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Fan and Air System

Applications Handbook
AMCA International

Publication 200 Publication 201 Publication 202 Publication 203


Air Systems Fans and Systems Troubleshooting Field Performance
Measurements of
Fan Systems
Forward

Publication 200 Publication 201 Publication 202 Publication 203


Air Systems Fans and Systems Troubleshooting Field Performance
Measurements of Fan
Systems
Air Systems is intended Fans and Systems Troubleshooting is
to provide basic is aimed primarily at intended to help identify
information needed to the designer of the air and correct problems Field Performance
design effective and moving system and with the performance Measurements of
energy efficient air discusses the effect and operation of the air Fan Systems reviews
systems. Discussion on inlet and outlet moving system after the various problems
is limited to systems connections of the fan’s installation. AMCA 201 of making field
where there is a clear performance. System and AMCA 203 are measurements and
separation of the fan Effect Factors, which companion documents. calculating the actual
inlet and outlet and does must be included in the performance of the fan
not cover applications in basic design calculations, and system. AMCA
which fans are used only are listed for various 201 and AMCA 202 are
to circulate air in an open configurations. AMCA companion documents.
space. 202 and AMCA 203 are
companion documents.

• System Pressure • Fan Testing and Rating • System Checklist • Acceptance Tests
Losses
• The Fan “Laws” • Fan Manufacturer’s • Test Methods and
• Fan Performance Analysis Instruments
Characteristics • Air Systems
• Master Troubleshooting • Precautions
• System Effect • Fan and System Appendices
Interaction • Limitations and
• System Design Expected Accuracies
Tolerances • System Effect Factors
• Calculations
Review Committee

These members contributed to the final review of the publications contained in this
Fan Application Manual.

Tom Berger Pace Company, Division of York International


Rick Bursh Illinois Blower, Inc.
Patrick Chinoda Hartzell Fan, Inc.
Narsaiah Dasa TLT-Babcock, Inc.
Gerald P. Jolette AMCA Staff
Robert L. Lanier Phelps Fan Manufacturing Co., Inc.
Tung Nguyen Emerson Ventilation Products
Sutton G. Page Austin Air Balancing Corp.
Scott Phillips The New York Blower Company
Neil H. Rutherford Delhi Industries, Inc.
Jack E. Saunders Barry Blower/Snyder General Corp.
Paul R. Saxon AMCA International
Erling Schmidt Novenco, Inc.
Mark Schultz American Fan Company
William Smiley The Trane Company
James L. Smith Aerovent, Inc.
Charles R. Voss Phelps Fan Manufacturing Co., Inc.
Robert H. Zaleski Acme Engineering & Manufacturing Corp.
Disclaimer

This manual has been prepared by the Air Movement


and Control Association, Inc. The information
contained in this manual has been derived from many
sources and is believed to e accurate. Please note
that the recommendations contained herein do not
necessarily represent the only methods or procedures
appropriate for the situation discussed, but rather are
inteded to present consensus opinions and practices
of the air movement and control industry which may
be helpful, or of interest to those who design, test,
install, operate or maintain fan-duct systems. Thus,
AMCA disclaimes any and all warranties, expressed
or implied, regarding the accuracy of the information
contained in this maual and further disclaims any
liability for the use or misuse of this information. AMCA
does not guarantee, certify or assure the performance
of any fan-duct system designed, tested, installed,
operated or maintained on the basis of the information
provided in this manual.

Air Movement and Control Association International,


Inc. will consider and decide all written complaints
regarding its standards, certification programs, or
interpretations thereof. For information on procedures
for submitting and handling complaints, write to:

Air Movement and Control Association International


30 West University Drive
Arlington Heights, IL 60004-1893 U.S.A.

or

AMCA International, Incorporated


c/o Federation of Environmental Trade Associations
2 Waltham Court, Milley Lane, Hare Hatch
Reading, Berkshire
RG10 9TH United Kingdom
Table of Contents

Publication 200
Air Systems

1 Introduction
3 Symbols and Subscripts
4 Properties of Air
5 Airflow
13 The Flow System
34 System Design and Tolerances
40 Annex A — SI / I-P Conversion Table
41 Annex B — Standard Atmospheric Data Versus Altitude Charts
43 Annex C — Psychrometric Density Tables
47 Annex D — Friction Charts
49 Annex E — Air Density Correction Factor Charts

Publication 201
Fans and Systems

51 Introduction
51 Symbols and Subscripts
51 Fan Testing
54 Fan Ratings
63 Catalog Performance Tables
66 Air Systems
74 System Effect Factor (SEF)
79 Outlet System Effect Factors
88 Inlet System Effect Factors
99 Effects of Factory Supplied Accessories 49
102 Annex A. — SI / I-P Conversion Table (Informative)
103 Annex B. — Dual Fan Systems - Series and Parallel
106 Annex C. — Definitions and Terminology
113 Annex D. — Examples of the Convertibility of Energy from Velocity Pressure
to Static Pressure
120 Annex E. — References
Table of Contents (continued)

Publication 202
Troubleshooting

122 Introduction
122 Procedure for Troubleshooting
122 Safety Precautions
122 System Checklist
128 Fan Manufacturer’s Analysis
130 Conclusion
131 Annex A. Noise
134 Annex B. Insufficient Airflow
136 Annex C. Airflow High
137 Annex D. Static Pressure Wrong
139 Annex E — Power High
140 Annex F — Fan Does Not Operate
141 Annex G — Premature Failure
142 Annex H — Vibration

Publication 203
Field Performance Measurement of Fan Systems

145 Introduction
145 Scope
145 Types of Field Tests
146 Alternatives to Conducting Field Tests
146 System Effect Factors
146 Fan Performance
146 Referenced Planes
147 Symbols and Subscripts
147 Fan Flow Rate
152 Fan Static Pressure
156 Fan Power Input
158 Fan Speed
158 Densities
Table of Contents (continued)

159 Conversion Calculations


160 Test Preparation
161 Precautions
161 Typical Fan-System Installations
165 Annex A — Field Test Examples
241 Annex B — Pitot-Static Tubes
242 Annex C — Double Reverse Tube
243 Annex D — Pitot-Static Tube Holder
244 Annex E — Static Pressure Tap
245 Annex F — Pitot-Static Tube Connections
246 Annex G — Manometer Data
248 Annex H — Distribution of Traverse Points
250 Annex J — Instrumentation Characteristics
252 Annex K — Phase Current Method for Estimating the Power Output of Three
Phase Fan Motors
254 Annex L — Estimated Belt Drive Loss
256 Annex M — Density Determinations
260 Annex N — Density Charts and Tables
269 Annex P — Diffusion at Fan Outlets
270 Annex R — Diffusion at Fan Outlets
274 Annex S — Typical Format for Field Test Data
275 Annex T — Uncertainties Analysis
Air Systems 200
1. Introduction
A fan is required in order to produce the pressure
An air system is any assembly of ducts, filters, differential which results in the flow of air through a
conditioning devices, dampers, louvers, fans, etc., system. The fan must be carefully selected to meet
the main purpose of which is to move air from one the specified airflow and pressure for proper system
place to another in a controlled fashion. Most air operation. Different fan designs produce different
systems draw air from one space and discharge it pressure-volume and fan power relationships, which
into another. are critical to air system operation. Refer to Figure
4.2, AMCA Publication 201-90.
Air systems are often required to operate
satisfactorily in a wide range of environmental 1.1.4 Control devices. In many air systems it is
conditions. The conditions which will be encountered necessary to regulate and control the flow through
must be considered in the design of the ducts, pipes, the system in response to some monitoring signal,
etc., which will contain the airflow and constitute the usually temperature or pressure. It may be also
boundary of the system. necessary to regulate the flow in the individual
branches of the system. Control devices such as
1.1 Air system components dampers function by controlling the amount of airflow.
In some cases, the output of the fan can be varied by
A typical air system may contain one or more of the other methods (variable speed motor, variable inlet
following (see Figure 1): vanes, variable pitch impeller, etc.)

a) System inlet 1.1.5 Conditioning device. Most air systems are


b) Distribution system designed to take air from the inlet and change its
c) Fan condition before discharging it at the outlet. Changes
d) Control device may include the temperature, humidity, pressure,
e) Conditioning device contaminant level and cleanliness, etc., of the air.
f) System outlet Many conditioning devices require outside energy
sources, for example, heating and cooling coils; other
1.1.1 System inlet. An air system usually includes components such as filters are passive devices and
devices such as louvers, filters, screens, guards, have no external energy connection. All conditioning
grilles, etc., where the air enters the system. These devices increase the pressure drop across the
are used for safety reasons as well as to inhibit the system and this effect must be considered in the
entry of rain, dust, and other unwanted matter. Their selection of the fan.
appearance may be important as they are usually
visible on the exterior of a structure. 1.1.6 System outlet. An air system usually includes
a special component at the termination of the system
1.1.2 Distribution system. Most air systems are or at the end of each of the system's branches, such
made up of ducts specially designed and constructed as a simple screen or louver. In many cases the
to convey air from the system inlet(s) to the system distribution of the air at the outlet to the receiving
outlet(s). In some cases, enclosed spaces in the space is very important, e.g., in an occupied air
structure such as plenums above ceilings or holes in conditioned room. These systems require carefully
walls may be used to confine and direct the flow. selected outlets and diffusing devices to achieve
desirable air motion and temperature conditions in
1.1.3 Fan. Understanding the design and opera-tion the conditioned space. Typical devices are ceiling
of air systems begins with an understanding of the diffusers and grilles. In some cases these may
various types of fans, their performance incorporate control devices such as dampers and
characteristics, and their applications. mixing boxes.
FAN MAIN DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (DUCT)

SYSTEM
INLET

COIL BRANCH
DUCT
FILTER

LOUVER
DAMPER
DIFFUSER

SYSTEM SYSTEM SYSTEM


OUTLET OUTLET OUTLET

Figure 1 - Typical Air System

2 | Air Systems
2. Symbols and Subscripts

2.1 Symbols and subscripted symbols

Symbol Description SI (I-P)

A Area m2 (ft2)
Ae Area-Orifice Equivalent to System m2 (ft2)
Ao Area-Nozzle with no loss m2 (ft2)
ah Absolute Humidity kg/m3 (lb/ft3)
C Dynamic Loss Coefficient Dimensionless
Cd Coefficient of Discharge Dimensionless
Cn Coefficient of Nozzle Discharge Dimensionless
c Speed of Sound m/s (ft/s)
D Duct Diameter and Equivalent Diameter m (ft)
E System Resistance Curve Dimensionless
ε Absolute Surface Roughness Height m (ft)
f Friction Coefficient Dimensionless
g Gravity m/s2 (ft/s2)
γ Ratio of Specific Heats Dimensionless
K System Effect Factor (System) Dimensionless
L Length m (ft)
μ Air Viscosity, Absolute N-s/m2 (lbm/ft-s)
∆P Pressure Differential Pa (in. wg)
P Pressure Pa (in. wg)
Ps Static Pressure Pa (in. wg)
Psx Static Pressure at Plane x Pa (in. wg)
Pt Total Pressure Pa (in. wg)
Ptx Total Pressure at Plane x Pa (in. wg)
Pv Velocity Pressure Pa (in. wg)
p Atmospheric Pressure Pa (in. Hg)
Q Airflow Rate m3/s (cfm)
Qx Airflow Rate at Plane x m3/s (cfm)
R Gas Constant J/kg-K (ft-lb/lbm-°R)
Re Reynolds Number Dimensionless
rh Relative Humidity % (%)
ρ Air Density kg/m3 (lbm/ft3)
ρx Air Density at Plane x kg/m3 (lbm/ft3)
SEF System Effect Factor (Fan) Pa (in. wg)
SR System Resistance Factor m-4 (ft-4)
sh Specific Humidity (_/_ dry air) kg/kg dry air (lb/lb) dry air
t Temperature °C (°F)
td Dry-Bulb Temperature °C (°F)
tw Wet-Bulb Temperature °C (°F)
V Average Velocity m/s (ft/min)
v Velocity - At any Point m/s (ft/min)
Y Expansion Factor Dimensionless
Z Altitude m (ft)
~ Is Proportional to Dimensionless

2.2 Subscripts

Subscript Definition Subscript Definition

a Element a n Reference to Nozzle


b Element b O Plane of System Outlet
c Element c - Combined x Plane 0, 1, 2,...as appropriate
d Discharge x,x' Between Planes x and x'
E Plane of System Entry 1 Plane of Fan Inlet
F Fan 2 Plane of Fan Discharge
3. Properties of Air N-s/m2 (1.222 × 10-5 lbm/ft-s). This is substantially
equivalent to air at a temperature of 20°C (68°F),
Atmospheric air is a mixture of several gases, water 50% relative humidity, and a barometric pressure of
vapor, and impurities. The relative amounts of the 101 kPa (29.92 inches mercury) at sea level. The
important constituents for dry, sea level air are given ratio of specific heats, (γ), is taken to be 1.4, which is
in Table 3.1. This table may be considered the expected value for a perfect diatomic gas.
representative of air at any altitude.
The temperature and barometric pressure of
Table 3.1 - Dry Air Composition, Fraction atmospheric air vary widely with weather conditions
and geographical location, most noticeably altitude.
Component Volume Weight In order to simplify design, standard atmospheric
Nitrogen 0.7809 0.7552 conditions have been defined which give the variation
of atmospheric pressure, temperature, and,
Oxygen 0.2095 0.2315 therefore, density with altitude. Annex B lists these
variations.
Argon 0.0093 0.0128
3.1.2 Pressure
Carbon Dioxide 0.0003 0.0004 In an air system, pressure is the force exerted by the
air molecules on the surfaces which make up the
Also slight traces of neon, hydrogen, helium, system. Since air molecules are always in motion,
krypton, ozone and others they continuously collide with other air molecules or a
solid surface. All these collisions are considered to be
Although the gas composition of air can be perfectly elastic and, in the case when a molecule
considered essentially constant, the amount of water strikes a surface, the surface experiences a force
vapor contained in the air can vary greatly. The equal and opposite to the time rate of change of
properties of moist air are dependent upon the momentum of the rebounding molecule. This force
relative amount of water vapor and dry air, therefore, causes the gas to exert an overall pressure on an
in defining the properties of moist air, this relative immersed body and this force per unit area is
amount must be defined (see Section 3.1.5 referred to as the pressure. In air system work, the
Humidity). units of pressure are given in terms of force per unit
area. The unit of measure for pressure in the SI
The impurities in the air are of various forms, but system is the Pascal (Pa); in the I-P system the units
basically can be divided into two categories: a) are inches of water gauge (in. wg).
particulates which can be either solid or liquid, and b)
mixtures, which can be either gas or vapor. The 3.1.3 Temperature
distribution of these impurities is not uniform on an
3.1.3.1 Thermal relationships
atmospheric scale, but can be considered uniform for
The kinetic energy of gas molecules increases with
the purposes of air system design. Since air is a
increasing temperature. The important effects of this
mixture of several gases, the behavior of air under
fact are stated in Boyle's Law and Charles' Law,
varying conditions can be best understood by first
which state that the volume of a perfect gas varies
reviewing the behavior of pure gases.
inversely with absolute pressure and directly with
absolute temperature, respectively. The total effect is
3.1 Properties of gases more properly stated by the equation of state:
A gas may be defined as a compressible substance PV = mRT Eq. 3.1-1
which has no free surfaces and occupies all portions
of its container. The important properties of an ideal or
gas are listed below.
P = ρRT Eq. 3.1-2
3.1.1 Density. The density of a gas is defined as the
total mass of the molecules in a unit volume. In the SI Where:
system density is given in kilograms per cubic meter
(kg/m3); in the I-P system, density is given in pounds P = Pressure
per cubic foot (lbm/ft3). V = Volume
m = mass
For purposes of uniformity, standard air has been R = Gas Constant
defined as air with a density of 1.2 kg/m3 (0.075 T = Absolute Temperature
lbm/ft3) and an absolute viscosity of 18.19 × 10-6 ρ = m/V = density

4 | Air Systems
In the design of most air systems, it is acceptable to mixture is defined as the ratio of the vapor pressure
assume that the gas is incompressible, therefore, the existing compared to the vapor pressure at saturation
air density may be considered constant, and for the same dry-bulb temperature. This is also equal
therefore, the absolute pressure and absolute to the ratio of the mole fractions under the same
temperature are directly proportional. condition. Relative humidity is always expressed as a
percent.
3.1.3.2 Dry-bulb, wet-bulb and dew point
temperature. Unless otherwise specified, the Specific humidity (sh) is the actual mass (weight) of
temperature of an air-water vapor mixture is that the water vapor existing per unit mass (unit weight) of
temperature which is indicated by an ordinary or dry- dry air or gas. Absolute humidity (ah) may be
bulb thermometer. This dry-bulb temperature is the expressed in kilograms (pounds) of water vapor per
temperature of both the air and the water vapor in the cubic meter (cubic foot) of mixture. The humidity of
mixture. The wet-bulb temperature may be an air-water vapor mixture is often expressed by
determined by exposing a wetted bulb in a moving giving either relative humidity or a wet-bulb
air-water vapor mixture until equilibrium is obtained. depression.
The wet-bulb temperature will be lower than the dry-
bulb temperature as long as evaporation continues. If 4. Airflow
no evaporation is possible, the mixture is saturated
and the wet and dry-bulb temperatures for this The flow of any fluid between two points is caused by
condition will be identical. The dew point temperature the existence of a pressure differential between the
of an air-water vapor mixture is the saturation two points. It is the purpose of this section to explain
temperature corresponding to the absolute humidity the parameters that may affect the flow of a gas
of the mixture. The dew point temperature may also between two points.
be considered as that temperature at which
condensation begins when the mixture is gradually 4.1 Flow conditions
cooled.
Most air systems are designed in the incompressible
3.1.4 Viscosity. A non-perfect gas, such as air, is range. Where compressibility is a factor, Mach
capable of exerting a force parallel to the surface of a number and Reynolds number must be considered.
body which is moving with respect to the gas. The
magnitude of the force parallel to the surface is used The magnitude of these parameters gives an
to define an important property of non-perfect gases indication of the effects which can be expected from
- viscosity. The effects of viscosity on the behavior of the deviations in the non-perfect gas behavior from
real gases cause resistance to flow; the resistance is that of a perfect gas.
proportional to the velocity gradients which exist in
the gas. The absolute viscosity (µ) is defined as the 4.1.1 Mach number. Mach number, for our purposes
shearing stress for a unit rate of change of velocity. here, is the ratio of the velocity of an airstream to the
The absolute viscosity has units of newton-sec per speed of sound in that airstream.
meter squared (N-s/m2) in the SI system and pound
mass per foot-second (lbm/ft-s) using I-P units. Mach number = V/c

3.1.5 Humidity. The density of atmospheric air is Where:


also a function of the humidity. Although the change
in density due to a change in humidity is not large, it V = velocity of air, m/s (ft/s)
is often significant and air system designers should c = speed of sound in air, m/s (ft/s)
be aware of these changes. Remember that
increasing humidity lowers the density since water The speed of sound is a function of temperature and
vapor is lighter than dry air. The density of saturated is the speed at which very small pressure
air for various barometric and hygrometric conditions disturbances are propagated throughout the gas. The
is shown in Annex C. speed of sound is proportional to the square root of
the absolute temperature, and for standard air is
Partially saturated air contains vapor that is approximately 345 m/s (1130 ft/s). If the Mach
superheated, that is, the temperature of the mixture number is small and no large static pressure changes
and, therefore, that of the vapor is higher than the are introduced by mechanical means, the flow may
saturation temperature for the existing vapor be considered incompressible, that is, the density is
pressure. everywhere constant. Air can be considered
incompressible if the fan total pressure rise is less
The relative humidity (rh) of an air-water vapor than 2980 Pa (12 in. wg).

Air Systems | 5
4.1.2 Reynolds number. The ratio of the inertia force friction drag, and, for streamlined bodies closely
to the viscous force caused by changes in velocity aligned with the flow, represents the entire drag force.
within the fluid element is known as the Reynolds For blunt bodies, which may be streamlined bodies at
number. large angles to the flow, profile drag exists. Profile
drag is caused by the inability of the flow, due to its
viscous effects, to follow the body shape. The
⎛ρ⎞
Re = DV ⎜ ⎟ Eq. 4.1-1A SI inability to follow the body shape creates a wake of
⎝μ⎠ very turbulent flow which in effect creates the profile
⎛ ρ ⎞ drag force. These wake effects are the predominant
Re = DV ⎜ ⎟ Eq. 4.1-1A I-P cause of flow losses in systems.
⎝ 60 μ ⎠
⎛ DV ⎞
=⎜ ⎟
⎝ γ ⎠

For standard air:

Re = 65970.3DV Eq. 4.1-1B SI


Figure 4A - Skin Friction Drag
Re = 102.3DV Eq. 4.1-1B I-P

Where:

D = Any convenient reference dimension, m (ft)


V = Velocity, m/s (ft/min)
μ = Absolute viscosity, N-s/m2 (lbm/ft-s)
γ = Kinematic viscosity, m2/s (ft2/s)
ρ = Density, kg/m3 (lbm/ft3)

For flow about immersed bodies, D is normally taken


as the length of body in the direction of flow. In ducted
flow, D is normally taken as the diameter of the duct; Figure 4B - Profile Drag
in unducted flow, D is normally taken as the diameter
of the opening through which the flow passes. Figures 4A and 4B illustrate skin friction drag and
profile drag.
For a fan, D is equal to the impeller tip diameter and
is only proportional to conventional Reynolds 4.3 Ducted flow
numbers. The Reynolds number provides a
convenient non-dimensional means of comparing When air flows through a duct of constant cross-
two flows. section, the average velocity remains constant and is
parallel to the center line of the duct. Due to friction,
4.2 Flow about immersed bodies the velocity at the duct wall is zero and the average
velocity profile can be defined as either of two
If a solid body is immersed in a flowing stream of a conditions:
gas, the direction of flow of the gas will be parallel to
the surface of the solid body. The changes in the a) Laminar Flow: Flow in which the air velocity
direction of the molecules close to the body exert vectors are parallel to the duct wall. This type of
forces on the body which when taken over the entire flow is described as smooth.
body, are perpendicular to the direction of the gas
flow. b) Turbulent Flow: Flow in which air velocity vectors
at various points across the duct are at various
A non-perfect gas will also exert a force parallel to the angles, up to and including reverse flow.
direction of the velocity, due to the viscosity of the
gas. This force, usually called drag, is due to two Except for extremely low air velocities, laminar flow
effects. The first is the shearing force set up within does not exist and all duct flow involving air can be
the molecules of the gas resulting from the molecules considered to be in the transition region between
decelerating from the gas velocity to zero velocity laminar and fully turbulent flow. The transfer of
when in contact with the body. This is called skin energy from the high velocity section in the center of

6 | Air Systems
the duct to the low velocity section near the duct wall In addition to the losses in total pressure in a system
causes a marked resistance to the flow. This caused by friction losses and dynamic losses, there
resistance varies linearly with the length of the duct are losses due to System Effects.
and approximately with the square of the average
velocity in the duct. The resistance is also a function System Effects occur because of the differences
of the Reynolds number of the flow, which is between the fan inlet and outlet connections to the
calculated using the average velocity in the duct, the installed system and the standardized connections
duct diameter, and the surface roughness of the duct used in laboratory tests to obtain fan performance
wall. ratings. AMCA Publication 201, Fans and Systems,
gives specific details on System Effects related to
The velocity profiles in a duct system for fully fans. System Effects related to series system
developed flow will vary depending on whether the elements are covered further in Section 4.5 of this
flow is laminar or turbulent and the degree of duct publication.
roughness. Velocity profiles of various flow conditions
are shown in Figure 4C. 4.4.1 Duct friction losses. In the normal range of air
systems for HVAC and industrial applications, the
The absolute velocity of the air stream will vary flow falls into the transition region between laminar
substantially over the cross-sectional duct area, but flow and complete turbulent flow. In this region the
for duct systems the velocity used for determining the losses due to friction are a function of Reynolds
velocity pressure is always the average velocity given number and the relative roughness of the duct wall.
by: The pressure loss in the transition region will vary at
slightly less than the square of the velocity. The
V average = Q/A Eq. 4.3-1 pressure loss due to friction for flow in ducts may be
calculated from the Darcy-Weisbach equation:
Where:
∆Pt = f(L/D) Pv Eq. 4.4-1
V = Velocity, m/s (ft/min)
Q = Flow rate, m3/s (cfm) Where:
A = Area of the cross-section where the flow occurs,
m2 (ft2) ∆Pt = Total pressure loss due to friction, Pa (in. wg)
f = Friction factor, dimensionless
The duct velocity profiles shown in Figure 4C are L = Length of duct, m (ft)
uniform along the length of the duct and symmetrical D = Diameter of pipe, m (ft)
around the center line. Where there are disturbances Pv = Velocity pressure, Pa (in. wg)
in the ducts, such as turns, expansion or contraction,
etc., the velocity profile across the duct can become In the transition flow range, the value of the friction
very asymmetrical as shown in Figure 4D. factor cannot be calculated directly. It can be
obtained from the Moody diagram or by iterative
The flow will return to a normal velocity profile after a solution of the Colebrook equation. See the ASHRAE
disturbance if there is sufficient length of straight duct Handbook: Fundamentals, chapter on Duct Design,
to allow the velocity distribution to regain uniformity. A for a more complete discussion of duct friction losses.
minimum of 2½ equivalent duct diameters of straight
duct is required to attain a normal velocity profile for The Moody diagram, Figure 4E, shows the
velocities of 12.7 m/s (2500 ft/min) or less. Add one relationship of the friction factor, Reynolds number
duct diameter for each additional 5.08 m/s (1000 and duct roughness (ε) in meters (feet). Most
ft/min). See AMCA Publication 201-90, Fans and applications are in the transition region between
Systems. laminar and full turbulent flow conditions.

4.4 System losses Using duct friction charts (see Annex D) is the most
common method of determining friction losses.
The losses in total pressure for flow through a system These charts are based on ducts having average
are caused by two factors: friction losses due to roughness and standard air density. Correction
viscosity as the air flows along the surface of ducts factors must be applied for ducts having different
and other system elements, and dynamic losses roughness, and for variations in air density and
due to the turbulent wake caused by changes in viscosity.
direction and separation of the flow around obstructions.

Air Systems | 7
r LAMINAR
TURBULENT

SMOOTH Re = 107
SMOOTH Re = 105
ε = 0.03D ROUGH
ε = 0.008D ROUGH
0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0

v
V
D = Duct Diameter
ε = Duct Roughness
Re = Reynolds Number
v = Velocity at any Point
V = Average Velocity
r = Radius

Figure 4C - Velocity Profiles in a Round Duct for Various


Reynolds Numbers and Duct Roughness

Figure 4D - Changing Velocity Profiles


8 | Air Systems
0.10

0.09

0.08

0.05
0.07
0.04
0.06
0.03

0.05
0.02

0.015
FULLY ROUGH (EQ 18)
0.04 Eq. (29a)

RELATIVE ROUGHNESS, ε/D


0.010
0.008
FRICTION FACTOR, f

0.006
RO

0.03
UG

0.004
H
W
IT Eq.
H (2
Re 9a
DE )

0.002
PE
N
DE
NC

0.02
E

0.0010
0.0008
Eq. (27) 0.0006

SMOOTH PIPE 0.0004


0.015 Eqs. (28a) and (28b)

0.0002
TRANSITION
LAMINAR TURBULENT
REGION
0.00010

0.00005
0.010

0.009

0.008 0.00001
103 2 3 5 104 2 3 5 105 2 3 5 106 2 3 5 107 2 3 5 108

REYNOLDS NUMBER, Re

Figure 4E - Moody Diagram

Reprinted by permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia, from the 1993
ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals. (Moody 1944). Values on the chart are the same for both the SI and I-P systems. Equation numbers refer
to equations in the source document.

Air Systems | 9
Loeffler1 has developed simplified equations for the Correction factors for density and viscosity variations
friction factor in the normal range of flow conditions need to be applied for conditions other than standard
found in industrial and HVAC air systems. The air. See Annexes B and E.
equations provide for direct calculation of duct friction
total pressure losses. These equations yield results 4.4.2 Dynamic losses. Dynamic losses occur where
that are accurate within ±5% and are conservative there are changes in velocity or direction in the air
over most of the range of flow. system and are due primarily to the profile drag.
Dynamic losses are proportional to the square of
For aluminum ducts, medium smooth: velocity, and therefore, are proportional to the
velocity pressure.
ε = 0.0000457 m (0.00015 ft)
∆Pt ~ V 2 ~ Pv
⎛ LQ ⎞
1.863
Pt loss = a ⎜ 4.93 ⎟ Dynamic pressure loss data are given in a number of
⎝ D ⎠ forms such as pressure loss for given volume or
Where: velocity, equivalent length of duct, or velocity
pressure multiplier, and is available from
a = 1.764 × 10-2 Eq. 4.4-2 SI manufacturers' data and handbooks such as:
ASHRAE, the Industrial Ventilation Guide and
a = 4.816 × 10-9 Eq. 4.4-2 I-P SMACNA.

For galvanized steel ducts, average: Except at duct exits, dynamic losses occur along
some length and cannot be separated from friction
ε = 0.0001524 m (0.0005 ft) losses. For practical purposes the dynamic losses
are assumed to be concentrated at one point and the
friction losses are included as part of the duct friction.
⎛ LQ1.921 ⎞ Dynamic loss coefficients for duct fittings are based
Pt loss = a ⎜ 5.066 ⎟
⎝ D ⎠ on zero length. For friction loss calculations, the
Where: centerline length of the duct fitting is taken as the
length of the fitting.
a = 1.717 × 10-2 Eq. 4.4-3 SI
4.4.3 Dynamic loss coefficient. There are two
common methods of expressing dynamic losses.
a = 3.534 × 10-9 Eq. 4.4-3 I-P
These are: 1) The equivalent length of duct method,
and 2) the loss coefficient method. The equivalent
For fiberglass ducts or lined ducts, fabric and wire
length of duct method replaces the dynamic loss of
flexible ducts (wire covered with fabric), medium
fittings (elbows, tees, branches, etc.) with a length of
rough,
duct that will have an equivalent loss. The equivalent
length of duct for all of the dynamic losses are added
ε = 0.00091443 m (0.003 ft)
to the straight duct length. A friction chart showing the
loss is then used to determine the total loss in the
⎛ LQ1.965 ⎞ system.
Pt loss = a ⎜ 5.208 ⎟
⎝ D ⎠
The dynamic loss coefficient method is based on the
Where: fact that all losses in a system are functions of the
velocity pressure and can be calculated by a
a = 2.093 × 10-2 Eq. 4.4-4 SI corresponding dynamic loss factor multiplied by the
velocity pressure. These losses are added to the
a = 3.64 × 10-9 Eq. 4.4-4 I-P straight duct friction loss to determine the total loss in
the system.
Where:
The dynamic loss coefficient method is preferred
Pt loss = Total pressure loss, Pa (in. wg) because it is usually quicker and offers the
Q = Flow rate, m3/s (cfm) advantage of faster recalculation when other branch
D = Duct diameter, m (ft) (or equivalent diameter duct sizes are tried.
of rectangular ducts) D equivalent = (4ab/ )0.5
where a and b are the sides in m (ft) Dynamic losses are proportional to the velocity
L = Duct length in m (ft) pressure occurring in the system element and,

10 | Air Systems
therefore, the pressure loss in the fitting can be 4.5.2 Element System Effects in series. System
related to the velocity pressure by use of a dynamic Effects for other air system elements occur when two
loss coefficient. or more elements are in close proximity to one
another. Loss coefficients for duct fittings, coils,
The dynamic loss coefficient Co is defined as: filters, dampers, etc., are determined with a sufficient
length of straight duct (normally 10 diameters) ahead
Co = ∆Pt/Pvo Eq. 4.4-5 of the element to allow for a normally distributed
velocity profile entering the element, and a sufficient
Where: length of straight duct (normally 10 diameters)
downstream from the element to allow a normally
Co = Dynamic loss coefficient, reference to section distributed velocity profile to be re-established. When
o, dimensionless two elements, such as elbows, or an elbow and a
∆Pt = Dynamic pressure loss, Pa (in. wg) damper, are placed close together the air entering
Pvo = Velocity pressure at section o, Pa (in. wg) the second element will be highly turbulent and
asymmetrical in profile, causing a higher loss than
expected. In addition, any static regain occurring
The coefficient relates the pressure loss in the
downstream of the first element would also be lost
element to the velocity pressure at a given cross-
when sufficient length of straight duct is not present.
sectioned area of the element.
To illustrate System Effects for duct elements, the
The pressure loss of duct system elements with
loss coefficients for a single 90° elbow and two
known dynamic loss coeffients can be calculated by:
elbows in series are shown in Figure 4F.
∆Pt = Co Pvo Eq. 4.4-6
In the case of the two elbows in series, the difference
between twice the loss of the single elbow and the
Where there are changes in area or divided flow in
actual combined loss is the System Effect. The
the fitting, the designer must be careful to use the
System Effect varies substantially depending on how
proper area as noted in the loss tables for the
close the two elbows are to each other.
determination of the velocity pressure to be used with
the dynamic loss coefficient. The ASHRAE
Similar effects can be expected when any system
Handbook: Fundamentals, Chapter on Duct Design,
elements are in close proximity. The amount of the
provides a detailed discussion of the dynamic loss
System Effect will vary over a rather wide range
coefficient and tables for coefficients of many
depending upon the physical characteristics of each
common duct elements.
element and their relationship to each other in the
system.
4.5 System Effects
Very little actual data is available on System Effects
Additional losses can occur in air systems because of of various combinations of system elements, and the
the physical relationship of various elements in the system designer must, of necessity, estimate the
system. These System Effect losses occur because System Effects. The following tables for estimating
of the difference between the way the performance of System Effects, and Equation 4.5-1, are given as a
the element was determined by testing and the way guide to the designer. Actual data should be used
the element is actually installed in the system. whenever it is available.

4.5.1 Fan System Effects. Fan System Effects occur Cc = (Ca + Cb) K Eq. 4.5-1
because of the difference in inlet and outlet
conditions under laboratory test conditions and the
Where:
inlet and outlet conditions as the fan is installed in the
system. Detailed information on Fan System Effects
Cc = Loss coefficient of combined elements,
is contained in AMCA Publication 201, Fans and
dimensionless
Systems. The System Effect is accounted for as a
Ca = Loss coefficient of element a, dimensionless
pressure loss which must be included with the other
system losses. The sum of the pressure losses is Cb = Loss coefficient of element b, dimensionless
then used as the basis for selecting the fan. K = System Effect Factor, dimensionless

1. Loeffler, J. J., Simplified Equations for HVAC Duct Friction Factors, ASHRAE Journal, January, 1980

Air Systems | 11
ONE ELBOW Figure 4G should be used for elements in series
where the flow is straight through, while Figure 4H
should be used when a turning element (elbow, etc.)
C1 = 1.15* is involved. These tables have been developed on
FLOW the basis of limited data and are intended only as a
guide. Actual System Effects may vary from the
values shown. See sample calculation in Section 5.8

TWO ELBOWS IN SERIES


a b
RESISTANCE
ELEMENTS
C2 = VARIES
FLOW D
L
L
D

L/D .50 1 2 3 4 5 7.5 10

K 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.15 1.1 1.05 1.0

L/D 1.0 2.0 4.0 10.0


From SMACNA Duct Design Manual
C2 Loss
coefficient Figure 4G - Element System Effects for
for two 2.63 4.18 3.08 2.45 Straight Through Flow
elbows in
series**

2 C1 Two
times the
loss
2.30 a
coefficient
of a single
elbow

System b
+0.33 +81.7% +33.98% +6.5%
Effect
14.3% 1.88 0.78 0.15
(Difference)
L

* From I. E. Idelchik, Handbook of Hydraulic Resistance, 3rd


D
Edition, 1993, p.365, Hemisphere Publishing Company.
** ibid, p.375

Figure 4F - System Effect of Duct Elements


L/D .50 1 2 3 4 5 7.5 10

K 1.0 1.08 1.75 1.5 1.30 1.2 1.1 1.0

Figure 4H - Element System Effect for


Turning Elements

12 | Air Systems
5. The Flow System ρ is equal to the air density in kg/m3 (lbm/ft3), and
standard air density equals 1.2 kg/m3 (0.075 lbm/ft3).
5.1 Concepts of pressure Pv is always positive and this pressure is always
exerted in the direction of airflow. Air confined within
The flow of air between two zones (or spaces) is due a duct or a tank, whether in motion or not, creates
to a pressure difference between the two zones. This another kind of pressure which exerts itself in all
pressure difference forces the air to flow from the directions at once, including perpendicular to the
high pressure zone to the low pressure zone. walls of the enclosure. This is known as static
Ductwork is used in most air systems to convey the pressure Ps. Static pressure is negative when it is
air from one zone to another. The quantity of air Q in below atmospheric pressure, and positive when
m3/s (cfm) that will flow is equal to the cross-sectional above atmospheric pressure. Total pressure Pt at any
area A of the duct in m2(ft2) times the air velocity V in point in an air system is equal to the algebraic sum of
m/s (ft/min). the static pressure Ps and velocity pressure Pv. Pt can
be either positive or negative, depending on its
Q = AV Eq. 5.1-1 components.

The air traveling at a given velocity V in m/s (ft/min) Pt = Ps + Pv Eq. 5.1-3


will create a velocity pressure Pv in Pa (in. wg). The
velocity pressure in these terms is: 5.2 Examples of pressures in duct systems

Pv = 0.5ρV2 Eq. 5.1-2A SI Of prime concern in air system design is the


relationship of these pressures internal to the air
Pv = ρ(V/1096)2 Eq. 5.1-2A I-P system. The significance of these pressures can be
demonstrated on the next several pages in Figures
And for standard air: 5A, 5B, and 5C.

Pv = 0.6V2 Eq. 5.1-2B SI

Pv = (V/4005)2 Eq. 5.1-2B I-P

Air Systems | 13
In Figure 5A, the sealed length of duct has a static pressure of 345 Pa (1.39 in. wg) above atmospheric pressure.
Since there is no airflow, velocity pressure is equal to zero. The total pressure Pt can then be calculated according
to equation 5.1-3.
SI I-P
Pt = Ps + Pv Pt = Ps + Pv
= 345 + 0 = 1.39 + 0
= 345 Pa = 1.39 in. wg

TOTAL PRESSURE - STATIC PRESSURE VELOCITY PRESSURE


=
345 Pa (1.39 in. wg) 345 Pa (1.39 in. wg) 0 Pa (0 in. wg)

Figure 5A - Sealed System

14 | Air Systems
In Figure 5B, with the duct open and a fan placed at one end blowing air through the duct, we find both static
pressure and velocity pressure as illustrated by the water gauge. The total pressure is the sum of velocity pressure
and static pressure.

TOTAL PRESSURE - STATIC PRESSURE VELOCITY PRESSURE


=
345 Pa (1.39 in. wg) 97 Pa (0.39 in. wg) 248 Pa (1.00 in. wg)

20.3 m/s
AIRFLOW
(4005 FPM)

In this illustration, the static pressure will be above atmospheric pressure and the total pressure is numerically
greater than either static or velocity pressure.

Figure 5B - Positive Pressure System

Air Systems | 15
In Figure 5C, a fan is placed at the end of the duct and draws air through the duct. In this case, the static pressure
is below atmospheric pressure. In both Figures 5B and 5C, the total pressure rise across the fan is 345 Pa (1.39
in. wg); therefore, the energy used in both systems is equal.

TOTAL PRESSURE STATIC PRESSURE VELOCITY PRESSURE


- =
-97 Pa (-0.39 in. wg) -345 Pa (-1.39 in. wg) 248 Pa (1.00 in. wg)

20.3 m/s
AIRFLOW
(4005 FPM)

Figure 5C - Negative Pressure System

16 | Air Systems
5.3 Conservation of energy Therefore, to simplify Bernoulli's Theorem:

The well known Bernoulli Theorem, frequently used Ps1 + Pv1 = Ps2 + Pv2 + losses1,2 Eq. 5.3-1
in the flow of fluids, states the law of conservation of
energy for fluid systems. In its simpler form for Simply stated, the sum of static pressure and velocity
airflow: pressure at any point in a flow system is equal to the
sum of static pressure and velocity pressure at any
(V12/2g) + (P1/ρg) + Z1 = (V22/2g) + (P2/ρg) other point in the system, plus any losses in pressure
+ Z2 + losses1,2 occurring between the two points.
Where:
Although it is very important to recognize that the
Vx2/2g= Kinetic energy or velocity pressure (Pv) sum of static and velocity pressure remains constant
at any point in the system when disregarding losses,
Px/ρg = Potential energy or static pressure (Ps)
it is the losses that are of real importance in the
Zx = The elevation (normally ignored in fan
design and function of air moving systems.
systems with minimal changes in
elevation) may need to be evaluated when To illustrate Bernoulli's Theorem, Figure 5D shows a
the system elevation change causes a typical venturi system commonly used to measure
noticeable change in air density. fluid flow.

Pt PS PV Pt PS PV Pt PS PV

PT. #1 PT. #2 PT. #3 AIRFLOW

Pt Pt
PS
PRESSURE PS
Pa (INCHES W.G.) PV
PV

Figure 5D - Venturi System

Air Systems | 17
For the purposes of illustration, assume this is a If the plenum is very large relative to the nozzle
perfect device with no losses. The velocity pressure, diameter, the velocity in the plenum will approach
static pressure, and total pressure at each point in the zero, so the total pressure at point 1 (Pt1) will be equal
system are shown on the gauges as well as on the to the static pressure (Ps1). Assuming a perfect fluid
lower portion of the illustration. Part of the static at and no losses occurring in the nozzle, the static
point 1 is converted to velocity pressure as the fluid pressure in the plenum (point 1) is totally converted
is accelerated in the contracted flow area in the neck to velocity pressure at the discharge of the nozzle
of the venturi. At point 2, in the neck of the venturi, (point 2).
the velocity pressure reaches its maximum and the
static pressure is reduced, but the total pressure At point 2, just beyond the discharge end of the
remains constant. As the flow area is gradually nozzle, the static pressure (Ps2) will be zero (at
increased to point 3, the velocity is slowed down to atmospheric pressure) and the total pressure (Pt2) will
the original velocity and the velocity pressure is be equal to the velocity pressure of the air stream.
reduced to its original value. The static pressure Applying Bernoulli's Equation for points 1 and 2
increases back to its original value also, while the gives:
total pressure remains constant.
Ps1 + Pv1 = Ps2 + Pv2
In this illustration, part of the static pressure at point
1 is converted to increased velocity pressure at point
Since Pv1 is equal to 0 and Ps2 is equal to 0, the
2 and the velocity pressure is then converted back
equation reduces to:
into static pressure at point 3.
Ps1 = Pv2
The conversion of the velocity pressure into static
pressure by reducing the velocity is known as static
regain and it is very important to understand this In this case, the energy of the static pressure in the
phenomenon in the design of flow systems. plenum is totally converted to the velocity energy at
the discharge of the nozzle. It should also be noted
In air systems, changes in velocity often occur as the that the velocity pressure is totally lost as the
air flows through the various elements comprising the airstream discharges to atmosphere.
system. Some total pressure loss will occur any time
the velocity in the system is increased or decreased. Using Equation 5.1-2A (as reduced above) the
The magnitude of these losses is dependent on the relationship between static pressure and the throat
physical characteristics of the system element in velocity can be established in the above example.
which the velocity change takes place. Decreases in Using this in Equation 5.1-2A gives:
velocity occurring at abrupt enlargements in area
result in total pressure losses approaching one V2 = (2Ps1/ρ2)0.5 Eq. 5.3-2A SI
velocity pressure.
V2 = 1096(Ps1/ρ2)0.5 Eq. 5.3-2A I-P
Figure 5E illustrates air flowing from a large plenum
through a long radius flow nozzle and discharging to Or where: Ps1 = Pv2
atmosphere.
Then for standard air, the equations would be:

V2 = 1.29(Ps1)0.5 Eq. 5.3-2B SI

V2 = 4005(Ps1)0.5 Eq. 5.3-2B I-P

The throat velocity pressure would be:


POINT 1 POINT 2
Pv2 = 0.5ρ2V22 Eq. 5.3-3A SI

Figure 5E - Airflow Through a Nozzle Pv2 = (V2/1096)2ρ2 Eq. 5.3-3A I-P

Where:

Ps1 = Pv2

18 | Air Systems
Then, for standard air, the equation would be: In practical system design both Cn and Y approach
unity and can normally be neglected. However, these
Pv2 = 0.6V 2 Eq. 5.3-3B SI factors are important when measuring fan
performance in accordance with ANSI/AMCA
Pv2 = (V2/4005)2 Eq. 5.3-3B I-P Standard 210.

In the above example, the quantity of flow would be In Figure 5F, the nozzle is replaced by a sharp edged
dependent on the area of the nozzle discharge and orifice. The flow through the orifice tends to neck
the velocity in the throat as given by the equation: down to a flow area smaller than the orifice diameter.
The point at which the flow area reaches its minimum
Q2 = V2A2 is called the vena contracta. The flow through the
orifice is given by the equation:
Where:
Q = Cd(2Ps/ρ)0.5A Eq. 5.3-6 SI
Q = Airflow rate, m3/s(cfm)
V = Velocity, m/s (ft/min) Q = Cd1096(Ps/ρ)0.5A Eq. 5.3-6 I-P
A = Area, m2 (ft2)
Where:
Substituting for V2 from Equation 5.3-2A and 5.3-2B
gives: A = Area of orifice, m2 (ft2)
Cd = Coefficient of discharge, dimensionless
Q = (2Ps1/ρ2)0.5A2 Eq. 5.3-4A SI
VENA CONTRACTA
Q = 1096(Ps1/ρ2 )0.5A
2 Eq. 5.3-4A I-P

And for standard air:

Q = 1.29(Ps1)0.5A2 Eq. 5.3-4B SI

Q = 4005(Ps1)0.5A2 Eq. 5.3-4B I-P

The flow nozzle in the above illustration is the basis


for airflow measurement in the ANSI/AMCA Standard
210 duct nozzle and chamber nozzle methods of
airflow measurement. The ANSI/AMCA Standard 210
nozzle very closely approaches perfect flow
conditions with almost zero losses. There are,
however, some losses which vary with Reynolds Figure 5F - Airflow Through an Orifice
number as well as the effect of the compressibility of
the gas which must be accounted for. The Equation In this case, the coefficient of discharge (Cd)
5.3-4A must be modified by adding factors for the accounts for the reduction in flow area of the vena
losses and compressibility. contracta and losses occurring in the flow system.
The value of the coefficient of discharge is dependent
The equation of flow becomes: on the Reynolds number of the flow system. Where
sharp edged orifices are used in the duct system, the
Q = CnY(2Ps/ρ)0.5A Eq. 5.3-5 SI coefficient of discharge is also dependent on the ratio
of orifice diameter to duct diameter.
Q = CnY1096(Ps/ρ)0.5A 5.3-5 I-P
As in the previous example, all of the velocity
Where: pressure is lost as the airstream discharges to
atmosphere. Where ducts or plenums are used on
Q = Airflow, m3/s (cfm) the discharge of nozzles or orifices, a portion of the
Cn = Nozzle coefficient, dimensionless velocity pressure at the nozzle discharge is regained
Y = Expansion factor, dimensionless as static pressure as the velocity returns to a normal
A = Area of nozzle, m2 (ft2) distribution.

Air Systems | 19
If we plot the flow through these elements versus Resistance Curve (see Figure 5H) the point of
static pressure as shown in Figure 5G, we obtain a operation is at the intersection of the fan performance
squared curve which is typical of flow versus curve and the System Resistance curve.
pressure for any constant system.

