑥2 = 𝑎22 𝑥3 = 𝑎32
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝑚3

𝐹1 = 0𝐹2 = 1𝐹3 = 0

## 𝑘2 (𝑎22 − 𝑎12 ) + 𝑘3 (𝑎22 − 𝑎32 ) = 1

𝑘3 (𝑎32 − 𝑎22 ) = 0

(𝑎32 − 𝑎22 ) = 0

𝑎32 = 𝑎22

𝑘2 (𝑎22 − 𝑎12 ) = 1

1
𝑎22 − 𝑎12 =
𝑘2

## 𝑘1 𝑎12 + 𝑘2 [− (𝑎22 − 𝑎11 )] = 0

1
𝑘1 𝑎12 + 𝑘2 [− ]=0
𝑘2

𝑘1 𝑎12 = 1

1
𝑎12 =
𝑘1

1
𝑎22 − 𝑎12 =
𝑘2

1 1
𝑎22 − =
𝑘1 𝑘2

𝟏 𝟏
𝒂𝟐𝟐 = 𝒂𝟑𝟐 = +
𝒌𝟏 𝒌𝟐

## 𝑥1 = 𝑎13 𝑥2 = 𝑎23 𝑥3 = 𝑎33

𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3
𝑚1 𝑚2 𝑚3

𝐹1 = 0𝐹2 = 0𝐹3 = 1
𝑘1 𝑎13 + 𝑘2 (𝑎13 − 𝑎23 ) = 0

## 𝑘2 (𝑎23 − 𝑎13 ) + 𝑘3 (𝑎23 − 𝑎33 ) = 0

𝑘3 (𝑎33 − 𝑎23 ) = 1

1
(𝑎33 − 𝑎23 ) =
𝑘3

1
𝑘2 (𝑎23 − 𝑎13 ) − 𝑘3 ( ) =0
𝑘3

𝑘2 (𝑎23 − 𝑎13 ) = 1

1
𝑎23 − 𝑎13 =
𝑘2

1
𝑘1 𝑎13 − 𝑘2 ( ) = 0
𝑘2

𝑘1 𝑎13 = 1

1
𝑎13 =
𝑘1

1
𝑎23 − 𝑎13 =
𝑘2

1 1
𝑎23 − =
𝑘1 𝑘2

1 1
𝑎23 = +
𝑘1 𝑘2

1 1 1
𝑎33 − ( + )=
𝑘1 𝑘2 𝑘3

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒂𝟑𝟑 = + +
𝒌𝟏 𝒌𝟐 𝒌𝟑

𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟏
𝒂𝟏𝟏 = 𝒂𝟐𝟏 = 𝒂𝟑𝟏 = ; 𝒂𝟐𝟐 = 𝒂𝟑𝟐 = + 𝒌 ; 𝒂𝟑𝟑 = +𝒌 +𝒌
𝒌𝟏 𝒌𝟏 𝟐 𝒌𝟏 𝟐 𝟑

2) A steel shaft of a diameter 10cm is carrying three masses 5kg, 7.5kg and 14kg
respectively as shown in figure. The distances between the rotors are 0.7m.
Determine the natural frequencies of torsional vibration. The radii of gyration of
three rotors are 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 respectively. Take G = 9 × 108 𝑁/ 𝑚2 .
ɵ𝟑

ɵ𝟐

ɵ𝟏

𝑘𝑡1 𝑘𝑡2

Solution:
I = m 𝑘2
𝑚1 𝑅12
𝐼1 = = 0.1 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
2
𝑚2 𝑅22
𝐼2 = = 0.3375 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
2

