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Proportional control with DC motor – report IV.

Proportional control with DC motor


. Sebastian Balaguera
Zully Tatiana Rocha,
tati961219, sebalaguera (@gmail.com)

Biomedical Engineering

University Manuela Beltrán

II. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK


Abstract - In the laboratory we worked on the
execution of a mechanical and digital system to Proportional control is a system with linear
control the angles controlled by a DC feedback that provides great ease in unstable
proportional motor. Mainly the electrical design systems for activation and deactivation by
of a proportional control will be made using a modulating the output of the control device.
stepper motor with three potentiometers one is These controls allow to calculate the difference
used to control the speed, the other to move the between the process variable signal and the
motor and the other is stuck with the stepper error signal, which is a value that represents as
motor with which the counting the turns of the soon as the process of the setpoint value is
encoder and after that the programming by being diverted. [1] By basic action it is
implementing a PWM signal to make the width understood that the controller amplifies,
or pulse modulation, finally the graphic integrates or derives the input information or
interface will be created in labview where the develops a sum between some of these actions.
reference degrees and the KP error of the plant According to this, the controllers that are
are displayed. usually included in a process are those of
proportional (P), proportional - integral (PI),
proportional - derivative (PD) and proportional
Keywords – DC motor, proportional control, - integral - derivative (PID) actions. For this
speed, potentiometers, PWM, Labview, KP. case it is desired to implement the proportional
center in a system that allows, by changing the
angle of a potentiometer, the motor (DC) must
I. INTRODUCTION rotate the same angle of the potentiometer and
in turn can be making a count of the number of
The purpose of this practice is to provide the turns of the motor, for this it is necessary to
position, speed and direction for a particular make use of an encoder wheel and a horseshoe
function such as: Mark a specific location in the sensor.
printing processes, point out angle and speed
and the KP to know the error of the plant. PWM
It should be noted that its function differs It is a signal implemented to make the width
between incremental or absolute signals that
or pulse modulation, with this voltage signal
consist of only informing that a position has
changed while the Absolute registers both the information is sent or the amount of energy
change and the new location this could be, is to that is overloaded to a load is modified.
review the concept of proportional control, This type of signals are widely used in
identify the different types of motor to digital circuits that need to emulate an
recognize which proportional control can be analog signal and are of square or
applied analogous to low power and which is sinusoidal type in which the relative width is
the power supply circuit that must be coupled to
changed with respect to the period of the
the selected motor, in order to apply an
adequate proportional control. same. To emulate an analog signal, the
Proportional control with DC motor – report IV.

duty cycle is changed, in such a way that


the average value of the signal is the appro
V. METHODOLOGY
LABVIEW
 Perform a physical assembly, to
implement a DC motor with encoder
LabVIEW offers a graphical programming
(which will be known by the name of
approach that helps you visualize every
the plant), a proportional control, for the
aspect of your application, including
angular position, as indicated in the
hardware configuration, measurement data
following diagrams.
and debugging. This visualization makes it
easier to integrate measurement hardware
from any vendor, represent a complex logic
in the diagram, develop data analysis
algorithms and design custom user
interfaces.

III. OBJECTIVES

 Know and identify a mathematical


model by applying the PID transfer Own source
function and the KP to establish the
plant error.
 Identify the power supply circuit that
must be coupled to the selected
motor, in order to apply an adequate
proportional control.
 Make a plant with a DC motor
control to control the speed and
angle and what you want to
visualize.
Taken from:
https://www.automatas.org/hardware/teoria
_pid.htm - accessed 1-12-2017
IV. EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS

EQUIPMENT MATERIALS  The user interface (in Labview).


1 computer with  Display of the desired position.
Labview POTENTIOMETER  Display of the current position.
RESISTANCE  Module to vary the response speed (how
STEPPER MOTOR
fast you want the system to respond to
ARDUINO
reach the desired position).
SOURCE  have the display of the error that has
been generated between the desired
angle and the current one.
 The potentiometer, which is mentioned
MULTIMETER
in the diagram, is responsible for
OSCILLOSCOPE reducing or increasing the error.
Proportional control with DC motor – report IV.

VI. CUESTIONARIO and frequency of these pulses allows to


determine the total power delivered to the
1. Make the block diagram of the system circuit.
proposed in the guide.

Img 1. Block diagram of the proposed system Img 3. Interface in Labview of the proportional
control
2. Describe the analysis and theoretical
development of the electrical system procedure.
VIII. CONCLUSIONS
This analysis can be read in the results section,
where the procedure that was carried out and
the analysis respectively are described.  A mathematical model was
identified applying the PID transfer
function and the KP to establish the
VII. RESULTS error of the plant. This can be
evidenced in the annexes.
To prove the operation of the proportional
control, the error was found first, finding the  Correctly identify the power supply
difference between the angle that is had circuit that must be coupled to the
and the angle to obtain. Starting with 0 until stepper motor where the appropriate
reaching n degrees, acquiring a constant of proportional control is applied to
proportionality that indicates the voltage control the movement of the plant
that must control the movement of the DC speed.
motor, this in order to find the desired
degrees by keeping track of how much  You can see a plant with a stepper
progress is made in each time motor control to control the speed
and angle and the result can be
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displayed in Labview.
Img 2. Assembly of the proposed proportional
control. IX. ANALYSIS OF RESULTS

The movement was not as natural as one would Proportional control is the type of control
have liked, because the same motor has an used by most controllers that regulate the
impedance or inertia that opposes the start of speed of an object. If the object is moving
movement, that is, when this barrier is broken, a at the target speed and the speed
360 ° rotation is obtained, preventing the use of increases slightly, the power is reduced
angles inferior to said value. slightly, or in proportion to the error (the
difference between the actual speed and
The technique of pulse width modulation the target speed), so that the object
(PWM) favored proportional control, since it reduces the speed little to little and the
uses a series of digital pulses to control the speed approaches the target speed, so the
analog circuit of the encoder, where the length
Proportional control with DC motor – report IV.

result is a much smoother control than the


on / off type control.

It was known and understood the operation


of a proportional control with a DC motor,
by which the output of the controller is
proportional to the error signal, which is the
difference between the desired target point
and the process variable.

The assembly was properly implemented


using a DC motor, as indicated in the block
diagram of the guide. An interface was
designed in Labview that complemented
the operation of the proportional control
allowing to observe the number of turns in a
certain time.

X. REFERENCES

[1] Anadigm, Inc., PID Control Customer


Presentation, PR080200-0004, Agosto 2002.
http://www.anadigm.com/_doc/FPAA Solutions
for PID ControlPID Control.pdf. [Citado en
2005]

[2] R.Petrella, M.Tursini, 2008, .An Embedded


System for Position and Speed Measurement
Adopting Incremental Encoders", IEEE
Transactions on industrial Applications, vol 33,
no. 5, pp 1436-1444

[3] J. Holtz: Pulse Width Modulation for


Electronic Power Conversion. Chapter 4. on,
Power Electronics and Variable Frecuency
Drives. Edit by, Bilman K. Bose., IEEE Press.
1997.

[4] SECELEC: Desarrollo. Medidores y


controladores de temperatura. 2007. Disponible
en www.criba.edu.ar (consultado 8 de abril de
2018).
Proportional control with DC motor – report IV.