SYSTEM
RESISTANCE

PRESSURE
PRESSURE

POINT OF
OPERATION

P = KQ2

FAN PRESSURE
CURVE
FLOW FLOW

Figure 5G - Typical System Resistance Curve Figure 5H - Typical Point of Operation

These curves are called System Resistance curves, 5.4 Fan total and static pressure
and define the relationship of flow versus pressure
for any system with constant resistance. System The flow of a gas through a system of ducts and
Resistance curves are defined by the following various system elements requires energy:
equations:
a) To accelerate the air from ambient conditions at
Q = (2Ps/ρ)0.5Ae Eq. 5.3-7A SI the entry to the system

Q = 1096(Ps/ρ)0.5Ae Eq. 5.3-7A I-P b) To overcome the losses in the system from
friction and system element shock losses
Then for standard air:
c) For the loss of energy dissipated as velocity at
Q = 1.29(Ps )0.5A Eq. 5.3-7B SI the system outlet
e

d) To overcome any static pressure at the entry or


Q = 4005(Ps)0.5Ae Eq. 5.3-7B I-P
outlet of the system
Where: The fan provides this energy by the increase in total
pressure from the fan's inlet to the fan's outlet. The
Q = Airflow, m3/s (cfm) inlet plane of a fan is referred to as Plane 1 and the
Ps = Pressure, Pa (in. wg) outlet plane as Plane 2. The total pressure provided
ρ = Gas density, kg/m3 (lbm/ft3) by the fan is made up of static pressure and velocity
Ae = Area of an orifice having resistance equivalent pressure components.
to the system resistance, m2 (ft2) (equivalent
orifice) The total pressure of a fan is defined as

The System Resistance concept is very useful in PtF = Pt2 - Pt1 Eq. 5.4-1
understanding flow in complete systems or elements
of flow systems. If we add a fan curve to the System Or:

PtF = Ps2 + Pv2 - Ps1 - Pv1 Eq. 5.4-2

20 | Air Systems
The velocity pressure of a fan is defined as: Both static pressure and total pressure curves of the
fan and system resistance are shown. Either set of
PvF = Pv2 Eq. 5.4-3 curves can be used for the flow rate because the
point of operation is the same. The difference in
The static pressure of a fan is defined as: pressure at the point of operation between the total
pressure curve and the static pressure curve is the
PsF = PtF - PvF Eq. 5.4-4 velocity pressure at the fan discharge (plane 2).

Fan static pressure, as defined, is a term that is Most fans are rated in terms of static pressure and
peculiar to fans and is not consistent with the normal flow, however, fans having high discharge velocities
meaning of static pressure rise. Fan static pressure is such as vaneaxial fans are quite often rated in terms
derived from the method of testing fans where the fan of total pressure. Be aware of these different
static pressure is equal to gauge static pressure at methods of rating and be certain whether fan static
the fan discharge when the fan draws air from pressure or fan total pressure was used to determine
surrounding atmosphere through a well shaped inlet. the fan selection.

Special care must be used when using fan static 5.4.2 Fan system pressure relationships. Figure
pressure for purposes of matching the required fan 5K shows the relationship of total pressure, static
performance against system total pressure losses. pressure and velocity pressure for a fan with free inlet
The relationship of these pressures is covered in conditions and discharging through a duct against
detail for various systems further on in this section. some system. In this example the fan is shown as
being equipped with a short inlet duct and an inlet
The static pressure of a fan can also be stated in bell. For simplicity's sake it is assumed that there are
several other forms. Substituting Equation 5.4-2 for no losses at the inlet to the fan.
the total pressure of the fan in Equation 5.4-4 gives:
The total pressure prior to the entry of the fan in
PsF = Ps2 + Pv2 - Ps1 - Pv1 - Pv2 Eq. 5.4-5 Figure 5K is zero and since it was assumed that there
are no entry losses, the total pressure remains zero
Simplifying: until the flow is acted upon by the fan. As air enters
the fan, its velocity and the pressure due to that
PsF = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 Eq. 5.4-6 velocity (velocity pressure) increases while static
pressure decreases in direct proportion. (In actual
Since: conditions there will be some entry losses which will
be accounted for in the fan performance rating.)
Ps1 + Pv1 = Pt1 Referring to Figure 5K, the fan total pressure is equal
to the total pressure at plane 2 minus the total
pressure at plane 1.
The equation can be restated as:
PtF = Pt2 - Pt1 Eq. 5.4-8
PsF = Ps2 - Pt1 Eq. 5.4-7
The fan static pressure is equal to the total pressure
5.4.1 Fan performance specification. The system
at plane 2 minus the velocity pressure at plane 2.
designer should be aware of the effect of the velocity
pressure at the outlet of the system and the velocity
PsF = Pt2 - Pv2 Eq. 5.4-9
pressure of the fan discharge (plane 2) on the
determination of fan total or static pressure for the
system. The net result of the fan total or static The static pressure of the fan can also be stated as
pressure requirements at a given flow rate for the the static pressure at plane 2 minus the static
system is the fan performance specification, which is pressure at plane 1 minus the velocity pressure at
normally stated as flow at a specific static, or total plane 1.
pressure. This statement of required fan performance
is, in reality, a statement of one point on a system PsF = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 Eq. 5.4-10
resistance or equivalent orifice curve, which then
defines the flow and pressure relationship of the Or, as the static pressure at plane 2 minus the total
system being designed. pressure at plane 1.

The actual point of operation of the combined fan and PsF = Ps2 - Pt1 Eq. 5.4-11
system will be the intersection of the fan performance
curve and the system curve as shown in Figure 5J.
Air Systems | 21
The actual static pressure rise across the fan from 5.5 The total system
plane 1 to plane 2 will be greater than the fan static
pressure by the amount of the velocity pressure at A fan provides the total pressure to move the air
the fan inlet, plane 1. The difference in the actual through a system and the flow rate will reach a point
static pressure rise across the fan and the fan static of equilibrium (point of operation) when the total
pressure represents the energy required to pressure provided by the fan equals the total
accelerate the air to its entry velocity. This kinetic pressure losses in the system at that flow rate. A
energy is retained by the moving air stream until typical system with inlet and discharge resistance is
there is a change in velocity in the system or it is illustrated in Figure 5L.
dissipated at the point of discharge, and as such
does not represent a loss in total pressure until it is Applying Bernoulli's Equation at the point of entry and
discharged. the outlet:

The equipment arrangement shown in Figure 5K is PtE = PtO + Pt loss E,O - PtF Eq. 5.5-1
typical of the test conditions for fans in ANSI/AMCA
Standard 210, and is the basis for fan performance Rearranging:
ratings. When fans are tested in accordance with
ANSI/AMCA Standard 210, the inlet and discharge PtF = Pt loss, E,O + PtO - PtE Eq. 5.5-2
conditions are rigidly specified for each test method.
Restating in terms of Ps and Pv:
When a fan is installed in an air system where the
actual entry and exit conditions are different than the PtF = Pt loss E,O + PsO + PvO - PsE - PvE
test conditions, the performance of the fan may be
altered and System Effect factors must be used to
PtF = Pt loss E,O + PvO + (PsO - PsE - PvE) Eq. 5.5-3
account for the altered performance. AMCA
Publication 201, Fans and Systems describes
Substituting from Equation 5.4-4 for PtF :
various System Effects and provides quantitative
data for calculating System Effect losses.

AIRFOIL FAN - SWSI

PvF
PRESSURE

SYSTEM RESISTANCE
(TOTAL PRESSURE) PtF

PsF
SYSTEM RESISTANCE
(STATIC PRESSURE)

VOLUME FLOW RATE

Figure 5J - Constant Speed Performance Curve with System Resistance


22 | Air Systems
PsF = [Pt loss E,O + PvO + (PsO - PsE - PvE)] - PvF is included in the total pressure loss of the discharge
Eq. 5.5-4 element.

Equations 5.5-3 and 5.5-4 are the general statements System total pressure loss = total pressure loss
of fan total pressure or fan static pressure required internal to the system, plus the velocity pressure loss
for flow through a system. The Pt loss term is the loss at the outlet(s) of the system.
internal to the system from friction and shock losses.
The PvO term represents the energy loss to the The term (PsO - PsE - PvE) represents the change in fan
system contained in the velocity at the outlet of the total pressure or fan static pressure requirements
system. because of the static pressure conditions existing at
the system entry or outlet and any velocity pressure
In Equation 5.5-4, the items enclosed in large present at the system entry. Velocity and velocity
brackets represent the fan total pressure. pressure generated by external sources, such as
wind, at the system entry are seldom encountered,
In the normal method of calculating system total so the PvE term can generally be disregarded.
pressure losses, the velocity pressure at the outlet(s)

PLANE 1 PLANE 2 RESISTANCE


ELEMENT
E

ENTRY FLOW OUTLET

0
FAN
PtF = Pt2 - Pt1
PsF = PtF - Pv2

Pt

+ Pv Pt2 = PtF

Ps2 = PsF
Pv1 Pv2
PtE= 0 0
Ps1
_ Ps ABSOLUTE
PRESSURE

Volume Flow Rate m3/sec (cfm)

Figure 5K - Fan with Discharge Resistance


(AMCA Installation Type B)
Air Systems | 23
RESISTANCE RESISTANCE
ELEMENT PLANE 1 PLANE 2 ELEMENT
E
O
ENTRY FLOW FAN OUTLET

PtF Pv2

ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE
Pv Pt2
PvO = PtO
+ Ps2
PtE = 0 0
_
Pt PsF
ABSOLUTE
Ps PRESSURE
Ps1

PtE = PtO + Pt LOSS - PtF Pvt


PtF = Pt LOSS + PvO + (PsO - PsE - PvE)
PsF = [Pt LOSS + PvO + (PsO - PsE - PvE)] - Pv2

Figure 5L - Fan with Inlet and Discharge Resistance


(AMCA Installation Type D)

PLANE 1 PLANE 2
E O
ENTRY OUTLET

FLOW

FAN

Ptf = PvF PtF = PvF + PsF


since
+
PsF = 0
PtF = PvF = Pv2
0

Figure 5M - Fan with No Resistance at Either the Inlet or the Discharge


(AMCA Installation Type A)
24 | Air Systems
RESISTANCE
E ELEMENT
PLANE 1 PLANE 2

ENTRY FLOW FAN OUTLET


0

ATMOSPHERIC
PRESSURE Pt FAN PtO = Pv2
Pv

+ Pt
PtE = 0
_
Ps
Ps
Pt1 ABSOLUTE
FAN
PRESSURE
Pv Ps1
PtF = Pt LOSS + PvO
Where:
PsF = Pt LOSS + PvO - Pv2
Pv1
since PvO = Pv2
PsF = Pt LOSS
(Pressure Loss Internal to System)

Figure 5N - Fan with Inlet Resistance


(AMCA Installation Type C)

Air Systems | 25
5.6 Types of fan system PsF = Pt loss + PvO - Pv2 Eq. 5.6-2

There are four basic system Installation Types: In the special case where the velocity pressure at the
outlet is equal to the velocity pressure at the fan
AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE A: discharge, the fan static pressure will equal the total
Free Inlet, Free Outlet pressure loss. If these velocity pressures are different
the fan total pressure and fan static pressure must be
increased or decreased by the amount of the
difference in these velocity pressures.

5.6.3 AMCA Installation Type C: Fan system with


ducted inlet and free outlet. Figure 5N illustrates a
AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE B: system with all system losses on the inlet side of the
Free Inlet, Ducted Outlet fan. Since the velocity pressure at the outlet equals
the velocity pressure of the fan discharge and is also
equal to the total pressure at the fan discharge, the
fan static pressure will be equal to the total pressure
losses of the system.

PsF = Pt loss Eq. 5.6-3


AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE C:
Ducted Inlet, Free Outlet The fan in Figure 5N has a short discharge duct
which is the way ducted fans are normally tested. If a
fan is used at the end of a system and is not
equipped with a 2 to 3 diameter length of duct, the
system effect loss at the discharge must be included
when determining the total pressure loss.

AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE D: Fans designed for use at the end of a system, such
Ducted Inlet, Ducted Outlet as power roof ventilators, include the loss at the
discharge in the fan ratings and no system effect loss
is needed.

5.6.4 AMCA Installation Type D: Fan system with


Figure 5P - Installation Types ducted inlet and ducted outlet. Figure 5L illustrates
a system with system resistance on both inlet and
5.6.1 AMCA Installation Type A: Fan system with discharge sides of the fan. In this case the general
free inlet and free outlet. An AMCA Type A equations 5.5-3 and 5.5-4 apply. In the special case
installation covers equipment such as window fans, where the velocity pressure at the outlet is equal to
panel fans and power roof ventilators. This type of the velocity pressure of the fan discharge, the fan
installation, in which there is no resistance at the fan static pressure is equal to the total pressure loss
inlet or outlet, is shown in Figure 5M. The fan internal to the system.
provides the total pressure necessary to move air to
the velocity at the fan outlet. The total pressure of the The system shown in Figure 5L has higher velocity
fan for this special case is equal to the fan velocity pressure, relative to the static pressure, than would
pressure Pv2. normally be expected in a system. This is done to
emphasize the velocity pressure effects on system
5.6.2 AMCA Installation Type B: Fan system with total pressure losses for purposes of illustration.
free inlet and ducted outlet. Figure 5K shows a fan
system with discharge resistance. In this system: To illustrate the effect of the outlet velocity on the total
pressure requirements, Figure 5Q shows the same
PtF = Pt loss + PvO Eq. 5.6-1 system as in Figure 5L with the addition of an evasé
outlet (diffuser) on the system. The evasé outlet
Where: greatly reduces the system outlet velocity pressure.
The reduction in fan total pressure and fan static
PsO = Ps1 + Pv1 = 0 pressure is clearly evident when compared to the
system in Figure 5L and is equal to the reduction in
And: the velocity pressure at the duct outlet minus the total

26 | Air Systems
pressure loss in the evasé section. Losses will be CoPvo
quite small for a long evasé outlet of good design SR = Eq. 5.7-4 SI
(Q / 1.29)2
(optimum included angle is about 10 degrees). The
change in fan static pressure, because of the change
in the outlet velocity, is accounted for in the terms CoPvo
"PvO - PvF" in Equation 5.5-4. SR = Eq. 5.7-4 I-P
(Q / 4005)2

When system velocities exceed 15 m/s (3000 ft/min),


5.7.1 System resistance factors in series. The
consideration should be given to the use of an evasé
particular value of using the system resistance factor
outlet to reduce the system pressure requirements.
SR is that for resistances in series, the SR factors of
See ASHRAE Handbook, Fundamentals, chapter on
Duct Design for more information on the subject. each element can be added to determine the system
resistance factor of the total system. As an example,
the three Figure 5R resistance factors in series can
5.7 System resistance factors
be added to obtain the system resistance factor of the
complete system.
The flow through any system is proportional to the
square root of the pressure causing the flow. This
In this case, the resistance factors (given for SI and
relationship, which defines the flow versus pressure
(I-P) units, respectively) of 34.49 (0.3), 22.99 (0.2),
characteristics of a particular system, is very useful in
and 17.25 (0.15), total 74.73 (0.65). The pressure
fan and system designs. The flow rate in any system
loss of this system would be defined by the equation:
was given earlier in equation 5.3-4B and can be
restated here as:
Pt loss = (Q/1.29)2SR Eq. 5.7-5 SI
Q = 1.29(Ps)0.5Ao Eq. 5.7-1 SI
Pt loss = (Q/4005)2SR Eq. 5.7-5 I-P
Q = 4005(Ps)0.5Ao Eq. 5.7-1 I-P
For an airflow rate of 2.83 m3/s (6000 cfm):
For standard air, where:
SI:
Ao = area of flow nozzle with no loss
Pt loss = (Q/1.29)2SR
This can also be stated as: = (2.83/1.29)2 (34.49 + 22.99 + 17.25)
= (2.195)2 (74.73)
Pt = (Q/1.29)2SR Eq. 5.7-2 SI = (4.818)(74.73)
= 360 Pa
Pt = (Q/4005)2SR Eq. 5.7-2 I-P
I-P:
Where:
Pt loss = (Q/4005)2SR
SR = System resistance factor, m-4 (ft-4) = (6000/4005)2 (0.3 + 0.2 + 0.15)
= 1/Ao2 = (1.498)2 (0.65)
= (2.244)(0.65)
= 1.45 in. wg
The system resistance factor can be calculated from
known pressure loss information:
5.7.2 System resistance factors in parallel. Similar
relationships can be established for flow through
ΔPt parallel systems. The total pressure loss through
SR = Eq. 5.7-3 SI
(Q / 1.29)2 each branch of a parallel system must be equal to
establish equilibrium.
ΔPt In Figure 5S the system resistance factor of each
SR = Eq. 5.7-3 I-P
(Q / 4005)2 branch is given as 0.3 and 0.2; and since the
pressure loss will be equal in both branches we can
for standard air. They can also be calculated from the equate these losses.
dynamic loss coeffient:

Air Systems | 27
RESISTANCE RESISTANCE
ELEMENT PLANE 1 PLANE 2 ELEMENT
E 0

ENTRY FLOW FAN OUTLET

ATMOSPHERIC PtF Pv2


PRESSURE Pt2
Pv
Pv0 = Pt0
+ Ps2
PtE = 0 0
_ Ps
PsF
Pt ABSOLUTE
PRESSURE
Ps1

Pvt

Figure 5Q - Fan with Inlet and Discharge Resistance - Evasé Outlet Added

RESISTANCE 1 RESISTANCE 2 RESISTANCE 3

SR1 = 34.49 m-4 SR2 = 22.99 m-4 SR2 = 17.25 m-4


(0.3 ft.-4) (0.2 ft.-4) (0.15 ft.-4)

Figure 5R - Resistance in Series

RESISTANCE 1 Q1

SR1 = 34.49 m-4


(0.3 ft.-4)

QT

RESISTANCE 2 Q2

SR2 = 22.99 m-4


(0.2 ft.-4)
Figure 5S - Resistance in Parallel
28 | Air Systems
2 2
⎡ Q1 ⎤ ⎡ Q2 ⎤ ⎡ 0.4472 ⎤
⎢ C ⎥ SR1 = ⎢ C ⎥ SR2 = QT ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ⎦ ⎣ ⎦ ⎣ 0.9949 ⎦

Where: = QT (0.4495)
C = 1.29 (for SI units)
= 4005 (for I-P units) If:

And: QT = 0.472 m3/s or (1000 cfm)


Q1 SR2
= And:
Q2 SR1
Q1 = QT (0.4495)
⎡ S ⎤
Q1 = Q2 ⎢ R2 ⎥ Eq. 5.7-6
⎢⎣ SR1 ⎥⎦ Then:

Q1 = (0.472 m3/s)(0.4495) or (1000 cfm)(0.4495)


Substituting:
= 0.212 m3/s or (449.5 cfm)
Q2 = QT - Q1
And:
⎡ SR2 ⎤
Q1 = QT ⎢ ⎥ Eq. 5.7-7 Q2 = QT - Q1
⎢⎣ SR1 + SR2 ⎥⎦ = 0.472 m3/s - 0.212 m3/s or (1000 cfm - 449.5 cfm)
= 0.260 m3/s or (550.5 cfm)
For the example shown in Figure 5S:
It can further be demonstrated that the relationship of
SI: the system resistance factors for parallel systems is:
⎡ SR2 ⎤
Q1 = QT ⎢ ⎥ 1 1 1 1
⎢⎣ SR1 + SR2 ⎥⎦ = + + ... +
SRT SR1 SR2 SRn

⎡ 22.99 ⎤ System resistance factors can be quite useful in


= QT ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 34.49 + 22.99 ⎥⎦ many system design and analysis problems.

5.8 System design and loss calculations


⎡ 4.795 ⎤
= QT ⎢ ⎥
⎣ 5.873 + 4.795 ⎦ There are a number of design methods for sizing duct
work such as Equal Friction, Static Regain, etc.,
which are commonly used. The specific details of
⎡ 4.795 ⎤
= QT ⎢ ⎥ these various methods will not be covered in this
⎣10.667 ⎦ publication, and the reader is referred to the
ASHRAE Guide and the Industrial Ventilation Guide
= QT ( 0.4495 ) on this subject.

I-P: The procedure for calculating the total pressure loss


of the system is included as it is vital to the selection
⎡ SR2 ⎤ of the fan.
Q1 = QT ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ SR1 + SR2 ⎥⎦
Figure 5T, shown previously, will be used as an
example of the method of calculating the system total
⎡ 0 .2 ⎤ pressure loss and fan static pressure required.
= QT ⎢ ⎥
⎢⎣ 0.3 + 0.2 ⎥⎦
It is necessary to include in the loss calculation all
factors that contribute pressure loss, including
⎡ 0.4472 ⎤ System Effects. The general method is to determine
= QT ⎢ ⎥
⎣ ( 0 . 5477 + 0 . 4472 ) ⎦ the loss of each element of the system as they occur

Air Systems | 29
and total the losses. In systems that include parallel ITEM DUCT,
branches it is customary to determine the loss of the 6.096 m (20 ft.) of 0.4064 m (16 in.) diameter.
branch path that has the highest resistance to Airflow = 0.94 m3/s (2000 cfm)
establish the fan requirements. Other branch paths Pt Loss = 8.94 Pa (0.036 in. wg)
that have lower losses must have resistance added
to them to balance the system since the total ITEM D - DIVIDED FLOW FITTING,
pressure loss of each path must be equal. 0.4572 m (18 in.) to 0.4064 m (16 in.) and 0.3048 m
(12 in.) diameter, with a main branch dynamic loss
5.8.1 Example: System loss calculations for coefficient of 0.
branch 1 (dynamic loss coefficient method) Airflow = 1.416 m3/s (3000 cfm)
Pv = 44.70 Pa (0.18 in. wg)
ITEM K - DISCHARGE DIFFUSER Pt Loss = 44.70 × 0 (0.18 × 0)
0.3048 m (12 in.) diameter with a dynamic loss
= 0 Pa (0 in. wg)
coefficient of 0.50.
NOTE: The net loss in the main branch of this fitting
Airflow = 0.47 m3/s (1000 cfm) is zero (0), since there is static regain to offset the loss.
Pv = 25.08 Pa (0.101 in. wg)
Pt Loss = 0.50 × 25.08 (0.50 × 0.101) ITEM DUCT,
= 12.54 Pa (0.051 in. wg) 12.192 m (40 ft.), 0.4572 m (18 in.) diameter.
NOTE: Loss coefficient includes velocity lost at Airflow = 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm)
discharge and static regained by diffusion. Pt Loss = 21.36 Pa (0.086 in. wg)

ITEM J - BALANCING DAMPER, E through H -These losses may be included in the


0.3048 m (12 in.) diameter with a dynamic loss manufacturer's rating data.
coefficient of 0.52.
Airflow = 0.47 m3/s (1000 cfm) ITEM E - ENTRANCE,
Pv = 25.08 Pa (0.101 in. wg) from plenum 0.4572 m (18 in.) diameter, dynamic
Pt Loss = 0.52 × 25.08 (0.52 × 0.101) loss coefficient of 0.5.
= 13.04 Pa (0.053 in. wg) Airflow = 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm)
Pv = 44.70 Pa (0.18 in. wg)
ITEM DUCT, Pt Loss = 44.70 × 0.5 (0.18 × 0.5)
6.096 m (20 ft.) of 0.3048 m (12 in.) diameter. = 22.35 Pa (0.09 in. wg)
Airflow = 0.47 m3/s (1000 cfm)
Pt Loss = 10.18 Pa (0.041 in. wg) ITEM F - COIL
(from Annex D) Airflow = 1.416 m3/s (3000 cfm)
Pt Loss = 74.51 Pa (0.3 in. wg)
ITEM A - ELBOW, (from manufacturer's data)
0.3048 m (12 in.) diameter with dynamic loss
coefficient of 0.22. ITEM G - FILTER
Airflow = 0.47 m3/s (1000 cfm) Airflow = 1.416 m3/s (3000 cfm)
Pv = 25.08 Pa (0.101 in. wg) Pt Loss = 86.93 Pa (0.35 in. wg)
Pt Loss = 0.22 × 25.08 (0.22 × 0.101) (from manufacturer's data)
= 5.518 Pa (0.022 in. wg)
ITEM FAN,
ITEM DUCT, Bulkhead Discharge (SEF due to lack of fan
6.096 m (20 ft.) of 0.3048 m (12 in.) diameter. discharge ductwork).
Airflow = 0.47 m3/s (1000 cfm) Airflow = 1.416 m3/s (3000 cfm)
Pt Loss = 10.18 Pa (0.041 in. wg) Fan vel. = 6.53 m/s (1285 fpm)
SEF = 39.74 Pa (0.16 in. wg)
ITEM C - DIVIDED FLOW FITTING, (from AMCA Publication 201)
0.4064 m (16 in.) diameter to two 0.3048 m (12 in.)
diameter with a main branch dynamic loss coefficient ITEM FAN,
of 0.12. Fan enclosed in a cabinet; SEF due to plenum wall
Airflow = 0.94 m3/s (2000 cfm) being too close to fan inlet).
Pv = 32.29 Pa (0.13 in. wg) Airflow = 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm)
Pt Loss = 0.12 × 32.29 (0.12 × 0.13) Inlet vel. = 5.31 ms (1045 fpm)
= 3.88 Pa (0.016 in. wg) SEF = 7.45 Pa (0.03 in. wg)
(from AMCA Publication 201)

30 | Air Systems
ITEM H - INTAKE LOUVER resistance will need to be added by adjusting its
Airflow = 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) damper to balance the system.
Pt Loss = 19.87 Pa (0.08 in. wg)
(from manufacturer's data) 5.8.3 Fan selection for the example system. The
total system pressure loss of the branch with the
SYSTEM TOTAL PRESSURE LOSS BRANCH 1 = highest resistance must be used to determine the fan
336.4 Pa (1.355 in. wg). pressure requirements. The fan will need to provide a
total pressure of 336.2 Pa (1.354 in. wg) at 1.42 m3/s
5.8.2 Example: System loss calculations for (3000 cfm). The fan static pressure PsF is equal to the
branch 2: fan total pressure PtF minus the calculated fan
discharge velocity pressure Pv2.
ITEM K - DIFFUSER
Pt Loss = 12.42 Pa (0.050 in. wg) PsF = PtF - Pv2
NOTE: Loss coefficient includes velocity lost at = 336.2 - 25.58
discharge and static regained by diffusion. = 310.62 Pa or (1.354 - 0.103 = 1.251 in. wg)

ITEM J - DAMPER This procedure applies to any system regardless of


Pt Loss = 12.91 Pa (0.052 in. wg) its complexity. The important point is that all losses,
including System Effect losses, need to be included
ITEM DUCT, in the calculations. In this, as in many systems, the
6.096 m (20 ft.) of 0.3048 m (12 in.) diameter. System Effect losses are a significant portion of the
Pt Loss = 10.18 Pa (0.041 in. wg) total pressure loss. AMCA Publication 201 should be
used to determine the System Effect losses for
ITEM B - 45° ELBOW, various fan inlet and outlet conditions. Figure 5W
0.3048 m (12 in.) diameter, dynamic loss coefficient shows the point of operation of this system, where
of 0.13. the system resistance curve intersects the fan
Airflow = 0.47 m3/s (1000 cfm) performance curve.
Pv = 25.08 Pa (0.101 in. wg)
5.9 Density effects in air systems
Since the elbow is located one duct diameter from
the divided flow fitting there will be a System Effect Since the density of the air varies with temperature,
loss that will need to be included. pressure (altitude), and humidity, it is necessary to
evaluate the effect of density on the system design
K factor from Figure 4H = 1.08 and fan performance. Because of the variations in
Pt Loss = 25.08 × 0.13 × 1.08 (0.101 × 0.13 × 1.08) density encountered in all air systems, a standard
= 3.52 Pa (0.014 in. wg) density was established, and is used as the basis for
determining fan performance and system pressure
ITEM C - DIVIDED FLOW FITTING, losses. Standard air density is defined as air with a
0.4064 m (16 in.) diameter to 0.3048 m (12 in.) density of 1.2 kg/m3 (0.075 lbm/ft3). Fan performance
diameter with a branch dynamic loss coefficient of ratings and system element pressure loss ratings are
0.46. based on handling air at standard density.
Airflow = 0.94 m3/s (2000 cfm)
Pv = 32.29 Pa (0.13 in. wg) The system designer must evaluate the actual air
K factor from Figure 4H = 1.08 density that will be handled by the system in order to
Pt Loss = 0.46 × 32.29 × 1.08 (0.46 × 0.13 × 1.08) properly determine the volume of flow required and
= 16.04 Pa (0.065 in. wg) the actual pressure losses in the system. Since fans
are essentially constant volume machines, the
Losses for the balance of the system are the same as volume of air handled by the fan will remain constant
those previously calculated. These total 281.1 Pa regardless of the density, but the total pressure
(1.132 in. wg). developed by the fan and the power required by the
fan will vary in direct proportion to the density.
SYSTEM TOTAL PRESSURE LOSS BRANCH 2 = Similarly, the pressure losses in the system due to
336.2 Pa (1.354 in. wg). friction and shock losses will also vary directly with
density.
The loss through branch 2 is equal to the loss
through branch 1, and the branches are in balance. In many applications it is actually the mass flow rate
Similar calculations for branch 3 show that it has a that is important, and, therefore, the volume of air
lower resistance than branches 1 and 2, and some required should be determined from the mass flow

Air Systems | 31
12.2m 6.1m 6.1m
FAN
D C A
1.42m3/s
0.94m3/s 0.472m3/s

0.41m DIA. 0.30m DIA.

0.46m DIA.
E B B

COIL
F 0.30m DIA. 0.30m DIA.
FILTER 0.472m3/s 0.472m3/s
G
LOUVER
H J J DAMPER J
DIFFUSER K K K

3 2 1

SI

40 ft. 20 ft. 20 ft.


FAN
D C A
3000 CFM
2000 CFM 1000 CFM

16” DIA. 12” DIA.

18” DIA.
E B B

COIL
F 12” DIA. 12” DIA.
FILTER 1000 CFM 1000 CFM
G
LOUVER
H J J DAMPER J
DIFFUSER K K K

3 2 1

I-P

Figure 5T - Typical Air System


32 | Air Systems
0.3810m DWDI FAN
0.2165M2 OUTLET AREA
600 1316 RPM
DESIGN
SYSTEM
PRESSURE, Pa

300

PT vs FLOW

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0


3
m /sec

15” DWDI FAN


2.33 FT2 OUTLET AREA
2 1316 RPM
DESIGN
SYSTEM
PRESSURE, H2O in. wg

PT vs FLOW

0 1 2 3 4
CFM × 1000

Figure 5W - Fan Performance Versus System


Air Systems | 33
rate required at the design conditions. As an conditions (Annex E) has a density of 1.072 kg/m3
example, in a system requiring a mass flow rate of (0.067 lbm/ft3). The power at these conditions would
226.8 kg/min (500 lbm/min) at 121.1°C (250°F) and be the power for standard air multiplied by the density
at an altitude of 914.4 m (3000 ft), the air density from ratio:
Annex E is 0.800 kg/m3 (.05 lbm/ft3). The required
volume flow rate can then be determined by dividing SI (Power required at 20°C and 914.4 m)
the mass flow rate by the design density: 10.82 kW × (1.072 kg/m3 ÷ 1.2 kg/m3) = 9.67 kW

SI (Volume flow rate) I-P (Power required at 68°F and 3000 ft)
226.8 kg/min ÷ (60 s/min × 0.800 kg/m3) = 4.725 m3/s 14.5 BHP × (0.067 lbm/ft3 ÷ 0.075 lbm/ft3) = 12.95 BHP

I-P (Volume flow rate) In normal HVAC applications the effects of density
500 lbm/min ÷ 0.5 lbm/ft3 = 10000 cfm changes other than for operation at higher altitudes,
are quite often ignored and the system design is
The pressure loss in the system would be calculated based on handling standard air. The system designer
based on 4.725 m3/s (10000 cfm) at standard air should, however, be aware of the effects of density
density of 1.2 kg/m3 (.075 lbm/ft3). If in this example change and take them into consideration when
the pressure loss at standard air is 1490.16 Pa (6 in. making field measurements of system performance
wg) the pressure loss at actual conditions would be or balancing the system.
this value multiplied by the density ratio:
Use Annex C to determine the density of air over a
SI (Pressure loss - actual conditions) range of barometric pressures, temperatures, and
1490.15 Pa × (0.8 kg/m3 ÷ 1.2 kg/m3) = 993.44 Pa relative humidities. Annex E gives the density ratios
for a wide range of temperatures and altitudes. The
I-P (Pressure loss - actual conditions) air density at the various conditions is obtained by
6 in. wg × (.05 lbm/ft3 ÷ .075 lbm/ft3) = 4 in. wg multiplying standard air density of 1.2 kg/m3 (0.075
lbm/ft3) by the factors shown in the table.
A fan for this system must be selected based on its
performance at standard conditions. For this example 6. System Design and Tolerances
select the fan for a performance of 4.725 m3/s (10000
cfm) at 1490.16 Pa (6 in. wg) static pressure. Before making a final determination of the fan
Determine the fan power required at standard density selection there are several factors in the design of a
from the fan performance data. The power required system and the selection of a fan that need to be
at actual conditions would then be calculated by understood and evaluated:
multiplying the catalog fan power by the density ratio.
In this example the fan power required at standard a) The effect of variation in the resistance of the
conditions is 10.82 kW (14.5 BHP). At the actual actual installed system versus the resistance of
operating conditions of 121.1°C (250°F) air at 914.4 the designed system, i.e.; point of operation
m (3000 ft) altitude, the fan power required would be
the power for standard air multiplied by the density b) The fan performance characteristics and
ratio: system/performance tolerances

SI (Power at actual conditions) c) The effect of changes in the system, either


10.82 kW × (0.8 kg/m3 ÷ 1.2 kg/m3) = 7.21 kW intentionally or unintentionally, on the point of
operation
I-P (Power at actual conditions)
14.5 BHP × (0.05 lbm/ft3) ÷ .075 lbm/ft3) = 9.67 BHP d) The upper and lower system resistance design
points in systems that have variable resistance
Consider other density effects when selecting a fan characteristics (constant volume systems), or
for elevated temperature operations. If in this that have variable fan performance
example the fan would be required to start and run characteristics (variable air volume systems).
some period of time at normal temperature as the
system warms up, the motor should be selected on 6.1 Point of operation
the basis of the cold air density. Since the fan will be
at 914.4 m (3000 ft) altitude, the air density at 20°C The system resistance of the actual installed system
(68°F) and 914.4 m (3000 ft) should be used to can vary substantially from that calculated for the
determine the required fan power. Air at these system design, because of a number of factors:

34 | Air Systems
a) The installed system is different from the These curves are only shown to make the system
designed system, such as the addition of elbows designer aware of the effect of the slope of the fan
and offsets to meet field conditions, failure to curve on the expected system performance with
provide turning vanes in elbows, or the change in variations in system resistance. Many other factors
position of various system elements with respect enter into the determination of the best fan type and
to each other; size for a given application.

b) Excessive leakage or increased resistance due 6.2.2 Fan performance tolerance. The fan
to poor quality workmanship at the installation; performance also has a tolerance which must be
considered. The AMCA Check Test Tolerances are
c) Loss coefficients of the various system elements described in AMCA Publication 211, Certified Ratings
such as coils, filters, dampers, diffusers, elbows, Program -Air Performance, Product Rating
etc., improperly accounted for; Requirement Subsection B. The AMCA Check Test
Tolerance is shown on Figure 6B. This tolerance is to
d) System Effects: be applied along a parabolic system line. The power
• not properly accounted for required by the AMCA Check Test Tolerances shall
• ignored in the original system design not exceed the rated data at the measured volume by
• not accounted for because of on-site more than 5% or 37 watts, whichever is greater. The
installation changes. fan curve in Figure 6B has dashed lines indicating the
tolerance range of fan performance, and when
The degree to which all of the various tolerances and combined with the system resistance tolerance
the field changes affect the actual system resistance curves, an area of probable system performance is
varies quite widely. Experience indicates that the indicated by the tolerance limits shown for the system
difference to be expected between the calculated and resistance and the tolerance limits shown for the fan
actual system resistance can be as much as ±10%. flow-pressure. As can be seen, the probable flow
In extreme cases, greater system resistance range could be from 3.15 m3/s (6674 cfm) to 3.39
differentials have been experienced. Not accounting m3/s (7185 cfm) which is -4.7 to +2.6%. An installed
for system effects in the design will result in a higher system tolerance range approaching ± 5.0% of flow
system resistance and reduced flow. could be expected.

6.2 Fan performance 6.2.3 Performance safety factor. Evaluate the fan
performance tolerance and system resistance
There is a wide variety of basic fan designs in axial, tolerances to determine if the lower or upper limits of
centrifugal and mixed flow variations. Curves of the probable flow in the system are acceptable. The
several typical basic fans, all selected for a point of combination of these tolerances should also be
operation of 3.30 m3/s (7000 cfm) at a static pressure evaluated to ensure that the high side system
of 1490.16 Pa (6 in. wg), are shown on Figure 6A. All resistance curve does not fall into the unstable
of these fans pass through the design point of portion of the fan curve. With a few exceptions, all
operation, but with different slopes. The point of fans have an unstable range of performance.
highest efficiency will typically occur somewhat to the Operation in this area of the curve should be avoided
right of the peak pressure point. and precautions taken to ensure operation outside of
the unstable area at the highest expected system
6.2.1 System resistance effect on performance. resistance.
The system resistance curves for the point of
operation and curves for ±10% and ±25% of the 6.2.3.1 Static pressure safety factor. It has been
design pressure are also shown in Figure 6A. The common practice among system designers to apply a
intersection of these system lines with the various fan performance safety factor to the calculated system
curves show what range of volume performance can requirements. This is often accomplished by adding a
be expected for each fan over this range of system nominal percentage of pressure to the system
resistance. The amount of variation in flow rate with pressure requirements. Some system designers will
changes in the system resistance will be dependent size the system for a higher flow rate than is required.
on the slope of the fan performance curve in the
range of operation. The use of safety factors is discouraged when all
system components and system effects are
properly accounted for. The use of safety factors
is not required when system effect factors and all
known losses are accounted for.

Air Systems | 35
6.3 Effects of system changes Figure 6D shows a typical fan curve with system
resistance curves for a variable system where the
Some air systems are designed to operate at more system pressure is allowed to vary as the system
than one system condition, such as an exhaust demand for airflow changes. The system may be
system serving multiple inlets where some of the varied by volume control, dampers, or other control
inlets can be closed off, or supply systems where devices to provide a varying flow rate as demanded
some of the outlets can be closed off or dampered for by the system.
reduced flow. The effect of these changes in the
system need to be evaluated in the system design The tolerance ranges are shown for both the fan and
and the selection of a fan for this service. The main the system resistance. The most critical point in the
concern would be that the fan is not forced to operate design of this type of system will be at the low flow-
in the unstable range. Also, the fan performance high pressure condition. The fan selection and
should be such that the system performance is system limits should be such that the fan will operate
acceptable over the range of operating conditions in the stable portion of the fan curve at the maximum
desired. The motor must be selected to cover this resistance condition. Make sure the fan power
range of operating conditions. The system resistance requirements over the tolerance range can be met by
and system performance, for the example used in the motor selected.
Section 5.8, were calculated for the design condition
and also for two other system conditions. [Figure 6C Figure 6E shows a typical set of fan curves for a
illustrates the effect of system changes.] The system centrifugal fan with inlet vane control with system
resistance and flow were calculated for the condition resistance curves for a variable resistance system. In
where all the dampers were open and for the this system, both the pressure and flow
condition where one of the dampers was closed. characteristics of the fan are varied by changing the
Each of these conditions has a different system inlet vanes position to meet the flow rate demand of
resistance curve resulting in a different operating the system. Similar systems employ axial fans with
point on the fan curve and a different total flow for the variable pitch control, or fans with variable speed
system. The flow in each branch of the system will capability.
also change. This leads to an important conclusion:
The critical area of fan selection is near the peak of
IN A FIXED SYSTEM, A CHANGE IN RESISTANCE the pressure curve. Almost all fans exhibit some
IN ANY ELEMENT WILL CHANGE THE TOTAL degree of instability to the left of the peak pressure
SYSTEM RESISTANCE, AND AS A RESULT, point. It is wise to avoid operation in this range
CHANGE THE POINT OF OPERATION ON THE without the expressed approval of the fan
FAN CURVE AND THE FLOW RATE THROUGH ALL manufacturer.
OTHER ELEMENTS OF THE SYSTEM.
There are many system variations to meet various
It is because of this interaction of the total system design criteria that the designer may encounter. Not
with changes in any part of the system that the job of all of the possibilities can be covered in the scope of
balancing a system is very difficult. this publication. If fan users apply the principles
outlined in this publication to the specific system,
6.4 Variable systems they can expect to design a good, functional system
and avoid many of the pitfalls often encountered in air
Where systems are designed to be variable over systems.
some range of operation, or where both the fan and
system are variable, the point of operation needs to
be evaluated at the upper and lower limits of
operation, relative to the tolerance of the fan and
system.

36 | Air Systems
+25%
+10%
PRESSURE

BACKWARD -10%
1490.16 Pa
INCLINED FAN -25%
(6.0 in. wg)

RADIAL
BLADE FAN

3.3m/s VANEAXIAL
(7000 cfm) FAN

VOLUME FLOWRATE

Figure 6A - Performance of Example Fans with System Varations

+10%

DESIGN POINT
OF OPERATION
-10%
PRESSURE

FAN CURVE

POTENTIAL SYSTEM
FLOW RANGE
3.15 m3/s 3.39 m3/s
(6701 cfm) (7210 cfm)
3.3 m3/s AMCA CERTIFIED RATING
(7000 cfm) TOLERANCE

VOLUME FLOWRATE

Figure 6B - Air Performance with Certified Ratings Tolerance

Air Systems | 37
DWDI FAN

DESIGN
SYSTEM
TOTAL PRESSURE

ONE DAMPER CLOSED


ALL DAMPERS CLOSED

Pt vs FLOW

VOLUME FLOWRATE

Figure 6C - Fan and System Curves - System Changes

+10%
-10%
HIGH PRESSURE
DESIGN POINT

FAN CURVE

+10%
PRESSURE

LOW PRESSURE -10%


DESIGN POINT

AMCA CERTIFIED RATING


TOLERANCE

VOLUME FLOWRATE

Figure 6D - Fan and System Curves - Variable Resistance System

38 | Air Systems
+10%
-10% MAXIMUM FLOW
DESIGN POINT
PRESSURE

VARIABLE VOLUME
SYSTEM RESISTANCE

IVC SETTING 1 IVC SETTING 2 IVC SETTING 3 IVC SETTING 4

STATIC PRESSURE
CONTROL POINT

VOLUME FLOWRATE

Figure 6E - Fan and System Curves - Variable Volume System

Air Systems | 39
Annex A. SI / I-P Conversion Table

Conversion factors between SI and I-P systems:

Quantity I-P to SI SI to I-P

Length (ft) 0.3048 = m (m) 3.2808 = ft

Mass (weight) (lbs) 0.4536 = kg (kg) 2.2046 = lbs.