𝑚3 𝑅32
𝐼3 = = 1.12 𝑘𝑔 𝑚2
2

𝐺𝐽 𝐺𝜋 𝑑 4
𝑘𝑡 = 𝑘𝑡1 = 𝑘𝑡2 = =
𝑙 32𝑙

𝐼ɵ̈ = 𝑘𝑡 ɵ

## 𝐼3 ɵ̈3 + 𝑘𝑡2 (ɵ3 − ɵ2 ) = 0

Let,
ɵ1 = 𝛷1 sin 𝜔𝑡
ɵ2 = 𝛷2 sin 𝜔𝑡
ɵ3 = 𝛷3 sin 𝜔𝑡
ɵ̈1 = −𝛷1 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
ɵ̈2 = −𝛷2 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
ɵ̈3 = −𝛷3 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡
Apply in above equations,
−𝐼1 𝛷1 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘𝑡1 (𝛷1 − 𝛷2 ) sin 𝜔𝑡 = 0
(𝑘𝑡1 − 𝐼1 𝜔2 )𝛷1 − 𝑘𝑡2 𝛷2 = 0
−𝐼2 𝛷2 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘𝑡1 (𝛷2 − 𝛷1 ) sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘𝑡2 (𝛷2 − 𝛷3 ) sin 𝜔𝑡 = 0
−𝑘𝑡1 𝛷1 + (𝑘𝑡1 + 𝑘𝑡2 − 𝐼2 𝜔2 )𝛷2 − 𝑘𝑡2 𝛷3 = 0
−𝐼3 𝛷3 𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡 + 𝑘𝑡2 (𝛷3 − 𝛷2 ) sin 𝜔𝑡 = 0
−𝑘𝑡2 𝛷2 + (𝑘𝑡2 − 𝐼3 𝜔2 )𝛷3 = 0
The above equations can be written in matrix form,
𝑘𝑡1 − 𝐼1 𝜔2 −𝑘𝑡2 0 𝛷1
2
[ −𝑘𝑡1 𝑘𝑡1 + 𝑘𝑡2 − 𝐼2 𝜔 −𝑘𝑡2 ] [𝛷2 ] = 0
0 −𝑘𝑡2 𝑘𝑡2 − 𝐼3 𝜔2 𝛷3
𝑘𝑡 = 𝑘𝑡1 = 𝑘𝑡2
2
𝑘𝑡 − 𝐼1 𝜔 −𝑘𝑡 0
2
| −𝑘𝑡 𝑘𝑡1 + 𝑘𝑡2 − 𝐼2 𝜔 −𝑘𝑡 | = 0
0 −𝑘𝑡 𝑘𝑡 − 𝐼3 𝜔2

## 𝜔2 [𝐼1 𝐼2 𝐼3 𝜔4 − (𝐼1 𝐼2 + 𝐼2 𝐼3 + 2𝐼1 𝐼3 )𝑘𝑡 𝜔2 + (𝐼1 + 𝐼2 + 𝐼3 )𝑘𝑡 2 ] = 0

𝜔2 = 0 => ɷ1 = 0
𝐼1 𝐼2 𝐼3 𝜔4 − (𝐼1 𝐼2 + 𝐼2 𝐼3 + 2𝐼1 𝐼3 )𝑘𝑡 𝜔2 + (𝐼1 + 𝐼2 + 𝐼3 )𝑘𝑡 2 = 0
𝜔4 − 21.21 × 104 𝜔2 + 65.58 × 108 = 0
ɷ2 = 417.77 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠
ɷ3 = 193.78 𝑟𝑎𝑑/𝑠

2k k k
2m 2m m

## 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13

𝑎
𝑎𝑖𝑗 = [ 21 𝑎22 𝑎23 ]
𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33

1
𝑎11 = 𝑎21 = 𝑎31 =
2𝑘
1 1 3
𝑎22 = 𝑎32 = + =
2𝑘 𝑘 2𝑘

1 1 1 5
𝑎33 = + + =
2𝑘 𝑘 𝑘 2𝑘
1 1 1
2𝑘 2𝑘 2𝑘
1 3 3
𝑎𝑖𝑗 =
2𝑘 2𝑘 2𝑘
1 3 5
[2𝑘 2𝑘 2𝑘 ]