Time The unit of time is the second in both systems

(ft-s) 0.3048 = ms (ms) 3.2808 = fts


Velocity
(ft/min) 0.00508 = ms (ms) 196.85 = ft/min

Acceleration (in./s2) 0.0254 = m/s2 (m/s2) 39.370 = in.s/2

Area (ft2) 0.09290 = m2 (m2) 10.764 = ft2

Volume Flow Rate (cfm) 0.000471948 = m3/s (m3/s) 2118.88 = cfm

Density (lb/ft3) 16.01846 = kg/m3 (kg/m3) 0.06243 = lb/ft3

(in. wg) 248.36 = Pa (Pa) 0.004026 = in. wg


Pressure (in. wg) 0.24836 = kPa (kPa) 4.0264 = in. wg
(in. wg) 3.3864 = kPa (kPa) 0.2953 = in. Hg

Viscosity:
Absolute (lbm/ft-s) 1.4882 = Pa s (Pa s) 0.6719 = (lbm/ft-s)
Kinematic (ft2/s) 0.0929 = m2/s (m2/s) 10.7639 = ft2/s

Gas Constant (ft lb/lbm-°R) 5.3803 = J-kg/K (j-kg/K) 0.1858 = (ft lb/lbm-°R)

Temperature (°F - 32°)/1.8 = °C (1.8 × °C) + 32° = °F

Power (BHP) 746 = W (W)/746 = BHP


(BHP) 0.746 = kW (kW)/0.746 = BHP

40 | Air Systems
Annex B. Standard Atmospheric Data Versus Altitude Charts

Chart B.1 - SI Standard Atmospheric Data Versus Altitude

Z t p ρ μ v c
Altitude Temperature Atmospheric Gas Absolute Kinematic Speed of
Pressure Density Viscosity Viscosity Sound

m °C kPa kg/m3 Pa•s m2/s m/s


0 15.00 101.32 1.230 1.793x10-5 1.456×10-5 340.43
100 14.35 100.13 1.215 1.790x10-5 1.473×10-5 340.05
200 13.70 98.94 1.201 1.786x10-5 1.487×10-5 339.66
300 13.05 97.77 1.189 1.784x10-5 1.500×10-5 339.28

400 12.40 96.61 1.177 1.780x10-5 1.512×10-5 338.89


500 11.76 95.46 1.166 1.777x10-5 1.524×10-5 338.51
600 11.11 94.32 1.155 1.774x10-5 1.536×10-5 338.19
700 10.46 93.20 1.145 1.771x10-5 1.546×10-5 337.73

800 9.81 92.08 1.134 1.768x10-5 1.559×10-5 337.34


900 9.16 90.98 1.123 1.765x10-5 1.571×10-5 336.95
1000 8.51 89.88 1.112 1.761x10-5 1.584×10-5 336.57
1100 7.86 88.80 1.102 1.758x10-5 1.595×10-5 336.18

1200 7.21 87.72 1.091 1.755x10-5 1.609×10-5 335.79


1300 6.56 86.66 1.080 1.751x10-5 1.621×10-5 335.40
1400 5.90 85.61 1.069 1.748x10-5 1.635×10-5 335.01
1500 5.25 84.56 1.058 1.745x10-5 1.649×10-5 334.62

1600 4.60 83.53 1.047 1.741x10-5 1.663×10-5 334.22


1700 3.95 82.50 1.037 1.738x10-5 1.676×10-5 333.83
1800 3.30 81.49 1.026 1.735x10-5 1.691×10-5 333.44
1900 2.65 80.49 1.016 1.732x10-5 1.705×10-5 333.05

2000 2.00 79.49 1.006 1.728x10-5 1.718×10-5 332.66


2100 1.35 78.51 0.996 1.725x10-5 1.732×10-5 332.26
2200 0.70 77.54 0.986 1.722x10-5 1.746×10-5 331.87
2300 0.53 76.57 0.976 1.718x10-5 1.760×10-5 331.48

2400 -0.60 75.62 0.967 1.715x10-5 1.774×10-5 331.08


2500 -1.25 74.68 0.957 1.712x10-5 1.789×10-5 330.69
2600 -1.90 73.74 0.948 1.708x10-5 1.802×10-5 330.29
2700 -2.55 72.82 0.938 1.705x10-5 1.818×10-5 329.90

2800 -3.20 71.91 0.929 1.702x10-5 1.832×10-5 329.50


2900 -3.85 71.00 0.919 1.699x10-5 1.845×10-5 329.10
3000 -4.50 70.11 0.909 1.695x10-5 1.865×10-5 328.71
3100 -5.15 69.23 0.900 1.692x10-5 1.880×10-5 328.31

3200 -5.80 68.35 0.890 1.689x10-5 1.898×10-5 327.51


3300 -6.46 67.48 0.880 1.685x10-5 1.914×10-5 327.11
3400 -7.11 66.62 0.871 1.682x10-5 1.931×10-5 326.70
3500 -7.76 65.77 0.862 1.679x10-5 1.948×10-5 326.70

Air Systems | 41
Chart B.2 - I-P Standard Atmospheric Data Versus Altitude

Z t p ρ μ ν c
Altitude Temperature Atmospheric Air Dynamic Kinematic Speed of
Pressure Density Viscosity Viscosity Sound

ft °F in. Hg lbm/ft3 lbm/ft-s ft2/s ft/s


-1000 62.6 31.02 .0787 1.212×10-5 1.538×10-4 1120.7
-500 60.8 30.47 .0776 1.208×10-5 1.556×10-4 1118.8
0 59.0 29.92 .0765 1.205×10-5 1.576×10-4 1116.9
500 57.2 29.38 .0754 1.202×10-5 1.595×10-4 1115.0
1000 55.4 28.86 .0743 1.198×10-5 1.614×10-4 1113.1
1500 53.7 28.33 .0732 1.195×10-5 1.633×10-4 1111.1
2000 51.9 27.82 .0721 1.192×10-5 1.653×10-4 1109.2

2500 50.1 27.32 .0710 1.189×10-5 1.673×10-4 1107.3


3000 48.3 26.82 .0700 1.185×10-5 1.694×10-4 1105.3
3500 46.5 26.33 .0689 1.182×10-5 1.714×10-4 1103.4
4000 44.7 25.84 .0679 1.179×10-5 1.735×10-4 1101.4

4500 43.0 25.37 .0669 1.175×10-5 1.757×10-4 1099.5


5000 41.2 24.90 .0659 1.172×10-5 1.778×10-4 1097.5
5500 39.4 24.43 .0649 1.169×10-5 1.800×10-4 1095.6
6000 37.6 23.98 .0639 1.165×10-5 1.823×10-4 1093.6

6500 35.8 23.53 .0630 1.162×10-5 1.846×10-4 1091.7


7000 34.0 23.09 .0620 1.158×10-5 1.869×10-4 1089.7
7500 32.3 22.65 .0610 1.155×10-5 1.892×10-4 1087.7
8000 30.5 22.22 .0601 1.152×10-5 1.916×10-4 1085.7

8500 28.7 21.80 .0592 1.148×10-5 1.904×10-4 1083.8


9000 26.9 21.39 .0583 1.145×10-5 1.965×10-4 1081.8
9500 25.1 20.98 .0574 1.142×10-5 1.990×10-4 1079.8
10000 23.3 20.58 .0565 1.138×10-5 2.015×10-4 1077.8

42 | Air Systems
Annex C. Psychrometric Density Tables

Chart C.1 - Psychrometric Density Table (SI)

Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions - kg/m3


Dry-Bulb
Temp. °C Barometric Pressure kPa

97 98.5 100 101.5 103 104.5


-2.0 1.244981 1.263273 1.282390 1.302927 1.324194 1.340401
-1.5 1.242122 1.260977 1.280094 1.300086 1.322000 1.337965
-1.0 1.239396 1.258667 1.277753 1.297353 1.319731 1.335505
-0.5 1.236782 1.256345 1.275377 1.294710 1.317400 1.333027
0.0 1.234260 1.254012 1.272975 1.292141 1.315018 1.330532
0.5 1.231812 1.251672 1.270553 1.289629 1.312595 1.328024
1.0 1.229423 1.249325 1.268119 1.287163 1.310140 1.325506
1.5 1.227079 1.246973 1.265679 1.284731 1.307661 1.322979
2.0 1.224768 1.244618 1.263236 1.282324 1.305166 1.320447
2.5 1.222480 1.242261 1.260796 1.279934 1.302659 1.317912
3.0 1.220207 1.239902 1.258360 1.277553 1.300147 1.315376
3.5 1.217942 1.237545 1.255931 1.275177 1.297634 1.312841
4.0 1.215680 1.235188 1.253510 1.272800 1.295123 1.310307
4.5 1.213416 1.232834 1.251098 1.270421 1.292618 1.307778
5.0 1.211147 1.230483 1.248697 1.268037 1.290121 1.305254
5.5 1.208871 1.228135 1.246304 1.265645 1.287634 1.302735
6.0 1.206587 1.225792 1.243921 1.263247 1.285157 1.300224
6.5 1.204295 1.223453 1.241546 1.260842 1.282692 1.297720
7.0 1.201994 1.221119 1.239179 1.258431 1.280239 1.295225
7.5 1.199687 1.218791 1.236817 1.256015 1.277798 1.292738
8.0 1.197375 1.216468 1.234459 1.253595 1.275367 1.290260
8.5 1.195060 1.214150 1.232105 1.251173 1.272946 1.287790
9.0 1.192743 1.211838 1.229752 1.248752 1.270533 1.285328
9.5 1.190428 1.209530 1.227399 1.246334 1.268128 1.282875
10.0 1.188116 1.207227 1.225045 1.243920 1.265728 1.280428
10.5 1.185810 1.204927 1.222689 1.241512 1.263332 1.277988
11.0 1.183512 1.202631 1.220330 1.239113 1.260938 1.275553
11.5 1.181224 1.200338 1.217968 1.236723 1.258544 1.273122
12.0 1.178948 1.198047 1.215603 1.234343 1.256148 1.270693
12.5 1.176683 1.195757 1.213236 1.231974 1.253747 1.268266
13.0 1.174432 1.193466 1.210866 1.229616 1.251342 1.265837
13.5 1.172192 1.191174 1.208497 1.227266 1.248928 1.263406
14.0 1.169963 1.188879 1.206131 1.224925 1.246506 1.260970
14.5 1.167742 1.186581 1.203771 1.222588 1.244075 1.258527
15.0 1.165527 1.184277 1.201420 1.220251 1.241632 1.256073
15.5 1.163312 1.181965 1.199084 1.217911 1.239178 1.253607
16.0 1.161092 1.179644 1.196770 1.215560 1.236712 1.251125
16.5 1.158860 1.177313 1.194483 1.213191 1.234235 1.248624
17.0 1.156606 1.174968 1.192231 1.210795 1.231747 1.246101
17.5 1.154320 1.172609 1.190025 1.208361 1.229250 1.243553
18.0 1.151991 1.170232 1.187875 1.205877 1.226746 1.240975

Air Systems | 43
Chart C.1 - Psychrometric Density Table (SI) (Continued)

Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions - kg/m3


Dry-Bulb
Temp. °C Barometric Pressure kPa

97 98.5 100 101.5 103 104.5


18.5 1.148567 1.167391 1.185062 1.203323 1.225071 1.240138
19.0 1.146325 1.164887 1.182780 1.200987 1.222584 1.237641
19.5 1.144073 1.162437 1.180492 1.198647 1.220116 1.235154
20.0 1.141813 1.160033 1.178197 1.196304 1.217665 1.232675
20.5 1.139548 1.157668 1.175897 1.193957 1.215229 1.230205
21.0 1.137279 1.155335 1.173591 1.191607 1.212804 1.227740
21.5 1.135008 1.153029 1.171279 1.189254 1.210388 1.225283
22.0 1.132735 1.150742 1.168962 1.186898 1.207980 1.222830
22.5 1.130461 1.148470 1.166639 1.184537 1.205577 1.220383
23.0 1.128188 1.146207 1.164311 1.182174 1.203177 1.217939
23.5 1.125917 1.143949 1.161977 1.179806 1.200778 1.215499
24.0 1.123646 1.141691 1.159639 1.177435 1.198380 1.213061
24.5 1.121378 1.139431 1.157295 1.175060 1.195979 1.210625
25.0 1.119111 1.137164 1.154946 1.172681 1.193576 1.208190
25.5 1.116846 1.134888 1.152592 1.170298 1.191169 1.205755
26.0 1.114582 1.132601 1.150234 1.167912 1.188756 1.203320
26.5 1.112318 1.130299 1.147871 1.165521 1.186338 1.200883
27.0 1.110055 1.127983 1.145503 1.163126 1.183912 1.198445
27.5 1.107790 1.125650 1.143131 1.160726 1.181480 1.196003
28.0 1.105523 1.123300 1.140754 1.158323 1.179039 1.193559
28.5 1.103253 1.120932 1.138373 1.155915 1.176591 1.191110
29.0 1.100978 1.118548 1.135988 1.153503 1.174134 1.188656
29.5 1.098695 1.116147 1.133599 1.151086 1.171669 1.186196
30.0 1.096404 1.113730 1.131206 1.148664 1.169195 1.183730
30.5 1.094102 1.111299 1.128809 1.146239 1.166714 1.181257
31.0 1.091787 1.108856 1.126408 1.143808 1.164226 1.178775
31.5 1.089456 1.106402 1.124004 1.141372 1.161731 1.176286
32.0 1.087106 1.103942 1.121596 1.138932 1.159230 1.173786
32.5 1.084735 1.101478 1.119184 1.136487 1.156724 1.171277
33.0 1.082339 1.099014 1.116769 1.134037 1.154213 1.168756
33.5 1.079915 1.096553 1.114351 1.131582 1.151700 1.166224
34.0 1.077460 1.094100 1.111930 1.129122 1.149185 1.163679
34.5 1.074970 1.091661 1.109506 1.126656 1.146669 1.161121
35.0 1.072440 1.089240 1.107079 1.124186 1.144155 1.158549
35.5 1.069867 1.086844 1.104649 1.121710 1.141644 1.155963
36.0 1.067247 1.084478 1.102216 1.119229 1.139139 1.153361
36.5 1.064575 1.082149 1.099780 1.116742 1.136640 1.150743
37.0 1.061846 1.079865 1.097342 1.114250 1.134151 1.148108
37.5 1.059056 1.077632 1.094902 1.111753 1.131673 1.145455
38.0 1.056198 1.075460 1.092459 1.109249 1.129210 1.142784

44 | Air Systems
Chart C.2 - Psychrometric Density Table (I-P)

Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions - lbm/ft3


Dry-Bulb
Temp. °F Barometric Pressure in. Hg

28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0


30 .07703 .07839 .07974 .08111 .08245 .08380
31 .07687 .07822 .07957 .08093 .08228 .08363
32 .07671 .07806 .07940 .08075 .08210 .08345
33 .07654 .07789 .07924 .08058 .08193 .08327
34 .07638 .07772 .07907 .08041 .08175 .08310
35 .07621 .07756 .07890 .08024 .08158 .08292
36 .07605 .07739 .07873 .07807 .08141 .08274
37 .07589 .07723 .07856 .07990 .08123 .08257
38 .07573 .07706 .07840 .07973 .08106 .08239
39 .07557 .07690 .07823 .07956 .08089 .08222
40 .07541 .07674 .07806 .07939 .08072 .08205
41 .07525 .07657 .07790 .07922 .08055 .08187
42 .07509 .07641 .07773 .09705 .08038 .08170
43 .07493 .07625 .07757 .07889 .08021 .08153
44 .07477 .07609 .07740 .07872 .08004 .08135
45 .07461 .07592 .07724 .07855 .07986 .08118
46 .07445 .07576 .07707 .07838 .07970 .08101
47 .07429 .07560 .07691 .07822 .07953 .08084
48 .07413 .07544 .07674 .07805 .07936 .08066
49 .07397 .07528 .07658 .07788 .07919 .08049
50 .07381 .07512 .07642 .07772 .07902 .08032
51 .07366 .07496 .07625 .07755 .07885 .08015
52 .07350 .07479 .07609 .07739 .07868 .07998
53 .07334 .07464 .07593 .07722 .07852 .07981
54 .07318 .07447 .07576 .07706 .07835 .07964
55 .07302 .07431 .07560 .07689 .07818 .07947
56 .07287 .07415 .07544 .07673 .07801 .07930
57 .07271 .07399 .07528 .07656 .07784 .07913
58 .07255 .07383 .07512 .07640 .07768 .07896
59 .07240 .07367 .07495 .07623 .07751 .07879
60 .07224 .07352 .07479 .07607 .07734 .07862
61 .07208 .07336 .07463 .07590 .07718 .07845
62 .07193 .07320 .07447 .07574 .07701 .07828
63 .07177 .07304 .07430 .07557 .07684 .07811
64 .07161 .07288 .07414 .07541 .07668 .07794

Air Systems | 45
Chart C.2 - Psychrometric Density Table (I-P)

Density of Saturated Air for Various Barometric Conditions - lbm/ft3


Dry-Bulb
Temp. °F Barometric Pressure in. Hg

28.5 29.0 29.5 30.0 30.5 31.0


65 .07145 .07272 .07398 .07525 .07651 .07770
66 .07130 .07256 .07382 .07508 .07634 .07760
67 .07114 .07240 .07366 .07492 .07618 .07744
68 .07098 .07224 .07350 .07475 .07601 .07727
69 .07083 .07208 .07333 .07459 .07584 .07710
70 .07067 .07192 .07317 .07442 .07568 .07693
71 .07051 .07176 .07301 .07426 .07551 .07676
72 .07035 .07160 .07285 .07410 .07534 .07659
73 .07020 .07144 .07268 .07393 .07517 .07642
74 .07004 .07128 .07252 .07377 .07501 .07625
75 .06988 .07112 .07236 .07360 .07484 .07603
76 .06972 .07096 .07220 .07343 .07467 .07591
77 .06956 .07080 .07203 .07327 .07451 .07574
78 .06940 .07064 .07187 .07310 .07434 .07557
79 .06925 .07048 .07171 .07294 .07417 .07540
80 .06909 .07032 .07155 .07277 .07400 .07523
81 .06893 .07015 .07138 .07261 .07383 .07506
82 .06877 .07000 .07122 .07244 .07366 .07489
83 .06861 .06983 .07105 .07227 .07349 .07472
84 .06845 .06967 .07089 .07211 .07333 .07454
85 .06829 .06950 .07072 .07194 .07316 .07437
86 .06812 .06934 .07056 .07177 .07299 .07420
87 .06796 .06917 .07039 .07160 .07281 .07403
88 .06780 .06901 .07022 .07143 .07264 .07385
89 .06764 .06885 .07005 .07126 .07247 .07368
90 .06748 .06868 .06989 .07109 .07230 .07351
91 .06731 .06852 .06972 .07092 .07213 .07333
92 .06715 .06835 .06955 .07075 .07195 .07316
93 .06698 .06818 .06938 .07058 .07178 .07298
94 .06682 .06801 .06921 .07041 .07161 .07280
95 .06665 .06785 .06904 .07024 .07143 .07263
96 .06648 .06768 .06887 .07006 .07126 .07245
97 .06632 .06751 .06870 .06989 .07108 .07227
98 .06615 .06734 .06853 .06972 .01091 .07209
99 .06598 .06717 .06835 .06954 .07073 .07191
100 .06581 .06700 .06818 .06937 .07055 .07174

46 | Air Systems
100 VE 100
LO
CI
TY
70 90 m/ 70
s
30
80
50 50
40 25 70 40

50
30 60 30

63
20

ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.
80
18 50
20 20

0
Annex D. Friction Charts

16 45

10
5
14 40

12
35

0
10 12 10

16
30

0
10

20
7 7

0
9

25
5 8 5

5
31
4 7 4

0
40
3 6 3

0
50
0
2 5 2

63
Chart D.1 - SI

0
80

4
00

FRICTION LOSS, Pa/m


1 3.5 1
10
50

20
3
12

0.7 0.7
00
16

2.5
00

0.5 0.5
20

0.4 0.4
mm

00

2.0
R,

25
E

0.3 1.8 0.3


50
ET

31

1.6
IAM
00

0.2 0.2
D

1.4
40

CT

1.2
DU

9
0.1
20 50 100 200 500 1,000 2,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 50,000 200,000 400,000

AIR QUANTITY, L/s at 1.20 kg/m3 (ε = 0.09 mm)

Air Systems | 47
Reprinted by permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia, from the 1993
10 10
80
7 00 7

48 | Air Systems
70
5 65 00 5
0
60 0 VE
4 0 LO 4
55 0 CI
0 TY
3 50 0 , fp 3
00 m
45

ASHRAE Handbook-Fundamentals.
00
2 40 12 2

3
00 00
36 0
00
32 10

4
00
00 0
90
1 28 00 1

5
00 80
00

6
0.8 24 0.8
00

7
8
20
0.5 0 0.5

9
18 0

10
0.4 00 0.4
16 40

12
00 00
0.3 0.3

14
14
00

16
18
0.2 12 0.2
00

20
22
Chart D.2 - I-P

10

24
00

26
90
0 30
32
0.1 80 0.1
0
36

0.08 0.08
40

70 18

FRICTION LOSS, in. of water per 100 ft of duct


0 00
45
50

60
55

0.05 0 0.05
60
in.

70

0.04 50
0 0.04
R,

80
E

0.03 0.03
90
0
ET

40
0
10
IAMD

0.02 0.02
CT

30
0
DU

0.01 0.01
50 100 200 500 1,000 2,000 5,000 10,000 20,000 50,000 100,000 200,000 400,000
AIR QUANTITY, cfm at 0.075 lb/ft3 (ε = 0.0003 ft)

Reprinted by permission of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, Georgia, from the 1993
Annex E. Air Density Correction Factor Charts

Chart E.1 - Air Density Correction Factor (SI)


(Multiply Standard Air Density, 0.075 lbm/ft3 × the Factor to obtain Density at Condition B.)
Altitude, m Sea Level 300 600 900 1200
Barometer, mm Hg 759.97 733.47 707.46 682.43 657.90
kPa 101.32 97.79 94.32 90.98 87.71
Air Temp. °C -20 1.22 1.12 1.08 1.04 1.00
0 1.12 1.04 1.01 .97 .94
20 1.03 .97 .94 .90 .87
40 .95 .91 .88 .85 .81
60 .93 .86 .83 .80 .77
80 .85 .80 .78 .75 .72
100 .79 .76 .73 .70 .68
120 .77 .72 .70 .67 .65
140 .73 .69 .67 .64 .62
160 .69 .65 .63 .61 .59
180 .65 .61 .59 .57 .55
200 .62 .57 .55 .53 .51
220 .57 .56 .54 .52 .50
240 .57 .55 .53 .51 .49
260 .56 .53 .51 .49 .47
280 .54 .52 .50 .48 .46
300 .52 .50 .48 .46 .44
320 .50 .48 .49 .45 .43
340 .49 .46 .48 .43 .41

Altitude, m 1500 1800 2100 2400 2700


Barometer, mm Hg 634.34 611.3 588.98 567.17 546.30
kPa 84.57 81.50 78.52 75.62 72.83
Air Temp. °C -20 .97 .93 .91 .87 .84
0 .90 .87 .84 .81 .80
20 .84 .81 .78 .75 .72
40 .78 .75 .73 .70 .68
60 .74 .71 .69 .67 .64
80 .69 .67 .65 .63 .60
100 .65 .63 .61 .59 .58
120 .62 .61 .59 .57 .58
140 .60 .58 .56 .54 .53
160 .57 .55 .53 .51 .49
180 .53 .51 .50 .49 .47
200 .49 .47 .47 .45 .43
220 .48 .46 .45 .43 .42
240 .47 .46 .46 .43 .41
260 .45 .44 .43 .41 .39
280 .44 .43 .42 .40 .38
300 .43 .41 .40 .38 .37
320 .41 .40 .39 .37 .35
340 .40 .39 .37 .36 .34

Air Systems | 49
Chart E.2 - Air Density Correction Factor (I-P)
(Multiply Standard Air Density, 0.075 lbm/ft3 × the Factor to obtain Density at Condition B.)
Altitude, ft. -1000 Sea Level 1000 2000 3000 4000
Barometer, in. Hg 31.02 29.92 28.86 27.82 26.82 25.84
in wg. 422.2 407.5 392.81 378.6 365.0 351.7
Air Temp. °F -40 1.31 1.26 1.22 1.17 1.13 1.09
0 1.19 1.15 1.11 1.07 1.03 0.99
40 1.10 1.06 1.02 0.99 0.95 0.92
70 1.04 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.89 0.86
100 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.88 0.85 0.81
150 0.90 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.75
200 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71 0.69
250 0.77 0.75 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.64
300 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.60
350 0.68 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56
400 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.53
450 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.50
500 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.51 0.49 0.47
550 0.54 0.53 0.51 0.49 0.47 0.45
600 0.52 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.43
700 0.47 0.46 0.44 0.43 0.41 0.39
800 0.44 0.42 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.36
900 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.33
1000 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.33 0.32 0.31

Altitude, ft. 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000


Barometer, in. Hg 24.90 23.98 23.09 22.22 21.39 20.58
in wg. 338.9 326.4 314.3 302.1 291.1 280.1
Air Temp. °F -40 1.05 1.01 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.87
0 0.95 0.91 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.79
40 0.88 0.85 0.82 0.79 0.76 0.73
70 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71 0.69
100 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.68 0.65
150 0.72 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.62 0.60
200 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.57 0.55
250 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.58 0.51
300 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.48
350 0.54 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.47 0.45
400 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.42
450 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.40
500 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.41 0.39 0.38
550 0.44 0.42 0.41 0.39 0.38 0.36
600 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.37 0.35 0.34
700 0.38 0.37 0.35 0.34 0.33 0.32
800 0.35 0.33 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.29
900 0.32 0.31 0.30 0.29 0.28 0.27
1000 0.30 0.29 0.27 0.26 0.26 0.25

50 | Air Systems
Fans and Systems 201
ANSI/AMCA 210 Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans 2. Symbols and Subscripts
For Aerodynamic Performance Rating, offers the
system design engineer guidance as to how the fan For symbols and subscripted symbols, see Table 2.1.
was tested and rated. AMCA Publication 201 Fans For subscripts, see Table 2.2.
and Systems, helps provide guidance as to what
effect the system and its connections to the fan have 3. Fan Testing
on fan performance.
Fans are tested in setups that simulate installations.
Recognizing and accounting for losses that affect the The four standard installation types are as shown in
fan’s performance, in the design stage, will allow the Figure 3.1.
designer to predict with reasonable accuracy, the
installed performance of the fan.
AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE A:
Free Inlet, Free Outlet
1.1 Purpose

This part of the AMCA Fan Application Manual


includes general information about how fans are
tested in the laboratory, and how their performance
ratings are calculated and published. It also reviews
some of the more important reasons for the "loss" of
fan performance that may occur when the fan is AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE B:
installed in an actual system. Free Inlet, Ducted Outlet

Allowances, called System Effect Factors (SEF), are


also given in this part of the manual. SEF must be
taken into account by the system design engineer if a
reasonable estimate of fan/system performance is to
be determined. AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE C:
Ducted Inlet, Free Outlet
1.2 Some limitations

It must be appreciated that the System Effect Factors


given in this manual are intended as guidelines and
are, in general, approximations. Some have been
obtained from research studies, others have been
published previously by individual fan manufacturers, AMCA INSTALLATION TYPE D:
and many represent the consensus of engineers with Ducted Inlet, Ducted Outlet
considerable experience in the application of fans.

Fans of different types and even fans of the same


type, but supplied by different manufacturers, will not
necessarily react with the system in exactly the same Figure 3.1 - Standard Fan Installation Types
way. It will be necessary, therefore, to apply judgment
based on actual experience in applying the SEF. 3.1 ANSI/AMCA Standard 210
The SEF represented in this manual assume that the Most fan manufacturers rate the performance of their
fan application is generally consistent with the products from tests made in accordance with
method of testing and rating by the manufacturer. ANSI/AMCA 210 Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans
Inappropriate application of the fan will result in SEF for Aerodynamic Performance Rating. The purpose
values inconsistent with the values presented. of ANSI/AMCA 210 is to establish uniform methods
for laboratory testing of fans and other air moving
Mechanical design of the fan is not within the scope devices to determine performance in terms of airflow,
of this publication.
Table 2.1 - Symbols and Subscripted Symbols

UNITS OF MEASURE
SYMBOL DESCRIPTION SI I-P

A Area of cross section m2 ft2


D Diameter, impeller mm in.
D Diameter, Duct m ft
H Fan Power Input kw hp
H/T Hub-to-Tip Ratio Dimensionless
Kp Compressibility Coefficient Dimensionless
Cp Loss Coefficient Dimensionless
N Speed of Rotation rpm rpm
Ps Fan Static Pressure Pa in. wg
Pt Fan Total Pressure Pa in. wg
Pv Fan Velocity Pressure Pa in. wg
pb Corrected Barometric Pressure kPa in. Hg
PL Plane of Measurement --- ---
Q Airflow m3/s ft3/min
Re Fan Reynolds Number Dimensionless
SEF System Effect Factor Pa in. wg
td Dry-Bulb Temperature °C °F
tw Wet-Bulb Temperature °C °F
μ Air Viscosity Pa•s lbm/ft•s
V Velocity m/s fpm
W Power Input to Motor watts watts
ηs Fan Static Efficiency % %
ηt Fan Total Efficiency % %
ρ Air Density kg/m3 lbm/ft3

Table 2.2 - Subscripts

SUBSCRIPT DESCRIPTION

a Atmospheric conditions
c Converted Value
x Plane 0, 1, 2, ...as appropriate
1 Fan Inlet Plane
2 Fan Outlet Plane
3 Pitot Traverse Plane
5 Plane 5 (nozzle inlet station in chamber)
6 Plane 6 (nozzle discharge station in chamber)
8 Plane 8 (inlet chamber measurement station)

52 | Fans and Systems


pressure, power, air density, speed of rotation and the fan outlet is limited to ensure that uniform airflow
efficiency, for rating or guarantee purposes. Two will be maintained. A steep transition, or abrupt
methods of measuring airflow are included: the Pitot change of cross section would cause turbulence and
tube and the long radius flow nozzle. These are eddies. The effect of this type of airflow disturbance
incorporated into a number of "setups" or "figures". at the fan outlet is discussed later.
In general, a fan is tested on the setup that most
closely resembles the way in which it will be installed Uniform airflow conditions ensure consistency and
in an air system. Centrifugal and axial fans are reproducibility of test results and permit the fan to
usually tested with an outlet duct. Propeller fans are develop its maximum performance. In any installation
normally tested in the wall of a chamber or plenum. where uniform airflow conditions do not exist, the
Power roof ventilators (PRV) are tested mounted on fan's performance will be measurably reduced.
a curb exhausting from the test chamber.
As illustrated in Figure 3.3 Plane 2, the velocity
It is very important to realize that each setup in profile at the outlet of a fan is not uniform. The section
ANSI/AMCA 210 is a standardized arrangement that of straight duct attached to the fan outlet controls the
is not intended to reproduce exactly any installation diffusion of the outlet airflow and establishes a more
likely to be found in the field. The infinite variety of uniform velocity as shown in Figure 3.3 Plane X.
possible arrangements of actual air systems makes it
impractical to duplicate every configuration in the fan The energy loss when a gas, such as air, passes
test laboratory. through a sudden enlargement is related to the
square of the velocity. Thus the ducted outlet with its
3.2 Ducted outlet fan tests more uniform velocity significantly reduces the loss at
the point of discharge to the atmosphere.
Figure 3.2 is a reproduction of a test setup from
ANSI/AMCA 210. Note that this particular setup A manufacturer may test a fan with or without an inlet
includes a long straight duct connected to the outlet duct or outlet duct. For products licensed to use the
of the fan. A straightener is located upstream of the AMCA Certified Ratings Seal, catalog ratings will
Pitot traverse to remove swirl and rotational state whether ducts were used during the rating tests.
components from the airflow and to ensure that
airflow at the plane of measurement is as nearly If the fans are not to be applied with the same duct(s)
uniform as possible. as in the test setup, an allowance should be made for
the difference in performance that may result.
The angle of the transition between the test duct and

1 2

Transition Straightener
Piece

FOR FAN INSTALLATION TYPES:


B: Free Inlet, Ducted Outlet D: Ducted Inlet, Ducted Outlet

Figure 3.2 - Pitot Traverse in Outlet Duct

Fans and Systems | 53


3.3 Free inlet, free outlet fan tests calculated from the performance of smaller fans in
the series using the appropriate equations.
Figure 3.4 illustrates a typical multi-nozzle chamber
test setup from ANSI/AMCA 210. This simulates the Because of the relationship between the airflow,
conditions under which most exhaust fans are tested pressure and power for any given fan, each set of
and rated. Fan performance based on this type of equations for changes in speed, size or density,
test may require adjustment when additional applies only to the same Point of Rating, and all the
accessories are used with the fan. Fans designed for equations in the set must be used to define the
use without duct systems are usually rated over a converted condition. A Point of Rating is the specified
lower range of pressures. They are commonly fan operating point on its characteristic curve.
cataloged and sold as a complete unit with suitable
drive and motor. The Fan Law equations are shown below as ratios.
The un-subscripted variable is used to designate the
3.4 Obstructed inlets and outlets initial or test fan values for the variable and the
subscript c is used to designate the converted,
The test setups in ANSI/AMCA 210 result in dependent or desired variable.
unobstructed airflow conditions at both the inlet and
the outlet of the fan. Appurtenances or obstructions Qc = Q × (Dc/D)3 × (Nc/N) × (Kp/Kpc)
located close to the inlet and/or outlet will affect fan
performance. Shafts, bearings, bearing supports and Ptc = Pt × (Dc/D)2 × (Nc/N)2 × (ρc/ρ) × (Kp/Kpc)
other appurtenances normally used with a fan should
be in place when a fan is tested for rating. Pvc = Pv × (Dc/D)2 × (Nc/N)2 × (ρc/ρ)

Variations in construction which may affect fan Psc = Ptc - Pvc


performance include changes in sizes and types of
sheaves and pulleys, bearing supports, bearings and
Hc = H × (Dc/D)5 × (Nc/N)3 × (ρc/ρ) × (Kp/Kpc)
shafts, belt guards, inlet and outlet dampers, inlet
vanes, inlet elbows, inlet and outlet cones, and
cabinets or housings. ηtc = (Qc × Ptc × Kp) / Hc (SI)

Since changes in performance will be different for ηtc = (Qc × Ptc × Kp) / (6362 • Hc) (I-P)
various product designs, it will be necessary to make
suitable allowances based on data obtained from the ηsc = ηtc × (Psc/Ptc)
applicable fan catalog or directly from the
manufacturer. These equations have their origin in the classical
theories of fluid mechanics, and the accuracy of the
Most single width centrifugal fans are tested using results obtained is sufficient for most applications.
Arrangement 1 fans. Some allowance for the effect Better accuracy would require consideration of
of bearings and bearing supports in the inlet may be Reynolds number, Mach number, kinematic viscosity,
necessary when using Arrangement 3 or dynamic viscosity, surface roughness, impeller blade
Arrangement 7. The various AMCA standard thickness and relative clearances, etc.
arrangements are shown on Figures 3.5, 3.6, and
3.7. 4.2 Limitations

4. Fan Ratings Under certain conditions the properties of gases


change and there are, therefore, limitations to the use
4.1 The Fan Laws of the Fan Laws. Accurate results will be obtained
when the following limitations are observed:
It is not practical to test a fan at every speed at which
it may be applied. Nor is it possible to simulate every a. Fan Reynolds Number (Re). The term Reynolds
inlet density that may be encountered. Fortunately, number is associated with the ratio of inertia to
by use of a series of equations commonly referred to viscous forces. When related to fans, investigations
as the Fan Laws, it is possible to predict with good of both axial and centrifugal fans show that
accuracy the performance of a fan at other speeds performance losses are more significant at low
and densities than those of the original rating test. Reynolds number ranges and are effectively
negligible above certain threshold Reynolds
The performance of a complete series of numbers. In an effort to simplify the comparison of
geometrically similar (homologous) fans can also be the Reynolds numbers of two fans, the fan industry

54 | Fans and Systems


PL X
BLAST AREA PL 2 DISCHARGE DUCT
OUTLET AREA
CUTOFF

CENTRIFUGAL FAN

PL 2 PL X

AXIAL FAN

Figure 3.3 - Controlled Diffusion and Establishment of a Uniform Velocity


Profile in a Straight Length of Outlet Duct

38mm ±6mm
(1.5in. ±0.25 in.)
PL.5 PL.6 PL.8 PL.1 PL.2
0.5 M MIN.
0.2M 0.5M 0.2 M MIN.
MIN. MIN. 0.3 M MIN.

t d2

AIRFLOW M FAN

VARIABLE
SUPPLY t d3
SYSTEM 0.1 M MIN.
SETTLING SETTLING
MEANS MEANS
(See note 4)
Ps5 ΔP Pt8

Figure 3.4 - Inlet Chamber Setup - Multiple Nozzles in Chamber


(ANSI/AMCA 210-99, Figure 15)

Fans and Systems | 55


ANSI/AMCA Standard 99-2404-03 Page 1 of 2

Drive Arrangements for Centrifugal Fans


An American National Standard - Approved by ANSI on April 17, 2003

ISO 13349
AMCA Drive Alternative Fan
Drive Description Fan Configuration
Arrangement Configuration
Arrangement

1 SWSI 1 or For belt or direct drive.


12 (Arr. 1 with
Impeller overhung on shaft, two
sub-base) bearings mounted on pedestal
base.

Alternative: Bearings mounted


on independant pedestals, with
or without inlet box.

2 SWSI 2 For belt or direct drive.

Impeller overhung on shaft,


bearings mounted in bracket
supported by the fan casing.

Alternative: With inlet box.

3 SWSI 3 or For belt or direct drive.


11 (Arr. 3 with
Impeller mounted on shaft
sub-base) between bearings supported by
the fan casing.

Alternative: Bearings mounted


on independent pedestals, with
or without inlet box.

3 DWDI 6 or For belt or direct drive.


18 (Arr. 6 with
Impeller mounted on shaft
sub-base) between bearings supported by
the fan casing.

Alternative: Bearings mounted


on independent pedestals, with
or without inlet boxes.

4 SWSI 4 For direct drive.

Impeller overhung on motor


shaft. No bearings on fan.
Motor mounted on base.

Alternative: With inlet box.

5 SWSI 5 For direct drive.

Impeller overhung on motor


shaft. No bearings on fan.
Motor flange mounted to
casing.

Alternative: With inlet box.

AMCA International, Inc. | 30 W. University Dr. | Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 | U.S.A

Figure 3.5 - AMCA Standard 99-2404 / Page 1

56 | Fans and Systems


AMCA 201-02

ANSI/AMCA Standard 99-2404-03 Page 2 of 2

ISO 13349
AMCA Drive Alternative Fan
Drive Description Fan Configuration
Arrangement Configuration
Arrangement

7 SWSI 7 For coupling drive.

Generally the same as Arr. 3,


with base for the prime mover.

Alternative: Bearings mounted


on independent pedestals with
or without inlet box.

7DWDI 17 For coupling drive.


(Arr. 6 with
Generally the same as Arr. 3
base for motor) with base for the prime mover.

Alternative: Bearings mounted


on independent pedestals with
or without inlet box.

8 SWSI 8 For direct drive.

Generally the same as Arr. 1


with base for the prime mover.

Alternative: Bearings mounted


on independent pedestals with
or without inlet box.

9 SWSI 9 For belt drive.

Impeller overhung on shaft, two


bearings mounted on pedestal
base.

Motor mounted on the outside


of the bearing base.

Alternative: With inlet box.

10 SWSI 10 For belt drive.

Generally the same as Arr. 9


with motor mounted inside of
the bearing pedestal.

Alternative: With inlet box.

AMCA International, Inc. | 30 W. University Dr. | Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 | U.S.A

Figure 3.6 - AMCA Standard 99-2404 / Page 2

Fans and Systems | 57


ANSI/AMCA Standard 99-3404-03 Page 1 of 1

Drive Arrangements for Axial Fans


An American National Standard - Approved by ANSI on June 10, 2003
Note: All fan orientations may be horizontal or vertical

ISO 13349
AMCA Drive Alternative Fan
Drive Description Fan Configuration
Arrangement Configuration
Arrangement

1 1 For belt or direct drive.


12 (Arr. 1 with
Impeller overhung on shaft, two
sub-base) bearings mounted either
upstream or downstream of the
impeller.

Alternative: Single stage or two


stage fans can be supplied with
inlet box and/or discharge
evasé.

3 3 For belt or direct drive.


11 (Arr. 3 with
Impeller mounted on shaft
sub-base) between bearings on internal
supports.

Alternative: Fan can be


supplied with inlet box, and/or
discharge evasé.
4 4 For direct drive.

Impeller overhung on motor


shaft. No bearings on fan. M M
Motor mounted on base or M M

integrally mounted.

Alternative: With inlet box


and/or with discharge evasé.
7 7 For direct drive.

Generally the same as Arr. 3


M M
with base for the prime mover.

Alternative: With inlet box


and/or discharge evasé.

8 8 For direct drive.

Generally the same as Arr. 1


with base for the prime mover. M M

Alternative: Single stage or two


stage fans can be supplied with
inlet box and/or discharge
evasé.
9 9 For belt drive.

Generally same as Arr. 1 with


motor mounted on fan casing,
and/or an integral base.
M
Alternative: With inlet box
and/or discharge evasé

AMCA International, Inc. | 30 W. University Dr. | Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 | U.S.A

Figure 3.7 - AMCA Standard 99-3404 / Page 1

58 | Fans and Systems


has adopted the term Fan Reynolds Number. calculated using the proper specific heat ratio for the
gases being handled.
Re = (πND2ρ) / (60μ)
d. Specific Heat Ratio (Cp). Model fan tests are
where: N = impeller rotational speed, rpm usually based on air with a specific heat ratio of 1.4.
D = impeller diameter, m(ft) Induced draft fans may handle flue gas with a specific
ρ = air density, kg/m3 (lbm/ft3) heat ratio of 1.35. Even though these differences may
μ = absolute viscosity, normally be considered small, they make a
1.8185 × 10-5 Pa•s (5°C to 38°C) (SI) noticeable difference in the calculation of the
(1.22 × 10-5 lbm/ft•s (40°F to 100°F)) (I-P) compressibility coefficient. Refer to AMCA
Publication 802, Annex A, for calculation procedures.
The threshold fan Reynolds number for centrifugal
and axial fans is about 3.0 × 106. That is, there is a e. Tip Speed Mach Parameter (Mt). Tip speed Mach
negligible change in performance between the two parameter is an expression relating the tip speed of
fans due to differences in Reynolds number if both the impeller to the speed of sound at the fan inlet
fans are operating above this threshold value. When condition.
the Reynolds number of a model fan is below 3.0 ×
106, there may be a gain in efficiency (size effect) for When airflow velocity at a point approaches the
a full size fan operating above the threshold speed of sound, some blocking or choking effects
compared to one operating below the threshold. This occur that reduce the fan performance.
occurs only when both fans are operating near peak
efficiency. Therefore, when a model test is being 4.3 Fan performance curves
conducted to verify the rating of a full size fan, the
Reynolds number should be above 3.0 ×106 to avoid A fan performance curve is a graphic presentation of
any uncertainty relating to Reynolds number effects. the performance of a fan. Usually it covers the entire
range from free delivery (no obstruction to airflow) to
b. Point of Rating. To predict the performance of a no delivery (an air tight system with no air flowing).
fan from a smaller model using the Fan Laws, both One, or more, of the following characteristics may be
fans must be geometrically similar (homologous), plotted against volume airflow (Q).
and both fans must operate at the same
corresponding rating points on their characteristic Fan Static Pressure Ps
curves. Two or more fans are said to be operating at Fan Total Pressure Pt
corresponding “points of rating” if the positions of the Fan Power H
operating points, relative to the pressure at shutoff Fan Static Efficiency ηs
and the airflow at free delivery, are the same. Fan Total Efficiency ηt

c. Compressibility. Compressibility is the characteristic Air density (ρ), fan size (D), and fan rotational speed
of a gas to change its volume as a function of (N) are usually constant for the entire curve and must
pressure, temperature and composition. The be stated.
compressibility coefficient (Kp) expresses the ratio of
the fan total pressure developed with an A typical fan performance curve is shown in Figure
incompressible fluid to the fan total pressure 4.1. Figure 4.2 illustrates examples of performance
developed with a compressible fluid (See curves for a variety of fan types.
ANSI/AMCA 210). Differences in the compressibility
coefficient between two similar fans must be

Fans and Systems | 59


SIZE 30 FAN AT N RPM

Pt

100
Ps
90

80
PRESSURE, P

POWER, H
ηt

EFFICIENCY, η PERCENT
70

60

50
ηs
40
H
30

20

OPERATION AT 10
STANDARD DENSITY

0
AIRFLOW, Q

Figure 4.1 - Fan Performance Curve at N RPM

60 | Fans and Systems


TYPE IMPELLER DESIGN HOUSING DESIGN

• Highest efficiency of all centrifugal fan designs. • Scroll-type design for efficient conversion of velocity
• Ten to 16 blades of airfoil contour curved away from pressure to static pressure.

AIRFOIL
direction of rotation. Deep blades allow for efficient • Maximum efficiency requires close clearance and
expansion within blade passages alignment between wheel and inlet
• Air leaves impeller at velocity less than tip speed.
• For given duty, has highest speed of centrifugal
fan designs

• Efficiency only slightly less than airfoil fan. • Uses same housing configuration as airfoil design.
BACKWARD-

BACKWARD-

• Ten to 16 single-thickness blades curved or inclined


INCLINED
CURVED

away from direction of rotation


CENTRIFUGAL FANS

• Efficient for same reasons as airfoil fan.

• Higher pressure characteristics than airfoil, • Scroll. Usually narrowest of all centrifugal designs.
backward-curved, and backward-inclined fans. • Because wheel design is less efficient, housing
RADIAL

• Curve may have a break to left of peak pressure dimensions are not as critical as for airfoil and
R R
and fan should not be operated in this area. backward-inclined fans.
• Power rises continually to free delivery.
M
M

• Flatter pressure curve and lower efficiency than the • Scroll similar to and often identical to other centrifugal
FORWARD-

airfoil, backward-curved, and backward-inclined. fan designs.


CURVED

• Do not rate fan in the pressure curve dip to the left • Fit between wheel and inlet not as critical as for airfoil
of peak pressure. and backward-inclined fans.
• Power rises continually toward free delivery. Motor
selection must take this into account.

• Low efficiency. • Simple circular ring, orifice plate, or venturi.


PROPELLER

• Limited to low-pressure applications. • Optimum design is close to blade tips and forms
• Usually low cost impellers have two or more blades of smooth airfoil into wheel.
single thickness attached to relatively small hub.
• Primary energy transfer by velocity pressure.

• Somewhat more efficient and capable of developing • Cylindrical tube with close clearance to blade tips.
AXIAL FANS

TUBEAXIAL

more useful static pressure than propeller fan.


• Usually has 4 to 8 blades with airfoil or single-
thickness cross section.
• Hub usually less than transfer by velocity pressure.

• Good blade design gives medium- to high-pressure • Cylindrical tube with close clearance to blade tips.
VANEAXIAL

capability at good efficiency. • Guide vanes upstream or downstream from impeller


• Most efficient of these fans have airfoil blades. increase pressure capability and efficiency.
• Blades may have fixed, adjustable, or controllable
pitch.
• Hub is usually greater than half fan tip diameter.

• Performance similar to backward-curved fan except • Cylindrical tube similar to vaneaxial fan, except
CENTRIFUGAL

capacity and pressure are lower. clearance to wheel is not as close.


TUBULAR

• Lower efficiency than backward-curved fan. • Air discharges radially from wheel and turns 90° to
• Performance curve may have a dip to the left of flow through guide vanes.
peak pressure.
SPECIAL DESIGNS

A
• Low-pressure exhaust systems such as general • Normal housing not used, since air discharges from
CENTRIFUGAL

factory, kitchen, warehouse, and some commercial impeller in full circle.


POWER ROOF VENTILATORS

installations. • Usually does not include configuration to recover


• Provides positive exhaust ventilation, which is an velocity pressure component.
advantage over gravity-type exhaust units.
• Centrifugal units are slightly quieter than
B axial units.

• Low-pressure exhaust systems such as general • Essentially a propeller fan mounted in a supporting
factory, kitchen, warehouse, and some commercial structure
installations.
AXIAL

• Hood protects fan from weather and acts as safety


• Provides positive exhaust ventilation, which is an guard.
advantage over gravity-type exhaust units. • Air discharges from annular space at bottom of
weather hood.

Figure 4.2 - Types of Fans


Adapted with permission from 1996 ASHRAE Systems and Equipment Handbook (SI)

Fans and Systems | 61


a
PERFORMANCE CURVES PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS APPLICATIONS
10
Pt • Highest efficiencies occur at 50 to 60% of wide open • General heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning
PRESSURE-POWER
8
Ps 10 volume. This volume also has good pressure applications.
6 8 characteristics. • Usually only applied to large systems, which may be

EFFICIENCY
ηt
4 ηs 6 • Power reaches maximum near peak efficiency and low-, medium-, or high-pressure applications.
wo 4 becomes lower, or self-limiting, toward free delivery. • Applied to large, clean-air industrial operations for
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q 2 significant energy savings.
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• Similar to airfoil fan, except peak efficiency slightly lower. • Same heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 applications as airfoil fan.
6 8 • Used in some industrial applications where airfoil

EFFICIENCY
4
6 blade may corrode or erode due to environment.
4
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q 2
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• Higher pressure characteristics than airfoil and backward- • Primarily for materials handling in industrial plants.
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 curved fans. Also for some high-pressure industrial requirements.
6 8 • Pressure may drop suddenly at left of peak pressure, but • Rugged wheel is simple to repair in the field. Wheel
EFFICIENCY

4
6 this usually causes no problems. sometimes coated with special material.
4 • Power rises continually to free delivery. • Not common for HVAC applications.
2
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• Pressure curve less steep than that of backward-curved • Primarily for low-pressure HVAC applications, such as
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 fans. Curve dips to left of peak pressure. residential furnaces, central station units, and
6 8 • Highest efficiency to right of peak pressure at 40 to 50% packaged air conditioners.
EFFICIENCY

4
6 of wide open volume.
4 • Rate fan to right of peak pressure.
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q 2 • Account for power curve, which rises continually toward
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10 free delivery, when selecting motor.
10
• High flow rate, but very low-pressure capabilities. • For low-pressure, high-volume air moving applications,
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 • Maximum efficiency reached near free delivery. such as air circulation in a space or ventilation through
6 8 • Discharge pattern circular and airstream swirls. a wall without ductwork.
EFFICIENCY

6 • Used for makeup air applications.


4
4
2
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• High flow rate, medium-pressure capabilities. • Low- and medium-pressure ducted HVAC applications
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 • Performance curve dips to left of peak pressure. Avoid where air distribution downstream is not critical.
6 8 operating fan in this region. • Used in some industrial applications, such as drying
EFFICIENCY

4
6 • Discharge pattern circular and airstream rotates or swirls. ovens, paint spray booths, and fume exhausts.
4
2
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• High-pressure characteristics with medium-volume flow • General HVAC systems in low-, medium-, and high-pressure
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 capabilities. applications where straight-through flow and compact
6 8 • Performance curve dips to left of peak pressure due to installation are required.
EFFICIENCY

4
6 aerodynamic stall. Avoid operating fan in this region. • Has good downstream air distribution
4 • Guide vanes correct circular motion imprated by wheel and • Used in industrial applications in place of tubeaxial fans.
2
2 improve pressure characteristics and efficiency of fan. • More compact than centrifugal fans for same duty.
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• Performance similar to backward-curved fan, except • Primarily for low-pressure, return air systems in HVAC
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 capacity and pressure is lower. applications.
6 8 • Lower efficiency than backward-curved fan because air • Has straight-through flow.
EFFICIENCY

4
6 turns 90°.
4 • Performance curve of some designs is similar to axial flow
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q 2 fan and dips to left of peak pressure.
0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• Usually operated without ductwork; therefore, operates at • Low-pressure exhaust systems, such as general factory,
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 very low pressure and high volume. kitchen, warehouse, and some commercial installations.
6 8 • Only static pressure and static efficiency are shown for • Low first cost and low operating cost give an advantage over
EFFICIENCY

4
6 this fan. gravity flow exhaust systems.
4 • Centrifugal units are somewhat quieter than axial flow units.
2
2
VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q 0
0
0 2 4 6 8 10

10
• Usually operated without ductwork; therefore, operates at • Low-pressure exhaust systems, such as general factory,
PRESSURE-POWER

8
10 very low pressure and high volume. kitchen, warehouse, and some commercial installations.
6 8 • Only static pressure and static efficiency are shown for • Low first cost and low operating cost give an advantage
EFFICIENCY

6 this fan. over gravity flow exhaust systems.


4
4
2
2
0 VOLUME FLOW RATE, Q 0
0 2 4 6 8 10

a: These performance curves reflect general characteristics of various fans as commonly applied. They are not intended to provide complete selection criteria, since other parameters,
such as diameter and speed, are not defined.

Figure 4.2 - Types of Fans


Adapted with permission from 1996 ASHRAE Systems and Equipment Handbook (SI)

62 | Fans and Systems


5. Catalog Performance Tables 1) Type B: Free inlet, ducted outlet
2) Type C: Ducted inlet, free outlet
5.1 Type A: Free inlet, free outlet fans 3) Type D: Ducted inlet, ducted outlet

Fans designed for use other than with duct systems The performance of fans intended for use with duct
are usually rated over a lower range of pressures. systems is usually published in the form of a "multi-
They are commonly cataloged and sold as a rating" table. A typical multi-rating table, as illustrated
complete unit with suitable drive and motor. in Figure 5.2 shows:

Typical fans in this group are propeller fans and a) the speed (N) in rpm
power roof ventilators. They are usually available in b) the power (H) in kw (hp)
direct or belt-drive arrangements and performance c) the fan static pressure (Ps) in Pa (in. wg)
ratings are published in a modified form of the multi- d) the outlet velocity (V) in m/s, (fpm)
rating table. Figure 5.1 illustrates such a table for part e) the airflow (Q) in m3/s (cfm)
of a line of belt-drive propeller fans.
Figure 5.3 shows constant speed characteristic
5.2 Ducted fans curves superimposed on a section of the multi-rating
table for the same fan. A brief study of this figure will
There are three types of ducted fans, as described in assist in understanding the relationship between
Section 3: curves and the multi-rating tables.

SIZE No. of Motor Peak AIRFLOW (m3/s) @ STATIC PRESSURE (Pa)


rpm
(cm) Blades kW kW 0 31 62 93 124 155 186 217 248
0.19 862 0.13 2.02 1.58 0.58
0.19 960 0.20 2.25 1.87 0.97
61 3
0.25 1071 0.27 2.51 2.18 1.76 0.76
0.37 1220 0.40 2.86 2.57 2.24 1.70 0.81
0.19 806 0.20 2.89 2.36 1.05
0.25 883 0.27 3.17 2.68 1.94 0.76
69 3
0.37 1035 0.43 3.71 3.30 2.85 1.56 0.95
0.56 1165 0.62 4.18 3.83 3.44 3.01 1.60 1.10
0.37 825 0.42 4.36 3.76 3.04 1.27
0.56 945 0.62 4.99 4.48 3.92 2.38 1.42
84 3 0.75 1045 0.82 5.23 5.08 4.57 4.01 2.31 1.52
1.12 1190 1.19 6.29 5.90 5.47 5.01 4.48 2.79 1.94
1.49 1306 1.64 6.91 6.53 6.15 5.75 5.32 4.81 3.05 2.24 1.84
TYPICAL RATING TABLE FOR A SERIES OF BELT-DRIVEN PROPELLER FANS

SIZE No. of Motor Peak AIRFLOW (ft3/min) @ STATIC PRESSURE (in. wg)
rpm
(in.) Blades hp bhp 0 1/8 1/4 3/8 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1
1/4 862 0.18 4,283 3,350 1,230
1/4 960 0.27 4,770 3,960 2,050
24 3
1/3 1071 0.36 5,321 4,620 3,730 1,600
1/2 1220 0.54 6,062 5,450 4,750 3,600 1,710
1/4 806 0.27 6,123 4,990 2,230
1/3 883 0.36 6,708 5,675 4,100 1,620
27 3
1/2 1035 0.57 7,862 7,000 6,035 3,315 2,020
3/4 1165 0.83 8,850 8,110 7,290 6,385 3,400 2,330
1/2 825 0.56 9,240 7,970 6,430 2,700
3/4 945 0.83 10,580 9,500 8,300 5,040 3,010
33 3 1 1045 1.1 11,710 10,755 9,685 8,490 4,890 3,215
1½ 1190 1.6 13,335 12,490 11,580 10,610 9,500 5,905 4,100
2 1306 2.2 14,630 13,845 13,030 12,185 11,280 10,200 6,470 4,740 3,900
TYPICAL RATING TABLE FOR A SERIES OF BELT-DRIVEN PROPELLER FANS
Figure 5.1 - Propeller Fan Performance Table
Fans and Systems | 63
IMPELLER DIAMETER: 927 mm OUTLET AREA: .71 SQ METERS
TIP SPEED IN m/s: .0485 × RPM MAXIMUM kW: 13.65 × (RPM/1000)3
Outlet 62 Pa 93 Pa 124 Pa 155 Pa 186 Pa 217 Pa 246 Pa 310 Pa 373 Pa
Volume
Vel.
m3/s rpm kW rpm kW rpm kW rpm kW rpm kW rpm kW rpm kW rpm kW rpm kW
(m/s)
1.81 2.55 222 0.14
2.17 3.06 236 0.17 270 0.25
2.53 3.56 253 0.22 284 0.30 313 0.39
2.89 4.07 272 0.27 300 0.36 327 0.45 352 0.55
3.25 4.58 292 0.34 317 0.43 343 0.53 366 0.64 389 0.75 411 0.87
3.61 5.08 314 0.42 337 0.52 360 0.63 382 0.74 403 0.86 424 0.98 443 1.10
3.97 5.59 338 0.51 358 0.62 378 0.73 399 0.85 419 0.98 438 1.10 458 1.19 494 1.52
4.33 6.10 361 0.62 379 0.74 398 0.86 417 0.98 436 1.11 455 1.25 472 1.39 507 1.68 540 1.99
4.69 6.61 385 0.74 402 0.87 419 1.00 437 1.13 454 1.26 472 1.41 489 1.56 522 1.86 554 2.18
5.06 7.13 409 0.88 426 1.01 441 1.16 457 1.30 473 1.44 489 1.58 506 1.74 538 2.06 568 2.39
5.42 7.63 434 1.03 449 1.18 464 1.33 479 1.49 494 1.63 509 1.79 524 1.95 555 2.28 584 2.62
5.78 8.14 458 1.21 473 1.37 488 1.53 501 1.69 515 1.86 529 2.01 543 2.18 572 2.53 600 2.89
6.14 8.65 483 1.41 498 1.58 511 1.75 525 1.92 537 2.09 550 2.26 564 2.43 590 2.78 617 3.16
6.50 9.15 508 1.63 522 1.81 535 1.99 538 2.16 560 2.35 572 2.54 585 2.71 610 3.07 635 3.45
6.86 9.66 547 2.06 559 2.25 571 2.44 584 2.62 595 2.82 606 3.01 630 3.39 654 3.78
7.22 10.17 571 2.34 585 2.54 595 2.74 607 2.93 616 3.14 629 3.34 651 3.74 674 4.15
7.94 11.18 621 2.99 633 3.20 644 3.41 654 3.63 665 3.85 675 4.07 695 4.52 715 4.96
8.67 12.21 682 3.98 693 4.20 703 4.44 712 4.68 721 4.93 741 5.40 759 5.89
9.39 13.23 742 5.13 752 5.38 761 5.64 769 5.90 788 6.41 805 6.94
10.11 14.24 791 6.20 801 6.47 810 6.73 818 7.01 834 7.57 852 8.11
10.83 15.25 850 7.70 859 7.99 867 8.27 883 8.87 898 9.47
11.55 16.27 908 9.40 916 9.70 932 10.32 946 10.96
12.28 17.30 965 11.30 981 11.95 995 12.62
13.00 18.31 1015 13.06 1030 13.77 1044 14.46
13.72 19.32 1072 15.78 1093 16.50
14.44 20.34 1129 17.98 1142 18.76
TYPICAL MULTISPEED RATING TABLE FOR A SINGLE WIDTH, SINGLE INLET CENTRIFUGAL FAN

IMPELLER DIAMETER: 36.5 IN OUTLET AREA: 7.65 SQ FT


TIP SPEED IN FPM: 9.56 × RPM MAXIMUM BHP: 18.3 × (RPM/1000)3
Outlet 1/4 in. wg 3/8 in. wg 1/2 in. wg 5/8 in. wg 3/4 in. wg 7/8 in. wg 1 in. wg 1-1/4 in. wg 1-1/2 in. wg
Volume
Vel.
CFM rpm bhp rpm bhp rpm bhp rpm bhp rpm bhp rpm bhp rpm bhp rpm bhp rpm bhp
(fpm)
3825 500 222 0.185
4590 600 236 0.233 270 0.334
5355 700 253 0.292 284 0.400 313 0.519
6120 800 272 0.365 300 0.483 327 0.608 352 0.743
6885 900 292 0.450 317 0.579 343 0.716 366 0.856 389 1.01 411 1.17
7650 1000 314 0.560 337 0.695 360 0.840 383 0.992 403 1.15 424 1.31 443 1.48
8415 1100 338 0.682 358 0.832 378 0.981 399 1.144 419 1.31 438 1.48 458 1.60 494 2.04
9180 1200 361 0.826 379 0.988 398 1.149 417 1.314 436 1.49 455 1.68 472 1.86 507 2.25 540 2.67
9945 1300 385 0.989 402 1.163 419 1.340 437 1.514 454 1.69 472 1.89 489 2.09 522 2.49 554 2.92
10710 1400 409 1.175 425 1.360 441 1.553 457 1.741 473 1.93 489 2.12 506 2.34 538 2.76 568 3.20
11475 1500 434 1.387 449 1.587 464 1.780 479 1.993 494 2.19 509 2.40 524 2.61 555 3.06 584 3.52
12240 1600 458 1.626 473 1.837 488 2.048 501 2.269 515 2.49 529 2.70 543 2.92 572 3.39 600 3.87
13005 1700 483 1.895 498 2.115 511 2.346 525 2.570 537 2.80 550 3.03 564 3.26 590 3.73 617 4.24
13770 1800 508 2.191 522 2.424 535 2.665 538 2.901 560 3.15 572 3.40 585 3.64 610 4.12 635 4.63
14535 1900 547 2.767 559 3.017 571 3.275 584 3.52 595 3.78 606 4.04 630 4.55 654 5.07
15300 2000 571 3.144 585 3.403 595 3.672 607 3.93 618 4.21 629 4.48 651 5.02 674 5.56
16830 2200 621 4.003 633 4.289 644 4.577 654 4.87 665 5.16 675 5.46 695 6.06 715 6.65
18360 2400 682 5.335 693 5.632 703 5.96 712 6.28 721 6.61 741 7.24 759 7.90
19890 2600 742 6.885 752 7.22 761 7.56 769 7.91 788 8.60 805 9.30
21420 2800 791 8.308 801 8.67 810 9.03 818 9.40 834 10.15 852 10.88
22950 3000 850 10.32 859 10.71 867 11.09 883 11.89 898 12.70
24480 3200 908 12.50 916 13.01 932 13.84 946 14.70
26010 3400 965 15.16 981 16.03 995 16.92
27540 3600 1015 17.52 1030 18.47 1044 19.39
29070 3800 1072 21.16 1093 22.13
30600 4000 1129 24.11 1142 25.16

TYPICAL MULTISPEED RATING TABLE FOR A SINGLE WIDTH, SINGLE INLET CENTRIFUGAL FAN

Figure 5.2 - Centrifugal Fan Performance Tables

64 | Fans and Systems


PRESSURE IN IN. WG
BRAKE HORSEPOWER

1/4” SP 3/8” SP 1/2” SP 5/8” SP 3/4” SP 7/8” SP 1” SP 1-1/4” SP 1-1/2” SP 1-3/4” SP

RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP RPM BHP

VOLUME OUTLET

390 RPM
490 RPM
CFM VELOCITY

3825 500 222 .185


4590 600 236 .233 270 .334
5355 700 253 .292 284 .400 313 .519
6120 800 272 .365 300 .483 327 .608 352 .743
585 RPM

6885 900 292 .450 317 .579 343 .716 366 .856 389 1.01 411 1.17

7650 1000 314 .560 337 .695 360 .840 332 .992 403 1.15 424 1.31 443 1.48
8415 1100 338 .682 358 .822 378 .981 399 1.144 419 1.31 438 1.48 458 1.60 494 2.04
9180 1200 361 .826 379 .988 398 1.149 417 1.314 436 1.49 455 1.58 472 1.86 507 2.25 540 2.67
9945 1300 335 .988 482 1.163 419 1.340 437 1.514 454 1.69 472 1.89 489 2.09 522 2.49 554 2.92 584 3.37
10710 1400 409 1.175 426 1.360 441 1.553 457 1.741 473 1.93 489 2.12 506 2.34 538 2.76 568 3.28 598 3.66

11475 1500 434 1.387 449 1.587 464 1.78 479 1.995 494 2.19 509 2.40 524 2.61 555 3.06 584 3.52 612 3.99
12240 1600 456 1.626 473 1.837 488 2.048 501 2.269 515 2.49 529 2.70 543 2.92 572 3.49 600 3.87 627 4.36
13005 1700 482 493 2.115 511 2.346 525 2.570 537 2.80 550 3.03 564 3.26 590 3.73 617 4.24 643 4.76

CFM
13770 1800 508 2.19 522 2.424 535 2.665 538 2.901 560 3.15 572 3.40 585 3.84 610 4.12 635 4.63 661 5.18
14535 1900 547 2.767 559 3.017 571 3.276 584 3.52 595 606 4.04 630 4.55 654 5.07 678 5.63

15300 2000 571 3.744 584 3.403 596 607 3.93 618 4.21 629 4.48 651 5.02 674 5.56 696 6.11
16830 2200 629 4.003 633 4.289 644 4.577 654 4.87 665 5.16 675 5.46 695 6.06 715 6.65 736 7.24
18360 2400 682 5.335 693 5.632 703 5.76 712 6.28 721 6.81 741 7.24 759 7.90 778
19890 2600 742 6.885 752 7.22 761 7.56 769 7.91 788 8.60 9.30 822 10.02
21420 2800 791 8.308 801 8.67 810 9.03 818 8.48 834 10.15 852 10.88 867 11.65
22950 3000 850 10.32 859 10.71 867 11.09 883 11.89 898 12.70 914 13.48
24480 3200 908 12.60 916 13.01 932 13.84 946 14.70 960 15.56

of Constant Speed Performance Curves


810 RPM

26010 3400 965 15.16 981 16.03 995 16.92 1009 17.83
27540 3600 1015 17.52 1030 18.47 1044 19.39 1057 20.35
29070 3800 1079 21.16 1093 22.13 1106 23.12
30600 4000 1129 24.11 1142 25.16 1155 26.18

Figure 5.3 - Typical Fan Performance Table Showing Relationship to a Family


RECOMMENDED
SELECTION RANGE

Fans and Systems | 65


Most performance tables do not cover the complete 6. Air Systems
range from no delivery to free delivery but cover only
the typical operating range. Figure 5.4 illustrates the 6.1 The system
recommended performance range of a centrifugal
fan. Comparison of Figure 5.4 with Figure 5.3 will An air system may consist simply of a fan with
show that the published performance table also ducting connected to either the inlet or outlet or to
covers only the recommended performance range of both. A more complicated system may include a fan,
the fan. ductwork, air control dampers, cooling coils, heating
coils, filters, diffusers, sound attenuation, turning
It should be remembered that fans are generally vanes, etc. See AMCA Publication 200 Air Systems,
tested without obstructions in the inlet and outlet and for more information.
without any optional airstream accessories in place.
Catalog ratings will, therefore, usually apply only to 6.2 Component losses
the bare fan with unobstructed inlet and outlet.
Every system has a combined resistance to airflow
Fan performance adjustment factors for airstream that is usually different from every other system and
accessories are normally available from either the fan is dependent upon the individual components in the
catalog or the fan manufacturer. system.
Fans are usually tested in arrangement 1, or similar The determination of the "pressure loss" or
(see Figure 3.5). Rating tables will, therefore, also "resistance to airflow," for the individual components
apply only to the tested arrangement. can be obtained from the component manufacturers.
Allowances for the effect of bearing supports used in The determination of pressure losses for ductwork
other arrangements should be obtained from the design is well documented in standard handbooks
manufacturer if not shown in the catalog. such as the ASHRAE Handbook of Fundamentals.

SELECTION NOT USUALLY


RECOMMENDED IN THIS RANGE

RECOMMENDED
SELECTION RANGE
PR
ES
SU
RE
PRESSURE

E
RV
CU

SELECTION
NOT USUALLY
EM

RECOMMENDED
ST
SY

IN THIS RANGE
E
RV
CT

CU
DU

EM
ST
T SY
DUC

AIRFLOW

Figure 5.4 - Recommended Performance Range of a Typical Centrifugal Fan

66 | Fans and Systems


In a later section, the effects of some system The system curve of a "fixed system" plots as a
components and fan accessories on fan performance parabola in accordance with the above relationship.
are discussed. The System Effects presented will Typical plots of the resistance to flow versus volume
assist the system designer to determine fan airflow for three different and arbitrary fixed systems,
selection. (A, B, and C) are illustrated in Figure 6.1. For a fixed
system an increase or decrease in airflow results in
6.3 The system curve an increase or decrease in the system resistance
along the given system curve only.
At a fixed airflow through a given air system a Also, as the components in a system change, the
corresponding pressure loss, or resistance to this system curve changes.
airflow, will exist. If the airflow is changed, the
resulting pressure loss, or resistance to airflow, will Refer to Figure 6.1, Duct System A. With a system at
also change. The relationship between airflow the design airflow (Q) and at a design system
pressure and loss can vary as a function of type of resistance (P), an increase in airflow to 120% of Q
duct components, their interaction and the local will result in an increase in system resistance P of
velocity magnitude. In many cases, typical duct 144% since system resistance varies with the square
systems operate in the turbulent flow regime and the of the airflow. Likewise, a decrease in airflow Q to
pressure loss can be approximated as a function of 50% would result in a decrease in system resistance
velocity (or airflow) squared. The simplifying P to 25% of the design system resistance.
relationship used in this publication governing the
change in pressure loss as a function of airflow for a In Figure 6.1, System Curve B is representative of a
fixed system is: system that has more component pressure loss than
System Curve A, and System Curve C has less
Pc/P = (Qc/Q)2 component pressure loss than System Curve A.

A more through discussion of duct system pressure Notice that on a percentage basis, the same
losses can be found in AMCA Publication 200 Air relationships also hold for System Curves B and C.
Systems. These relationships are characteristic of typical fixed
systems.

200

180
PERCENT OF SYSTEM RESISTANCE

160
C
E M
140
ST
SY
120

100
SYSTEM
80 A DESIGN
M
B

TE POINT
EM

S
SY
ST

60
SY

40

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

PERCENT OF SYSTEM AIRFLOW

Figure 6.1 - System Curves


Fans and Systems | 67
6.4 Interaction of system curve and fan is now at Point 3 (the intersection of the fan curve and
performance curve the new System C), with the airflow at approximately
120% of Q.
If the system characteristic curve, composed of the
resistance to system airflow and the appropriate SEF 6.5 Effect of changes in speed
have been accurately determined, then the fan will
deliver the designated airflow when installed in the Increases or decreases in fan rotational speed will
system. alter the airflow through a system. According to the
Fan Laws (see below), the % increase in airflow is
The point of intersection of the system curve and the directly proportional to the fan rotational speed ratio,
fan performance curve determines the actual airflow. and the fan static pressure is proportional to the
System Curve A in Figure 6.2 has been plotted with a square of the fan rotational speed ratio. Thus, a 10%
fan performance curve that intersects the system increase in fan rotational speed will result in a new
design point. fan curve with a 10% increase in Q, as illustrated in
Figure 6.3. Since the system components did not
The airflow through the system in a given installation change, System Curve A remains the same. With
may be varied by changing the system resistance. airflow increasing by 10% over the original Q, the
This is usually accomplished by using fan dampers, system resistance increases along System Curve A
duct dampers, mixing boxes, terminal units, etc. to Point 2, at the intersection with the new fan curve.

Figure 6.2 shows the airflow may be reduced from The greater airflow moved by the fan against the
design Q by increasing the resistance to airflow, i.e., resulting higher system resistance to airflow is a
changing the system curve from System A to System measure of the increased work done. In the same
B. The new operating point is now at Point 2 (the system, the fan efficiency remains the same at all
intersection of the fan curve and the new System B) points on the same system curve.
with the airflow at approximately 80% of Q. Similarly,
the airflow can be increased by decreasing the This is due to the fact that airflow, system resistance,
resistance to airflow, i.e., changing the system curve and required power are varied by the appropriate
from System A to System C. The new operating point ratio of the fan rotational speed.

200
PERCENT OF SYSTEM RESISTANCE

180
EM

C
M
ST

160 E
ST
SY

SY
140
FAN CURVE
120 2
SYSTEM
100 1 DESIGN
POINT
80
3
60 B
T EM
40 SYS

20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

PERCENT OF SYSTEM AIRFLOW

Figure 6.2 - Interaction of System Curves and Fan Curve

68 | Fans and Systems


6.5.1 Fan Laws - effect of change in speed - (fan air density of 1.2 kg/m3 (0.075 lbm/ft3) is standard in
size and air density remaining constant) the fan industry throughout the world. Figure 6.4
illustrates the effect on the fan performance of a
For the same size fan, Dc = D and, therefore, (Dc/D) density variation from the standard value.
= 1. When the air density does not vary, ρc = ρ and
the air density ratio (ρc/ρ) = 1. Kp is taken as equal to 6.6.1 Fan Laws - effect of change in density - (fan
unity in this and following examples. size and speed remaining constant)

Qc = Q × (Nc/N) When the speed of the fan does not change, Nc = N


and, therefore, (Nc/N) = 1. The fan size is also fixed,
Ptc = Pt × (Nc/N)2 Dc = D and therefore (Dc/D) = 1.

Psc = Ps × (Nc/N)2 Qc = Q

Pvc = Pv × (Nc/N)2 Ptc = Pt × (ρc/ρ)

Psc = Ps × (ρc/ρ)
Hc = H × (Nc/N)3
Pvc = Pv × (ρc/ρ)
6.6 Effect of density on system resistance
Hc = H × (ρc/ρ)
The resistance of a duct system is dependent upon
the density of the air flowing through the system. An

A
EM
ST
SY
PERCENT OF SYSTEM RESISTANCE

CT
DU

H (AT 1.1N)
160 S (AT 1.1N)
PRESSURE
133
PERCENT OF POWER
140
S (AT N)
PRESSURE
120 2
H (AT N)
100 1
100
80

60

40 50

20
110%
0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

PERCENT OF SYSTEM AIRFLOW

Figure 6.3 - Effect of 10% increase in Fan Speed

Fans and Systems | 69


FAN PRESSURE CURVE
SYSTEM A
@ DENSITY ρ
@ DENSITY ρ
FAN INLET
RESISTANCE AND FAN PRESSURE

100
SYSTEM A
PERCENT OF SYSTEM

FAN PRESSURE CURVE @ DENSITY ρ/2


80 @ DENSITY ρ/2 FAN INLET

60

40

20

100
PERCENT OF POWER

POWER @ DENSITY ρ

80

60

40

POWER @ DENSITY ρ/2


20

0
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200

PERCENT OF SYSTEM AIRFLOW

Figure 6.4 - Density Effect

70 | Fans and Systems


6.7 Fan and system interaction condition results in an actual airflow at Point 2, which
is at a higher pressure and lower airflow than was
When system pressure losses have been accurately expected.
estimated and desirable fan inlet and outlet
conditions have been provided, design airflow can be If the actual duct system pressure loss is greater than
expected, as illustrated in Figure 6.5. Note again that design, an increase in fan speed may be necessary
the intersection of the actual system curve and the to achieve Point 5, the design airflow.
fan curve determine the actual airflow. However,
when system pressure losses have not been CAUTION: Before increasing fan rotational
accurately estimated as in Figure 6.6, or when speed, check with the fan manufacturer to
undesirable fan inlet and outlet conditions exist as in determine whether the fan rotational speed can
Figure 6.7, design performance may not be obtained. be safely increased. Also determine the expected
increase in power. Since the power required
6.8 Effects of errors in estimating system increases as the cube of the fan rotational speed
resistance ratio, it is very easy to exceed the capacity of the
existing motor and that of the available electrical
6.8.1 Higher system resistance. In Figure 6.6, service.
System Curve B shows a situation where a system
has greater resistance to airflow than designed 6.8.2 Lower system resistance. Curve C in Figure
(Curve A). This condition is generally a result of 6.6 shows a system that has less resistance to airflow
inaccurate allowances of system resistance. All than designed. This condition results in an actual
pressure losses must be considered when airflow at Point 3, which is at a lower pressure and
calculating system resistance or the actual system higher airflow than was expected.
will be more restrictive to airflow than intended. This

CALCULATED SYSTEM CURVE

PEAK FAN PRESSURE

1
FAN PRESSURE
CURVE
DESIGN RESISTANCE

DESIGN AIRFLOW

Figure 6.5 - Fan/System Curve at Design Point

Fans and Systems | 71


6.9 Safety factors the fan speed, adjusting the variable inlet vane (VIV),
if installed, or inlet dampers. The system resistance
It has been common practice among system could also be increased to Point 1 on Curve A, Figure
designers to add safety factors to the calculated 6.6. The change in fan operating point should be
system resistance to account for the “unexpected”. evaluated carefully, since a change in fan power
In some cases, safety factors may compensate for consumption may occur.
resistance losses that were unaccounted for and the
actual system will deliver the design airflow, Point 1, The system designer should also evaluate the fan
Figure 6.6. If the actual system resistance is lower performance tolerance and system resistance
than the design system resistance, including the tolerance to determine if the lower or upper limits of
safety factors, the fan will run at Point 3 and deliver the probable airflow in the system are acceptable.
more airflow. This result may not be advantageous The combination of these tolerances should be
because the fan may be operating at a less efficient evaluated to ensure that the “high-side” system
point on the fan’s performance curve and may require resistance curve does not fall into the unstable range
more power than a properly designed system. Under of performance. Operation in this area of the curve
these conditions, it may be desirable to reduce the should be avoided and precautions taken to ensure
fan performance to operate at Point 4 on Curve C, operations outside of the unstable area, especially at
Figure 6.6. This may be accomplished by reducing the highest expected system resistance.

CURVE B:
ACTUAL SYSTEM

ACTUAL SYSTEM RESISTANCE


MORE THAN DESIGN CURVE A:
CALCULATED SYSTEM

5
CURVE C
ACTUAL SYSTEM
PEAK FAN
PRESSURE 2

ACTUAL SYSTEM
LESS THAN
3 DESIGN
DESIGN RESISTANCE

FAN PRESSURE
CURVE

DESIGN AIRFLOW

72 | Fans and Systems Figure 6.6 - Fan/System Curve Not at Design Point
6.10 Deficient fan/system performance • Include adequate allowance for the effect of all
accessories and appurtenances on the
The most common causes of deficient fan/system performance of the system and the fan. If
performance are improper fan inlet duct design, fan possible, obtain from the fan manufacturer
outlet duct design, and fan installation into the duct data on the effect of installed appurtenances
system. Any one or a combination of these conditions on the fan's performance (See Section 10).
that alter the aerodynamic characteristics of the air
flowing through the fan such that the fan’s full airflow • Use field measurement techniques that can be
potential, as tested in the laboratory and cataloged, is applied effectively on the particular system.
not likely to be realized. Be aware of the probable accuracy of
measurement and conditions that affect this.
Other major causes of deficient performance are: Refer to AMCA Publication 203 Field
Performance Measurement of Fan Systems;
• The air performance characteristics of the for more precise measurement see AMCA
installed system are significantly different from Standard 803 Industrial Process/Power
the system designer's intent (See Figure 6.6). Generation Fans: Site Performance Test
This may be due to a change in the system by Standard. Also, refer to AABC National
others or unexpected behavior of the system Standards, Chapter 8, Volume Measurements,
during operation. Associated Air Balance Council, 5th Edition,
1989.
• The system design calculations did not include
adequate allowances for the effect of accessories 6.12 System Effect
and appurtenances (See Section 10).
Figure 6.7 illustrates deficient fan/system
• The fan selection was made without allowing performance resulting from one or more of the
for the effect of appurtenances on the fan's undesirable airflow conditions listed in Section 6.10.
performance (See Section 10). It is assumed that the system pressure losses, shown
in system curve A, have been accurately determined,
• Dirty filters, dirty ducts, dirty coils, etc., will and a suitable fan selected for operation at Point 1.
increase the system resistance, and However, no allowance has been made for the effect
consequently, reduce the airflow - often of the system connections on the fan's performance.
significantly. To account for this System Effect it will be necessary
to add a System Effect Factor (SEF) to the calculated
• The "performance" of the system has been system pressure losses to determine the actual
determined by field measurement techniques system curve. The SEF for any given configuration is
that have a high degree of uncertainty. velocity dependent and will vary across a range of
airflow. This will be discussed in more detail in
Other "on-site" problems are listed in AMCA Section 7. (See Figure 7.1).
Publication 202 Troubleshooting, which includes
detailed checklists and recommendations for the In Figure 6.7 the point of intersection between the fan
correction of problems with the performance of air performance curve and the actual system curve B is
systems. Point 4. The actual airflow will be deficient by the
difference 1-4. To achieve design airflow, a SEF
6.11 Precautions to prevent deficient equal to the pressure difference between Point 1 and
performance 2 should have been added to the calculated system
pressure losses and the fan selected to operate at
• Use appropriate allowances in the design Point 2. Note that because the System Effect is
calculations when space or other factors velocity related, the difference represented between
dictate the use of less than optimum Points 1 and 2 is greater than the difference between
arrangement of the fan outlet and inlet Points 3 and 4.
connections (See Sections 8 and 9).
The System Effect includes only the effect of the
• Design the connections between the fan and system configuration on the fan's performance.
the system to provide, as nearly as possible,
uniform airflow conditions at the fan outlet and
inlet connections (See Sections 8 and 9).

Fans and Systems | 73


7. System Effect Factor (SEF) 7.1 System Effect Curves

A System Effect Factor is a value that accounts for Figure 7.1 shows a series of 19 System Effect
the effect of conditions adversely influencing fan Curves. By entering the chart at the appropriate air
performance when installed in the air system. velocity (on the abscissa), it is possible to read
across from any curve (to the ordinate) to find the
SEF for a particular configuration.

CURVE B
ACTUAL SYSTEM
WITH SYSTEM EFFECT

CURVE A
CALCULATED SYSTEM
WITH NO ALLOWANCE
FOR SYSTEM EFFECT
2

SYSTEM EFFECT LOSS


AT DESIGN AIRFLOW
4

SYSTEM 3 FAN CATALOG


EFFECT AT PRESSURE
ACTUAL AIRFLOW CURVE
DESIGN RESISTANCE

AIRFLOW
DEFICIENCY

DESIGN AIRFLOW

Figure 6.7 - Deficient Fan/System Performance - System Effect Ignored

74 | Fans and Systems


FG H I J K L M N O P
1000
900
Q
800
700
R
600

500

400 S
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR PRESSURE, Pa

300
T

U
200

100
90 W
80
70

60
X
50

40

30

20
2.5 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 20 30

AIR VELOCITY, (m/s)


(Air Density = 1.2 kg/m3)

Figure 7.1 - System Effect Curves (SI)

Fans and Systems | 75


FG H I J K L M N O
5.0
P
4.0
Q

3.0

2.5 R
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR - PRESSURE, in. wg

2.0
S

1.5

1.0
0.9 U
0.8
0.7

0.6
V
0.5

0.4 W

0.3

0.25
X
0.2

0.15

0.1
5 6 7 8 9 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60

AIR VELOCITY, ft/min × 100


(Air Density = 0.075 lbm/ft3)

Figure 7.1 - System Effect Curves (I-P)

76 | Fans and Systems


Table 7.1 - System Effect Coefficients

Curve in Dynamic Pressure


Figure 7.1 Loss Coefficient C

F 16.00
G 14.20
H 12.70
I 11.40
J 9.50
K 7.90
L 6.40
M 4.50
N 3.20
O 2.50
P 1.90
Q 1.50
R 1.20
S 0.75
T 0.50
U 0.40
V 0.25
W 0.17
X 0.10

2
⎛ V ⎞
SEF = C ⎜ ⎟ ρ
⎝ 1.414 ⎠ SI

2
⎛ V ⎞
SEF = C ⎜ ⎟ ρ
⎝ 1097 ⎠ I-P

Fans and Systems | 77


The SEF is given in Pascals (in. wg) and must be The System Effect Curves are plotted for standard air
added to the total system pressure losses as shown at a density of 1.2 kg/m3 (0.075 lbm/ft3). Since the
on Figure 7.2. System Effect is directly proportional to density,
values for other densities can be calculated as below:
The velocity used when entering Figure 7.1 will be
either the inlet or the outlet velocity of the fan. This
⎛d ⎞
will depend on whether the configuration in question SEF2 = SEF1 ⎜ 2 ⎟
is related to the fan inlet or the fan outlet. Most ⎝ d1 ⎠
catalog ratings include outlet velocity figures but, for
centrifugal fans, it may be necessary to calculate the Where:
inlet velocity (See Figure 9.14). The inlet velocity and SEF2 = SEF at actual density
outlet velocity of an axial fan can be approximated by
SEF1 = SEF at standard density
using the fan impeller diameter to determine the
d2 = actual density
airflow area. The necessary dimensioned drawings
are usually included in the fan catalog. d1 = standard density

In Sections 8 and 9, typical inlet and outlet Alternatively, the SEF may be calculated by the
configurations are illustrated and the appropriate method shown in Table 7.1. Determine the
System Effect Curve is listed for each configuration. configuration being evaluated and use the
If more than one configuration is included in a appropriate loss coefficient, Cp, and application
system, the SEF for each must be determined velocity, V. The SEF can then be calculated using the
separately and the total of these System Effects must equations shown in Table 7.1.
be added to the total pressure losses.

FAN POWER

ACTUAL SYSTEM W/ SEF


ACTUAL POWER REQUIRED

CALCULATED
ACTUAL SYSTEM RESISTANCE

SEF SYSTEM W/NO


ALLOWANCE
FOR SEF

FAN PRESSURE

DESIGN AIRFLOW

Figure 7.2 - Effect of System on Fan Selection


78 | Fans and Systems
7.2 Power determination should examine catalog ratings carefully for
statements defining whether the published ratings
When all the applicable System Effect Factors (SEF) are based on tests made with A: free inlet, free outlet;
have been added to the calculated system pressure B: free inlet, ducted outlet; C: ducted inlet, free outlet
losses the power shown in the catalog for the actual or D; ducted inlet, ducted outlet.
point of operation, Figure 7.2 or Table 7.1 may be
used without further adjustment. ANSI/AMCA 210 specifies an outlet duct that is no
greater than 105% or less than 95% of the fan outlet
8. Outlet System Effect Factors area. It also requires that the slope of the transition
elements be no greater than 15° for converging
8.1 Outlet ducts elements or greater than 7° for diverging elements.

As previously discussed, fans intended primarily for Figure 8.1 shows changes in velocity profiles at
use with duct systems are usually tested with an various distances from centrifugal and axial flow fan
outlet duct in place (See Figure 3.2). In most cases outlets. By definition, 100% "effective duct length" is
it is not practical for the fan manufacturer to supply a minimum of two and one half (2½) equivalent duct
this duct as part of the fan, but rated performance will diameters. For velocities greater than 13 m/s (2500
not be achieved unless a comparable duct is included fpm), add 1 duct diameter for each additional 5 m/s
in the system design. The system design engineer (1000 fpm).

BLAST AREA
DISCHARGE DUCT
OUTLET AREA
CUTOFF

25%

50%

75%
CENTRIFUGAL FAN
100% EFFECTIVE DUCT LENGTH

AXIAL FAN

To calculate 100% duct length, assume a minimum of 2½ duct diameters for 12.7 m/s (2500 fpm) or less. Add 1
duct diameter for each additional 5.08 m/s (1000 fpm).

EXAMPLE: 25.4 m/s (5000 fpm) = 5 equivalent duct diameters. If the duct is rectangular with side dimensions a
and b, the equivalent duct diameter is equal to (4ab/π)0.5.

Figure 8.1 - Fan Outlet Velocity Profiles

Fans and Systems | 79


8.1.1 Axial flow fan - outlet ducts. Most exhaust full-length outlet duct, then a SEF must be added to
axial flow fans are tested and/or rated with two to the system resistance losses. System Effect Curves
three equivalent duct diameters attached to the fan for centrifugal fans with less than optimum outlet duct
outlet. Often, fans are installed without an outlet length are shown in Figure 8.3.
duct, either because of available space or for
economic reasons. Tubeaxial fans installed with no 8.2 Outlet diffusers
outlet ducts have System Effect Factors (SEF)
approaching zero. Many air systems are space-constricted and must, of
necessity, use relatively small ducts having high
Vaneaxial fans, however, do not perform as static pressure losses. If space is not severely
cataloged when they are installed with less than 50% constricted, the use of larger ductwork and moving
"effective duct length." System Effect Curves for air at a lower velocity may be beneficial. Larger
tubeaxial and vaneaxial fans with less than optimum ductwork (within reason) reduces system pressure
outlet duct are shown in Figure 8.2. requirements.

To determine the applicable SEF, calculate the To effectively transition from a smaller duct size to a
average velocity in the outlet duct and enter the larger duct size it is necessary to use a connection
System Effect Curve (Figure 7.1) at this velocity, piece between the duct sections that allows the
utilizing the appropriate System Effect Curve airstream to expand gradually. This piece is called a
selected from Figure 8.2, then read over horizontally diffuser, or evasé. These terms are used
to the System Effect Factor, Pascals (in. wg) on the interchangeably in the industry. A properly designed
ordinate. evasé has a smooth and gradual transition between
the duct sizes so that airflow is relatively undisturbed.
8.1.2 Centrifugal flow fan - outlet ducts.
Centrifugal fans are sometimes installed with a less An evasé operates on a very simple principle: air
than optimum outlet duct. If it is not possible to use a flowing from the smaller area to the larger area loses

AXIAL FAN

100% EFFECTIVE DUCT LENGTH

To calculate 100% duct length, assume a minimum of 2½ duct diameters for 12.7 m/s (2500 fpm) or less. Add 1
duct diameter for each additional 5.08 m/s (1000 fpm).

EXAMPLE: 25.4 m/s (5000 fpm) = 5 equivalent duct diameters

12% 25% 50 % 100%


No Duct Effective Effective Effective Effective
Duct Duct Duct Duct

Tubeaxial Fan --- --- --- --- ---

Vaneaxial Fan U V W --- ---

Determine SEF by using Figure 7.1

Figure 8.2 - System Effect Curves for Outlet Ducts - Axial Fans
80 | Fans and Systems
velocity as it approaches the larger area, and a See AMCA Publication 200 Air Systems, for an
portion of the change (reduction) in velocity pressure example showing the effect of a diffuser on a duct
is converted into static pressure. This process is exit.
called “static regain”, and is simply defined as the
conversion of velocity pressure to static pressure. 8.3 Outlet duct elbows
The efficiency of conversion (or loss of total pressure)
will depend upon the angle of expansion, the length Values for pressure losses through elbows, which are
of the evasé section, and the blast area/outlet area published in handbooks and textbooks, are based
ratio of the fan. upon a uniform velocity profile at entry into the elbow.
Any non-uniformity in the velocity profile ahead of the
The fan manufacturer will, in most cases, be able to elbow will result in a pressure loss greater than the
provide design information for an efficient diffuser. industry-accepted value.

BLAST AREA
DISCHARGE DUCT
OUTLET AREA
CUTOFF

100% EFFECTIVE DUCT LENGTH

CENTRIFUGAL FAN

To calculate 100% duct length, assume a minimum of 2½ duct diameters for 2500 fpm or less. Add 1 duct diameter
for each additional 1000 fpm.

EXAMPLE: 5000 fpm = 5 equivalent duct diameters. If the duct is rectangular with side dimensions a and b, the
equivalent duct diameter is equal to (4ab/π)0.5.

12% 25% 50% 100%


No Duct
Effective Duct Effective Duct Effective Duct Effective Duct

Pressure
0% 50% 80% 90% 100%
Recovery

Blast Area
System Effect Curve
Outlet Area

0.4 P R-S U W —
0.5 P R-S U W —
0.6 R-S S-T U-V W-X —
0.7 S U W-X — —
0.8 T-U V-W X — —
0.9 V-W W-X — — —
1.0 — — — — —

Determine SEF by using Figure 7.1

Figure 8.3 - System Effect Curves for Outlet Ducts - Centrifugal Fans
Fans and Systems | 81
Since the velocity profile at the outlet of a fan is not 8.3.1 Axial fans - outlet duct elbows. Tubeaxial
uniform, an elbow located at or near the fan outlet will fans with two-piece and four-piece mitered elbows at
develop a pressure loss greater than the industry- varying distances from the fan outlet have a
accepted value. negligible SEF (see Figure 8.4).

The amount of this loss will depend upon the location Vaneaxial fans with two and four-piece mitered
and orientation of the elbow relative to the fan outlet. elbows at varying distances from the fan outlet
In some cases, the effect of the elbow will be to resulted in System Effect Curves as shown in Figure
further distort the outlet velocity profile of the fan. 8.4.
This will increase the losses and may result in such
uneven airflow in the duct that branch- takeoffs near 8.3.2 Centrifugal fans - outlet duct elbows. The
the elbow will not deliver their design airflow. (See outlet velocity of centrifugal fans is generally higher
Section 8.6) toward one or adjacent sides of the rectangular duct.
If an elbow must be located near the fan outlet it
Wherever possible, a length of straight duct should should have a minimum radius-to-duct-diameter ratio
be installed at the fan outlet to permit the diffusion of 1.5, and it should be arranged to give the most
and development of a uniform airflow profile before uniform airflow possible. Figure 8.5 gives System
an elbow is inserted in the duct. If an elbow must be Effect Curves that can be used to estimate the effect
located near the fan outlet then it should be a radius of an elbow at the fan outlet. It also shows the
elbow having a minimum radius-to-duct-diameter reduction in losses resulting from the use of a straight
ratio of 1.5. outlet duct.

TUBEAXIAL FAN SHOWN

% EFFECTIVE
DUCT LENGTH

% EFFECTIVE
DUCT LENGTH

VANEAXIAL FAN SHOWN

12% 25% 50 % 100%


90° Elbow No Duct Effective Effective Effective Effective
Duct Duct Duct Duct

Tubeaxial Fan 2 & 4 Pc --- --- --- --- ---

Vaneaxial Fan 2 Pc U U-V V W ---

Vaneaxial Fan 4 Pc W --- --- --- ---

Determine SEF by using Figures 7.1 and 8.1

Figure 8.4 - System Effect Curves for Outlet Duct Elbows - Axial Fans

82 | Fans and Systems


POSITION C

POSITION D

POSITION B

E
C TIV TH
FE G
EF LEN
% CT
DU

INL
ET
POSITION A

SWSI CENTRIFUGAL FAN SHOWN

Note: Fan Inlet and elbow positions must be oriented as shown for the proper application of the table on the facing
page.

Figure 8.5 - Outlet Elbows on SWSI Centrifugal Fans

Fans and Systems | 83


Outlet 12% 25% 50% 100%
Blast Area No Outlet
Elbow Effective Effective Effective Effective
Outlet Area Duct
Position Duct Duct Duct Duct

A N O P-Q S
B M-N N O-P R-S
0.4
C L-M M N Q
D L-M M N Q

A O-P P-Q R T
B N-O O-P Q S-T
0.5
C M-N N O-P R-S
D M-N N O-P R-S

A Q Q-R S U
B P Q R T
0.6
C N-O O Q S

NO System Effect Factor


D N-O O Q S

A R-S S T V
B Q-R R-S S-T U-V
0.7
C P Q R-S T
D P Q R-S T

A S S-T T-U W
B R-S S T V
0.8
C Q-R R S U-V
D Q-R R S U-V

A T T-U U-V W
B S S-T T-U W
0.9
C R S S-T V
D R S S-T V

A T T-U U-V W
B S-T T U W
1.0
C R-S S T V
D R-S S T V

SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES FOR SWSI FANS

DETERMINE SEF BY USING FIGURES 7.1 AND 8.1

For DWDI fans determine SEF using the curve for SWSI
fans. Then, apply the appropriate multiplier from the
tabulation below

MULTIPLIERS FOR DWDI FANS

ELBOW POSITION A = ∆P × 1.00


ELBOW POSITION B = ∆P × 1.25
ELBOW POSITION C = ∆P × 1.00
ELBOW POSITION D = ∆P × 0.85

Figure 8.5 - Outlet Elbows on SWSI Centrifugal Fans

84 | Fans and Systems


8.4 Turning vanes a large plenum or to free space a parallel blade
damper may be satisfactory.
Turning vanes will usually reduce the pressure loss
through an elbow, however, where a non-uniform For a centrifugal fan, best air performance will usually
approach velocity profile exists, such as at a fan be achieved by installing an opposed blade damper
outlet, the vanes may serve to continue the non- with its blades perpendicular to the fan shaft;
uniform profile beyond the elbow. however, other considerations, such as the need for
This may result in increased losses in other system thrust bearings, may require installation of the
components downstream of the elbow. damper with its blades parallel to the fan shaft.

8.5 Volume control dampers When a damper is required, it is often furnished as


accessory equipment by the fan manufacturer (see
Volume control dampers are manufactured with Figure 8.6). In many systems, a volume control
either "opposed" blades or "parallel" blades. When damper will be located in the ductwork at or near the
partially closed, the parallel bladed damper diverts fan outlet.
the airstream to the side of the duct.
This results in a non-uniform velocity profile beyond Published pressure drops for wide-open control
the damper and airflow to branch ducts close to the dampers are based on uniform approach velocity
downstream side may be seriously affected. profiles. When a damper is installed close to the
outlet of a fan the approach velocity profile is non-
The use of an opposed blade damper is uniform and much higher pressure losses through the
recommended when air volume control is required at damper can result. Figure 8.7 lists multipliers that
the fan outlet and there are other system should be applied to the damper manufacturer's
components, such as coils or branch takeoffs catalog pressure drop when the damper is installed at
downstream of the fan. When the fan discharges into the outlet of a centrifugal fan. These multipliers
should be applied to all types of fan outlet dampers.

PARALLEL-BLADE DAMPER OPPOSED-BLADE DAMPER


ILLUSTRATING DIVERTED AIRFLOW ILLUSTRATING NON-DIVERTED
AIRFLOW

Figure 8.6 - Parallel Blade vs. Opposed Blade Damper

Fans and Systems | 85


VOLUME CONTROL DAMPER

BLAST AREA PRESSURE DROP


OUTLET AREA MULTIPLIER

0.4 7.5

0.5 4.8

0.6 3.3

0.7 2.4

0.8 1.9

0.9 1.5

1.0 1.2

Figure 8.7 - Pressure Drop Multipliers for Volume Control Dampers on a Fan Discharge

86 | Fans and Systems


8.6 Duct branches In Figure 8.8 branch takeoffs or splits are located
close to the fan outlet. Non-uniform airflow conditions
Standard procedures for the design of duct systems will exist and pressure loss and airflow may vary
are based on the assumption of uniform airflow widely from the design intent. Wherever possible a
profiles in the system. length of straight duct should be installed between
the fan outlet and any split or branch takeoff.

Note: Avoid location of split or duct branch close to fan discharge. Provide a straight section of duct to allow for air
diffusion.