The equation for the above system in terms of influence co-efficient can be written as,

## 𝑋1 2𝑎11 2𝑎12 𝑎13 𝑥1

[𝑋2 ] = 𝑚𝜔2 [2𝑎21 2𝑎22 𝑎23 ] [𝑥2 ]
𝑋3 2𝑎31 2𝑎32 𝑎33 𝑥3

2 2 2
𝑋1 2𝑘 2𝑘 2𝑘 𝑥
1
2 6 3
[𝑋2 ] = 𝑚𝜔2 𝑥
[ 2]
𝑋3 2𝑘 2𝑘 2𝑘 𝑥3
2 6 5
[2𝑘 2𝑘 2𝑘]
𝑋1 1 2 2 1 𝑥1
[𝑋2 ] = [2 6 3] [𝑥2 ]
2𝑘
𝑋3 2 6 5 𝑥3

Let assume,

𝑥1 1
𝑥
[ 2 ] = 
𝑥3 3

First iteration:

𝑋1 𝑚𝜔2 2 2 1 1 𝑚𝜔2 9
[𝑋2 ] = [2 6 3 ] [2 ] = 
𝑋3 2𝑘 2𝑘
2 6 5 3 29
𝑋1 9𝑚𝜔2 1
𝑋
[ 2] = [2.55]
𝑋3 2𝑘
3.22

Second iteration:

## 𝑋1 9𝑚𝜔2 2 2 1 1 9𝑚𝜔2 10.22

[𝑋2 ] = [2 6 3] [2.55] = [26.96]
𝑋3 2𝑘 2𝑘
2 6 5 3.22 33.40

𝑋1 91.98𝑚𝜔2 1
[𝑋2 ] = [2.61]
𝑋3 2𝑘
3.26

Third iteration:

## 𝑋1 91.98𝑚𝜔2 2 2 1 1 91.98𝑚𝜔2 10.48

[𝑋2 ] = [2 6 3] [2.61] = [27.44]
𝑋3 2𝑘 2𝑘
2 6 5 3.26 33.96

𝑋1 963.95𝑚𝜔2 1
𝑋
[ 2] = [2.62]
𝑋3 2𝑘
3.26

963.95𝑚𝜔2 𝑘
= 1 => 𝜔1 = 0.045 √
2𝑘 𝑚

963.95𝑚𝜔2 𝑘
= 2.62 => 𝜔2 = 0.074 √
2𝑘 𝑚

963.95𝑚𝜔2 𝑘
= 3.24 => 𝜔3 = 0.082 √
2𝑘 𝑚

0.05m
m=10kg

## 0.2m 0.25m m=20kg

We know that,
𝑎11 𝑎12
𝑎𝑖𝑗 = [𝑎 ]
21 𝑎22
𝜋𝑑 4
𝐼= = 3.06 × 10−7
64
𝑥3
𝑎11 = = 4.14 × 10−8 𝑚/𝑁
3𝐸𝐼
𝑙3
𝑎22 = = 4.73 × 10−7 𝑚/𝑁
3𝐸𝐼

𝑥 2 (3𝑙 − 𝑥)
𝑎12 = 𝑎21 = = 1.19 × 10−7 𝑚/𝑁
6𝐸𝐼
5) Determine the influence co-efficient of the system as shown in figure.
Take I = 4× 𝟏𝟎−𝟕 𝒎𝟒 , E = 2× 𝟏𝟎−𝟏𝟏 𝑵/𝒎.

m=25kg m=20kg

## 0.1m 0.1 m 0.1 m

𝑎2 𝑏 2
𝑎11 = = 5.55 × 10−9 𝑚/𝑁
3𝐸𝐼𝑙
(𝑎 + 𝑐)2 (𝑏 − 𝑐)2
𝑎22 = = 5.55 × 10−9 𝑚/𝑁
3𝐸𝐼𝑙

𝑎𝑐(𝑙 2 − 𝑎2 − 𝑐 2 )
𝑎12 = 𝑎21 = = 4.86 × 10−9 𝑚/𝑁
6𝐸𝐼𝑙
UNIT - 5
NUMERICAL METHOD
In many engineering problems it is required to quickly estimate the fundamental natural
frequency.