Figure 8.8 - Branches Located Too Close to Fan

Fans and Systems | 87


9. Inlet System Effect Factors loss of energy, or even a flat flange (e) on the end of
the duct or fan will reduce the loss to about one half
Fan performance can be greatly affected by non- of the loss through an un-flanged entry.
uniform or swirling inlet flow. Fan rating and catalog
performance is typically obtained with unobstructed ANSI/AMCA 210 limits an inlet duct to a cross-
inlet flow. Any disruption to the inlet airflow will reduce sectional area no greater than 112.5% or less than
a fan’s performance. Restricted fan inlets located 92.5% of the fan inlet area. The slope of transition
close to walls, obstructions or restrictions caused by elements is limited to 15° converging and 7° diverging.
a plenum or cabinet will also decrease the
performance of a fan. The fan performance loss due 9.2 Inlet duct elbows
to inlet airflow disruption must be considered as a
System Effect. Non-uniform airflow into a fan inlet is a common
cause of deficient fan performance. An elbow located
9.1 Inlet ducts at, or in close proximity to the fan inlet will not allow
the air to enter the impeller uniformly. The result is
Fans intended primarily for use as "exhausters" may less than cataloged air performance.
be tested with an inlet duct in place, or with a special
bell-mouthed inlet to simulate the effect of a duct. A word of caution is required with the use of inlet
Figure 9.1 illustrates variations in inlet airflow that will elbows in close proximity to fan inlets. Other than the
occur. The ducted inlet condition is shown as (a), and incurred System Effect Factor, instability in fan
the effect of the bell-mouth inlet as (b). operation may occur as evidenced by an increase in
pressure fluctuations and sound power level. Fan
Fans that do not have smooth entries (c), and are instability, for any reason, may result in serious
installed without ducts, exhibit airflow characteristics structural damage to the fan. Axial fan instabilities
similar to a sharp edged orifice that develops a vena were experienced in some configurations tested with
contracta. A reduction in airflow area is caused by the inlet elbows in close proximity to the fan inlet.
vena contracta and the following rapid expansion Pressure fluctuations approached ten (10) times the
causes a loss that should be considered as a System magnitude of fluctuations of the same fan with good
Effect. inlet and outlet conditions. It is strongly advised
that inlet elbows be installed a minimum of three
If it is not practical to include such a smooth entry, a (3) diameters away from any axial or centrifugal
converging taper (d) will substantially diminish the fan inlet.

a. b. c.
IDEAL SMOOTH ENTRY TO BELL MOUTH INLET PRODUCES VENA CONTRACTA AT INLET
DUCT ON A DUCT SYSTEM FULL FLOW INTO FAN REDUCES EFFECTIVE FAN INLET AREA

d. e.
CONVERGING TAPERED ENTRY FLANGED ENTRY INTO
INTO FAN OR DUCT SYSTEM FAN OR DUCT SYTEM

Figure 9.1 Typical Inlet Connections for Centrifugal and Axial Fans

88 | Fans and Systems


9.2.1 Axial fans - inlet duct elbows. The System are listed on Figure 9.4, and the System Effect
Effect Curves shown in Figure 9.2 for tubeaxial and Curves for various square duct elbows of given
vaneaxial fans are the result of tests run with two and radius/diameter ratios are listed on Figure 9.5. The
four piece mitered inlet elbows at or in close proximity SEF for a particular elbow is found in Figure 7.1 at
to the fan inlets. Other variables tested included hub- the intersection of the average fan inlet velocity and
to-tip (H/T) ratio and blade solidity. The number of the tabulated System Effect Curve.
blades did not have a significant affect on the inlet
elbow SEF. This pressure loss should be added to the friction and
dynamic losses already determined for the particular
9.2.2 Centrifugal fans - inlet duct elbows. Non- elbow. Note that when duct turning vanes and/or a
uniform airflow into a fan inlet, Figure 9.3A, is a suitable length of duct is used (three to eight
common cause of deficient fan performance. diameters long, depending on velocities) between the
The System Effect Curves for mitered 90° round fan inlet and the elbow, the SEF is not as great.
section elbows of given radius/diameter (R/D) ratios These improvements help maintain uniform airflow

TUBEAXIAL FAN SHOWN

DUCT LENGTH

DUCT LENGTH

VANEAXIAL FAN SHOWN

H/T 90° Elbow No Duct [1][2] 0.5D [1][2] 1.0D [1][2] 3.0D

Tubeaxial Fan .25 2 piece U V W ---

Tubeaxial Fan .25 4 piece X --- --- ---

Tubeaxial Fan .35 2 piece V W X

Vaneaxial Fan .61 2 piece Q-R Q-R S-T T-U

Vaneaxial Fan .61 4 piece W W-X --- ---

Notes:

[1] Instability in fan operation may occur as evidenced by an increase in pressure fluctuations and sound level.
Fan instability, for any reason, may result in serious structural damage to the fan.

[2] The data presented in Figure 9.2 is representative of commercial type tubeaxial and vaneaxial fans, i.e. 60%
to 70% fan static efficiency.

Figure 9.2 - System Effect Curves for Inlet Duct Elbows - Axial Fans

Fans and Systems | 89


into the fan inlet and thereby approach the airflow A counter-rotating vortex at the inlet may result in a
conditions of the laboratory test setup. slight increase in the pressure-volume curve but the
power will increase substantially.
Occasionally, where space is limited, the inlet duct
will be mounted directly to the fan inlet as shown on There are occasions, with counter-rotating swirl,
Figure 9.3B. The many possible variations in the when the loss of performance is accompanied by a
width and depth of a duct influence the reduction in surging airflow. In these cases, the surging may be
performance to varying degrees and makes it more objectionable than the performance change.
impossible to establish reliable SEF. Note: Capacity Inlet spin may arise from a great variety of approach
losses as high as 45% have been observed in conditions and sometimes the cause is not obvious.
poorly designed inlets such as in Figure 9.3B.
This inlet condition should be AVOIDED.

Existing installations can be improved with guide


vanes or the conversion to square or mitered elbows
with guide vanes, but a better alternative would be a
D
specially designed inlet box similar to that shown in
LENGTH
Figure 9.6.
OF DUCT

9.2.3 Inlet boxes. Inlet boxes are added to


centrifugal and axial fans instead of elbows in order
to provide more predictable inlet conditions and to R
maintain stable fan performance. They may also be
used to protect fan bearings from high temperature,
or corrosive / erosive gases. The fan manufacturer
should include the effect of any inlet box on the fan
performance, and when evaluating a proposal it
should be established that an appropriate loss has
been incorporated in the fan rating. Should this Figure 9.3A - Non-Uniform Airflow Into a Fan
information not be available from the manufacturer, Inlet Induced by a 90°, 3-Piece Section Elbow--
refer to Section 10.4 for an approximate System Effect. No Turning Vanes

9.3 Inlet vortex (spin or swirl)

Another major cause of reduced performance is an


inlet duct design or fan installation that produces a
vortex or spin in the airstream entering a fan inlet.
An example of this condition is illustrated in Figure
9.7.

An ideal inlet condition allows the air to enter


uniformly without spin in either direction.
A spin in the same direction as the impeller rotation
(pre-rotation) reduces the pressure- volume curve by
an amount dependent upon the intensity of the Figure 9.3B - Non-Uniform Airflow Induced Into
vortex. The effect is similar to the change in the Fan Inlet by a Rectangular Inlet Duct
pressure-volume curve achieved by variable inlet
vanes installed in a fan inlet; the vanes induce a
controlled spin in the direction of impeller rotation,
reducing the airflow, pressure and power (see
Section 10.6).

90 | Fans and Systems


LENGTH SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES
D
OF DUCT
R/D NO 2D 5D
+ DUCT DUCT DUCT
R

— N P R-S

Figure 9.4A - Two Piece Mitered 90° Round Section Elbow - Not Vaned

SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES

R/D NO 2D 5D
DUCT DUCT DUCT

LENGTH 0.5 O Q S
OF DUCT
D
0.75 Q R-S T-U
+
1.0 R S-T U-V
R

2.0 R-S T U-V

3.0 S T-U V

Figure 9.4B - Three Piece Mitered 90° Round Section Elbow - Not Vaned

SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES

R/D NO 2D 5D
DUCT DUCT DUCT

LENGTH 0.5 P-Q R-S T


OF DUCT D
0.75 Q-R S U
+
1.0 R S-T U-V
R
2.0 R-S T U-V

3.0 S-T U V-W

Figure 9.4C - Four or More Piece Mitered 90° Round Section Elbow - Not Vaned

DETERMINE SEF BY USING FIGURE 7.1

Figure 9.4 - System Effect Curves for Various Mitered Elbows without Turing Vanes

Fans and Systems | 91


SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES
H
R/D NO 2D 5D
DUCT DUCT DUCT
LENGTH H
OF DUCT 0.5 O Q S
+ 0.75 P R S-T

R
1.0 R S-T U-V

1.0 S T-U V

Figure 9.5A - Square Elbow with Inlet Transition - No Turning Vanes

H SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES

R/D NO 2D 5D
LENGTH H DUCT DUCT DUCT
OF DUCT
0.5 S T-U V
+
R
1.0 T U-V W

2.0 V V-W W-X

Figure 9.5B - Square Elbow with Inlet Transition - 3 Long Turning Vanes

H SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES

R/D NO 2D 5D
H DUCT DUCT DUCT
LENGTH
OF DUCT
R 0.5 S T-U V
+
1.0 T U-V W

2.0 V V-W W-X

Figure 9.5C - Square Elbow with Inlet Transition - Short Turning Vanes

D = Diameter of the inlet collar


The inside area of the square duct (H x H) should be equal to the inside area of the fan inlet collar.
* The maximum permissible angle of any converging element of the transition is 15°, and for a diverging element, 7°.

DETERMINE SEF BY USING FIGURE 7.1

Figure 9.5 - System Effect Curves for Various Square Duct Elbows

92 | Fans and Systems


Figure 9.6 - Improved Flow Conditions with a Special Designed Inlet Box

IMPELLER
ROTATION

COUNTER-ROTATING SWIRL

Figure 9.7 - Example of a Forced Inlet Vortex

IMPELLER IMPELLER
ROTATION ROTATION

PRE-ROTATING SWIRL COUNTER-ROTATING SWIRL

Figure 9.8 - Inlet Duct Connections Causing Inlet Spin

Fans and Systems | 93


9.4 Inlet turning vanes airflow entering a duct elbow with turning vanes will
leave the duct elbow with non-uniform airflow.
Where space limitations prevent the use of optimum
fan inlet conditions, more uniform airflow can be 9.5 Airflow straighteners
achieved by the use of turning vanes in the inlet
elbow (see Figure 9.9). Numerous variations of Figure 9.10 shows two airflow straighteners used in
turning vanes are available, from a single curved testing setups to reduce fan swirl before measuring
sheet metal vane to multi-bladed "airfoil" vanes. stations. Figure 9.10A is the egg-crate straightener
used in ANSI/AMCA 210; larger cell sizes made
The pressure drop (loss) through these devices must proportionately longer could be used.
be added to the system pressure losses.
Figure 9.10B shows the star straightener used in the
The amount of loss for each device is published by ISO standard. A single splitter sheet may be used to
the manufacturer, but it should be realized that the eliminate swirl in some cases. Straighteners are
cataloged pressure loss will be based upon uniform intended to reduce swirl before or after a fan or a
airflow at the entry to the elbow. If the airflow process station. Do not install straighteners where
approaching the elbow is significantly non-uniform the air profile is known to be non-uniform, the
because of a disturbance farther upstream in the device will carry the non-uniformity further
system, the pressure loss through the elbow will be downstream.
higher than the published figure. A non-uniform

TURNING
VANES

TURNING
VANES
TURNING
IMPELLER
IMPELLER VANES
ROTATION
ROTATION

CORRECTED PRE- CORRECTED COUNTER-


ROTATING SWIRL ROTATING SWIRL

Figure 9.9 - Corrections for Inlet Spin

94 | Fans and Systems


0.45D

0.075D
DUCT
0.075D

Figure 9.10A - ANSI/AMCA Standard 210 Egg-Crate Straightener

DUCT DUCT

2D

Figure 9.10B - ISO 5801 Star Straightener

Figure 9.10 - Test Standard Airflow Straighteners

Fans and Systems | 95


9.6 Enclosures (plenum and cabinet effects) one-half impeller diameter between an enclosure wall
and the fan inlet. Adjacent inlets of multiple double
Fans within plenums and cabinets or next to walls width centrifugal fans located in a common enclosure
should be located so that air may flow unobstructed should be at least one impeller diameter apart if
into the inlets. Fan performance is reduced if the optimum performance is to be expected. Figure 9.11
space between the fan inlet and the enclosure is too illustrates fans with restricted inlets and their
restrictive. It is common practice to allow at least applicable System Effect Curves.

2L
L L

EQUAL
INLET
DIA.

EQUAL
DIAMETER L
OF INLET

Figure 9.11A - Fans and Plenum Figure 9.11B - Axial Fan Near Wall

L L L L

DWDI SWSI

Figure 9.11C - Centrifugal Fan Near Wall(s) Figure 9.11D - DWDI Fan Near Wall on One Side

L - DISTANCE For Figures 9.11A, B & C For Figures 9.11D


INLET TO WALL SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES SYSTEM EFFECT CURVES

0.75 x DIA. OF INLET V-W X


0.50 x DIA. OF INLET U V-W
0.40 x DIA. OF INLET T V-W
0.30 x DIA. OF INLET S U

Determine SEF by calculating inlet velocity and using Figure 7.1

Figure 9.11 - System Effect Curves for Fans Located in Plenums and Cabinet
Enclosures and for Various Wall-to-inlet Dimensions

96 | Fans and Systems


The manner in which the air stream enters an common inlet obstructions. Some accessories such
enclosure in relation to the fan inlets also affects fan as fan bearings, bearing pedestals, inlet vanes, inlet
performance. Plenum or enclosure inlets or walls that dampers, drive guards and motors may also cause
are not symmetrical with the fan inlets will cause inlet obstruction and are discussed in more detail in
uneven airflow and/or inlet spin. Figure 9.12A Section 10.
illustrates this condition that must be avoided to
achieve maximum performance from a fan. If this is Obstruction at the fan inlet may be defined in terms
not possible, inlet conditions can usually be improved of the unobstructed percentage of the inlet area.
with a splitter sheet to break up the inlet vortex as Because of the shape of the inlet cones of many fans
illustrated in Figure 9.12B. it is sometimes difficult to establish the area of the fan
inlet. Figure 9.14 illustrates the convention adopted
For proper performance of axial fans in parallel for this purpose. Where an inlet collar is provided, the
installations minimum space of one impeller diameter inlet area is calculated from the inside diameter of
should be allowed between fans, as shown in Figure this collar. Where no collar is provided, the inlet plane
9.13. Placing fans closer together can result in erratic is defined by the points of tangency of the fan
or uneven airflow into the fans. housing side with the inlet cone radius.

9.7 Obstructed inlets The unobstructed percentage of the inlet area is


calculated by projecting the profile of the obstruction
A reduction in fan performance can be expected on the profile of the inlet. The adjusted inlet velocity
when an obstruction to airflow is located in the fan obtained is then used to enter the System Effect Curve
inlet. Building structural members, columns, butterfly chart and the SEF determined from the curve listed
valves, blast gates and pipes are examples of more for that unobstructed percentage of the fan inlet area.

SPLITTER SHEET

Figure 9.12A - Enclosure Inlet Not Figure 9.12B - Flow Condition of Figure 9.12A
Symmetrical with Fan Inlet. Pre- Improved with a Splitter Sheet. Substantial
Rotational Vortex Induced Improvement Would Be To Relocate
Enclosure Inlet as Shown in Figure 9.11A

Figure 9.12 - Fan in Plenum with Non-Symmetrical Inlet

1 DIA.
MIN

Figure 9.13 - Parallel Installation of Axial Flow Fans

Fans and Systems | 97


ER
ET
AM AR
DI LL
DE CO
SI T
IN E
INL

INLET PLANE

FREE INLET AREA PLANE - FAN WITH INLET COLLAR


POINT OF TANGENT
WITH FAN HOUSING SIDE
AND INLET CONE RADIUS

R
TE
E NT
AM GE
DI N
TA
OF

INLET PLANE

FREE INLET AREA PLANE - FAN WITHOUT INLET COLLAR

Table for Figure 9.14

System Effect Curve (Figure 7.1)


Distance from obstruction to inlet plane

Percentage of 0.75 Inlet 0.5 Inlet 0.33 Inlet 0.25 Inlet


At Inlet plane
unobstructed inlet area diameter diameter diameter diameter

100 - - - - -
95 - - X W V
90 - X V-W U-V T-U
85 X W-X V-W U-V S-T
75 W-X V U S-T R-S
50 V-W U S-T R-S Q
25 U-V T S-T Q-R P

Figure 9.14 - System Effect Curves for Inlet Obstructions


(Table based on Fans and Fan Systems, Thompson & Trickler, Chem Eng MAR83, p. 60)

98 | Fans and Systems


10. Effects of Factory Supplied Accessories If possible, the necessary information should be
obtained directly from the manufacturer. The data
Unless the manufacturer's catalog clearly states to presented in this section are offered only as a guide
the contrary, it should be assumed that published fan in the absence of specific data from the fan
performance data does not include the effects of any manufacturer. See Figure 10.1 for terminology.
accessories supplied with the fan.

Cone Type
Variable
Inlet Vanes

Figure 10.1 - Common Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Appurtenances

Fans and Systems | 99


10.1 Bearing and supports in fan inlet 10.3 Belt tube in axial fan inlet or outlet

Arrangement 3 and 7 fans (see Figure 3.5) require With a belt driven axial flow fan it is usually necessary
that the fan shaft be supported by a bearing and that the fan motor be mounted outside the fan
bearing support in the fan inlet or just adjacent to it. housing (see Figure 3.7 Arrangement 9, and Annex B
Figure B.7).
These components may have an effect on the flow of
air into the fan inlet and consequently on the fan To protect the belts from the airstream, and also to
performance, depending upon the size of the prevent any air leakage through the fan housing,
bearings and supports in relation to the fan inlet manufacturers in many cases provide a belt tube.
opening. The location of the bearing and support, that
is, whether it is located in the actual inlet or "spaced Most manufacturers include the effects of an axial fan
out" from the inlet, will also have an effect. belt tube in their rating tables. In cases where the
effect is not included, the appropriate SEF is
In cases where manufacturer's performance ratings approximated by calculating the percentage of
do not include the effect of the bearings and unobstructed area of air passage way and using
supports, it will be necessary to compensate for this Figure 9.14.
inlet restriction. Use the fan manufacturer's
allowance for bearings in the fan inlet if possible. 10.4 Inlet box

If no better data are available, use the procedures When an inlet box configuration is supplied by the fan
described in Section 9.7 as an approximation. manufacturer, the fan performance should include
the effect of the inlet box.
10.2 Drive guards obstructing fan inlet
The System Effect of fan inlet boxes can vary widely
All fans have moving parts that require guarding for depending upon the design. This data should be
safety in the same way as other moving machinery. available from the fan manufacturer. In the absence
Fans located less than 2.1 m (7 ft) above the floor of fan manufacturer's data, a well-designed inlet box
require special consideration as specified in the should approximate System Effect Curves "S" or "T"
United States’ Occupational Safety and Health Act. of Figure 7.1.
National, federal, state and local rules, regulations,
and codes should be carefully considered and 10.5 Inlet box dampers
followed.
Inlet box dampers may be used to control the airflow
Arrangement 3 and 7 fans may require a belt drive through the system. Either parallel or opposed blades
guard in the area of the fan inlet. Depending on the may be used (see Figure 10.1).
design, the guard may be located in the plane of the
inlet, along the casing side sheet, or it may be The parallel blade type is installed with the blades
"spaced out" due to "spaced out" bearing pedestals. parallel to the fan shaft so that, in a partially closed
position, a forced inlet vortex will be generated. The
In any case, depending on the location of the guard, effect on the fan characteristics will be similar to that
and on the inlet velocity, the fan performance may be of a variable inlet vane control.
significantly affected by this obstruction. It is
desirable that a drive guard located in this position be The opposed blade type is used to control airflow by
furnished with as much opening as possible to allow the addition of pressure loss created by the damper
maximum flow of air to the fan inlet. in a partially closed position.

If available, use the fan manufacturer's allowance for If possible, complete data should be obtained from
drive guards obstructing the fan inlet. SEF for drive the fan manufacturer giving the System Effect of the
guard obstructions situated at the inlet of a fan may inlet box and damper pressure drop over the range of
be approximated using Figure 9.14. application. If data are not available, System Effect
Curves "S" or "T" from Figure 7.1 should be applied
Where possible, open construction on guards is for the inlet box and pressure loss from the damper
recommended to allow free air passage to the fan manufacturer for the damper in making the fan
inlet. Guards and sheaves should be designed to selection.
obstruct, as little of the fan inlet as possible and in no
case should the obstruction be more than 1/3 of the
fan inlet area.

100 | Fans and Systems


10.6 Variable inlet vane (VIV) When variable inlet vanes are supplied by the fan
manufacturer, the performance should include the
Variable inlet vanes are mounted on the fan inlet to effects of the variable inlet vane unit.
maintain fan efficiency at reduced airflow. They are
arranged to generate an inlet vortex (pre-rotation) The System Effect of a wide-open VIV (see Figure
that rotates in the same direction as the fan impeller. 10.2) must be accounted for in the original fan
Variable inlet vanes may be of two different basic selection. If data are not available from the fan
types: 1) cone type integral with the fan inlet, 2) manufacturer the following System Effect Curves
cylindrical type add-on (Figures 10.1 and 10.2). should be applied in making the fan selection.

VANE TYPE SYSTEM EFFECT CURVE


(100% Open)

a) Cone type, integral “Q” or “R”


b) Cylindrical type “S”

Determine SEF by calculating inlet velocity and using


Figure 7.1

FAN PERFORMANCE
W/OUT VARIABLE INLET VANES
120

100 VARIABLE
INLET VANES
PERCENT OF SHUT-OFF PRESSURE

75% OPEN 100% OPEN

CONE TYPE 80
VARIABLE INLET
VANES 75% OPEN

60

40
75% OPEN

20

CYLINDRICAL TYPE
VARIABLE INLET
VANES 0 20 40 60 80 100 120
PERCENT OF WIDE OPEN VOLUME

Figure 10.2 - Typical Variable Inlet Vanes for a Backward Inclined Fan

Fans and Systems | 101


Annex A. SI / I-P Conversion Table (Informative)

Taken from AMCA 99-0100

Quantity I-P to SI SI to I-P

Length (ft) 0.3048 = m (m) 3.2808 = ft

Mass (weight) (lbs) 0.4536 = kg (kg) 2.2046 = lbs.

Time The unit of time is the second in both systems

(ft-s) 0.3048 = ms (ms) 3.2808 = ft-s


Velocity
(ft/min) 0.00508 = ms (ms) 196.85 = ft/min

Acceleration (in./s2) 0.0254 = m/s2 (m/s2) 39.370 = in./s2

Area (ft2) 0.09290 = m2 (m2) 10.764 = ft2

Volume Flow Rate (cfm) 0.000471948 = m3/s (m3/s) 2118.88 = cfm

Density (lb/ft3) 16.01846 = kg/m3 (kg/m3) 0.06243 = lb/ft3

(in. wg) 248.36 = Pa (Pa) 0.004026 = in. wg


Pressure (in. wg) 0.24836 = kPa (kPa) 4.0264 = in. wg
(in. Hg) 3.3864 = kPa (kPa) 0.2953 = in. Hg

Viscosity:
Absolute (lbm/ft-s) 1.4882 = Pa s (Pa s) 0.6719 = (lbm/ft-s)
Kinematic (ft2/s) 0.0929 = m2/s (m2/s) 10.7639 = ft2/s

Gas Constant (ft lb/lbm-°R) 5.3803 = J-kg/K (j-kg/K) 0.1858 = (ft lb/lbm-°R)

Temperature (°F - 32°)/1.8 = °C (1.8 × °C) + 32° = °F

Power (BHP) 746 = W (W)/746 = BHP


(BHP) 0.746 = kW (kW)/0.746 = BHP

102 | Fans and Systems


Annex B. Dual Fan Systems - Series and These types of systems normally have common inlet
Parallel and outlet sections, or they may have individual ducts
of equal resistance that join together at equal
It is sometimes necessary to install two or more fans velocities. In either case, the characteristic curve is
in systems that require higher pressures or airflow the sum of the separate airflows for a given static or
than would be attainable with a single fan. Two fans total pressure (Figure B.2).
may offer a space, cost, or control advantage over a
single larger fan, or it may be simply a field The total performance of the multiple fans will be less
modification of an existing system to boost pressure than the theoretical sum if inlet conditions are
or airflow. restricted or the airflow into the inlets is not straight
(see Section 9.6). Also, adding a parallel fan to an
existing system without modifying the resistance
B.1 Fans operating in series
(larger ducts, etc.) will result in lower than anticipated
airflow due to increased system resistance.
To obtain a system pressure boost, fans are often
installed in series. The fans may be mounted as close
Fans that have a “positive” slope in the pressure-
as the outlet of one fan directly attached to the inlet
volume curve to the left of the peak pressure curve,
of the next fan, or they may be placed in remote
typical of some axial and forward curved centrifugal
locations with considerable distance between fans.
fans (see Figure 4.2), can experience unstable
operation under certain conditions. If fans are
The fans must handle the same mass airflow,
operated in parallel in the region of this “positive”
assuming no loss or gains between stages.
slope, multiple operating conditions may occur.
The combined total pressure will then be the sum of
Figure B.2 illustrates the combined pressure-volume
each fan’s total pressure (Figure B.1). The velocity
curve of two such fans operating in parallel.
pressure corresponds to the air velocity at the outlet
of the last fan stage. The static pressure for the
The closed loop to the left of the peak pressure point
combination is the total pressure minus the velocity
is the result of plotting all the possible combinations
pressure and is not the sum of the individual fan
of volume airflow at each pressure. If the system
static pressures.
curve intersects the combined volume-pressure
curve in the area enclosed by the loop, more than
In practice there is some reduction in airflow due to
one point of operation is possible. This may cause
the increased air density in the later fan stage(s).
one of the fans to handle more of the air and could
There can also be significant loss of airflow due to
cause a motor overload if the fans are individually
non-uniform airflow into the inlet of the next fan.
driven. This unbalanced airflow condition tends to
reverse readily with the result that the fans will
Sometimes multiple impellers are assembled in a
intermittently load and unload. This "pulsing" often
single housing and this assembly is known as a
generates noise and vibration and may cause
“multi-stage” fan. This combination is seldom used in
damage to the fans, ductwork or driving motors.
conventional ventilating and air conditioning systems
but it is not uncommon in special industrial systems.
Aileron controls in forward curved fan outlets or
dampers near the inlets or outlets may be used to
It is advisable to request the fan manufacturer to
correct unbalanced airflow or to eliminate pulsations
review the proposed system design and make some
or reversing operation (See Figure B.3).
estimate of its installed performance.

B.2 Fans operating in parallel

Suppliers of air handling equipment and designers of


custom systems commonly incorporate two identical,
in parallel fans to deliver large volumes of air while
taking advantage of the space savings offered by
using two smaller fans.

Fans and Systems | 103


SYSTEM
RESISTANCE
PERCENT OF FAN STATIC PRESSURE

200%

SERIES FAN
COMBINED
PRESSURE
CURVE

100%

SINGLE FAN
PRESSURE
CURVE

100%
PERCENT OF FAN AIRFLOW

Figure B.1 - Typical Characteristic Curve of Two Fans Operating in Series

104 | Fans and Systems


FAN OPERATION NOT
RECOMMENDED IN THIS
RANGE

M
M

TE
TE

YS
YS

ES
ES

BL
BL

STA
PERCENT OF FAN STATIC PRESSURE

STA
UN
100

PARALLEL FANS - FAN PRESSURE AT


COMBINED VOLUME

SINGLE FAN -
PRESSURE
CURVE

200
PERCENT OF FAN AIRFLOW

Figure B.2 - Parallel Fan Operation

AILERON

Figure B.3 - Aileron Control

Fans and Systems | 105


Annex C. Definitions and Terminology C.1.8 Temperature. The dry-bulb temperature (td) is
the air temperature measured by a dry temperature
C.1 The air sensor. Temperatures relating to air density are
usually referenced to the fan inlet.
C.1.1 Air velocity. The velocity of an air stream is its
rate of motion, expressed in m/s (fpm). The velocity The wet-bulb temperature (tw) is the temperature
at a plane (Vx) is the average velocity throughout the measured by a temperature sensor covered by a
entire area of the plane. water-moistened wick and exposed to air in motion.
Readings shall be taken only under conditions that
C.1.2 Airflow. The airflow at a plane (Qx) is the rate assure an air velocity of 3.6 to 10.2 m/s (700 to 2000
of airflow, expressed in m3/s (cfm) and is the product ft/min) over the wet-bulb and only after sufficient time
of the average velocity at the plane and the area of has elapsed for evaporative equilibrium to be
the plane. attained.

C.1.3 Barometric pressure. Barometric pressure Wet bulb depression is the difference between dry-
(pb) is the absolute pressure exerted by the bulb and wet-bulb temperatures (td - tw) at the same
atmosphere at a location of measurement (per AMCA location.
99-0066).
C.2 The fan
C.1.4 Pressure-static. Static pressure is the portion
of the air pressure that exists by virtue of the degree C.2.1 Blast area. The blast area of a centrifugal fan
of compression only. If expressed as gauge pressure, is the fan outlet area less the projected area of the
it may be negative or positive (per AMCA 99-0066). cutoff; see Figure B.6 (per AMCA 99-0066).

Static pressure at a specific plane (Psx) is the C.2.2 Inlet area. The fan inlet area (A1) is the gross
arithmetic average of the gauge static pressures as inside area of the fan inlet (see Figure 9.14).
measured at specific points in the traverse of the
plane. C.2.3 Outlet area. The fan outlet area (A2) is the
gross inside area of the fan outlet.
C.1.5 Pressure-velocity. Velocity pressure is that
portion of the air pressure which exists by virtue of C.2.4 Fan. (1) A device, which utilizes a power-drive
the rate of motion only. It is always positive (per rotating impeller for moving air or gases. The internal
AMCA 99-0066). energy (enthalpy) increase imparted by a fan to a gas
does not exceed 25 kJ/kg (10.75 BTU/lbm). (2) A
Velocity pressure at a specific plane (Pvx) is the device having a power-driven rotating impeller
square of the arithmetic average of the square roots without a housing for circulating air in a room (per
of the velocity pressures as measured at specific AMCA 99-0066).
points in the traverse plane.
The volume airflow of a fan (Q) is the rate of airflow
C.1.6 Pressure-total. Total pressure is the air in m3/s (cfm) expressed at the fan inlet conditions.
pressure that exists by virtue of the degree of
compression and the rate of motion. It is the C.2.5 Fan impeller diameter. The fan impeller
algebraic sum of the velocity pressure and the static diameter is the maximum diameter measured over
pressure at a point. Thus if the air is at rest, the total the impeller blades.
pressure will equal the static pressure (per AMCA 99-
0066). C.2.6 Fan total pressure. Fan total Pressure (Pt) is
the difference between the total pressure at the fan
Total pressure at a specific plane (Ptx) is the algebraic outlet and the total pressure at the fan inlet. Pt = Pt1 -
sum of the static pressure and the velocity pressure Pt2 (Algebraic).
at that plane.
Ignoring the losses that exist between the planes of
C.1.7 Standard air density. A density of 1.2 kg/m3 measurement and the fan, Figures C.1, C.2 and C.3
(0.075 lbm/ft3) corresponding approximately to air at illustrate fan total pressures for three basic
20°C (68°F), 101.325 kPa (29.92 in. Hg) and 50% arrangements for fans connected to external
relative humidity (per AMCA 99-0066). systems.

106 | Fans and Systems


Where the fan inlet is open to atmospheric air or Where the fan outlet is open to atmospheric air or
where an inlet bell, as shown in the Figure C.1 is where an outlet duct three diameters or less in length
used to simulate an inlet duct, the total pressure at is used to simulate a fan with an outlet duct and the
the fan inlet (Pt1) is considered to be the same as the outlet duct is open to atmospheric air, the total
total pressure in the region near the inlet (Pta) where pressure at the fan outlet is equal to the fan velocity
no energy has been imparted to the air. This is the pressure (Pv). The following equations apply:
location of "still air". The following equations apply:
Pt = Pt2 - Pt1
Pta = 0 Pt2 = Pv
Pt = Pt2 - Pt1 Pt = Pv - Pt1
Pt1 = Pta = 0
Pt = Pt2

PLANE 1 PLANE 2

Pt2

Pt = Pt2

Figure C.1 - Fan Total Pressure for Installation Type B: Free Inlet, Ducted Outlet

Fans and Systems | 107


PLANE 1 PLANE 2

Pt1

Pt = Pv2 - Pt1

Figure C.2 - Fan Total Pressure for Installation Type C: Ducted Inlet, Free Outlet

PLANE 1 PLANE 2

Pt1 Pt Pt2

Pt = Pt2 - Pt1

Figure C.3 - Fan Total Pressure for Installation Type D: Ducted Inlet, Ducted Outlet

108 | Fans and Systems


C.2.7 Fan velocity pressure. Fan velocity pressure Where the fan outlet is open to atmospheric air
(Pv) is the pressure corresponding to the average air (ducted inlet, free outlet), ignoring the SEF, the fan
velocity at the fan outlet. Pv = Pv2 static pressure (Ps) is equal to the inlet static
pressure (Ps1) less the inlet velocity pressure (Pv1).
Assuming no change in air density or area between
the plane of measurement and the fan outlet, Figure Ps = -Ps1 - Pv1
C.4 illustrates fan velocity pressure. Ps = -(-Ps1) - Pv1
Ps = Ps1 - Pv1
C.2.8 Fan static pressure. The difference between
the fan total pressure and the fan velocity pressure. C.3 The system
Therefore, fan static pressure is the difference
between the static pressure at a fan outlet and the C.3.1 Equivalent duct diameter. The diameter of a
total pressure at a fan inlet (per AMCA 99-0066). circle having the same area as another geometric
shape. For a rectangular cross-section duct with
Ps = Pt - Pv width (a) and height (b), the equivalent diameter is:
(4ab/π)0.5 (per AMCA 99-0066).
Ignoring losses between the planes of measurement
and the fan, Figure C.5 illustrates the fan static C.3.2 Fan performance. Fan performance is a
pressure for a fan with ducted inlet and outlet. statement of the volume airflow, static or total
pressure, speed and power input at a stated inlet
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 (Algebraic) density and may include total and static efficiencies.

Where the fan inlet is open to atmospheric air, (free C.3.3 Fan performance curve. Of the many forms of
inlet, ducted outlet), the fan static pressure (Ps) is fan performance curves, generally all convey
equal to the static pressure at the fan outlet. information sufficient to determine fan performance
as defined above. In this manual, ‘fan performance
Ps = Ps2 curve’ refers to the constant speed performance

PLANE 1 PLANE 2

Pv = Pv2
Pv2

Figure C.4 - Fan Velocity Pressure for Installation Type B: Free Inlet, Ducted Outlet

Fans and Systems | 109


curve. This is a graphical representation of static or C.3.7 Point of rating. The specified fan operating
total pressure and power input over a range of point on its characteristic curve (per AMCA 99-0066).
volume airflow at a stated inlet density and fan
speed. It may include static or total efficiency curves. C.3.8 System. A series of ducts, conduits, elbows,
The range of volume airflow that is covered generally branch piping, etc., designed to guide the flow of air,
extends from shutoff (zero airflow) to free delivery gas or vapor to and from one or more locations.
(zero fan static pressure). The pressure curves that A fan provides the necessary energy to overcome
appear are generally referred to as the pressure- the resistance to flow of the system and causes air or
volume curves. gas to flow through the system. Some components of
a typical system are louvers, grills, diffusers, filters,
C.3.4 Normalized fan curve. A normalized fan curve heating and cooling coils, air pollution control
is a constant speed curve in which the fan devices, burner assemblies, sound attenuators, the
performance values appear as percentages, with ductwork and related fittings.
100% airflow at free delivery, 100% fan static
pressure at shutoff, and 100% power at the maximum C.3.9 System curve. A graphic representation of the
power input point. pressure versus volume airflow characteristics of a
particular system.
C.3.5 Point of duty. Point of duty is a statement of
air volume flow rate and static or total pressure at a C.3.10 System Effect Factor (SEF). A pressure loss,
stated density and is used to specify the point on which recognizes the effect of fan inlet restrictions,
the system curve at which a fan is to operate. fan outlet restrictions, or other conditions influencing
fan performance when installed in the system (per
C.3.6 Point of operation. The relative position on a AMCA 99-0066).
fan or air curtain performance curve corresponding to
a particular airflow, pressure, power and efficiency
(per AMCA 99-0066).

PLANE 1 PLANE 2

Ps1 Pv1 Ps2

Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 (algebraic)

Figure C.5 - Fan Static Pressure for Installation Type D: Ducted Inlet, Ducted Outlet

110 | Fans and Systems


HOUSING

DIVERTER

FF
TO
CU

CENTER PLATE

BLAST AREA
DISCHARGE
OUTLET AREA

SIDE SHEET
BACKPLATE

BLADE FF
TO
CU

INLET

SCROLL

IMPELLER

FRAME
RIM
BEARING
SUPPORT
INLET COLLAR

Figure C.6 - Terminology for Centrifugal Fan Components

Fans and Systems | 111


CASING

BACKPLATE
RIM
HUB INLET

MOTOR BLADE
GUIDE VANE

IMPELLER

INLET BELL
Figure C.7A - Tubular Centrifugal Fan-
Direct Drive
CASING

BLADE
DIFFUSER
HUB

MOTOR

IMPELLER

CASING

BEARING CASING Figure C.7B - Tubeaxial Fan-Direct Drive


BELT TUBE (Impeller Downstream)

BLADE

HUB

GUIDE VANE
Figure C.7C - Vaneaxial Fan-Belt Drive
IMPELLER

Figure C.7 - Terminology for Axial and Tubular Centrifugal Fans

112 | Fans and Systems


Annex D. Examples of the Convertibility The Ps required at the fan outlet (C) will be equal to
of Energy from Velocity Pressure to the pressure drop at the desired airflow. Since there
are no inlet obstructions and the duct near the fan
Static Pressure
outlet is the same as used in the test setup, the
published fan performance can be used with no
SI CONVERSION was done using 249 Pa = 1 in. wg,
additional system effect factors applied.
1 m3/s = 2118 cfm, 1m/s = .00508 ft/min

D.1 Example of fan (tested with free inlet,


ducted outlet) applied to a duct system

The overall friction of the duct system results in a 747


Pa (3.0 in. wg) pressure drop at an airflow of 1.42
m3/s (3000 cfm).

SI I-P

A Free inlet 0.00 Pa (no SEF) 0.0 in. wg

B-C Outlet with straight


duct attached for two
or more diameters. 0.00 Pa (no SEF) 0.0 in. wg

C-D Duct friction at Q =


1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm). 747.00 Pa (duct design) 3.0 in. wg

REQUIRED FAN Ps 747.00 Pa 3.0 in. wg

Select a fan for Q = 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) and Ps = 747 Pa (3.0 in. wg).

Use manufacturer's data for rpm (N) and power (H).

NO OBSTRUCTION AT FAN INLET

Pv = 124 Pa (0.5 in.wg)

(I-P) in.wg FRICTION 747 Pa (3.0 in.wg)


AT 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm)
(SI) Pa

996 4

747 3
Pt
Pv
498 2
Ps 124 Pa
249 1 (0.5 in.wg)

0 0
A B C D
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Figure D.1 - Pressure Gradients - Fan as Tested


Fans and Systems | 113
D.2 Example of fan (tested with free inlet, to the duct, the Pt requirement in the plenum is
ducted outlet), connected to a duct system 871.15 Pa (3.5 in. wg), Pt at duct entrance = 49.8 Pa
and then a plenum (0.2 in. wg) in contraction loss, or 921.3 Pa (3.7 in.
wg) Pt.
This example includes the same duct system as
described in Example C.1. However, there is a short Air flowing across the plenum from D to E will have a
outlet duct on the fan followed by a plenum chamber relatively low velocity and the Pv in the plenum will be
with cross-sectional area more than 10 times larger 0.0 Pa (0.0 in. wg) since the velocity is negligible.
than the area of the duct.
At point D, there is an abrupt expansion energy loss
The velocity in the duct from E to F is 14.4 m/s (2830 equal to the entire Pv in the duct discharging into the
fpm), equal to a velocity pressure of 124.5 Pa (0.5 in. plenum. The outlet duct between the fan and the
wg). At point "F" the Pv is 124.5 Pa (0.5 in. wg), the plenum is 2.5 equivalent diameters long. It is the
Ps is 0.0 Pa (0.0 in. wg), and the Pt is 124.5 Pa (0.5 same as used during the fan rating test. The Ps in the
in. wg). The friction of duct will cause a gradual outlet duct (also the Ps in the plenum) is the same as
increase in Ps and Pt back to point E. If the duct has the Ps as measured during the rating test.
a uniform cross-sectional area the Pv will be constant
through this part of the system. This example requires a fan to be selected for 921.30
Pa (3.7 in. wg) at 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm). Compare this
Since there is an energy loss of 49.8 Pa (0.2 in. wg) with the previous selection of 747 Pa (3.0 in. wg) Ps
as a result of the abrupt contraction from the plenum at 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm).

SI I-P

C-D Outlet duct on fan as tested 0.00 Pa (no SEF) 0.0 in. wg

D Pv loss (also Pt loss) as


result of air velocity decrease.
Ps does not change from
duct to plenum at D. 0.00 Pa 0.0 in. wg

E Contraction loss - plenum


to duct 49.80 Pa (part of duct system) 0.2 in. wg

E Ps energy required to
create velocity at E 124.50 Pa (part of duct system) 0.5 in. wg

E-F Duct friction at Q =


1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) 747.00 Pa 3.0 in. wg

REQUIRED FAN Ps 921.30 Pa 3.7 in. wg

Solution:

Select a fan for Q = 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) and Ps = 921.30 Pa (3.7 in. wg)
Use manufacturer's data for rpm (N) and power (H).

114 | Fans and Systems


2.5 DIA.

NEGLIGIBLE Pv = 124 Pa (0.5in.wg)


LOSS

(I-P) in.wg FRICTION 747 Pa (3.0 in.wg)


AT 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm)
(SI) Pa 1046 Pa (3.7 in.wg)

1245 5
922 Pa (3.7 in.wg)
996 4

747 3 922 Pa Pt
(3.7 in.wg) Pv
498 2 124 Pa
747 Pa (3.0 in.wg) Ps (0.5 in.wg)
249 1

0 0
F
A B C D E ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

Figure D.2 - Pressure Gradients - Plenum Effect

Fans and Systems | 115


D.3 Example of fan with free inlet, free outlet energy is lost. In these applications, the energy loss
- fan discharges directly into plenum and and the System Effect Factor may exceed the fan
then to duct system (abrupt expansion at fan outlet velocity pressure as defined in terms of "fan
outlet) outlet area".

This example is similar to the plenum effect example The SEF for fans without outlet duct was obtained as
except the duct at the fan outlet has been omitted. follows:
The fan discharges directly into the plenum.
GIVEN:
It may seem unreasonable that the System Effect Blast Area
Fan = 0 .6
loss at the fan outlet is greater than the defined fan Outlet Area
outlet velocity. Fans with cutoffs must generate
higher velocities at the cutoff plane (blast area) than
Fan outlet velocity = 14.4 m/s
in the outlet duct (outlet area). This higher velocity (at
(2830 fpm) No outlet duct
cutoff) is partially converted to Ps when outlet ducts
are used as on fan tests. When fans with cutoffs are System Effect Curve = R-S, (from Figure 8.3)
"bulk-headed" into plenums or discharge directly into SEF = 149.4 Pa (0.6 in. wg), (from Figure 7.1) at 14.4
the atmosphere as with exhausters, all the velocity m/s (2830 fpm) velocity and system curve R)

SI I-P

B-C SEF 149.40 Pa 0.6 in. wg


(see above)

B-C Pv loss (also Pt loss) as


result of air velocity decrease.
Ps does not change from
duct to plenum at C 0.00 Pa 0.0 in. wg

D contraction loss - plenum


to duct 49.80 Pa (part of duct system) 0.2 in. wg

D Ps energy required to
create velocity at D 124.50 Pa (part of duct system) 0.5 in. wg

D-E duct friction at Q =


1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) 747.00 Pa (duct design) 3.0 in. wg

REQUIRED FAN Ps 1070.70 Pa 4.3 in. wg

Solution:
Select a fan for 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) Q and 1070.70 Pa (4.3 in. wg) Ps.
Use manufacturer's data for rpm (N) and power (H).

116 | Fans and Systems


Pv = 124 Pa (0.5 in.wg)

(I-P) in.wg 149 Pa FRICTION 747 Pa (3.0 in.wg)


(0.6 in.wg) AT 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm)
(SI) Pa SEF
922 Pa (3.7 in.wg)

1245 5
872 Pa (3.5 in.wg)
996 4

747 3
Pt
Pv
498 2 124 Pa
747 Pa (3.0 in.wg) Ps (0.5 in.wg)
249 1

0 0

A B C D ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE E

Figure D.3 - Pressure Gradients - Abrupt Expansion at Fan Outlet

Fans and Systems | 117


D.4 Example of fan used to exhaust with Three SEFs are shown in this example:
obstruction in inlet, inlet elbow, inlet duct,
free outlet 1) System Effect Curve R (see Figure 9.5 for a 3
piece inlet elbow with R/D ratio of 1 and no duct
This example is an exhaust system. Note the entry between the elbow and the fan inlet).
loss at point A. An inlet bell will reduce this loss.
2) System Effect Curve U (see Figure 9.14 for a
On the suction side of the fan, Ps will be negative, but bearing in the fan inlet which obstructs 10% of the
Pv is always positive. inlet).

3) System Effect Curve R (from Figure 8.3 for a fan


Fan Pv = 124.5 Pa (0.5 in. wg)
discharging to atmosphere with no outlet duct).

SI I-P

A Entrance loss - sharp


edge duct 99.60 Pa (duct design) 0.4 in. wg

A-B Duct friction at 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) 747.00 Pa (duct design) 3.0 in. wg

B SEF 1 149.40 Pa 0.6 in. wg

C SEF 2 49.80 Pa 0.2 in. wg

E Fan Pv 124.50 Pa 0.5 in. wg

E SEF 3 149.40.Pa 0.6 in. wg

REQUIRED FAN Pt 1319.70 Pa 5.3 in. wg

Fan Ps = fan Pt - fan Pv


Fan Ps (SI) = 1319.70 Pa – 124.5 Pa = 1195.2 Pa
Fan Ps (I-P) = 5.3 in. wg - 0.5 in. wg = 4.8 in wg

Solution:
Select a fan for 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm) Q and 1195.2 Pa (4.8 in. wg) Ps
Use manufacturer's data for rpm (N) and power (H).

118 | Fans and Systems


ABRUPT
Pv = 124 Pa (0.5 in.wg) DISCHARGE SEF
149 Pa (0.6 in.wg)

FRICTION 747 Pa (3.0 in.wg)


AT 1.42 m3/s (3000 cfm)

(I-P) in.wg
ELBOW SEF OBSTRUCTION SEF
149 Pa (0.6 in.wg) 50 Pa (0.2 in.wg)
(SI) Pa

+249 +1
ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE
0 0
100 Pa (0.4 in.wg)
149 Pa (0.6 in.wg)
-249 -1 REQUIRED
Pt
-847 Pa (-3.4 in.wg)
Pv
-498 -2
Ps -996 Pa (4.0 in.wg)
-747 -3
224 Pa (0.9 in.wg)
-996 -4

-1245 -5
-1171 Pa (4.7 in.wg)
-971 Pa (3.9 in.wg)
A B C D E
-1121 Pa (4.5 in.wg)
FAN INLET

Figure D.4 - Pressure Gradients - Exhaust System

Fans and Systems | 119


Annex E. References
These references contain additional information related to the subject of this manual:

1. ANSI/AMCA 210-99, Laboratory Methods of Testing Fans for Aerodynamic Performance Rating, Air Movement
and Control Association International, Inc., 30 West University Drive, Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 U.S.A.,
1999.

2. AMCA Publication 200-95, Air Systems, Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc., 30 West
University Drive, Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 U.S.A., 1995.

3. AMCA Publication 202-98, Troubleshooting, Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc., 30 West
University Drive, Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 U.S.A., 1997.

4. ASHRAE Handbook, HVAC Systems and Equipment, 1996, The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating
and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA, 30329 U.S.A., 1996, (Chapter 18
Fans).

5. Traver, D. G., System Effects on Centrifugal Fan Performance, ASHRAE Symposium Bulletin, Fan Application,
Testing and Selection, The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc.,
1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA, 30329 U.S.A., 1971.

6. Christie, D. H., Fan Performance as Affected By Inlet Conditions, ASHRAE Transactions, Vol. 77, The
American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E.,
Atlanta, GA, 30329 U.S.A., 1971.

7. Zaleski, R. H., System Effect Factors For Axial Flow Fans, AMCA Paper 2011-88, AMCA Engineering
Conference, Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc., 30 West University Drive, Arlington
Heights, IL, 60004-1893 U.S.A., 1988.

8. Roslyng, O., Installation Effect on Axial Flow Fan Caused Swirl and Non-Uniform Velocity Distribution,
Institution of Mechanical Engineers (IMechE), 1 Birdcage Walk, London SW1H 9JJ, England, 1984.

9. Clarke, M. S., Barnhart, J. T., Bubsey, F. J., Neitzel, E., The Effects of System Connections on Fan
Performance, ASHRAE RP-139 Report, The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air Conditioning
Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA, 30329 U.S.A., 1978.

10. Madhaven, S., Wright, T., J. DiRe, Centrifugal Fan Performance With Distorted Inflows, The American Society
of Mechanical Engineers, 345 East 47th Street, New, York, NY, 10017 U.S.A., 1983.

11. Cory, W. T. W., Fan System Effects Including Swirl and Yaw, AMCA Paper 1832-84-A5, AMCA Engineering
Conference, Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc., 30 West University Drive, Arlington
Heights, IL, 60004-1893 U.S.A., 1984.

12. Cory, W. T. W., Fan Performance Testing and Effects of the System, AMCA Paper 1228-82-A5, AMCA
Engineering Conference, Air Movement and Control Association International, Inc., 30 West University Drive,
Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 U.S.A., 1984.

13. Galbraith, L.E., Discharge Diffuser Effect on Performance -


Axial Fans, AMCA Paper 1950-86-A6, AMCA Engineering Conference, Air Movement and Control Association
International, Inc., 30 West University Drive, Arlington Heights, IL, 60004-1893 U.S.A., 1986.

14. Industrial Ventilation –23rd Edition, American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, 1330 Kemper
Meadow Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45240-1634 U.S.A., 1998.

15. Fans and Systems, John E. Thompson and C. Jack Trickler, The New York Blower Company, Chemical
Engineering, March 21, 1983, pp. 48-63

16. AABC National Standards, Chapter 8, Volume Measurements, Associated Air Balance Council, 1518 K Street
NW, Suite 503, Washington, DC 20005 U.S.A.
120 | Fans and Systems
Troubleshooting 202
1. Introduction

After the installation of an air moving system is completed, a system sometimes fails to achieve its designed
performance.

This part of the AMCA Fan Application Manual will help you identify what is wrong and decide how to correct it.

2. Procedure for Troubleshooting

2.1 Look in the "Master Troubleshooting Appendices" for a subject which corresponds with the apparent problem.

2.2 Check each of the "Probable Causes" listed.

2.3 If the cause of the trouble is not found proceed through the "System Checklist" (see Section 4).

2.4 If the problem has still not been solved, it is now advisable to contact the representative of the fan manufacturer.
He should be given the results of the "System Checklist" and the additional information listed in Section 5.1.

2.5 The fan manufacturer or his representative will analyze the information submitted, as outlined in Section 5.2.
With this information and, if necessary, an on-site inspection, he may be able to explain why the system is not
achieving its design performance and may recommend changes in the system or the fan installation which will
overcome the problem.

3. Safety Precautions

Before checking the fan and system it will be necessary to shut down the fan. During inspection the fan must be
electrically isolated and all disconnect switches and other controls LOCKED in the "OFF" position. Where these
are in locations remote from the fan, prominent DO NOT START signs should also be in place.

CAUTION - Even when LOCKED out electrically, fans located outdoors or in a parallel or series fan system may
be subject to "wind-milling." Therefore, as an added precaution, the impeller should be secured to physically restrict
rotational movement.

4. System Checklist

Poor system performance may arise from a number of causes including:

• Improper installation or assembly of the fan


• Damage in handling or transit
• System design error
• Deterioration of the system
• Faulty controls
• Poor fan selection
• A combination of several factors.

A systematic check of the items listed here should help identify the problem - or problems - and allow suitable
corrective action to be taken.
SYSTEM CHECKLIST

A) While the impeller is coasting to a stop, see if it is rotating in the proper direction (see Figures 4.1, 4.2 and
4.3).

B) Make certain the impeller rotation is correct for the housing (guide vanes of vaneaxial and tubular centrifugal
fans) and not installed backwards (see Figures 4.1, 4.2, and 4.3).

Note: Tubeaxial fan rotation is the same as shown in Figure 4.2 except without the guide vanes.

ROTATION

RADIAL BACKWARD AIRFOIL


BLADE INCLINED

RADIAL BACKWARD FORWARD


TIP CURVED CURVED

Figure 4.1 - Types of Centrifugal Fan Impellers

Note: Fan manufacturers describe the rotation of the fan impeller as being "clockwise" or "counterclockwise”.

• For AXIAL fans when viewing the INLET or OUTLET as specified by the Fan Manufacturer

• For CENTRIFUGAL fans when viewing the DRIVE SIDE (see AMCA Standard 99-2406)

• For TUBULAR CENTRIFUGAL fans when viewing the OUTLET (see AMCA Standard 99-2410).

122 | Troubleshooting
ROTATION ROTATION

INLET
GUIDE VANES

OUTLET
GUIDE VANES

AIRFLOW AIRFLOW

Figure 4.2 - Vaneaxial Fan Impellers and Guide Vanes

ROTATION

GUIDE

VANES AIRFLOW

Figure 4.3 - Tubular Centrifugal Impeller

Troubleshooting | 123
C) If the fan is belt driven:

1) Are the drive pulley (Motor Sheave) and the driven pulley (Fan Sheave) in alignment? Improper alignment
of the sheaves can cause excessive power consumption (high amperage), squealing belts, shortened belt
and sheave life and high axial vibration.

FAN FAN

MOTOR MOTOR

IMPROPER SHEAVE ALIGNMENT PROPER SHEAVE ALIGNMENT

Figure 4.4 - Sheave Alignment

2) Are the belts loose? Loose belts that flap or slip can cause excessive noise and vibration. Slipping belts
will also affect fan speed and reduce belt and sheave life.

Belts should be tensioned to the belt manufacturer's recommendations. Tension of the drive belts should be
adjusted for stretching after the first 48 hours of operation. Caution! Excessive belt tension will reduce fan
and motor bearing life.

3) Are the belts and/or sheaves worn? If so, an immediate replacement could save down time at a later
date. Where more than one belt is used, replace with a new set of matched belts.

IMPROPER BELT TENSION PROPER BELT TENSION


(SEE BELT MANUFACTURER’S SPECIFICATIONS)

Figure 4.5 - Belt Tension

D) Check the flow surfaces (passages between the inlets, impeller blades and inside of housing) for
cleanliness. A 2 mm (0.0625 in.) buildup of dirt on the flow surface could impair fan performance and/or
cause vibration.

E) Are there any gouges, tears, holes, erosion or corrosion in the impeller blades, rims or backplate: inlets
and/or housing? If so, report the approximate size and location to the fan manufacturer and discontinue
operation until repairs are made.

F) Is any foreign matter trapped in the impeller, housing or ductwork (loose insulation, papers, ice, etc.)? If so,
remove.

124 | Troubleshooting
G) Are coils, heaters, filters, ducts, etc. dirt laden? If so, clean or replace. Remove any non-essential
obstructions to airflow in elbows, shutters, transformations, dampers, bird-screens, etc. Verify that all
dampers (control, backdraft, fire, etc.) are adjusted to the proper settings.

H) Have all the parts supplied with the fan been installed?

I) Are there any obstructions to airflow near the fan inlets? Objects such as pipes, airflow measurement
stations, ductwork, columns, belt guards, belt drives, etc. could adversely affect the output of the fan. For
more information, see AMCA Publication 201 Fans and Systems.

J) Are the fan outlet connections correctly designed and installed? Duct takeoffs, or obstructions in the fan
outlet could adversely affect the output of the fan (see AMCA Publication 201).

K) See Figure 4.6A for typical centrifugal fan inlet-impeller relationships and Figure 4.6A for typical axial fan
housing-impeller relationships. A few simple measurements as indicated on these figures can tell the
manufacturer if a problem exists in this area. Note: several measurements should be taken around the
entire inlet/housing circumference to determine the average, maximum and minimum values.

I.S. = INLET SPACING


I.G.
I.G. = INLET GAP
R.C.
R.C. = RUNNING CLEARANCE
(INLET CENTERED ON IMPELLER) I.S.

I.S. I.S.
I.S. SHOULD BE SAME BOTH SIDES
FOR DOUBLE WIDTH FAN

Figure 4.6A - Typical Centrifugal Fan Inlet-Impeller Relationships

R.C. C.

R.C. = RUNNING CLEARANCE


(IMPELLER CENTERED IN HOUSING)

C. = VANE CLEARANCE

Figure 4.6B - Typical Axial Fan Housing-Impeller Relationships

Troubleshooting | 125
L) On a double-width fan, is the approach to both inlets identical? Airflow should be symmetrical about the
centerline of the fan housing (see Figure 4.7A). Non-symmetrical airflow can lead to decreased air
performance. Belt drives, belt guards and motors can cause non-symmetrical airflow to the inlets if too
severely restricted (see AMCA Publication 201).

L L

P AIRFLOW

Figure 4.7A - Symmetrical Inlet Airflow

L NOT EQUAL TO M
L M
N NOT EQUAL TO R

N AIRFLOW

Figure 4.7B - Non-Symmetrical Inlet Airflow

Figure 4.8A - Turning Vanes in Elbow Adjacent to Centrifugal Fan

M) Are turning vanes installed in elbows that are too close to the fan inlet or discharge (see Figures 4.8A and
4.8B). Published pressure losses through elbows are based on a uniform velocity profile. Turning vanes
help achieve this uniform flow (see AMCA Publication 201).

126 | Troubleshooting
Figure 4.8B - Turning Vanes in Elbow Adjacent to Axial Fan

N) If the fan is equipped with an inlet vane damper, check the operation as follows:

1) Do not rely on the control arm position alone for locating the position of the inlet vane damper blades
without first checking visually to see that the inlet vane damper position agrees with the position of the
control arm.

2) If the unit is a double-width fan equipped with inlet vanes or inlet vane damper control, both inlet vane
dampers must be synchronized (the inlet vane dampers must be in the same relative position with
respect to the impeller on both inlets). If the inlet vane dampers are not synchronized, there will be
unbalanced airflow between inlets resulting in deficient air performance, unbalanced thrust on the
bearings and/or a surge condition in the fan.

3) Make certain that inlet vane dampers are of the proper rotation with respect to the impeller.
As the vanes close they should cause the entering air to spin in the same direction as the impeller.

4) Are the inlet vane dampers correctly positioned for the design operating conditions? If not, the desired
pressure-volume of the fan will not be realized (see Figure 4.9).

100% Open

100
75% Open
Percent of No Delivery Pressure

50% Open
80

60

25% Open

40

20

0 20 40 60 80 100

Percent of Free Delivery Volume

Figure 4.9 - Typical Pressure-Volume Curve for Operation with Inlet Vane Damper Control

Troubleshooting | 127
O) Inspect any ductwork or plenums approaching the fan inlets for the possibility of inducing swirl of air into the
inlet. Pre-swirl of air entering the fan inlet can reduce the fan performance (see Figures 4.10A and 4.10B).
(See AMCA Publication 201.)

IMPELLER IMPELLER
ROTATION ROTATION

AIR SWIRL IN SAME DIRECTION AIR SWIRL IN OPPOSITE DIRECTION


AS IMPELLER ROTATION TO IMPELLER ROTATION

Figure 4.10A - Pre-Rotation Figure 4.10B - Counter-Rotation

P) After completing the above steps and making sure the fan and system are safe to start, remove all DO NOT
START signs on disconnect switches and override systems and put the unit back into operation.

Q) Inspect the entire system including the fan, fan plenum and all ductwork for significant air leaks.
Air leaks may be detected by sound, smoke, feel, soapy solution, etc. Some common air leak sources are:
access doors, coils, duct seams, fan outlet connection, etc. Significant air leaks must be sealed.

5. Fan Manufacturer's Analysis

If the cause of the trouble has still not been found after completing the "System Checklist," the fan manufacturer
should be consulted.

The fan manufacturer will review the information provided concerning the system and recommend an appropriate
course of action.

5.1 Data required for analysis

To make a complete analysis of the problem, in addition to the results of the "System Checklist," the manufacturer
will need:

A) Complete plans (drawings) including all ductwork, location, size, model and manufacturer of all fans,
motors, coils, dampers, etc. with all pertinent dimensions for the complete system as actually installed.

B) If the fan/air handling system fails to achieve the design performance, the measured performance and the
design performance figures should be supplied.

C) A copy of the system design calculations.

D) A copy of the specifications and any addendums.

128 | Troubleshooting
E) If a separate air performance test has been conducted on the installed fan, a statement of measured fan
performance along with a copy of the test data, the type of test and instrumentation, and the measurement
location of the airflow rate and pressure determinations should be supplied. A statement of fan performance
should contain:

1) Fan total pressure (Pt) rise or fan static pressure (Ps)

2) Airflow rate (Q)

3) Power (H)

4) Fan speed (N)

5) Air density (ρ)

5.2 Probable manufacturer action

Among other actions, the fan manufacturer will:

A) Assess the probable accuracy of the field performance measurements (see AMCA Publication 203 Field
Performance Measurements of Fan Systems).

B) Examine the system drawings (plans) for any System Effect losses (see AMCA Publication 201) which were
not allowed for in the system design calculations or the original fan selection.

C) Reassess the fan performance, accounting for System Effect losses established in step B to the designed
fan/system performance (see Figure 5.1).

D) Check whether the fan selection is correct for the application.

SYSTEM EFFECT

DUCT SYSTEM CURVE

DESIGN FAN OPERATING POINT

FAN CATALOG
PRESSURE-VOLUME CURVE
DESIGN PRESSURE

FAN OPERATING POINT


W/SYSTEM EFFECT
THEORETICAL PRESSURE-VOLUME
CURVE ACCOUNTING FOR SYSTEM EFFECT
LOSSES (FIELD PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENTS
TO BE COMPARED AGAINST THIS CURVE).

DESIGN VOLUME

Figure 5.1

Troubleshooting | 129
The information obtained through the checklists in this manual should help in defining the necessary corrective
action.

In most cases, if the troubleshooting procedure has been followed carefully and impartially it will be apparent
whether the system has been built and installed in accordance with the design drawings, whether the fan was
properly selected and suitable allowances made for the appropriate System Effect Factors, or whether the fan is
not performing up to its published ratings.

6. Conclusion

By intelligent application of the procedures outlined in this manual it should be possible to find the cause of a
performance problem in any air moving system.

Identification of a problem associated directly with the fan may require the assistance of the fan manufacturer.

Recognition of the cause of the trouble will usually be a major step toward curing it. Corrective measures may
include alterations to the system, modifications to the fan outlet or inlet connections, adjustments to the fan, etc.
In many cases an increase in the fan speed may be decided upon but it is extremely important that the fan shall
not be operated above its cataloged maximum speed or the maximum speed recommended by the
manufacturer. Excessive speed may result in catastrophic impeller failure. If a speed increase proves to be
an acceptable alternative, then the motor should also be checked for its capacity to handle the increased fan power.

130 | Troubleshooting
MASTER TROUBLESHOOTING APPENDICES

Annex A. Noise

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

A-1 IMPELLER HITTING INLET OR HOUSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Impeller not centered in inlet or housing.
b. Inlet or housing damage.
c. Crooked or damaged impeller.
d. Shaft loose in bearing.
e. Impeller loose on shaft.
f. Bearing loose in bearing support.
g. Bent shaft.
h. Misaligned shaft and bearings.

A-2 IMPELLER HITTING CUTOFF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Cutoff not secure in housing.


b. Cutoff damaged.
c. Cutoff improperly positioned.
d. Impeller improperly positioned.

A-3 DRIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Sheave not tight on shaft (motor or fan).


b. Belts hitting belt tube or belt guard.
c. Belts too loose. Adjust for belt
stretching after 48 hours of operation.
d. Belts too tight.
e. Belts wrong cross-section.
f. Belts not "Matched" in length on
multi-belt drive.
g. Variable pitch sheaves not
adjusted so each groove has same
pitch diameter (multi-belt drive).
h. Misaligned sheaves.
i. Belts worn.
j. Motor, motor base or fan not
securely anchored.
k. Belts oily or dirty.
l. Improper drive selection.
m. Loose key.

A-4 COUPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Coupling unbalanced, misaligned, loose


or may need lubricant.
b. Loose key.

A-5 BEARING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Defective bearing.


b. Needs lubrication.
c. Loose on bearing support.
d. Loose on shaft.
e. Seals misaligned.
f. Foreign material inside bearing.
g. Worn bearing.
h. Fretting corrosion between inner race
and shaft.
i. Bearing not sitting on flat surface.

A-6 SHAFT SEAL SQUEAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Needs lubrication.


b. Misaligned.
c. Bent shaft.
d. Bearing loose on support.
Troubleshooting | 131
A-7 IMPELLER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Loose on shaft.
b. Defective impeller. DO NOT
OPERATE FAN. LOCK OUT
THE FAN ELECTRICALLY AND
CONTACT THE MANUFACTURER.
c. Unbalance.
d. Coating loose.
e. Worn as result of abrasive or corrosive
material moving through airflow
passages.
f. Blades rotating close to structural
member.
g. The number of blades may coincide
with an equal number of structural
members.
h. Loose key.

A-8 HOUSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Foreign material in housing.


b. Cutoff or other housing part loose
(rattling during operation).

A-9 MOTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Lead-in cable not secure.


b. AC hum in motor or relay.
c. Starting relay chatter.
d. Noisy motor bearings.
e. Single phasing a three phase motor.
f. Low voltage.
g. Cooling fan striking shroud.
h. Poor motor/inverter match, more
noticeable at low speeds.

A-10 SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Bent


b. Undersized. May cause noise at
impeller, bearings or sheave.

A-11 HIGH AIR VELOCITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Ductwork too small for application.


b. The installed fan may be too small for
the application.
c. Registers or grilles too small for
application.
d. Heating or cooling coil with
insufficient face area for application.
A-12 OBSTRUCTION IN HIGH VELOCITY
AIR STREAM MAY CAUSE RATTLE, OR
PURE TONE WHISTLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Dampers.
b. Registers.
c. Grilles.
d. Sharp elbows.
e. Sudden expansion in ductwork.
f. Sudden contraction in ductwork.
g. Turning vanes.

A-13 PULSATION OR SURGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Restricted system causes fan to


operate at poor point of rating.
b. Fan too large for application.
c. Ducts vibrate at same frequency as fan
pulsations.
d. Rotating stall.

132 | Troubleshooting
e. Inlet vortex surge.
f. Distorted inlet airflow.

A-14 AIR LEAKS AND/OR OBSTRUCTED FLOW . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Air leaks in ductwork.


1) Bad joint connections;
2) Holes or tears;
3) Obstructions inside duct.
b. Fins on coils.
c. Registers or grilles.

A-15 RATTLES AND/OR RUMBLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Vibrating ductwork.


b. Vibrating cabinet parts.
c. Vibrating parts not isolated from
building.

Troubleshooting | 133
Annex B. Insufficient Air Flow

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

B-1 FAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Impeller installed backwards.


b. Impeller running backwards.
c. Impeller blade angle setting.
d. Cutoff missing or improperly installed.
e. Impeller not centered with inlet collar(s).
f. Fan rpm below design:
1) Incorrect sheave or sheave setting;
2) Incorrect motor rpm;
3) Low voltage to motor;
4) Speed controller set too low;
CAUTION! DO NOT INCREASE FAN
SPEED BEYOND THE FAN
MANUFACTURER'S
RECOMMENDATIONS. ALSO, WHEN
INCREASING FAN SPEED, MONITOR
MOTOR AMPS SO AS NOT TO
EXCEED MOTOR NAMEPLATE AMPS.
g. Impeller/inlet dirty or clogged.
h. Improper running clearance.
i. Improper inlet cone to impeller fit.
j. Improperly set inlet vane or damper.

B-2 DUCT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Actual system is more restrictive (more


resistance to airflow) than expected.
b. Dampers closed.
c. Registers closed.
d. Air leaks in supply ducts.
e. Insulating duct liner loose.

B-3 FILTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Dirty or clogged.


b. Replacement filter with greater than
specified pressure drop.

B-4 COILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Dirty or clogged.


b. Incorrect fin spacing.

B-5 RECIRCULATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. Internal cabinet air leaks in bulkhead


separating fan outlet (pressure zone)
from inlet(s) (suction zone).
b. Air leaks around fan outlet at
connection through cabinet bulk-head.
B-6 OBSTRUCTED FAN INLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. Elbows, cabinet walls or other
obstructions restrict airflow. Inlet
obstructions cause more restrictive
systems but do not cause increased
negative pressure readings near the fan
inlet(s) (see System Effects in AMCA
Publication 201). Fan speed may be
increased to counteract the effect of
restricted fan inlet(s).
CAUTION! DO NOT INCREASE FAN
SPEED BEYOND THE FAN MANUFA-
CTURER'S RECOMMENDATIONS.
ALSO, WHEN INCREASING FAN

134 | Troubleshooting
SPEED, MONITOR MOTOR AMPS SO
AS NOT TO EXCEED MOTOR
NAMEPLATE AMPS.

B-7 NO STRAIGHT DUCT AT FAN OUTLET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Fans which are normally used in duct
system are tested with a length of
straight duct at the fan outlet. If there is
no straight duct at the fan outlet,
decreased performance may result. If it
is not practical to install a straight
section of duct at the fan outlet, the fan
speed may need to be increased to
overcome this pressure loss (see
System Effects in AMCA Publication
201).
CAUTION! DO NOT INCREASE FAN
SPEED BEYOND THE FAN MANUFA-
CTURER'S RECOMMENDATIONS.
ALSO, WHEN INCREASING FAN
SPEED, MONITOR MOTOR AMPS SO
AS NOT TO EXCEED MOTOR
NAMEPLATE AMPS.

B-8 OBSTRUCTION IN HIGH VELOCITY AIR STREAM . . . . . . a. Obstruction near fan outlet or inlet(s).
b. Sharp elbows near fan outlet or inlet(s).
c. Improperly designed turning vanes.
d. Projections, dampers or other
obstruction in a part of the system
where air velocity is high.

Troubleshooting | 135
Annex C. Airflow High - (Too Much Airflow)

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

C-1 SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Oversized ductwork.


b. Access door open.
c. Registers or grilles not installed.
d. Dampers set to by-pass coils.
e. Filter(s) not in place.
f. System resistance low.

C-2 FAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Fan speed too fast.


b. Improper impeller blade angle.

136 | Troubleshooting
Annex D. Static Pressure Wrong

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

D-1 SYSTEM, FAN OR INTERPRETATION


OF MEASUREMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GENERAL DISCUSSION:
The velocity pressure at any point of
measurement is a function of the velocity of
the air and its density.

The static pressure at a point of


measurement in the system is a function of
the system design (resistance to airflow), air
density and the amount of air flowing through
the system.

The static pressure measured in a "loose" or


oversized system will be less than the static
pressure in a "tight" or undersized system for
the same airflow rate.

In most systems, pressure measurements


are indicators of how the installation is
operating. These measurements are the
result of airflow and as such are useful
indicators in defining system characteristics.

Field static pressure measurements rarely


correspond with laboratory static pressure
measurements unless the fan inlet(s) and
fan outlet conditions of the installation are
exactly the same as the inlet(s) and outlet
conditions in the laboratory.

Also see D-2 through D-6, E-2, F-1 and G-1


for specific cases.

Static Pressure Low, Airflow Correct

D-2 GAS DENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pressures will be less with high


temperature gases or at high altitudes.

Static Pressure Low, Airflow High

D-3 SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . System has less resistance to airflow


than expected. This is a common
occurrence. Fan speed may be reduced to
obtain desired airflow rate. This will reduce
power consumption (operating cost).

Static Pressure Low, Airflow Low

D-4 SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Fan inlet(s) and/or outlet conditions not


same as tested. See System Effect
Factors, in AMCA Publication 201.

Troubleshooting | 137
D-5 FAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Impeller installed backwards.
b. Impeller running backwards.
c. Improper impeller blade angle.
d. Cutoff missing or improperly installed.
e. Impeller not centered with inlet collar(s).
f. Fan speed too slow.
g. Impeller/inlet dirty or clogged.
h. Improper running clearance.
i. Improper inlet cone to impeller fit.
j. Improperly set inlet vanes or damper.

Static Pressure High, Airflow Low

D-6 DUCT SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Actual system is more restrictive (more


resistance to airflow) than designed.
b. Dampers closed.
c. Registers closed.
d. Insulating duct liner loose.

D-7 FILTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Dirty or clogged.


b. Replacement filter with greater than
specified pressure drop.

D-8 COILS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Dirty or clogged.


b. Fin spacing too close.

138 | Troubleshooting
Annex E. Power High

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

E-1 FAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Backward Inclined impeller installed


backwards.
b. Fan speed too high.
c. Forward Curve or Radial Blade
impeller operating below design
pressures.
d. Incorrect impeller blade angle.

E-2 SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Oversized ductwork.


b. Face and bypass dampers
oriented so coil dampers are open at
same time bypass dampers are open.
c. Filter(s) left out.
d. Access door open.

Note: The causes listed under E-2 pertain


primarily to radial blade, radial tip and
forward curve centrifugal fans, i.e., fans that
exhibit rising power curves. Normally,
backward inclined, backward curve or
backward inclined airfoil centrifugal fans and
axial flow fans do not fall into this category.

E-3 GAS DENSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. Calculated power requirements based


on light gas (e.g. high temperature) but
actual gas is heavy (e.g. cold start-up).

E-4 FAN SELECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. Fan not selected at efficient point of


rating.

Troubleshooting | 139
Annex F. Fan Does Not Operate

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

F-1 ELECTRICAL OR MECHANICAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical and electrical problems are


usually straight-forward and are normally
analyzed in a routine manner by service
personnel. In this category are such items:

a. Blown fuses.
b. Broken belts.
c. Loose pulleys.
d. Electricity turned off.
e. Impeller touching housing.
f. Wrong voltage.
g. Motor too small and overload protector
has broken circuit.
h. Low voltage, excessive line drop or
inadequate wire size.
i. Load inertia too large for motor.
j. Seized bearing.

140 | Troubleshooting
Annex G. Premature Failure

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

G-1 BELTS, BEARINGS, SHEAVES IMPELLERS


HUBS, ETC.GENERAL DISCUSSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Each fan component is designed to operate
satisfactorily for a reasonable lifetime. Fans
intended for heavy duty service are made
especially for that type of service. For
example, Class I fans are intended for
operation below certain limits of pressure
and outlet velocity. Class II fans are
designed for higher operating limits (see
AMCA Standard 99-2408). Not all
components are limited by the same factors,
e.g. limiting factors may be power, RPM,
temperature, impeller tip speed, torque,
corrosive atmospheres, expected life, etc.
Also see A-2, A-5, A-6, A-7.

G-2 COUPLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Coupling unbalanced, misaligned, loose


or may need lubricant.
b. Loose key.

G-3 SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Bent.


b. Undersized.

G-4 BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Over-lubrication or under- lubrication.


b. Locking collar or set screw loose.
c. Excessive belt tension.
d. False brinelling.
e. Wrong lubricant.
f. Undersized shaft.

G-5 DRIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Over-tensioned or under-tensioned belts.


b. Mismatched belts on multi-belt drive.
c. Misalignment of motor and fan sheaves.
d. Excessive start-stop cycles.
e. Set screw on sheave loose.

Troubleshooting | 141
Annex H. Vibration

AERODYNAMIC VIBRATION (PULSATION)

SOURCE PROBABLE CAUSE

H-1 AIRSTREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Operating fan left of peak in unstable


(stall) region.
b. Poor inlet conditions which generate air
turbulence.
1. Partially obstructed inlet(s).
2. Sharp elbow at fan inlet(s) and/or
outlet.
c. System pulsation which is transmitted to
the fan.
d. Blade Pass frequency -- number of
blades x fan RPM.
e. Guide vane frequency -- number of
vanes x fan RPM.
f. Fan support frequency -- motor or
bearing supports, belt tube, on axial
fans.

MECHANICAL VIBRATION

H-2 UNBALANCED IMPELLERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Material build-up on impeller.


b. Impeller components subject to
abrasion, corrosion or impact.
c. Moisture inside hollow airfoil blades.
d. Lost balance weight.
e. Excessive temperature.
f. Impeller (blades) not tracking evenly.
g. Eccentricity:
1. Bore off center.
2. Bore on angle (see H-2.f)
h. Improper key-to-keyway length.
i. Impeller rubbing stationary equipment.
j. Shaft seal rub.
k. Inverter drives.
l. Motor torque pulses (on single phase
motors).

H-3 DRIVE OR COUPLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Alignment:


1. Improper assembly.
2. Shift during handling or shipment.
b. Worn, loose, or mismatched belts.
c. Eccentric sheaves or couplings.
d. Belt resonance.
e. Worn or chipped sheaves.
f. Improper key-to-keyway length.
g. Unbalanced sheave(s) or coupling.

H-4 LOOSE FASTENERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Impeller set screws.


b. Bearing set screws.
c. Drive component set screws.
d. Fan mounting bolts.
e. Bearing bolts.
f. Motor bolts.

142 | Troubleshooting
H-5 FAN SUPPORT STRUCTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Support structure natural frequencies.
b. Insufficient mass or stiffness.
c. Large unsupported mass.
d. Lack of lateral support, particularly with
fans mounted on isolators.
e. Fan skewed (bolted down to uneven
surface).
f. Broken support members.
g. Short-circuited or improperly adjusted
isolators.
h. Fan (mounted on isolators) with rigid
inlet(s) and outlet connections.

H-6 SHAFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Bent.


b. Undersized.

H-7 BEARINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Misalignment.


b. Worn out; loose.
c. Too much, too little, or incorrect
lubricant.

H-8 BACKGROUND EXCITATION


(FLANKING TRANSMISSION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .a. Interconnected piping.
b. Heavy machinery transmitting vibration
through foundation.
c. Fan(s) mounted on floating roofs.
d. Wind-loading of fan mounted on
isolators.

ELECTRICALLY INDUCED VIBRATION

H-9 ELECTRIC MOTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a. Loose stator laminations.


b. Broken rotor bar.
c. Stator problems.
d. Phase unbalance.
e. Eccentric rotor.
f. Capacitor-start motor causes "shudder"
during coast-down.

Troubleshooting | 143
Field Performance
Measurements of Fan Systems 203
1. Introduction 2. Scope

Performance ratings of fans are developed from The recommendations and examples in this
laboratory tests made according to specified publication may be applied to all types of centrifugal,
procedures on standardized test setups. In North axial, and mixed flow fans in ducted or nonducted
America, the standard is ANSI/AMCA Standard 210 / installations used for heating, ventilating, air
ANSI/ASHRAE 51 Laboratory Methods of Testing conditioning, mechanical draft, industrial process,
Fans for Rating. exhaust, conveying, drying, air cleaning, dust
collection, etc. Although the word air is used when
In actual systems in the field, very few fans are reference is made in the general sense to the
installed in conditions reproducing those specified in medium being handled by the fan, gases other than
the laboratory standard. This means that, in air are included in the scope of this publication.
assessing the performance of the installed fan-
system, consideration must be given to the effect on Measurement of sound, vibration, and stress levels
the fan’s performance of the system connections, are not within the scope of this publication.
including elbows, obstructions in the path of the
airflow, sudden changes of area, etc. The effects of 3. Types of Field Tests
system conditions on fan performance is discussed in
Section 5, and more completely in AMCA Publication There are three general categories of field tests:
201, Fans and Systems.
A) General Fan System Evaluation -
A major problem of testing in the field is the difficulty A measurement of the fan-system’s performance
of finding suitable locations for making accurate to use as the basis of modification or adjustment
measurements of flow rate and pressure. Sections of the system.
9.3 and 10.3 outline the requirements of suitable
measurement sections. B) Acceptance Test -A test specified in the sales
agreement to verify that the fan is achieving the
Because these problems and others will require specified performance.
special consideration on each installation, it is not
practical to write one standard procedure for the C) Proof of Performance Test -A test in response
measurement of the performance of all fan-systems to a complaint to demonstrate that the fan is
in the field. This publication offers guidelines to meeting the specified performance requirement.
making performance measurements in the field
which are practical and flexible enough to be applied As acceptance and proof of performance tests are
to a wide range of fan and system combinations. related to contract provisions, they are usually
subject to more stringent requirements and are
Because of the wide variety of fan types and systems usually more costly than a general evaluation test. In
encountered in the field, Annex A includes examples the case of large fans used in industrial applications
of a number of different field tests. In most cases, and of mechanical draft fans used in the electrical
these examples are based on actual tests which have power generation industry the performance of a field
been conducted in the field. test may be part of the purchase agreement between
the fan manufacturer and the customer. In addition to
Before performing any field test, it is strongly Publication 203, AMCA Standard 803 Site
recommended that the following AMCA publications Performance Test Standard-Power Plant and
be carefully reviewed: Industrial Fans defines the conditions which must be
met to achieve higher accuracy of measurement. In
AMCA Publication 200 - Air Systems new installations of this type, it is desirable to include
AMCA Publication 201 - Fans and Systems a suitable measuring section in the design.
AMCA Publication 202 - Troubleshooting Agreement must be reached on the test method to be
AMCA Standard 210 - Laboratory Methods of Testing used prior to performance of the test.
Fans for Rating
4. Alternatives to Field Tests Examples of the application of SEFs in determining
the results of field tests are included in Annex A.
In some cases, considerations such as cost and
problems of making accurate measurements may In field tests of fan-system installations in which
make the following alternative methods of testing system effects have not been accounted for, it is
worth investigation: important that their sources be recognized and their
magnitudes be established prior to testing.
A) Testing the fan before installation in a laboratory
equipped to perform tests in accordance with The alternative to dealing with a large magnitude
AMCA Standard 210. Limitations in laboratory SEF is to eliminate its source. This requires revisions
test facilities may preclude tests on full size fans. to the system. This alternative course of action is
In this case, the full size fan can be tested at the recommended when swirl exists at the fan inlet (see
installation site in accordance with AMCA Publication 201, Figure 9.8). The effect on fan
Standard 210. This will usually require the performance as a result of swirl at the inlet is
installation of special ductwork. impossible to estimate accurately as the system
effect is dependent upon the degree of swirl. The
B) Testing a reduced scale model of the fan in effect can range from a minor amount to an amount
accordance with AMCA Standard 210 and that results in the fan-system performance being
determining the performance of the full size fan completely unacceptable.
as described in AMCA Publication 802, Power
Plant Fans – Establishing Performance Using 6. Fan Performance
Laboratory Methods.
Fan performance is a statement of fan flow rate, fan
C) Testing a reduced scale model of the complete total or static pressures, and fan power input at stated
fan and system using the test methods outlined fan speed and fan air density. Fan total or static
in this publication. efficiencies may be included. The fan air density is
the density at the fan inlet. The fan flow rate is the
Tests conducted in accordance with AMCA Standard volume flow rate at the fan inlet density.
210 will verify the performance characteristics of the
fan but will not take into account the effect of the 7. Referenced Planes
system connections on the fan’s performance (see
Section 5). Certain locations within a fan-system installation are
significant to field tests. These locations are
5. System Effect Factors designated as follows:

AMCA Publication 201, Fans and Systems, deals in Plane 1: Plane of fan inlet
detail with the effect of system connections on fan Plane 2: Plane of fan outlet
performance. It gives system effect factors for a wide Plane 3: Plane of Pitot-static tube traverse for
variety of obstructions and configurations which may purposes of determining flow rate
affect a fan’s performance. Plane 4: Plane of static pressure measurement
upstream of fan
System Effect Factor (SEF) is a pressure loss which Plane 5: Plane of static pressure measurement
recognizes the effect of fan inlet restrictions, fan downstream of fan
outlet restrictions, or other conditions influencing fan
performance when installed in the system. The use of the numerical designations as subscripts
indicate that the values pertain to those locations.
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS (SEFs) ARE
INTENDED TO BE USED IN CONJUNCTION WITH
THE SYSTEM RESISTANCE CHARACTERISTICS
IN THE FAN SELECTION PROCESS. Where SEFs
are not applied in the fan selection process, SEFs
must be applied in the calculations of the results of
field tests. This is done for the purpose of allowing
direct comparison of the test results to the design
static pressure calculation. Thus, for a field test, the
fan static pressure is defined as:

Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 – Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2 + + SEF n

146 | Field Performance Measurement


8. Symbols and Subscripts 9. Fan Flow Rate

SYMBOL DESCRIPTION UNIT 9.1 General

A Area of cross-section ft2 Determine fan flow rate using the area, velocity
D Diameter ft pressure, and density at the traverse plane and the
De Equivalent diameter ft density at the fan inlet. The velocity pressure at the
FLA Full load amps amps traverse plane is the root mean square of the velocity
H Fan power input hp pressure measurements made in a traverse of the
HL Power transmission loss hp plane. The flow rate at the traverse plane is
Hmo Motor power output hp calculated by converting the velocity pressure to its
kW Electrical power kilowatts equivalent velocity and multiplying by the area of the
L Length ft traverse plane.
N Speed of rotation rpm
NLA No load amps amps 9.2 Velocity measuring instruments
NPH Nameplated horsepower hp
NPV Nameplated volts volts Use a Pitot-static tube of the proportions shown in
Ps Fan static pressure in. wg Annex B or a double reverse tube, shown in Annex C,
Psx Static pressure at Plane x in. wg and an inclined manometer to measure velocity
Pt Fan total pressure in. wg pressure. The velocity pressure at a point in a gas
stream is numerically equal to the total pressure
Ptx Total pressure at Plane x in. wg
diminished by the static pressure. The Pitot-static
Pv Fan velocity pressure in. wg
tube is connected to the inclined manometer as
Pvx Velocity pressure at Plane x in. wg shown in Annex F. The double reverse tube is
pb Barometric pressure in. Hg connected to the inclined manometer as shown in
pe Saturated vapor pressure at tw in. Hg Annex C.
pp Partial vapor pressure in. Hg
px Absolute pressure at Plane x in. Hg 9.2.1 Pitot-static tube. The Pitot-static tube is
Q Fan flow rate cfm considered to be a primary instrument and need not
Qi Interpolated flow rate cfm be calibrated if maintained in the specified condition.
Qx Flow rate at Plane x cfm It is suited for use in relatively clean gases. It may be
SEF System effect factor in. wg used in gases that contain moderate levels of
T Torque lb-in. particulate matter such as dust, water, or dirt,
td Dry-bulb temperature °F provided certain precautions are employed (see
tw Wet-bulb temperature °F Section 15).
V Velocity fpm
9.2.2 Double reverse tube. The double reverse tube
∆Px,x’ Pressure loss between
is used when the amount of particulate matter in the
Planes x and x’ in. wg gas stream impairs the function of the Pitot-static
∆Ps Pressure loss across damper in. wg tube. The double reverse tube requires calibration. It
ρ Fan gas density lbm/ft3 is important that the double reverse tube be used in
ρx Gas density at Plane x lbm/ft3 the same orientation as used during calibration. Mark
Σ Summation sign --- the double reverse tube to indicate the direction of
Airflow direction --- the gas flow used in its calibration.

SUBSCRIPT DESCRIPTION 9.2.3 Inclined manometers. Inclined manometers


are available in both fixed and adjustable range
c Value converted to specified conditions types. Both types require calibration. The adjustable
r Reading range type is convenient in that it may be adjusted at
x Plane 1, 2, 3, ..., as appropriate the test site to the range appropriate to the velocity
1 Plane 1 (fan inlet) pressures which are to be measured. It is adjusted by
2 Plane 2 (fan outlet) changing the slope to any of the various fixed
3 Plane 3 (plane of Pitot-static traverse for settings and by changing the range scale
purpose of determining flow rate accordingly. Each setting provides a different ratio of
4 Plane 4 (plane of static pressure the length of the indicating column to its indicated
measurement upstream of fan) height. Adjustable range type manometers in which
5 Plane 5 (plane of static pressure the slope may be fixed at 1:1, 20:1, and intermediate
measurement downstream of fan) ratios are available (see Figure 10 in Annex G).

Field Performance Measurement | 147


The accuracy of the manometer used in the than 75% of the velocity pressure measurements
measurement of velocity pressures is of prime are greater than 1/10 of the maximum
importance. Select a manometer that will provide an measurement (see Figure 9.1)
acceptable degree of accuracy; consider the range,
slope, quality, scale graduations, indicating fluid of 2) The flow streams should be at right angles to the
the instrument and the range of the velocity traverse plane. Variations from this flow condition
pressures to be measured. The graph in Annex G as a result of swirl or other mass turbulence are
indicates the effect of expected resolution of considered acceptable when the angle between
manometer readings on the accuracy of velocity the flow stream and the traverse plane is within
determinations. The basis for this graph is described 10 degrees of a right angle. The angle of the flow
in Section 9.6. Determine velocities in the very low stream in any specific location is indicated by the
range more accurately by using a manometer with a orientation of the nose of the Pitot-static tube that
slope of 20:1. Due to practical limitations in length, its produces the maximum velocity pressure reading
use is restricted to measurements where the at the location.
velocities are very low. Also, errors in velocity
determinations made by using a Pitot-static tube and 3) The cross-sectional shape of the airway in which
manometer exceed normally acceptable values at the traverse plane is located should not be
velocity pressure readings less than 0.023 in. wg. irregular. Proper distribution of traverse points
This corresponds to a velocity of approximately 600 and accurate determination of the area of the
fpm for air of 0.075 lbm/ft3 density. traverse plane are difficult to achieve when the
airway does not conform closely to a regular
9.2.4 Low velocity instruments. Normally, velocities shape.
encountered in the field test situations are well in
excess of 600 fpm. Therefore, recommendations 4) The cross-sectional shape and area of the airway
regarding alternate test procedures and should be uniform throughout the length of the
instrumentation for use for velocities less than 600 airway in the vicinity of the traverse plane. When
fpm are not presented in this publication. the divergence or convergence of the airway is
Descriptions of various types of instruments used to irregular or more than moderate in degree,
determine range velocities are presented in Annex J. significantly nonuniform flow conditions may
Most of the instruments require frequent calibration, exist.
and some are not suited for use in high temperature,
dirty, wet, corrosive, or explosive atmospheres. If it is 5) The traverse plane should be located to minimize
necessary to use one of these instruments, the the effects of gas leaks between the traverse
procedure for its use, its calibration, and the expected plane and the fan.
accuracy of results should be agreed upon by all
interested parties. 6) When it is necessary to locate the traverse plane
in a converging or diverging airway (not
9.3 Location of traverse plane recommended), note that the traverse plane and
area is located at the tip of the Pitot-static tube.
For field tests, suitable test measurement station
locations must be provided in the system. When A location well downstream in a long, straight run of
suitable locations are not available, consider making uniform cross-section duct will usually provide
temporary or permanent alterations to the ducting for acceptable conditions for the Pitot traverse plane.
improved test accuracy. When locating the traverse plane close to the fan, as
is often done in order to minimize the effect of
For free inlet, free outlet fans, convert a free inlet, leakage, flow conditions upstream of the fan are
free outlet fan to a ducted inlet, free outlet fan by the usually more suitable. In some installations, more
addition of a temporary duct. Estimate free inlet, free than one traverse plane may be required in order to
outlet fan flow rate by measuring other parameters account for the total flow (Annex A contains
and interpreting certified ratings performance (see examples).
Section 17.1).
When a field test is anticipated, particularly when the
A Pitot traverse plane suitable for the measurements requirement for a field test is an item in the
used to determine flow rate are as follows: specifications, the system designer should provide a
suitable traverse plane location in the system.
1) The velocity distribution should be uniform
throughout the traverse plane. The uniformity of When the fan is ducted outlet and the traverse plane
distribution is considered acceptable when more is to be located downstream from the fan, the

148 | Field Performance Measurement


Pv MAX Pv MAX Pv MAX Pv MAX
10 10

A: IDEAL Pv DISTRIBUTION B: GOOD Pv DISTRIBUTION


(ALSO SATISFACTORY FOR FLOW INTO FAN INLETS.
MAY BE UNSATISFACTORY FOR FLOW INTO INLET
BOXES - MAY PRODUCE SWIRL IN BOXES)

Pv MAX Pv MAX Pv MAX Pv MAX


10 10

60%
80%

C: SATISFACTORY Pv DISTRIBUTION - MORE D: DO NOT USE


THAN 75% OF Pv READINGS GREATER THAN: UNSATISFACTORY Pv DISTRIBUTION -
LESS THAN 75% OF Pv READINGS GREATER
Pv MAX THAN: Pv MAX
10
10
(UNSATISFACTORY FOR FLOW INTO FAN INLETS OR (UNSATISFACTORY FOR FLOW INTO FAN INLETS OR
INLET BOXES) INLET BOXES)

Pv MAX Pv MAX Pv MAX Pv MAX


10 10

40% 35%

20% 35%

E: DO NOT USE F: DO NOT USE


UNSATISFACTORY Pv DISTRIBUTION UNSATISFACTORY Pv DISTRIBUTION
LESS THAN 75% OF Pv READINGS GREATER LESS THAN 75% OF Pv READINGS GREATER
THAN: P MAX THAN: P MAX
v v
10 10
(UNSATISFACTORY FOR FLOW INTO FAN INLETS OR (UNSATISFACTORY FOR FLOW INTO FAN INLETS OR
INLET BOXES) INLET BOXES)

Figure 9.1 - Typical Velocity Pressure Distributions Encountered in Velocity


Pressure Measurement Planes in Fan-System Installations

Field Performance Measurement | 149


MEASUREMENT PLANE

De
MIN.
2

12 in. MIN.

4YZ
WHERE: De =
π INLET BOX DAMPERS
Z

Note: The measurement plane should be located a minimum of ½ De from the inlet cone, but not less than 12 in.
from the leaving edge of the damper blades.

Figure 9.2

STACK

VELOCITY
PROFILE

Note: Spiral vortex may form when fan discharges directly into a stack or similar arrangement.