The following natural methods are used to find fundamental frequency of the system:

## i) Dunkerley’s lower bound method

ii) Rayleigh’s upper bound method
iii) Holzer method

## 1) Dunkerley’s lower bound method:

Dunkerley’s formula can be determined by frequency equation.
We know that,
𝑚𝑥̈ + 𝑘𝑥 = 0
Let,
𝑥 = 𝐴 sin 𝜔𝑡
𝑥̈ = −𝐴𝜔2 sin 𝜔𝑡 = −𝜔2 𝑥
−𝜔2 𝑥𝑚 + 𝑘𝑥 = 0 => 𝑥(−𝜔2 𝑚 + 𝑘) = 0
−𝜔2 𝑚
𝑘( + 1) = 0
𝑘
𝑚 1
−𝜔2 𝑘 ( − 2 ) = 0
𝑘 𝜔
𝑚 1
( − 2) = 0
𝑘 𝜔
‘n’ degree of freedom,
[𝑚] [𝐼] [𝐼]
− 2 = 0 => [𝑚][𝑘]−1 − 2 = 0
[𝑘] 𝜔 𝜔
[𝐼]
[𝑚][𝑎𝑖𝑗 ] − 2 = 0
𝜔
1 1 0 0 𝑚1 0 0 𝑎11 𝑎12 𝑎13
− 2 [0 1 0] + [ 0 𝑚2 0 ] [𝑎21 𝑎22 𝑎23 ] = 0
𝜔 0 0 𝑚3 𝑎31 𝑎32 𝑎33
0 0 1

## The solution of above matrix is given by,

1
= 𝑎11 𝑚1 + 𝑎22 𝑚2 + 𝑎33 𝑚3
𝜔2

## The above equation can also be written as,

1 1 1 1
2
= 2+ 2+ 2
𝜔𝑛 𝜔1 𝜔2 𝜔3
Rayleigh’s upper bound method:

## (𝐾. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (𝑃. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑊1 𝑊2 𝑊3

𝑦1 𝑦2 𝑦3

𝑛
1
(𝑃. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∑ 𝑚𝑖 𝑔𝑦𝑖
2
𝑖=1
𝑛
1
(𝐾. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∑ 𝑚𝑖 𝜔2 𝑦𝑖 2
2
𝑖=1

## (𝐾. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = (𝑃. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥

𝑛 𝑛
1 1
∑ 𝑚𝑖 𝜔2 𝑦𝑖 2 = ∑ 𝑚𝑖 𝑔𝑦𝑖
2 2
𝑖=1 𝑖=1

1
∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝑚𝑖 𝑔𝑦𝑖
2 2
𝜔 = 1
∑𝑛𝑖=1 𝑚𝑖 𝑦𝑖 2
2

𝑙
𝐸𝐼 𝑑 2 𝑦 2
(𝑃. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∫( 2 ) 𝑑𝑥
2 𝑑𝑥
0

𝑙
1
(𝐾. 𝐸) 𝑚𝑎𝑥 = ∫ 𝑚𝜔2 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥
2
0

𝑙 𝑙
1 𝐸𝐼 𝑑 2 𝑦 2
∫ 𝑚𝜔2 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥 = ∫( 2 ) 𝑑𝑥
2 2 𝑑𝑥
0 0
𝑙 𝑑2 𝑦2
2
𝐸𝐼 ∫0 (𝑑𝑥 2 ) 𝑑𝑥
𝜔 =
𝑚 ∫𝑙 𝑦 2 𝑑𝑥
0

Holzer method:

This is a trial and error method used to find the natural frequency and mode shape of
multi mass lumped parameter system.