Figure 9.3
150 | Field Performance Measurement
traverse plane should be situated a sufficient equivalent diameters from the inlet of the duct.
distance downstream from the fan to allow the flow to Where the duct is small, its length may
diffuse to a more uniform velocity distribution and to necessarily be greater than 2 equivalent
allow the conversion of velocity pressure to static diameters in order to ensure that the tip of the
pressure. Annex P provides guidance for the location Pitot-static tube is a minimum of 1½ equivalent
of the traverse plane in these cases. The location of diameters from the duct inlet. This short length of
the traverse plane on the inlet side of the fan should duct should produce no significant addition to the
not be less than ½ equivalent diameter from the fan system resistance, but in some cases it may alter
inlet. Regions immediately downstream from elbows, the pattern of flow into the fan impeller, and
obstructions and abrupt changes in airway area are thereby affect the performance of the fan slightly.
not suitable traverse plane locations. Regions where
unacceptable levels of swirl are usually present, such 9.4 The traverse
as the region downstream from an axial flow fan that
is not equipped with straightening vanes, should be Annex H contains recommendations for the number
avoided. Swirl may form when a fan discharges and distribution of measurement points in the
directly into a stack or similar arrangement (see traverse plane. If the flow conditions at the traverse
Figure 9.2). plane are less than satisfactory, increase the number
of measurement points in the traverse to improve
9.3.1 Inlet box location. When the traverse plane accuracy.
must be located within an inlet box, the plane should
be located a minimum of 12 inches downstream from Since the flow at a traverse plane is never strictly
the leaving edges of the damper blades and not less steady, the velocity pressure measurements
than ½ equivalent diameter upstream from the edge indicated by the manometer will fluctuate. Each
of the inlet cone (see Figure 9.3). Do not locate velocity pressure measurement should be mentally
traverse points in the wake of individual damper averaged on a time-weighted basis. Any velocity
blades. In the case of double inlet fans, traverses pressure measurement that appears as a negative
must be conducted in both inlet boxes in order to reading is to be considered a velocity pressure
determine the total flow rate. measurement of zero and included as such in the
calculation of the average velocity pressure.
9.3.2 Alternative locations. On occasion, an
undesirable traverse plane location is unavoidable, or When it is necessary to locate the traverse plane in a
each of a limited number of prospective locations converging or diverging airway, orient the nose of the
lacks one or more desirable qualities. In such cases, Pitot-static tube such that it coincides with the
the alternatives are: anticipated line of the flow stream. This is particularly
important at measurement points near the walls of
1) Accept the most suitable location and evaluate the airway (see Annex A-1A).
the effects of the undesirable aspects of the
location on the accuracy of the test results. In No appreciable effect on Pitot-static tube readings
some instances, the estimated accuracy may occur until the angle of misalignment between the
indicate that the results of the test would be airflow and the tube exceeds 10 degrees.
meaningless, particularly in acceptance tests and
proof of performance tests. 9.5 Flow rate calculations

2) Provide a suitable location by modifying the 9.5.1 Flow rate at traverse plane. The flow rate at
system. This course of action is recommended the traverse plane is calculated as follows:
for acceptance tests and proof of performance
tests. The modifications may be temporary, Q3 = V3A3
permanent, minor or extensive, depending on the
specific conditions encountered. When the inlet Where:
side of the fan is not ducted but is designed to
accept a duct, consider installing a short length of A3 = the area of the traverse plane
inlet duct to provide a suitable traverse plane V3 = the average velocity at the traverse plane
location. This duct should be of a size and shape
= 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5
to fit the fan inlet, a minimum of 2 equivalent
diameters long and equipped with a bell shaped ρ3 = the density at the traverse plane
or flared fitting at its inlet. The traverse plane Pv3 = the root mean square velocity pressure at the
should be located a minimum of ½ equivalent traverse plane
diameters from the fan inlet and not less than 1½ = [∑(Pv3r)0.5 / number of readings]2

Field Performance Measurement | 151


Pv3r is the velocity pressure reading, corrected for determinations. This graph indicates the effect of
manometer calibration and where applicable, expected resolution of velocity determinations. This
corrected for the calibration of the double reverse effect is shown for several manometer slope ratios.
tube. It is important that the calibration of the double For all ratios, the expected resolution used as a basis
reverse tube be applied correctly. The use of the for the graph is the length of indicating column
calibration of the double reverse tube is described in equivalent to 0.05 in. wg in a manometer with slope
Annex C. ratio of 1:1. As indicated in the graph, reading
resolution uncertainty can be significant. However,
9.5.2 Continuity of mass. The calculations of fan this uncertainty can be controlled by selecting a
flow rate are based on considerations of continuity of manometer with a slope suited to the velocity
mass, and as such, it is assumed that no mass is pressures to be measured and by avoiding regions of
added or removed from the gas stream between the very low velocity in the selection of the traverse plane
traverse plane and the fan inlet. In the general location. Reading resolution uncertainties exceed
application, having determined the flow rate and normally acceptable values at velocity pressures less
density at the traverse plane, the flow rate at any than 0.023 in. wg. This corresponds to a velocity of
location, (x), in the fan-system installation may be approximately 600 fpm for air of 0.075 lbm/ft3 density.
calculated, providing the density at this location is Generally, ducts are sized for velocities considerably
known and the assumption noted above is valid, i.e.: in excess of 600 fpm. Velocities less than 600 fpm
may exist in certain sections of the system in some
Qx = Q3 (ρ3/ρx) installations, but these sections can usually be
avoided. Do no use a Pitot-static tube and
9.5.3 Fan flow rate, single traverse plane. Where a manometer to determine velocities in the low ranges
single traverse plane is used, the calculation of the associated with filters and cooling coils in air
fan flow rate is: conditioning, heating, and ventilating units. In some
instances, the uncertainties incurred in the
Q = Q1 determinations of low velocity flows may be
= Q3 (ρ3/ρ1) acceptable. For example, an uncertainty of 15% in
the determination of the flow rate in a branch duct
Where: that accounts for 20% of the total flow rate for the
system affects the accuracy of the total flow rate
Q3 and ρ3 = as described in Section 9.5.1 determination by only 3%.

ρ1 = the density at the fan inlet In addition to low range velocities, other conditions
may exist at the traverse plane which can
significantly affect the accuracy of the flow rate
9.5.4 Fan flow rate, multiple traverse planes.
determination. These include nonuniform velocity
When it is necessary to use more than one traverse
distribution, swirl, and other mass turbulence.
plane in order to account for the total flow:
Improve the accuracy of the flow rate determination
by avoiding these conditions in the selection of the
Q = Q1
traverse plane location, or improve the conditions by
= Q3a (ρ3a/ρ1) + Q3b (ρ3b/ρ1) + ... + Q3n (ρ3n/ρ1)
modifying the system.

9.6 Accuracy 10. Fan Static Pressure


The performance item of major concern in most fan-
10.1 General
system installations is the flow rate. Every effort
should be made to improve the accuracy of the flow
Determine fan static pressure by using the static
rate determination. The uncertainty analysis
pressures at the fan inlet and outlet, the velocity
presented in Annex T indicates that the uncertainties
pressure at the fan inlet, and applicable System
in flow rate determinations will range from 2% to
Effect Factors. The use of System Effect Factors in
10%. This range is based on considerations of the
the determination of fan static pressure is described
conditions that are encountered in most field test
in Section 5. The velocity pressure at the fan inlet is
situations. This includes instances in which the
the calculated average velocity pressure at this
conditions at the Pitot traverse plane do not conform
location, and as such, its determination is based on
to all of the qualifications indicated in Section 9.3.
the fan flow rate, the density at the fan inlet, and the
fan inlet area. The static pressures at the fan inlet and
The graph in Annex G provides guidance for
outlet may be obtained directly by making pressure
improving the accuracy of the flow rate
measurements at these locations; or they may be

152 | Field Performance Measurement


determined by making pressure measurements at between the measurement plane and the plane of
other locations, upstream and downstream of the fan. interest is straight and without change in cross-
In the latter case, the determinations must account sectional area. Then the duct friction loss between
for the effects of velocity pressure conversions and the measurement plane and the plane of interest is
pressure losses, as may occur between the usually insignificant, and considerations of velocity
measurement planes and the planes of interest. pressure conversions and calculations of pressure
losses for duct fitting and other system components
10.2 Pressure measuring instruments can be avoided.

This section describes only the instruments for use in When a system component is situated between the
measuring static pressure. Instruments for use in the measurement plane and the plane of interest, the
other measurements involved in the determination of pressure loss of the component must be calculated
fan static pressure are described in Section 13. and credited to the fan. The calculation of the
pressure loss is usually based on the component’s
Use a Pitot-static tube of the proportions shown in performance ratings, which may be obtained from the
Annex B, a double reverse tube as shown in Annex manufacturer of the item.
C, or a side wall pressure tap as shown in Annex E,
and a manometer to measure static pressure. If there is a change in area between the
measurement plane and the plane of interest, then
10.2.1 Pitot-static tube. The comments that appear the calculation of the static pressure at the plane of
in Section 9.2 regarding the use and calibration of the interest must account for velocity pressure
Pitot-static tube are applicable to its use in the conversion and include any associated pressure
measurement of static pressures. loss. When the change in area is moderate and
gradual, the conversion of velocity pressure is
10.2.2 Double reverse tube. The double reverse considered to occur without loss and the static
tube cannot be used to measure static pressure pressure is calculated on the basis of no change in
directly. It must be connected to two manometers and total pressure between the measurement plane and
the static pressure for each point of measurement the plane of interest. This assumes that the duct
must be calculated. Both the manometer connections friction loss between the two planes is negligible.
and the method of calculation are shown in Annex C. When the change in area is an abrupt and sizable
enlargement, as in a duct leading into a large
10.2.3 Pressure tap. The pressure tap does not plenum, the loss is considered to be equivalent to the
require calibration. Use no fewer than four taps velocity pressure in the smaller area, and the static
located 90 degrees apart. In rectangular ducts, a pressure at the plane of interest is considered to be
pressure tap should be installed near the center of the same as the static pressure at the measurement
each wall. It is important that the inner surfaces of the plane. This assumes that the velocity pressure in the
duct in the vicinities of the pressure taps be smooth larger area and the duct friction loss are negligible.
and free from irregularities, and that the velocity of
the gas stream does not influence the pressure 10.3.1 Location of the measuring plane. When the
measurements. fan is ducted outlet, the static pressure measurement
plane downstream of the fan should be situated a
10.2.4 Manometers. A manometer with either sufficient distance from the fan outlet to allow the flow
vertical or inclined indicating column may be used to to diffuse to a more uniform velocity distribution and
measure static pressure. Inclined manometers used to allow the conversion of velocity pressure to static
to measure static pressures require calibration and pressure. See Annex P for guidance in locating the
should be selected for the quality, range, slope, scale measurement plane in these cases. In general,
graduations, and indicating fluid necessary to pressure taps should be used if it is necessary to
minimize reading resolution errors. measure static pressure in the immediate vicinity of
the fan outlet. The static pressure at this location is
10.3 Static pressure measurements difficult to measure accurately with a Pitot-static tube
due to the existence of turbulence and localized high
It is important that all static pressure measurements velocities. If the surface conditions or the velocities at
be referred to the same atmospheric pressure, and the duct walls are unsuited for the use of pressure
this atmospheric pressure be that for which the taps, then a Pitot-static tube must be used with
barometric pressure is determined. extreme care, particularly in aligning the nose of the
tube with the lines of the flow streams.
Make static pressure measurements near the fan
inlet and the fan outlet, and where the airway The location of the static pressure measurement

Field Performance Measurement | 153


plane upstream of the fan should not be less than ½ negative. By definition, positive values are those
equivalent diameter from the fan inlet. In the event measured as being greater than atmospheric
that static pressure measurements must be made in pressures; negative values are those measured as
an inlet box, the measurement plane should be being less than atmospheric pressure. In all of the
located as indicated in Figure 9.2. In the case of equations in this publication, the values of static
double inlet fans, static pressure measurements must pressures must be entered with their proper signs
be made in both inlet boxes in order to determine the and combined algebraically.
average static pressure on the inlet side of the fan.
10.4.1 Static pressure at measuring planes. The
In general, the qualifications for a plane well suited static pressure at a plane of measurement (x) is
for the measurement of static pressure are the same calculated as follows:
as those for the measurement of velocity pressure,
as indicated in Section 9.3:
Psx =
∑P sxr

1) The velocity distribution should be uniform number of readings


throughout the traverse plane.
Where:
2) The flow streams should be at right angles to the
plane. Psxr = the static pressure reading, corrected for
manometer calibration
3) The cross-sectional shape of the airway in which
the plane is located should not be irregular. 10.4.2 Static pressure at fan inlet or outlet. The
static pressure at the fan inlet, Ps1, and the static
4) The cross-sectional shape and area of the airway pressure at the fan outlet, Ps2, may be measured
should be uniform throughout the length of the directly in some cases. In most cases, the static
airway in the vicinity of the plane. pressure measurements for use in determining fan
static pressure will not be made directly at the fan
5) The plane should be located such as to minimize inlet and outlet, but at locations a relatively short
the effects of leaks in the portion of the system distance upstream from the fan inlet and downstream
that is located between the plane and the fan. from the fan outlet. These static pressure
measurements are designated Ps4 and Ps5,
A long, straight run of duct upstream of the
respectively. Static pressure at the fan inlet, Ps1, is
measurement plane will usually provide acceptable
derived as follows:
conditions at the plane. Regions immediately
downstream from elbows, obstructions, and abrupt
Pt4 = Pt1 + ∆P4,1
changes in airway area are generally unsuitable
locations. Regions where unacceptable levels of
turbulence are present should be avoided. Where:

If in any fan-system installation the prospective Pt4 = the total pressure plane of measurement
locations for static pressure measurement planes Pt1 = the total pressure at the fan inlet
lack one or more desirable qualities, the alternatives ∆P4,1 = the sum of the pressure losses between the
are to accept the best qualified locations and two planes
evaluate the effects of the undesirable aspects of the
conditions on the accuracy of the test results or These losses (∆P) include those attributable to duct
provide suitable locations by modifying the system. friction, duct fittings, other system components, and
changes in airway area. Although ∆P represents a
10.3.2 When using a Pitot-static tube or a double loss in all cases, it is considered a positive value as
reverse tube to measure static pressure, a number of used in the equations in this publication. By
measurements must be made throughout the plane. substitution and rearrangement:
Use Annex H to determine the number and
distribution of the measurement points. When using Ps1 = Ps4 + Pv4 - Pv1 - ∆P4,1
pressure taps, a single measurement at each of the
taps located at the plane is sufficient. Similarly, for static pressure at the fan outlet, Ps2:

10.4 Static pressure calculations Pt2 = Pt5 + ∆P2,5

Static pressure measurements may be positive or Ps2 = Ps5 + Pv5 - Pv2 + ∆P2,5

154 | Field Performance Measurement


Where: 10.5 Accuracy

The velocity pressures at the various planes can be The uncertainty analyses in Annex T indicate that the
determined from the following general equations for uncertainties in fan static pressure determinations
the velocity pressure at a plane of measurement (x): are expected range from 2% to 8%. This range is
based on considerations of the conditions expected
Pvx = Pv3 (A3/Ax)2 (ρ3/ρx) to be encountered in most field test situations.

Or: Improve the accuracy of the fan static pressure


determination by avoiding static pressure
Pvx = (Qx/1096Ax)2 ρx measurement plane locations where turbulence or
other unsteady flow conditions will produce
Locate the static pressure measurement planes such significant uncertainties in the mental averaging of
that the pressure losses between the measurement pressure readings. Other reading resolution
planes and the planes of interest are insignificant. uncertainties are not as significant in the fan static
This will eliminate the uncertainties involved in the pressure determination as in the determination of
determination of the pressure losses, and the flow rate. Generally, static pressure measurements
equations for Ps1 and Ps2 reduce to the following: are much greater in magnitude than velocity pressure
measurements, and the selection of a manometer
Ps1 = Ps4 + Pv4 - Pv1 that will provide reasonably good accuracy is not
usually a problem.
Ps2 = Ps5 + Pv5 - Pv2
The uncertainty analyses in Annex T and the
These equations may be used when changes in area resulting anticipated uncertainty range do not
between the measurement planes and the planes of account for uncertainties that may occur in the
interest are moderate and gradual, and the pressure following:
losses associated with conversions of velocity
pressure to static pressure are negligible. • Determinations of velocity pressure conversions
occurring between the measurement planes and
If, in addition to the losses being negligible there are the planes of the fan inlet or fan outlet. The area
no changes in the areas between the measurement and density values that are involved in these
planes and the respective planes of interest, then the determinations are usually obtained without
equations are further reduced to: significant uncertainties. However, pressure
losses associated with velocity pressure
Ps1 = Ps4 conversions are often difficult to determine
accurately.
Ps2 = Ps5
• Determinations of other pressure losses
occurring between the measurement planes and
These equations may also be used when the only
the fan inlet or fan outlet. This includes pressure
losses between the measurement planes and the
losses in ducts, duct fittings, and other system
planes of interest are those associated with changes
components. The calculations of these losses
in area that are abrupt and sizable enlargements in
are based on the assumption of uniform flow
the direction of flow. This assumes that the velocity
conditions. This assumption may not be valid,
pressure in the larger area is negligible.
and the calculated pressure loss values may be
significantly inaccurate.
10.4.3 Fan static pressure. The equation for fan
static pressure is:
• Determinations of the values of System Effect
Factors. These determinations are based on
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2 + ... + SEF n
limited information, and as such, are subject to
uncertainty.
Where:
Avoid situations requiring these determinations,
SEF 1, SEF 2, ... SEF n = System Effect Factors that thereby eliminating them as sources for uncertainties.
account for the various System Effects that are The uncertainties involved in determining the values
uncorrected and exist at the time of the field test. of System Effect Factors can be avoided only by
correcting the causes of the System Effects. This
requires alterations to the system.

Field Performance Measurement | 155


11. Fan Power Input 11.2.2 Typical motor performance data. Typical
motor performance data may be used to determine
11.1 General fan power input. These data, which are referred to as
typical in that the data and the actual performance of
Fan power input data included as part of the fan the motor are expected to correspond closely, can
performance ratings are normally defined and limited usually be obtained from the motor manufacturer.
to either: The data provided can be in a variety of forms, but
are sufficient to determine motor power output based
• power input to the fan shaft on electrical input measurements. It is important that
the power supplied to the motor during the field test
• the total of the power input to the fan shaft and be consistent with that used as the basis for the
the power transmission loss motor performance data. The phase voltage should
be stable and balanced, and the average should be
The losses in fan shaft bearings are included in either withing 2% of the voltage indicated in the
case. Since the results of field tests are usually performance data.
compared to the rated performance characteristics of
the fan, field test values of fan power input should be Depending on the form of the typical motor
determined on the same basis as that used in the fan performance data, motor power output is determined
ratings. For belt driven fans, the rated fan power input by one of the following methods:
may or may not include belt drive losses. The
information regarding the basis of the rated fan 1) Given the typical motor performance chart of
power input accompanies the rating data or is watts input versus motor power output at a stated
otherwise available from the fan manufacturer. In voltage.
most instances, when a power transmission loss Hmo, is the value in the typical motor performance
occurs, the loss will have to be determined and data that corresponds to the field test
subtracted from the motor output in order to obtain measurement of watts input to the motor.
the fan power input.
2) Given the typical motor performance chart of
11.2 Power measurement methods watts input versus torque output and speed at a
stated voltage.
In view of the fact that accuracy requirements for field Use the field test measurement of watts input
test determinations of fan power input vary and the corresponding typical motor performance
considerably, a number of test methods are data values of torque output and speed; the
recommended. These methods are intended to motor power output is calculated as:
provide economical and practical alternatives for
dealing with various levels of accuracy requirements. T ×N
Hmo =
63025
11.2.1 Phase current method. This method for
estimating the power output of three phase motors is
3) Given the typical motor performance chart of
based on the relationship of motor current and motor
watts input versus motor efficiency at a stated
power output. The method, described in Annex K,
voltage.
requires measurements of the phase currents and
Use the field test measurement of watts input
voltages supplied to the motor while driving the fan.
and the corresponding typical motor performance
Depending on the operating load point of the motor, it
data value of motor efficiency, the motor power
may also involve the measurements of the no load
output is calculated as:
phase currents.

The phase current method is convenient and watts input × motor efficiency
Hmo =
sufficiently accurate for most field tests. In this 746
method, the closer the actual phase current is to the
motor nameplate value of full load amps, the greater 4) Given the typical motor performance chart of
the accuracy. Since fan motors are normally selected amps versus power factor and motor efficiency at
for operation at or near the full load point, this method a stated voltage.
provides a reasonably accurate estimate of the Use the field test measurements of amps input
power output of the fan motor. Determine fan power and volts, and the typical motor performance
input by using the motor power output and, where data values of power factor (pf) and motor
applicable, the power transmission loss. efficiency, corresponding to the measured amps
input; the motor power output is calculated as:

156 | Field Performance Measurement


amps × volts × pf × motor efficiency accommodate its installation. The torquemeter is
Hmo = extremely limited in field test application. This is due
746
mainly to is high cost and the cost of its installation.
In addition, the length of the shut down time and the
Or, for three phase motors: revisions to site conditions required for its installation
are usually undesirable. For practical considerations,
(3)0.5 × amps × volts × pf × motor efficiency it is not normally used in cases where the fan is belt
Hmo = driven and where the fan impeller is installed directly
746
on the motor shaft.
In both equations, amps and volts are the field test
11.3 Power measuring instruments
measurement values and, in the case of three phase
motors, are the averages of the measured phase
Measurement of current, voltage, watts, and power
values.
factor can be obtained by using an industrial type
power analyzer of good quality. This type of
The fan power input is the motor power output minus
instrument is available with accuracies of 1% full
the power transmission loss, where applicable.
scale for volts, amps and power factor, and 2% full
scale for watts. Normally, the higher levels of
11.2.3 Calibrated motors. A calibrated motor may be accuracy requirements can be met by using this type
used to determine fan power input. When intending of instrument, providing the measurements are well
to use this method, it is usually necessary to specify up on the scales.
in the motor purchase arrangements that the motor
be calibrated since an additional cost is normally In many cases, accuracy level requirements will
involved. Calibration data are similar to typical motor permit the use of a clip-on type ammeter-voltmeter.
performance data with the exception that, instead of Clip-on instruments with accuracies of 3% full scale
being merely typical, the calibration data represent are available.
the performance of a specific motor, based on a test
of the motor. The motor is calibrated over a range of 11.4 Power transmission losses
operation. Electrical input data and other data
sufficient for the determination of power output are Several types of power transmission equipment are
obtained in the calibration. The calibration normally used in driving fans. Those in which power
provides data for operation at nameplate voltage, but transmission losses should be considered in the
may include data for operation at voltages 10% determination of fan power input include belt drives,
greater and 10% less than nameplate voltage. It is gear boxes, fluid drives, and electromechanical
important that the power supplied to the motor during couplings.
the field test be consistent with that used in its
calibration. The phase voltage should stable and Information as to whether the fan power input ratings
balanced, and the average should be within 2% of include power transmission losses is included in the
the voltage at which the motor was calibrated. The published performance ratings or is otherwise
field test measurements and the calculations available from the fan manufacturer. It is important
involved in the determination of motor power output that this be established and that the fan power input
are the same as those described in Section 11.2.2 for be determined accordingly in order to provide a valid
use with typical motor performance data. The fan comparison of field test results to the fan
power input is the motor power output minus the performance ratings. In most cases, fan power input
power transmission loss, where applicable. ratings do not include power transmission losses.

A calibrated motor provides accurate data to 11.4.1 Estimating belt drive losses. In view of the
determine motor power output. However, the cost of lack of published information available for use in
the calibration is a limiting factor in the use of this calculating belt drive losses, a graph is included in
method in field tests. For low horsepower Annex L for this purpose. As indicated in the graph,
applications, the fan manufacturer may be able to belt drive loss, expressed as a percentage of motor
calibrate a motor. power output, decreases with increasing motor
power output and increases with increasing speed.
11.2.4. Torquemeters. Another method to determine This graph is based on the results of over 400 drive
fan power input involves the use of a torquemeter loss tests provided to AMCA by drive manufacturers.
installed between the fan and the driver. The use of a The graph serves as a reasonable guide in
torquemeter requires some prearrangement with the evaluating belt drive losses. The calculation of belt
purchaser, who would normally have specified such drive loss, using this graph, is included in many of the
equipment, so that site conditions can be altered to examples in Annex A.

Field Performance Measurement | 157


11.4.2 Estimating other transmission losses. For determination is required. The pressures at Planes 1
other types of power transmission equipment, consult and 2 are based on the static pressure
the fan manufacturer to establish whether measurements made for the purpose of determining
transmission losses are included in the fan ratings, the fan static pressure. The pressure at Plane 3 is
and if so, request the magnitudes of the losses obtained by averaging static pressure measurements
allowed in the ratings. Otherwise, it will be necessary made concurrent with the velocity pressure
to consult the manufacturer of the power measurements made in a traverse of Plane 3. The
transmission equipment for the information regarding absolute pressure at a plane is calculated by using
transmission losses. the static pressure at the plane and the barometric
pressure. For this reason, it is important that the
11.5 Accuracy barometric pressure be determined for the
atmosphere to which static pressure measurements
The uncertainty analyses presented in Annex T are referred. The temperatures used in density
indicate that the uncertainties in fan power input determinations are measured at the planes of
determinations are expected to range from 4% to 8%. interest.
This range is based on considerations of the
conditions encountered in most field test situations, 13.3 Additional data
estimated accuracies of the various test methods
presented in this publication and allowances for Additional data required in the determination of
uncertainties in the determinations of power density depends on the gas stream as indicated
transmission losses. below:

12. Fan Speed 1) For air, the wet-bulb temperature is required


unless it is otherwise known that the air is
12.1 Speed measuring instruments saturated with water vapor or that the water
vapor content of the air is insignificant. It should
Measure speed with a revolution counter and be noted that incorrect assumptions as to
chronometer, a stroboscopic tachometer, an whether the air is dry or saturated can result in
electronic counter-timer, or any other precision type substantial errors in density determinations.
tachometer which has a demonstrated accuracy of
0.5% of the measured value. Friction driven and 2) For gases other than air, the normal procedure is
magnetic type pickups should not be used in low fan to rely on process personnel for the data
power ranges where they can influence speed and necessary to determine the density of the gas.
fan power input measurements. The information provided will include density or
data sufficient to calculate the density, which
12.2 Speed measurements should be for stated conditions of temperature
and pressure.
Establish the speed by averaging a minimum of three
measurements made during the test determination 13.4 Density values
period. The variation in the measurements should not
exceed 1% for any single point of operation. Gas stream density can be established when the
pressure, temperature, and additional data, as
indicated in Section 13.3, have been obtained.
13. Densities
Procedures for establishing density are described in
the examples in Annex M and are further illustrated in
13.1 Locations of density determinations the field test examples in Annex A.
Determine the densities of the gas stream for Plane Although the pressure and temperature of the gas
1, the fan inlet; and for Plane 3, the velocity pressure stream must be obtained for each plane at which a
measurement plane. In addition, the density at Plane density value is required, it is usually necessary to
2, the fan outlet, must be determined whenever the obtain additional data, such as the wet-bulb
fan total pressure, the fan velocity pressure, or an temperature, for only one plane in order to establish
SEF at the outlet side of the fan is required. the densities at all planes. The densities at the planes
for which the additional data is not obtained can be
13.2 Data required at each location calculated, providing the gas stream does not change
composition or undergo a change in phase between
The pressure and temperature of the gas stream planes. The calculation is based on density being
must be obtained for each plane at which a density directly proportional to absolute pressure and

158 | Field Performance Measurement


inversely proportional to absolute temperature. thermometer should be accurate within 5°F of the
measured value and readable to 5°F or finer.
13.4.1 Example calculation - ρ3 from ρ1. Use Figure
N.1 of Annex N to establish the density of air at Plane The temperature determination should be
1 based on the test determinations of barometric representative of the average temperature of the gas
pressure, pb, and the following Plane 1 values: stream throughout the plane of interest. When the
temperature varies with time or temperature
Ps1, static pressure, in. wg stratification exists at the measurement plane,
td1, dry-bulb temperature, °F several temperature measurements may be
tw1, wet-bulb temperature, °F necessary in order to obtain a representative
average. At elevated temperatures, the thermometer
may have to be shielded to prevent radiation effects
The following data are obtained for Plane 3:
from exposed heat sources.
Ps3, static pressure, in. wg
Locate the wet-bulb thermometer downstream from
td3, dry-bulb temperature, °F
the dry-bulb thermometer in order to prevent the dry-
bulb temperature measurement from being adversely
Calculate the density at Plane 3 as follows: affected. The wet-bulb thermometer wick should be
clean, closely fitted, and wetted with fresh water. The
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d1 + 460 ⎞ velocity of the air over the wick should be between
ρ3 = ρ1 ⎜ s3 ⎟⎜ ⎟ 700 and 2000 fpm. Use a sling psychrometer to
⎝ 13.6 p1 ⎠ ⎝ t d3 + 460 ⎠ obtain dry and wet-bulb air temperature
measurements at the fan inlet for free inlet fans.
Where:
13.6 Barometric pressure
p1 = the absolute pressure, in. Hg at Plane 1,
calculated as follows: Use a portable aneroid barometer for field test
determinations of barometric pressure when an
p1 = pb + (Ps1/13.6) acceptable site barometer is not available. The
barometer should be accurate within 0.05 in. Hg of
In this manner, ρ3 can be calculated without having to the measured value. Determine the test value of
measure the wet-bulb temperature at Plane 3. These barometric pressure by averaging measurements
equations can be used for gases other than air and made at the beginning and end of the test period.
can be adapted for use in calculations involving any
two planes, subject to the limitations noted earlier. When the test value of barometric pressure is to be
based on data obtained from a nearby airport, it is
In the example calculation of ρ3, pb is determined for important that the data include the barometric
the atmosphere to which the measurements of Ps1 pressure for the airport site and the elevation for
and Ps3 are referred. Refer static pressure which the pressure was determined (often the
measurements to a common atmosphere. When barometric pressure is corrected to sea level). This
the pressures cannot be referred to a common pressure value must then be corrected to the test site
atmosphere, the absolute pressure for each plane is elevation. Barometric pressure decreases
calculated by using the static pressure measurement approximately 0.1 in. Hg for every 100 ft increase in
at the plane and the barometric pressure for the elevation
atmosphere to which the static pressure
measurement is referred. However, for the purposes 13.7 Accuracy
of accuracy, static pressure measurements that are
used in the determination of fan static pressure must As indicated in Annex T, uncertainties in density
be referred to a common atmosphere. determinations are expected to be less than 3%.
However, care must be exercised in obtaining
13.5 Temperatures representative test measurements in order to prevent
the uncertainties from exceeding this value.
Measure temperatures with mercury-in-glass, dial, or
thermocouple type thermometers. For temperatures 14. Conversion Calculations
through 220°F, the thermometer should be accurate
within 2°F of the measured value and readable to 1°F Generally, the test fan will be operating at a speed
or finer. For temperatures above 220°F, the and inlet density that are somewhat different from the

Field Performance Measurement | 159


fan performance rating values of fan speed and inlet Work required to accommodate test
density. In order to provide a common basis for measurements (drilling of traverse holes,
comparing the field test results to the fan installation of static pressure taps and
performance ratings, each of these two items must thermometer wells, etc.) should be completed
be the same in both sets of data. This can be prior to the test date.
accomplished by converting the results of the field
test to the speed and density conditions of the fan 4) System Effect Factors, if any, must be
performance ratings. The equations for the established prior to the conduct of the test.
conversion are as follows.
5) The expected test uncertainties must be agreed
Qc = Q (Nc / N) upon prior to the test (see Annex T).

Psc = Ps (Nc / N)2 (ρc / ρ) 6) Responsibility for the cost of the test or any fan-
system modifications required as a result of the
Ptc = Pt (Nc / N)2 (ρc / ρ) test should be established.

7) Prior to testing, an inspection must be made to


Pvc = Pv (Nc / N)2 (ρc / ρ)
ensure that the fan is installed in accordance with
the fan manufacturer’s recommendations. The
Hc = H (Nc / N)3 (ρc / ρ) duct system should also be inspected for
compliance with design specifications, conditions
Where the subscript c designates values converted of filters, abnormal duct restrictions, etc.
to specified conditions, and items without the
subscript c are field test values. 8) The majority of fan field performance tests cover
a single point of operation, namely, the design
These conversion equations do not account for the duty. If it is deemed necessary to cover several
effect of the compressibility of the gas stream. points of operation, provision must be made in
However, since the test fan usually operates at advance for changing the system resistance. The
conditions of speed and inlet density that are means used to vary the system resistance must
reasonably close to the quoted fan performance, the not cause adverse flow conditions in the vicinities
conversion calculations usually result in small of the fan and measurement planes. If the fan
changes from field test values and the effect of the cannot be tested at the quoted system design
compressibility of the gas stream is considered to be point, then it is sufficient for the evaluation of fan
negligible. Where test conditions are considerably field performance to establish the proximity of the
different than design conditions, the effect of field test point to any portion of the fan
compressibility may need to be considered. performance rating curve within the limitations of
the uncertainty analysis (see Annex T).
15. Test Preparation
9) It must be established that the system remains
15.1 The following items should be agreed upon by constant for the duration of the test. Modulating
all interested parties prior to the start of a field dampers should be set in a fixed position, no
performance test: process changes shall be undertaken, etc.
Variable inlet vane controls or inlet box dampers
1) AMCA Publication 200, Air Systems, AMCA must be set in the full open position for the
Publication 201, Fans and Systems, and AMCA duration of the test, except when testing for
Publication 202, Troubleshooting, should be control characteristics.
reviewed and implemented before starting the
field test. 10) All precautions to ensure the safety of test
personnel must be observed.
2) Personnel conducting field tests on fans must be
technically competent and fully conversant with 11) The fan-system should be operated for a length
all four parts of the AMCA Fan Application of time sufficient to ensure steady state
Manual. The person responsible for conducting conditions prior to the start of the test.
the test should be designated and agreed upon
by all parties. 12) It is advisable that representatives of all parties
interested in the test results be present at the
3) The test instrumentation and locations of test time of the test to cover their areas of
measurement planes should be established. responsibility.

160 | Field Performance Measurement


15.2 It is recommended that as a minimum, the 2) Static and total pressure manometer tubing must
following equipment be taken to or be otherwise be “pinched off” prior to inserting or removing the
available at the job site: Pitot-static tube from the test duct. Release both
legs of the tubing simultaneously after the Pitot-
1) Pitot-static tubes of suitable lengths for the static tube is inside the test duct and properly
maximum duct size to be traversed. oriented. Failure to release simultaneously may
Considerations should be given to the use of a result in manometer fluid being blown from the
double reverse tube in dirty atmospheres. manometer.

2) Manometers suitable for measuring static 3) Loop the manometer tubing well above the
pressures. Manometer fluids other than water are manometer so that any fluid which is
acceptable, provided the specific gravity is inadvertently blown from the gauge will drain
known. A spare bottle of manometer fluid is back into the manometer.
advisable.
4) The Pitot-static tube is intended for measuring
3) Inclined manometer suitable for measuring pressures in relatively clean gases. When using
velocity pressures. Pitot-static tubes in dirty, wet, or corrosive
atmospheres, both legs of the Pitot-static tube
4) Flexible tubing of suitable length to enable must be cleaned out frequently during the test.
manometers to be installed at a convenient Since fan pressure readings are never strictly
location. steady, absence of fluctuations is an
indication of a plugged Pitot-static tube.
5) Tubing couplings and “T” type tubing connectors. Consider using a double reverse tube in these
situations.
6) Thermometers to cover the range of anticipated
temperatures. 5) When making measurements in wet gas
streams, continually check for the presence of
7) Sling psychrometer for obtaining dry-bulb and moisture in the tubing. Clear plastic tubing is
wet-bulb temperatures. ideal from this standpoint. If moisture collects in
the tubing, immediately remove the Pitot-static
8) Clip-on ammeter-voltmeter, power analyzer, or tube and clean the inside of the tubing and Pitot-
other suitable electrical measurement static tube before proceeding with the test.
instruments for the determination of fan power
input. 6) Before performing any work inside a fan,
ductwork, or other system components, make
9) Fan speed measurement instrument. certain that the fan motor starter is “locked out.”

10) Aneroid barometer. 7) The area at the plane of flow measurement


should be measured internally to account for
11) Flashlight, tape, measuring rule, hand tools, internal insulation or other obstructions.
coveralls, etc.
8) Do not rely on damper control indicators to
12) Test data sheets, calculator, and necessary ensure that dampers are fully open. Check
drawings. visually.

13) Complete AMCA Fan Application Manual 9) Measure temperatures on both sides of double
containing Publications 200, 201, 202, and 203. inlet fans as temperature differences may exist
between each side.
16. Precautions
10) When measuring in high temperature, corrosive
The following precautions should be observed when or explosive atmospheres, instruments should be
conducting a field test: selected for suitability for such atmospheres.

1) Connect the Pitot-static tube to the manometers 17. Typical Fan-System Installations
according to anticipated pressures, i.e., whether
the pressures are positive or negative, and the A fan assembly may include any number of
magnitudes of pressures. appurtenances: variable inlet vanes, inlet boxes, inlet
box dampers, outlet dampers, inlet screens, belt

Field Performance Measurement | 161


guards, inlet bells, diffusers (evasés). Alternately, a) The operations of ovens, furnaces, paint booths,
these items may be included in the fan-system air conditioning equipment, other fans, and
installation, but not be a part of the fan assembly. In similar items that may supply or exhaust air from
order to determine the proper field test procedure the building in intermittent or modulating
and to provide a valid basis for comparing field test fashions.
results to the fan performance ratings, it is important
to establish which of these items are considered a b) The use of doors providing access to the
part of the fan and which are considered a part of the building. The effect is most significant when large
system. The fan performance ratings may be doors that are normally closed are kept open for
assumed to include the appurtenances that are extended periods such as in loading operations.
established as being a part of the fan assembly.
c) The velocity and direction of the wind outside the
The locations of the fan inlet and fan outlet depend building, particularly in conjunction with the item
on whether specific appurtenances are considered immediately above and as it may affect the flow
to be a part of the fan assembly. If the assembly of air from the outlet of the ventilator.
includes an inlet box, the fan inlet is the inlet to the
inlet box. For a fan assembly that includes a diffuser, d) The use of interior doors that my restrict the flow
the fan outlet is the outlet of the diffuser. of air from areas normally expected to be
ventilated.
In the case of heating, ventilating, and air-
conditioning equipment, the field test procedure will Assuming that these difficulties can be resolved and
depend on whether the equipment is a factory the desired system is fixed for the duration of the test,
assembled central station unit, a built-up unit, or a determine the fan performance by using one of the
packaged unit (see Section 17.4). following methods:

The performance ratings for a fan that includes inlet 1) Make field test measurements sufficient for
box dampers, variable inlet vanes or outlet dampers determining fan static pressure, fan power input,
cover operation of the fan with these items in the full fan speed, and the density of the air at the fan
open positions. In order to be able to compare the inlet. In this method for testing a free inlet, free
field test results to the fan performance ratings, it is outlet fan, the fan static pressure is calculated as
essential that these items be fixed in their full open the static pressure on the outlet side of the fan
positions for the duration of the test. In addition, when less the static pressure on the inlet side of the
the loss through a damper must be calculated, it is fan: Ps = Ps2 - Ps1. The static pressure
essential that the damper blades be fixed in their full measurements involved must be referred to the
open positions during the test since this is the same atmospheric pressure and made at
condition on which the damper pressure loss ratings locations sufficiently distant from the fan inlet and
are based. This consideration arises when a damper, outlet so as to be unaffected by the velocity of the
which is not considered a part of the fan is located air entering and leaving the fan. Using the fan
between a static pressure measurement plane and manufacturer’s certified performance ratings,
the fan. In order to determine the fan static pressure, draw a performance curve for the fan for
the loss through the damper must be calculated. In operation at the test values of fan speed and
these cases, the calculation of the loss is based on entering air density. Determine the fan air flow
the performance ratings for the damper. rate by entering this curve at the test values of
fan static pressure and fan power input (see
17.1 Free inlet, free outlet fans Example 5C in Annex A).

It is difficult to achieve an accurate field test of a free 2) Use the method as described above with the
inlet, free outlet fan. The most obvious problem is the exception that the performance curve is
lack of a suitable location for the velocity pressure established by a laboratory test of the fan,
measurement plane. In addition, in the case of conducted in accordance with AMCA Standard
ventilators that supply or exhaust air from a building- 210. For the laboratory test, the fan must be set
the most commonly encountered applications of free up in a manner that duplicates the field
inlet, free outlet fans-it is extremely difficult to define, installation conditions. That is, all appurtenances
set, and maintain for the duration of the test the must be in place and any restrictions or
“normal” system condition. Items affecting the system obstructions to the free flow of air into the fan
include: inlet and away from the fan outlet must be
accurately duplicated in the laboratory test setup.

162 | Field Performance Measurement


3) Install a duct on the inlet side of the fan for the 17.3 Ducted inlet, ducted outlet fans
purpose of providing a location for the velocity
pressure measurement plane. All of the test In this type of fan-system configuration, there is no
measurements and calculations in this method special consideration in the calculation of fan static
for testing a free inlet, free outlet fan are the pressure. The equation for this calculation is:
same as those required for a fan with a ducted
inlet and a free outlet. The cross-sectional shape Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2 + ... + SEF n
and area of the duct, which is temporarily
installed for purposes of the test, should be In this configuration, the flow conditions on the inlet
selected on the basis of minimizing its side of the fan are usually more favorable for the
interference with the flow of air into the fan inlet location of the velocity pressure measurement plane.
while providing velocity pressure of magnitudes
that can be accurately measured. The length of 17.4 Ducted inlet, free outlet fans
the duct should be a minimum of twice its
diameter or equivalent diameter, and the In this type of fan-system configuration, the static
entrance to the duct should be flared in order to pressure at the fan outlet, Ps2, is zero gauge
reduce the entrance loss. The velocity pressure pressure, referred to the atmospheric pressure in the
measurement plane should be located a region of the fan outlet. However, the gas stream may
minimum of 1.5 diameters or equivalent be discharging from the fan into a region in which the
diameters downstream from the duct inlet. The atmospheric pressure is somewhat different from that
effect of this duct on the system is negligible, but to which all other pressure measurements are
in changing the pattern of the flow of air into the referred. When this possibility exists, it is essential
fan inlet, it may affect the performance of the fan that the static pressure measurements in the region
slightly. Applications of this method of test are of the fan outlet be referred to the same atmospheric
presented in Examples 5A and 5B in Annex A. pressure as used in all other pressure
The equation for calculating fan static pressure measurements.
for this configuration is:
Ps = -Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2 + ... + SEF n
Ps = Ps2 - (Ps1 + Pv1)
17.5 Air handling units
17.2 Free inlet, ducted outlet fans
This category consists of draw-through and blow-
In the calculation of fan static pressure for this type of through types of equipment assemblies used in
fan-system configuration, the sum of the static heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning applications.
pressure at the fan inlet, Ps1, and the velocity In addition to fans, these equipment assemblies may
pressure at the fan inlet, Pv1, is considered to be include any number of combinations of coils, filters,
equal to the sum of the static pressure, Psx, and the access sections, humidifiers, mixing boxes, dampers,
velocity pressure, Pvx, at a point sufficiently distant etc. Air handling units include packaged units, factory
from the fan inlet as to be in still air. At this point, the assembled central station units, and built-up units.
static pressure is zero, and the velocity pressure in The basis used in establishing the air performance
still air is zero. ratings for each of these unit types is described
below. It is important that the field test method
Ps1 + Pv1 = Psx + Pvx = 0 correspond to the rating method in each case.

This consideration, which is the same as that used in 17.5.1 Packaged units. This type of unit is supplied
the methods for testing fans for performance rating and rated by the manufacturer as an assembly. The
purposes, charges to the fan the losses incurred in static pressures at the inlet and outlet to the
accelerating the air into the fan inlet and eliminates assembly and the velocity pressure at the inlet to the
inaccuracies which may occur in any attempt to assembly are used in calculating the static pressure
measure velocity pressure and static pressure at the generated by this type of air handling unit. See
fan inlet. Since Ps1 + Pv1 = 0, the equation for Examples 4C and 4D in Annex A.
calculating fan static pressure for this configuration
is: 17.5.2 Factory assembled central station units.
The air performance ratings for this type of unit are
Ps = Ps2 + SEF 1 +SEF 2 + ... + SEF n based on the operation of the fan section assembly
only, but include the effects of the air flow conditions
entering and leaving the fan section which are
created by accessory equipment such as plenums,
Field Performance Measurement | 163
coils, filters, mixing boxes, etc. The fan section
assembly includes the fan and the cabinet in which
the fan has been installed. The accessory items are
considered to be included in the system in which the
fan section operates. The static pressure and the
velocity pressure at the inlet of the fan section and
the static pressure at the fan section outlet, which
coincides with the fan outlet, are used in calculating
the static pressure generated by the fan section
assembly. See examples 4B and 4E in Annex A.

17.5.3 Built-up units. Built-up units are similar to


factory assembled central station units, except that in
built-up units, the components are normally obtained
from a number of equipment suppliers and the unit is
assembled at the installation site. The fans which are
used in built-up units are rated as free-standing,
unencumbered by the cabinets in which they are
installed. In the field test determination of the
performance of the fan, the static pressure and
velocity pressure at the fan inlet and the static
pressure at the fan outlet are used in calculating the
fan static pressure. An SEF that accounts for the
effect of the cabinet is normally included in this
calculation, and it may be necessary to include an
SEF to account for the conditions at the fan outlet.
See Example 4A in Annex A.

164 | Field Performance Measurement


Annex A. Field Test Examples

This annex contains examples of field tests. The examples are presented in detail and cover several types of fan-
system combinations. Field test procedures are illustrated in a variety of situations. Portions of the procedures are
typical for all fan-system installations. Other portions of the procedures demonstrate methods for dealing with the
more difficult features encountered in some installations. Not all of the possible fan-system combinations are
included in the examples, but it is expected that the examples will provide sufficient guidance for dealing with those
cases not covered.

EXAMPLES OF FANS, INSTALLATION TYPE B: FREE INLET, DUCTED OUTLET

1A: Centrifugal Forced Draft Fan


1B: Centrifugal Forced Draft Fan with Inlet Silencers
1C: Axial Forced Draft Fan with Inlet Silencers
1D: Centrifugal Fans in Parallel

EXAMPLE OF FANS, INSTALLATION TYPE D: DUCTED INLET, DUCTED OUTLET

2A: Utility Fan in a Ventilating System


2B: Centrifugal Fan in a Sawdust Conveying System
2C: Axial Fan in a Dryer System
2D: Centrifugal Fan in a Scrubber System
2E: Centrifugal Fan in a Process System
2F: Axial Fan in a Ventilation System
2G: High Pressure Centrifugal Fans in Series

EXAMPLES OF FANS, INSTALLATION TYPE C: DUCTED INLET, FREE OUTLET

3A: Centrifugal Fan in an Exhaust System


3B: Axial Fan in an Exhaust System
3C: Centrifugal Fan in a Scrubber System
3D: Centrifugal Roof Ventilator with Ducted Inlet

EXAMPLES OF AIR HANDLING UNITS

4A: Centrifugal Fan in a Built-up Air conditioning Unit


4B: Central Station Air Conditioning Unit, Factory Assembled Draw-Through Type
4C: Packaged Air Conditioning Unit
4D: Packaged Air Conditioning Unit
4E: Central Station Air Conditioning Unit, Factory Assembled Blow-Through Type

EXAMPLES OF FANS, INSTALLATION TYPE A: FREE INLET, FREE OUTLET

5A: Free Inlet, Free Outlet Roof Ventilator with temporary duct
5B: Free Inlet, Free Outlet Propeller Fan with temporary duct
5C: Free Inlet, Free Outlet Roof Ventilator as installed

Field Performance Measurement | 165


EXAMPLE 1A: CENTRIFUGAL FORCED DRAFT FAN

SEF 1
DIFFUSER

3 2

L
A2
VARIABLE
INLET VANES
A3

SIDE VIEW OUTLET SIDE VIEW

LOCATIONS OF
PLANES 2 AND 3

ORIENTATION
OF PITOT TUBE

COMMENTS

1. The variable inlet vanes are considered part of the 3. Measure td1 and tw1 in the path of the air flowing into
fan. Performance ratings for fans with inlet vanes the fan inlets. Determine pb for the general vicinity of
cover operation with the inlet vanes in their full open the fan. Measure td3 in Plane 3. All of these
position. In order to be able to compare the test measurements are used in the determination of
results to the fan performance ratings, it is essential densities at the various planes of interest.
that the inlet vanes be fixed in their full open positions
for the duration of the test. 4. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
and, if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
2. Determine Pv3 by using the root mean square of nameplate data, including volts (NPV) and full load
the velocity pressure measurements made in a amps (FLA). If the motor power output is to be
traverse of Plane 3, located near the end of the fan estimated by using the phase current method
diffuser (evasé). Determine Ps3 by averaging the described in Annex K, it is not necessary to measure
static pressure measurements made in the same motor watts; however, it may be necessary to
traverse. Procedures for the traverse are described in disconnect the drive and measure the no load amps
Section 9.4. These velocity pressure and static (NLA) if the motor is not operating at or near its full
pressure measurements are susceptible to error due load point (refer to Annex K).
to the turbulence existing in the region of the fan
outlet. In addition, it is undesirable to have Plane 3 5. SEF 1 is due to the effect of insufficient length of
located in a diverging airway. However, no other duct at the fan outlet. In order to calculate the value
more suitable location for Plane 3 exists in this of SEF 1, it is necessary to measure the length of the
example. It is recommended that the Pitot-static tube outlet duct, L; the outlet area of the fan, A2; and the
be oriented so that its nose is aligned with the blast area of the fan.
anticipated flow streams, particularly near the walls of
the diffuser, as shown in the diagram. Determine the 6. The sum of the static pressure, Ps1, and velocity
area of the traverse plane, A3, which is located at the pressure, Pv1, at the inlets of a fan with unrestricted
tip of the Pitot-static tube, as shown in the diagram, inlets is considered to be equal to the sum of the
not at the location of the Pitot-static tube access static pressure, Psx, and the velocity pressure, Pvx, at
holes in the diffuser. a point sufficiently distant from the fan inlets as to be
in still air. At this point, the static pressure is zero, and

166 | Field Performance Measurement


the velocity pressure in still air is zero. GENERAL

Ps1 + Pv1 = Psx + Pvx = 0 VIVs in full open positions.


Fan direct connected to motor.
This consideration, which is the same as that used in
the methods for testing fans for performance rating CALCULATIONS
purposes, charges to the fan losses incurred in
accelerating the air into the fan inlets and eliminates DENSITIES
the inaccuracies which arise in any attempt to
measure the velocity pressure and static pressure at For fan inlet conditions of:
the fan inlets. To calculate the fan static pressure:
td1 = 85°F
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 tw1 = 63°F
= Ps2 - (Ps1 + Pv1) + SEF1 p1 = pb
= 28.91 in. Hg
Since:
Use Figure N.1 in Annex N to obtain ρ1 = 0.0701
Ps1 + Pv1 = 0 lbm/ft3
Ps = Ps2 + SEF 1
The density at Plane 3:
7. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
fan curve drawn for operation at 1780 rpm and
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d1 + 460 ⎞
0.0701 lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the ρ3 = ρ1 ⎜ s3 ⎟⎜ ⎟
results to the specified conditions. In this case, the ⎝ 13.6 p1 ⎠ ⎝ t d3 + 460 ⎠
test conditions are identical to the specified ⎛ 14.4 + 13.6 × 28.91 ⎞ ⎛ 545 ⎞
= 0.0701⎜
conditions and no calculations are required. ⎝ 13.6 × 28.91 ⎟⎠ ⎜⎝ 556 ⎟⎠
= 0.0712 lbm/ft 3
OBSERVATIONS

SITE MEASUREMENTS In this case, ρ2 is considered to be equal to ρ3.

pb = 28.91 in. Hg FLOW RATES


td1 = 85°F
tw1 = 63°F V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5
td3 = 96°F = 1096 (1.52/0.0712)0.5
Ps3 = 14.4 in. wg = 5064 fpm
Pv3 = 1.52 in. wg
N = 1780 rpm Q3 = V3A3
A2 = 11.94 ft2 = 5064 × 11.3
A3 = 11.3 ft2 = 57223 cfm
Blast Area = 7.76 ft2 Q = Q1
L = 3 ft.
= Q3 (ρ3/ρ1)
= 57223 (0.0712/0.0701)
MEASURED MOTOR DATA
= 58121 cfm
Volts = 570, 560, 572
FAN POWER INPUT
= 567 av.
Amps = 160, 166, 163
Measured amps/FLA = (163/181)
= 163 av.
= 0.90
= 90%
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA
Annex K indicates that Equation A will provide a
200 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz
reasonably accurate estimate of motor power output
575 volts, 1800 rpm, 181 FLA
for a 200 hp motor operating at 90% FLA.

Field Performance Measurement | 167


Hmo = 200 (163/181) (567/575) FAN STATIC PRESSURE
= 178 hp
Since A2 is greater than A3, there may be some
Since the fan is direct connected to the motor: conversion of velocity pressure to static pressure
between Planes 3 and 2. However, the amount of
H = Hmo conversion will be very small relative to the static
= 178 hp pressure measured at Plane 3 and ignoring any
change in static pressure from Plane 3 to Plane 2 will
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR have no appreciable effect on the test results.
Therefore, Ps2 is considered equal to Ps3.
AMCA Publication 201-90, Figures 7.1 and 8.3
indicate the following calculations: Ps = Ps2 + SEF 1
= 14.4 + 0.57
Q2 = Q3 (ρ3/ρ2) = 14.97 in. wg
= 57223 (0.0712/0.0712)
= 57223 cfm CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS

V2 = (Q2/A2) Qc = Q
= (57223/11.94) = 58121 cfm
= 4793 fpm Psc = Ps
= 14.97 in. wg
Duct diameter equivalent to the diffuser outlet area: Hc = H
= 178 hp
De2 = 4 A2 / π
= ( 4 × 11.94 ) / π
= 3.9 ft.

Figure 8.3 shows that for velocities over 2500 fpm,


100% effective duct length is one duct diameter per
1000 fpm,

= De2 (V2/1000)
= 3.9 (4793/1000)
= 18.7 ft

L in % effective duct length


= (L/18.7) 100
= (3/18.7) 100
= 16%

Blast area ratio = Blast Area/A2


= 7.76/11.94
= 0.65

For blast area ratio of 0.65, and 16% effective duct


length, Figure 8.3 shows System Effect Curve U
applies. For 4793 fpm velocity and curve U, Figure
7.1 shows SEF 1 = 0.6 in. wg at 0.075 lbm/ft3. At
0.0712 lbm/ft3.

SEF 1 = 0.6 (0.0712/0.075)


= 0.57 in. wg

168 | Field Performance Measurement


EXAMPLE 1B: CENTRIFUGAL FORCED DRAFT FAN WITH INLET SILENCERS

TEMPORARY
DUCT

DIFFUSER
STATIC 3a 3b
PRESSURE TAPS 0.5 De
SILENCERS

A2

SEF 1

VARIABLE INLET VANES


SIDE VIEW 2 OUTLET SIDE VIEW

COMMENTS

1. This fan, as supplied and rated by the entrances to the inlet boxes (Plane 1). Determine Ps2
manufacturer, includes the variable inlet vanes and by averaging the pressure measurements at each of
inlet boxes, but does not include the silencers. four static pressure taps located near the end of the
Performance ratings for fans with inlet vanes cover fan diffuser (evasé). See Annex E for details of static
operation with the inlet vanes in the full open pressure taps.
positions. In order to be able to compare the test
results to the fan performance ratings, it is essential 4. Measure td3 and tw3 near the inlet ducts. Determine
that the inlet vanes be fixed in their full open positions pb for the general vicinity of the fan. Measure td2 in
for the duration of the test. Plane 2. All of these measurements are used in the
determination of densities at the various planes of
2. Determine Pv3a and Pv3b by using the root mean interest.
square of the velocity pressure measurements made
in traverses of Planes 3a and 3b. A3a and A3b are the 5. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
areas traversed. Determine Ps3a and Ps3b by and if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
averaging each of the two sets of static pressure nameplate data, including volts (NPV) and amps
measurements made in the same traverses. (FLA). If the motor power output is to be estimated by
Procedures for traverses are described in Section using the phase current method described in Annex
9.4. Ps3a and Ps3b are used in determining the density K, it is not necessary to measure motor watts;
at the traverse plane. A location for Plane 3 however, it may be necessary to disconnect the drive
measurements may be obtained by installing ducts and measure the no load amps (NLA) if the motor is
on each silencer inlet, as shown in the diagram. The not operating at or near its full load point. Refer to
ducts should be a minimum of one equivalent Annex K.
diameter in length, and have flared inlets to reduce
entrance losses and provide more uniform velocity 6. SEF 1 is due to the effect of there being no duct
profiles at the pressure measurement planes. at the fan outlet. In order to calculate the value of
SEF 1, it is necessary to measure the fan outlet area,
3. Measure Ps1a and Ps1b at locations close to the A2, and the blast area of the fan.
entrances to the inlet boxes and in planes which are
substantially equal in area to the planes of the 7. To calculate the fan static pressure:

Field Performance Measurement | 169


Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 CALCULATIONS

Where: DENSITIES

Pv1 = (Q/1096A1)2 ρ1 For Plane 3 conditions of:

8. In order to compare the test results to the quoted td3 = 85°F


fan curve drawn for operation at 1180 rpm and 0.075 tw3 = 58°F
lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the results
to the specified conditions. The basis for the Ps3 = (Ps3a + Ps3b)/2
calculations is described in Section 14. = (-0.65 - 0.70)/2
= -0.675 in. wg
OBSERVATIONS p3 = pb + (Ps3/13.6)
= 29.31 + (-0.675/13.6)
SITE MEASUREMENTS = 29.26 in. Hg

pb = 29.31 in. Hg Use Figure N.1 in Annex N to obtain ρ3 = 0.0712


td2 = 93°F lbm/ft3
td3 = 85°F
tw3 = 58°F It is assumed that the temperature at Plane 1 are the
Ps1a= -1.20 in. wg same as those at Plane 3. The density at Plane 1:
Ps1b= -1.30 in. wg
Ps2 = 10.1 in. wg ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
ρ1 = ρ3 ⎜ s1 ⎟⎜ ⎟
Ps3a= -0.65 in. wg
⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d1 + 460 ⎠
Ps3b= -0.70 in. wg
⎛ −1.25 + 13.6 × 29.31 ⎞ ⎛ 545 ⎞
Pv3a= 0.61 in. wg = 0.0712 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 545 ⎟
⎝ 13.6 × 29.26 ⎠⎝ ⎠
Pv3b= 0.62 in. wg
N = 1180 rpm = 0.0711 lbm/ft 3
A1a = A1b
= 12.5 ft2 The density at Plane 2:
A2 = 18 ft2
A3a = A3b ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
= 12.5 ft2 ρ2 = ρ3 ⎜ s2 ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d2 + 460 ⎠
Blast Area = 13.5 ft2
⎛ 10.1 + 13.6 × 29.31 ⎞ ⎛ 545 ⎞
= 0.0712 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
MEASURED MOTOR DATA ⎝ 13.6 × 29.26 ⎠ ⎝ 553 ⎠
= 0.0721 lbm/ft 3
Volts = 460, 455, 465
= 460 av
FLOW RATES
Amps = 257, 256, 258
= 257 av
V3a = 1096 (Pv3a/ρ3)0.5
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA = 1096 (0.61/0.0712)0.5
= 3208 fpm
200 HP, 3 phase 60 hertz
460 volts, 1180 rpm, 285 FLA Q3a = V3aA3a
= 3208 × 12.5
GENERAL = 40100 cfm

VIVs in full open positions. Fan direct connected to V3b = 1096 (Pv3b/ρ3)0.5
motor. The motor manufacturer advises that this = 1096 (0.62/0.0712)0.5
motor type has a peak efficiency of 91% at a power = 3234 cfm
factor of approximately 0.89.
Q3b = V3bA3b
= 3234 × 12.5
= 40425 cfm
170 | Field Performance Measurement
Q3 = Q3a + Q3b SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR
= 40100 + 40425
= 80525 cfm AMCA Publication 201-90, Figures 7.1 and 8.3
indicate the following calculations:
Q = Q1
= Q3 (ρ3/ρ1) Q3 (ρ3/ρ2) = 80525 (0.0712/0.0721)
= 80525 (0.0712/0.0711) = 79520 cfm
= 80638 cfm
(Q2/A2) = (79520/18)
FAN POWER INPUT = 4418 fpm

Measured amps/FLA = (257/285) Blast area ratio = Blast Area/A2


= 0.90 = 13.5/18
= 90% = 0.75

Annex K indicates that Equation A will provide a For a blast area ratio of 0.75, and no duct, Figure 8.3
reasonably accurate estimate of motor power output shows System Effect Curve T applies. For 4418 fpm
for a 250 hp motor operating at 90% FLA. velocity and curve T, Figure 7.1 shows SEF 1 = 0.65
in. wg at 0.075 lbm/ft3. At 0.0720 lbm/ft3:
Hmo = 250 (257/285) (460/460)
= 225 hp SEF 1 = 0.65 (0.0721/0.075)
= 0.62 in. wg
As a check of this value, using the motor efficiency
data and the appropriate equation in Section 11.2.2: FAN STATIC PRESSURE

Pv1 = (Q1/1096 A1)2


3 × 257 × 460 × 0.89 × 0.91
Hmo = = (80638/1096 × 25)2 0.0711
746
= 0.62 in. wg
= 222 hp
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1
Since the motor is not fully loaded, the power factor = 10.1 - (-1.25) - 0.62 + 0.62
and efficiency may be less, which would reduce Hmo = 11.33 in. wg
as calculated using the second method. However,
this is a reasonable check. The value of Hmo is CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
selected to be the average of the two results:
Qc = Q
Hmo = 224 hp = 80638 cfm

Since the fan is direct-connected to the motor, there Psc = 11.33 (0.075/0.0711)
is no drive loss, and: = 11.95 in. wg

H = Hmo Hc = 224 (0.075/0.0711)


= 224 hp = 236 hp

Field Performance Measurement | 171


EXAMPLE 1C: AXIAL FORCED DRAFT FAN WITH INLET SILENCER

TEMPORARY
PLANE 3
SHORT DUCT
LOCATION
3 STATIC PRESSURE TAPS
SILENCER
TRANSITION

0.5 De 5
DIFFUSER
INLET SECTION 2
BOX INNER
1 CYLINDER

SIDE VIEW L
GUIDE VANES

COMMENTS

1. This is a variable pitch axial flow fan. The fan See Annex E for details of static pressure taps. In this
assembly, as supplied and rated by the manufacturer, example, Ps2 is considered to be equal to Ps5.
includes the inlet box and diffuser section, but does
not include the silencer. It is essential that the blade 4. Measure td3 and tw3 near the entrance to the short
pitch angle be fixed for the duration of the test. This inlet duct. Determine pb for the general vicinity of the
blade angle should be agreed upon by all interested fan. Measure td5 in Plane 5. All of these
parties. measurements are used in the determination of
densities at the various planes of interest.
2. A temporary short duct is installed upstream of the
silencer to establish Plane 3 in which more uniform 5. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
pressures can be obtained. The duct should be a and if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
minimum of one equivalent diameter in length, and nameplate data, including volts (NPV) and full load
have a flared inlet to reduce entrance losses and amps (FLA). If the motor power output is to be
provide a more uniform velocity profile at the estimated by using the phase current method
pressure measurement plane. Determine Pv3 by described in Annex K, it is not necessary to measure
using the root mean square of the velocity pressure motor watts; however, it may be necessary to
measurements made in a traverse of Plane 3. Ps3 is disconnect the drive and measure the no load amps
determined by averaging the static pressure (NLA) if the motor is not operating at or near its full
measurements made in the same traverse. load point. Motor performance data, supplied by the
Procedures for traverses are described in Section motor manufacturer, are used in the determination of
9.4. Ps3 is used in determining the density at the motor power output for this example.
traverse plane.
6. SEF 1 is due to the effect of insufficient length of
3. Measure Ps1 at a location close to the entrance to duct between the diffuser outlet and the elbow
the inlet box and in a plane which is substantially downstream of the diffuser. In order to calculate the
equal in area to the plane of the entrance to the inlet value of SEF 1, it is necessary to measure the length
box (Plane 1). Determine Ps5 by averaging the of the transition, L, and the outlet area of the diffuser,
pressure measurements at each of four static A2.
pressure taps located near the end of the fan diffuser.

172 | Field Performance Measurement


7. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure: CALCULATIONS

Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 DENSITIES

Where: For Plane 3 conditions of:

Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1) td3 = 68°F


tw3 = 62°F
8. Axial fans are often rated in Fan Total Pressure.
Computation of Fan Total Pressure is illustrated in the p3 = pb + (Ps3/13.6)
CALCULATIONS section of this example. = 29.8 + (-1.40/13.6)
= 29.70 in. Hg
9. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
fan curve drawn for operation at 880 rpm and 0.0740 Use Figure 20 in Annex N to obtain ρ3 = 0.0744
lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the results lbm/ft3
to the specified conditions. In this case, the test
conditions are identical to the specified conditions It is assumed that td1 = td3. The density at Plane 1:
and no calculations are required.

OBSERVATIONS ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞


ρ1 = ρ3 ⎜ s1 ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d1 + 460 ⎠
SITE MEASUREMENTS ⎛ −1.8 + 13.6 × 29.8 ⎞ ⎛ 528 ⎞
= 0.0744 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
pb = 29.8 in. Hg ⎝ 13.6 × 29.70 ⎠ ⎝ 528 ⎠
td3 = 68°F = 0.0743 lbm/ft 3
tw3 = 62°F
td5 = 88°F The density at Plane 2:
Ps1 = -1.80 in. wg
Ps3 = -1.40 in. wg ρ 2 = ρ5
Ps5 = 20.8 in. wg
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
Pv3 = 1.30 in. wg = ρ3 ⎜ s5 ⎟⎜ ⎟
N = 880 rpm ⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d5 + 460 ⎠
A1 = 170.3 ft2 ⎛ 20.8 + 13.6 × 29.8 ⎞ ⎛ 528 ⎞
= 0.0744 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
A2 = 176 ft2 ⎝ 13.6 × 29.70 ⎠ ⎝ 548 ⎠
A3 = 170.3 ft2 = 0.0756 lbm/ft 3
A5 = A2
L = 15 ft FLOW RATE

MEASURED MOTOR DATA V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5


= 1096 (1.3/0.0744)0.5
Volts = 4000, 4000, 4100
= 4581 fpm
= 4033 av
Amps = 450, 445, 448
Q3 = V3A3
= 448 av
= 4581 × 170.3
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA = 780144 cfm

4000 hp, 3 phase 60 hertz Q = Q1


4000 volts, 900 rpm, 520 FLA = Q3 (ρ3/ρ1)
= 780144 (0.0744/0.0743)
GENERAL = 781194 cfm

Fan direct connected to motor. Motor performance


data at operating load, as supplied by motor
manufacturer: 0.88 power factor, 95% efficiency.

Field Performance Measurement | 173


FAN POWER INPUT SEF 1 = 0.32 (0.0756/0.075)
= 0.32 in. wg
3 × volts × amps × power factor × efficiency
Hmo = FAN STATIC PRESSURE
746
3 × 4033 × 448 × 0.88 × 0.95 Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1)
=
746 = 1.3 (170.3/170.3)2 (0.0744/0.0743)
= 3507 hp = 1.30 in. wg

Since the fan is direct connected to the motor, there Ps2 = Ps5
is no drive loss, and: = 20.8 in. wg

H = Hmo Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1


= 3507 hp = 20.8 - (-1.80) - 1.30 + 0.32
= 21.62 in. wg
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR
FAN TOTAL PRESSURE
AMCA Publication 201-90, Figures 7.1, 8.1, and 8.4
indicate the following calculations: Pt1 = Ps1 +Pv1
= -1.8 + 1.30
Q2 = Q3 (ρ3/ρ2) = -0.50 in. wg
= 780144 (0.0744/0.0756)
= 767761 cfm Pv2 = Pv3 (A3/A2)2 (ρ3/ρ2)
= 1.3 (170.3/176)2 (0.0744/0.0756)
V2 = (Q2/A2) = 1.20 in. wg
= (767761/176)
= 4362 Pt2 = Ps2 + Pv2
= 20.8 + 1.20
Duct diameter equivalent to the diffuser outlet area: = 22.00 in. wg

Pt = Pt2 - Pt1 + SEF 1


De2 = 4 A2 / π
= 22.00 - (-0.50) + 0.32
= ( 4 × 176 ) / π = 22.82 in. wg
= 15 ft.
Also:
Pt = Ps + Pv
Figure 8.1 shows that for velocities over 2500 fpm, Pv = Pv2
100% effective duct length is one duct diameter for
= 1.20 in. wg
every 1000 fpm:
Pt = 21.62 + 1.20
= 22.82 in. wg
= De2 (V2/1000)
= 15 (4362/1000)
CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
= 65.43 ft.
Qc = Q
L in % effective duct length
= 781194 cfm
Psc = Ps
= (L/65.43) 100
= (15/65.43) 100 = 21.62 in. wg
= 23% Ptc = Pt
= 22.82 in. wg
For 23% effective duct length and a vaneaxial fan Hc = H
with a 2 piece elbow, Figure 8.4 shows System Effect = 3507 hp
Curve V applies. For 4362 fpm velocity and curve V,
Figure 7.1 shows SEF 1 = 0.32 in. wg at 0.075
lbm/ft3. At 0.0756 lbm/ft3.

174 | Field Performance Measurement


EXAMPLE 1D: CENTRIFUGAL FANS IN PARALLEL

STATIC PRESSURE TAPS

OUTLET DAMPER

SEF 1
PLENUM

1 PLAN VIEW 1 SIDE VIEW

COMMENTS

1. Each of the fans, as supplied and rated by the between the outlet damper and the plenum. See
manufacturer, includes an outlet damper. Annex E for details of static pressure taps. Measure
Performance ratings for fans with outlet dampers td2 in Plane 2 for each fan.
cover operation with the outlet damper in the full
open position. In order to be able to compare the test 4. For each fan, measure td1 and tw1 in the path of the
results to the fan performance ratings it is essential air flowing into the fan inlet. Determine pb for the
that the outlet dampers be fixed in the full open general vicinity of the fans. Measure td3 in Plane 3. All
positions for the duration of the test. of these measurements are used in the determination
of densities at the various planes of interest.
2. In this example, there are no suitable locations for
traverse planes for use in determining directly the 5. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
flow rate for each fan. The alternative is to determine and if possible, watts for each fan. Record all
the total flow rate and since the fans and their pertinent motor nameplate data, including volts
operating speeds are alike, assume that each fan (NPV) and full load amps (FLA). If the motor power
delivers a flow rate proportional to its actual speed. outputs are to be estimated by using the phase
Determine Pv3 by using the root mean square of the current method described in Annex K, it is not
velocity pressure measurements made in a traverse necessary to measure motor watts; however, it may
of Plane 3, located near the end of a straight run of be necessary to disconnect the drives and measure
duct, such as shown in the diagram. Determine Ps3 by the no load amps (NLA) if the motors are not
averaging the static pressure measurements made in operating at or near their full load points. Refer to
the same traverse. Procedures for traverses are Annex K.
described in Section 9.4. Ps3 is used in determining
the density at the traverse plane. Measure the area of 6. SEF 1 is due to the effect of insufficient length of
traverse plane, A3, which is located at the tip of the duct between the outlet of each fan and the plenum.
Pitot-static tube. In this case, the duct length is so short as to be
judged equivalent to there being no duct at all. In
3. Determine Ps2 for each fan by averaging the order to calculate the value of SEF 1, it is necessary
pressure measurements at each of four static to measure the outlet areas of the fans, A2, and their
pressure taps located in the short length of duct blast areas.

Field Performance Measurement | 175


7. The sum of the static pressure, Ps1, and the Ps2 = 6.4 in. wg
velocity pressure, Pv1, at the inlet of a fan with an N = 1890 rpm, RH fan speed
unrestricted inlet is considered to be equal to the sum A2 = 3.2 ft2
of the static pressure, Psx, and the velocity pressure, Blast Area = 2.25 ft2
Pvx, at a point sufficiently distant from the inlet as to
be in still air. At this point, the static pressure is zero, MEASURED MOTOR DATA
and the velocity pressure in still air is zero.
LH Fan
Ps1 + Pv1 = Psx + Pvx Volts = 575, 572, 578
=0 = 575 av
Amps = 16, 17, 17
This consideration, which is the same as that used in = 16.7 av
the methods for testing fans for performance rating NLA = 7.0
purposes, charges to the fan losses incurred in
accelerating the air into the fan inlet and eliminates RH Fan
the inaccuracies which arise in any attempt to Volts = 575, 574, 573
measure the velocity pressure and static pressure at = 574 av
the fan inlet. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure: Amps = 15, 16, 16
= 15.7 av
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 NLA = 7.0
= Ps2 - (Ps1 + Pv1) + SEF 1
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA
Since Ps1 + Pv1 = 0:
LH Fan
Ps = Ps2 + SEF 1 25 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz
575 volts, 1780 rpm, 23 FLA
8. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
RH Fan
fan curve drawn for operation at 1900 rpm and 0.075
25 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz
lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the results
575 volts, 1780 rpm, 23 FLA
to the specified conditions. The basis for the
calculations is described in Section 14.
GENERAL
OBSERVATIONS
Outlet dampers in full open positions. Fans
connected to motors through belt drives.
SITE MEASUREMENTS
CALCULATIONS
pb = 29.05 in. Hg
td3 = 78°F DENSITIES
Ps3 = 5.6 in. wg
Pv3 = 0.47 in. wg For inlet conditions for both fans of:
A3 = 7.4 ft2
td1 = 75°F
LH Fan tw1 = 57°F
td1 = 75°F p1 = pb
tw1 = 57°F = 29.05 in. Hg
td2 = 79°F
Ps2 = 6.4 in. wg Use Figure N.1 in Annex N to obtain ρ1 = 0.0718
N = 1910 rpm, LH fan speed lbm/ft3
A2 = 3.2 ft2
Blast Area = 2.25 ft2 The density at Plane 2:

RH Fan
td1 = 75°F
tw1 = 57°F
td2 = 79°F

176 | Field Performance Measurement


Annex K indicates that the average of the results of
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d1 + 460 ⎞
ρ2 = ρ1 ⎜ s2 ⎟⎜ ⎟ Equation A and Equation B will provide a reasonably
⎝ 13.6 p1 ⎠ ⎝ t d2 + 460 ⎠ accurate estimate of motor power output for a 25 hp
⎛ 6.4 + 13.6 × 29.05 ⎞ ⎛ 535 ⎞ motor operating at approximately 70% FLA.
= 0.0718 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 13.6 × 29.05 ⎠ ⎝ 539 ⎠
LH Fan
= 0.0724 lbm/ft 3 Eqn A = 25 (16.7/23) (575/575)
= 18.15 hp
The density at Plane 3:
Eqn B = 25 [(16.7 - 7)/(23 - 7)] (575/575)
= 15.16 hp
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d1 + 460 ⎞
ρ3 = ρ1 ⎜ s3 ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 13.6 p1 ⎠ ⎝ t d3 + 460 ⎠ Hmo = (18.15 + 15.16)/2
⎛ 5.6 + 13.6 × 29.05 ⎞ ⎛ 535 ⎞ = 16.66 hp
= 0.0718 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 13.6 × 29.05 ⎠ ⎝ 538 ⎠
RH Fan
= 0.0724 lbm/ft 3 Eqn A = 25 (15.7/23) (574/575)
= 17.04 hp
FLOW RATES
Eqn B = 25 [(15.7 - 7)/(23 - 7)] (574/575)
V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5 = 13.57 hp
= 1096 (0.47/0.0724)0.5
= 2792 fpm Hmo = (17.04 + 13.57)/2
= 15.31 hp
Q3 = V3A3
= 2792 × 7.4 Figure L.1 in Annex L indicates estimated belt drive
= 20661 cfm loss of 5% for each fan.

Q = Q1 LH Motor
= Q3 (ρ3/ρ1) HL = 0.05 Hmo
= 20661 (0.0724/0.0718) = 0.05 × 16.66
= 20834 cfm = 0.83 hp
Assume that the air flow rate for each fan is H = Hmo - HL
proportional to its speed. = 16.66 - 0.83
= 15.83 hp
LH Fan
Q = Q1 RH Motor
= 20834 [1910/(1910 + 1890)] HL = 0.05 Hmo
= 10472 cfm = 0.05 × 15.31
= 0.77 hp
RH Fan H = Hmo - HL
Q = Q1 = 15.31 - 0.77
= 20834 [1890/(1910 + 1890)] = 14.54 hp
= 10362 cfm
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR
FAN POWER INPUT
AMCA Publication 201-90, Figures 7.1 and 8.3
LH Fan indicate the following calculations:
Measured amps/FLA = (16.7/23)
= 0.73 LH Fan
= 73% Q2 = Q1 (ρ1/ρ2)
= 10472 (0.0718/0.0724)
RH Fan = 10385 cfm
Measured amps/FLA = (15.7/23)
= 0.68 V2 = (Q2/A2)
= 68% = (10385/3.2)
= 3245 fpm

Field Performance Measurement | 177


Blast area ratio = Blast Area/A2 CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
= 2.25/3.2
= 0.70 LH Fan
Qc = 10472 (1900/1910)
RH Fan = 10417 cfm
Q2 = Q1 (ρ1/ρ2)
= 10362 (0.0718/0.0724) Psc = 6.88 (1900/1910)2 (0.075/0.0718)
= 10276 cfm = 7.11 in. wg

V2 = (Q2/A2) Hc = 15.83 (1900/1910)3 (0.075/0.0718)


= (10276/3.2) = 16.28 hp
= 3211 fpm
RH Fan
Blast area ratio = Blast Area/A2 Qc = 10362 (1900/1890)
= 2.25/3.2 = 10417 cfm
= 0.70
Psc = 6.88 (1900/1890)2 (0.075/0.0718)
For a blast area ratio of 0.7 and no duct, Figure 8.3 = 7.26 in. wg
shows System Effect Curve S applies. For each fan
with velocities of 3245 fpm and 3211 fpm and curve
Hc = 14.54 (1900/1890)3 (0.075/0.0718)
S, Figure 7.1 shows SEF 1 = 0.5 in. wg at 0.075
= 15.43 hp
lbm/ft3. At 0.0724 lbm/ft3:

SEF 1 = 0.5 (0.0724/0.075)


= 0.48 in. wg

FAN STATIC PRESSURE

Ps = Ps2 + SEF 1

LH Fan
Ps = 6.4 + 0.48
= 6.88 in. wg

RH Fan
Ps = 6.4 + 0.48
= 6.88 in. wg

178 | Field Performance Measurement


EXAMPLE 2A: UTILITY FAN IN A VENTILATION SYSTEM

STATIC PRESSURE TAPS

PLAN VIEW 2

3-PIECE
ELBOW
R/D = 1
SEF 1
SEF 2
L
SIDE VIEW OUTLET SIDE VIEW

COMMENTS

1. Determine Pv3 by using the root mean square of described in Annex K, it is not necessary to measure
the velocity pressure measurements made in a motor watts; however, it may be necessary to
traverse of Plane 3, located near the end of a straight disconnect the drive and measure the no load amps
run of duct, such as shown in the diagram. Determine (NLA) if the motor is not operating at or near its full
Ps3 by averaging the static pressure measurements load point. Refer to Annex K.
made in the same traverse. Procedures for traverses
are described in Section 9.4. Ps3 is used in 5. SEF 1 is due to the effect of the elbow located at
determining the density at the traverse plane. the fan inlet. SEF 2 is due to the effect of insufficient
Measure the area of the traverse plane, A3, which is length of duct between the fan outlet and the elbow
located at the tip of the Pitot-static tube. downstream of the fan. In order to calculate the
values of the SEFs, it is necessary to measure the
2. Determine Ps1 by averaging the pressure inlet area and the outlet area of the fan, A1 and A2;
measurements at each of four static pressure taps in the length of the outlet duct, L; and the blast area of
the collar connection at the fan inlet. Determine Ps2 the fan.
by averaging the pressure measurements at each of
6. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure:
four static pressure taps located near the fan outlet.
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2
3. Measure td3 and tw3 in the traverse plane. Assume
td1 is equal to td3. Determine pb for the general vicinity
Where:
of the fan. Measure td2 in Plane 2. All of these
measurements are used in determining densities at
Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1)
the various planes of interest.
7. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
4. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
fan curve drawn for operation at 1880 rpm and 0.075
and if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
nameplate data, including volts (NPV) and full load lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the results
amps (FLA). If the motor power output is to be to the specified conditions. The basis for the
estimated by using the phase current method calculations is described in Section 14.

Field Performance Measurement | 179


OBSERVATIONS The density at Plane 1:

SITE MEASUREMENTS
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
ρ1 = ρ3 ⎜ s1 ⎟⎜ ⎟
pb = 29.20 in. Hg ⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d1 + 460 ⎠
td2 = 72°F ⎛ −2.18 + 13.6 × 29.20 ⎞ ⎛ 532 ⎞
= 0.0719 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 532 ⎟
td3 = 72°F ⎝ 13.6 × 29.06 ⎠⎝ ⎠
tw3 = 66°F = 0.0718 lbm/ft 3
Ps1 = -2.18 in. wg
Ps2 = 0.35 in. wg
The density at Plane 2:
Ps3 = -1.95 in. wg
Pv3 = 0.45 in. wg
N = 1730 rpm ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
ρ2 = ρ3 ⎜ s2 ⎟⎜ ⎟
A1 = 1.07 ft2 ⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d2 + 460 ⎠
A2 = 1.17 ft2 ⎛ 0.35 + 13.6 × 29.20 ⎞ ⎛ 532 ⎞
= 0.0719 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 532 ⎟
A3 = 1.07 ft2 ⎝ 13.6 × 29.06 ⎠⎝ ⎠
Blast Area = 0.7 ft2 = 0.0723 lbm/ft 3
L = 0.83 ft

MEASURED MOTOR DATA FLOW RATES

Volts = 227, 229, 228 V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5


= 228 av = 1096 (0.45/0.0719)0.5
Amps = 10.2, 10.3, 10.4 = 2742 fpm
= 10.3 av
NLA = 7.1 Q3 = V3A3
= 2742 × 1.07
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA = 2934 cfm

5 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz Q = Q1


230 volts, 1750 rpm, 14 FLA = Q3 (ρ3/ρ1)
= 2934 (0.0719/0.0718)
GENERAL = 2938 cfm

Fan connected to motor through belt drive. FAN POWER INPUT

CALCULATIONS Measured amps/FLA = 10.3/14


= 0.74
DENSITIES = 74%

For Plane 3 conditions of: Annex K indicates that the average of the results of
Equation A and Equation B will provide a reasonably
td3 = 72°F accurate estimate of motor power output for a 5 hp
tw3 = 66°F motor operating at 74% FLA.

p3 = pb + (Ps3/13.6) Eqn A = 5 (10.3/14) (228/230)


= 29.20 + (-1.95/13.6) = 3.65 hp
= 29.06 in. Hg
Eqn B = 5 [(10.3 - 7.1)/(14 - 7.1)] (228/230)
Use Figure N.1 in Annex N to obtain ρ3 = 0.0719 = 2.30 hp
lbm/ft3
Hmo = (3.65 + 2.30)/2
It is assumed that td1 = td3 = 2.98 hp

180 | Field Performance Measurement


Figure L.1 in Annex L indicates estimated belt drive L in % effective duct length
loss of 6.5%.
= (L/3.05) 100
HL = 0.065 Hmo = (0.83/3.05) 100
= 0.065 × 2.98 = 27%
= 0.19 hp
Blast area ratio = Blast Area/A2
H = Hmo - HL = 0.7/1.17
= 2.98 - 0.19 = 0.6
= 2.79 hp
For blast area ratio of 0.6, 27% effective duct length
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS and elbow position C, Figure 8.5 shows System
Effect Curve P - Q applies. For 2494 fpm velocity and
To determine the value of SEF 1, calculate the curve P - Q, Figure 7.1 shows SEF 2 = 0.7 in. wg at
velocity at the fan inlet: 0.075 lbm/ft3. At 0.0723 lbm/ft3:

V1 = Q1/A1 SEF 2 = 0.7 (0.0723/0.075)


= 2938/1.07 = 0.67 in. wg
= 2746 fpm
FAN STATIC PRESSURE
AMCA Publication 201-90, Figure 9.5 indicates that
for a three piece elbow with radius to diameter ratio Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1)
of 1, and with no duct between the elbow and the fan = 0.45 (1.07/1.07)2 (0.0719/0.0718)
inlet, System Effect Curve R applies. For 2746 fpm = 0.45 in. wg
velocity and curve R, Figure 7.1 shows SEF 1 = 0.55
in. wg at 0.075 lbm/ft3. At 0.0718 lbm/ft3: Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2
= 0.35 - (-2.18) - 0.45 + 0.53 + 0.67
SEF 1 = 0.55 (0.0718/0.075) = 3.28 in. wg
= 0.53 in. wg
CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
For SEF 2, AMCA Publication 201-90, Figures 7.1,
8.1, and 8.5 indicate the following calculations: Qc = 2938 (1880/1730)
= 3193 cfm
Q2 = Q3 (ρ3/ρ2)
= 2934 (0.0719/0.0723) Psc = 3.28 (1880/1730)2 (0.075/0.0718)
= 2918 cfm = 4.05 in. wg
V2 = (Q2/A2)
Hc = 2.79 (1880/1730)3 (0.075/0.0718)
= 2918/1.17
= 3.74 hp
= 2494 fpm

Duct diameter equivalent to the fan outlet area:

De2 = (4A2/π)0.5
= (4 × 1.17/π)0.5
= 1.22 ft

Figure 8.1 shows that for velocities of 2500 fpm or


less, the 100% effective outlet duct length is 2.5 duct
diameters,

= 2.5 × 1.22
= 3.05 ft

Field Performance Measurement | 181


EXAMPLE 2B: CENTRIFUGAL FAN IN A SAWDUST CONVEYING SYSTEM

SEF 2 2
1

SEF 1
4-PIECE ELBOW
R/D = 1

L2

L1

OUTLET SIDE VIEW SIDE VIEW

COMMENTS

1. Determine Pv3 by using the root mean square of atmospheric pressure as used in all other pressure
the velocity pressure measurements made in a measurements. In this case, the pressure was
traverse of Plane 3, located near the end of a straight measured as 0.1 in. wg.
run of duct, such as shown in the diagram. Determine
Ps3 by averaging the static pressure measurements 3. Measure td3 and tw3 in the traverse plane.
made in the same traverse. Procedures for traverses Determine pb for the general vicinity of the fan.
are described in Section 9.4. Ps3 is used in Measure td1 and td2. All of these measurements are
determining the density at the traverse plane. used in determining densities at the various planes of
Measure the area of the traverse plane, A3, which is interest.
located at the tip of the Pitot-static tube.
4. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
2. Determine Ps1 by using a Pitot-static tube or static and if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
pressure taps in the duct connection at the fan inlet. nameplate data, including volts (NPV) and full load
If a Pitot-static tube is used, it should not project into amps (FLA). If the motor power output is to be
the upstream elbow but be located well within the estimated by using the phase current method
length of the duct connection as shown in the described in Annex K, it is not necessary to measure
diagram. The friction loss in the short length of outlet motor watts; however, it may be necessary to
duct is assumed to be negligible, and Ps2 is disconnect the drive and measure the no load amps
considered to be equal to the static pressure at the (NLA) if the motor is not operating at or near its full
duct outlet. The static pressure at the outlet of the load point. Refer to Annex K.
duct is zero gauge pressure, referred to the
atmospheric pressure in the region of the duct outlet. 5. SEF 1 is due to the effect of insufficient length of
In situations such as this example, the air may be duct between the fan inlet and the elbow upstream of
discharging from the duct into a region in which the the fan. SEF 2 is due to the effect of insufficient
atmospheric pressure is somewhat different from that length of duct at the fan outlet. In order to calculate
to which all other pressure measurements are the values of the SEFs, it is necessary to measure
referred. When this possibility exists, it is essential the inlet area and the outlet area of the fan, A1 and
that the static pressure in the region of the A2; the lengths of the inlet connection and the outlet
discharging air be measured, referred to the same duct, L1 and L2; and the blast area of the fan.

182 | Field Performance Measurement


6. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure: CALCULATION

Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2 DENSITIES

Where: For Plane 2 conditions of:

Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1) td2 = 91.3°F


tw2 = 70.4°F
7. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
fan curve drawn for operation at 2075 rpm and 0.075 p2 = pb + (Ps2/13.6)
lbm/ft3, it is necessary to convert the results to the = 29.82 + (0.1/13.6)
specified conditions. The basis for the calculations is = 29.83 in. Hg
described in Section 14.
Use Figure N.1 in Annex N to obtain ρ2 = 0.0714
OBSERVATIONS lbm/ft3

SITE MEASUREMENTS The density at Plane 1:

pb = 29.82 in. Hg
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d2 + 460 ⎞
td1 = 86.6°F ρ1 = ρ2 ⎜ s1 ⎟⎜ ⎟
td2 = 91.3°F ⎝ 13.6 p2 ⎠ ⎝ t d1 + 460 ⎠
tw2 = 70.4°F ⎛ −11.4
4 + 13.6 × 29.82 ⎞ ⎛ 551.3 ⎞
= 0.0714 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 546.6 ⎟
td3 = 86°F ⎝ 13.6 × 29.83 ⎠⎝ ⎠
Ps1 = -11.4 in. wg = 0.0700 lbm/ft 3
Ps2 = 0.1 in. wg
Ps3 = -8.9 in. wg
The density at Plane 3:
Pv3 = 1.24 in. wg
N = 2120 rpm, fan speed
A1 = 1.40 ft2 ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d2 + 460 ⎞
ρ3 = ρ2 ⎜ s3 ⎟⎜ ⎟
A2 = 1.40 ft2 ⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d3 + 460 ⎠
A3 = 1.57 ft2 ⎛ −8.9 + 13.6 × 29.82 ⎞ ⎛ 551.3 ⎞
= 0.0714 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 546 ⎟
⎝ 13.6 × 29.83 ⎠⎝ ⎠
Blast Area = 1.26 ft2 = 0.0705 lbm/ft 3
L1 = 1.33 ft
L2 = 3.0 ft
FLOW RATES
MEASURED MOTOR DATA
V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5
Volts = 460, 460, 459 = 1096 (1.24/0.0705)0.5
= 460 av = 4596 fpm
Amps = 26.5, 25.5, 26
= 26 av Q3 = V3A3
NLA = 11.3 = 4596 × 1.57
= 7216 cfm
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA
Q = Q1
30 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz = Q3 (ρ3/ρ1)
460 volts, 1750 rpm, 36 FLA = 7216 (0.0705/0.0700)
= 7268 cfm
GENERAL
FAN POWER INPUT
Fan connected to motor through belt drive.
Measured amps/FLA = (26/36)
= 0.72
= 72%

Field Performance Measurement | 183


Annex K indicates that the average of the results of For SEF 2, AMCA Publication 201-90, Figure 8.3
Equation A and Equation B will provide a reasonably indicates the following calculations:
accurate estimate of motor power output for a 30 hp
motor operating at 72% FLA. Q2 = Q3 (ρ3/ρ2)
= 7216 (0.0705/0.0714)
Eqn A = 30 (26/36) (460/460) = 7125 cfm
= 21.67 hp
V2 = (Q2/A2)
Eqn B = 30 [(26 - 11.3)/(36 - 11.3)] (460/460) = (7125/1.40)
= 17.85 hp = 5089 fpm

Hmo = (21.67 + 17.85)/2 Duct diameter equivalent to the fan outlet area:
= 19.76 hp
De2 = (4A2/π)0.5
Figure L.1 in Annex L indicates estimated belt drive = (4 × 1.40/π)0.5
loss of 4.8%. = 1.34 ft
HL = 0.048 Hmo Figure 8.3 shows that for velocities over 2500 fpm,
= 0.048 × 19.76 100% effective duct length is one duct diameter per
= 0.95 hp 1000 fpm:

H = Hmo - HL = D2 (V2/1000)
= 19.76 - 0.95 = 1.34 (5089/1000)
= 18.81 hp = 6.82 ft

SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS The length of the outlet duct in % effective duct
length:
To determine the value of SEF 1, calculate the
velocity at the fan inlet: = (L2/6.82) 100
= (3.0/6.82) 100
V1 = (Q1/A1) = 44%
= (7268/1.40)
= 5191 fpm Blast ratio area = Blast Area/A2
= 1.26/1.40
The diameter of the fan inlet: = 0.9

D1 = (4A1/π)0.5 For blast area ratio of 0.9 and 44% effective duct
= (4 × 1.40/π)0.5 length, Figure 8.3 shows no System Effect Curve
= 1.34 ft. applies and SEF 2 = 0.

The length of the duct between the elbow and the fan FAN STATIC PRESSURE
inlet in terms of D1:
Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1)
= (L1/D1) = 1.24 (1.57/1.40)2 (0.0705/0.0700)
= (1.33/1.34) = 1.57 in. wg
= 1.0
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2
AMCA Publication 201-90, Figure 9.5 indicates that = 0.1 - (-11.4) - 1.57 + 1.2 + 0
for a four piece elbow with a radius to diameter ratio = 11.13 in. wg
of 1, and with a length of duct between the elbow and
the fan inlet equal to 1 equivalent diameter, System CONVERSIONS TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
Effect Curve S applies. For 5191 fpm velocity and
curve S, Figure 7.1 shows SEF 1 = 1.3 in. wg at Qc = 7268 (2075/2120)
0.075 lbm/ft3. At 0.0700 lbm/ft3: = 7114 cfm

SEF 1 = 1.3 (0.0700/0.075) Psc = 11.13 (2075/2120)2 (0.075/0.0700)


= 1.2 in. wg = 11.42 in. wg

184 | Field Performance Measurement


Hc = 18.81 (2075/2120)2 (0.075/0.0700)
= 18.90 hp

Field Performance Measurement | 185


EXAMPLE 2C: AXIAL FAN IN A DRYER SYSTEM

4 5 STRAIGHTENING VANES
2 3
1
SEF 2 STATIC PRESSURE TAPS

A3

PLAN VIEW
SEF 1
INNER CYLINDER
LOCATION OF PLANE 3

SIDE VIEW

COMMENTS

1. This type of installation is normally classified as located at the tip of the Pitot-static tube, as shown in
one in which a satisfactory test cannot be conducted. the diagram, not at the location of the Pitot-static tube
Due to the configurations of the airways, there are no access holes.
locations at which reasonably accurate pressure
measurements can be made. In addition, the 3. Determine Ps4 by averaging the pressure
judgments required in determining the values of the measurements at each of four static pressure taps
SEFs are susceptible to error. The purpose of located near the fan inlet. In the same manner,
presenting this example is to illustrate the not determine Ps5 at a location near the fan outlet. It is
uncommon instance in which a test must be conducted undesirable to have pressure measurement planes
in order to provide performance information, even located in converging and diverging airways, but
though the results will be innaccurate to a degree there are no other more suitable locations for these
which is not normally acceptable. planes in this installation. Measure A4 and A5, the
cross-sectional areas of the airways at Planes 4 and 5.
2. Determine Pv3 by using the root mean square of
the velocity pressure measurements made in a 4. Measure td3, tw3, and td4. Determine pb for the
traverse of Plane 3, located as shown in the diagram. general vicinity of the fan. These measurements are
Determine Ps3 by averaging the static pressure used in the determination of densities at the various
measurements made in the same traverse. planes of interest.
Procedures for traverses are described in Section
9.4. These velocity pressure and static pressure 5. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
measurements are susceptible to error due to the and if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
turbulence existing in the region of the fan outlet. In nameplate data, including volts (NPV) and full load
addition, it is undesirable to have Plane 3 located in amps (FLA). If the motor power output is to be
a diverging airway. However, no other more suitable estimated by using the phase current method
location for Plane 3 exists in this example. It is described in Annex K, it is not necessary to measure
recommended that the Pitot-static tube be oriented motor watts; however, it may be necessary to
so that its nose is aligned with the anticipated flow disconnect the drive and measure the no load amps
streams, particularly near the walls of the diffuser. (NLA) if the motor is not operating at or near its full
Determine the area of the traverse plane, A3, which is load point. Refer to Annex K.

186 | Field Performance Measurement


6. Although an elbow is located a short distance MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA
upstream of the fan, it is considered to produce no
system effect since it is equipped with turning vanes 25 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz
and the average velocity through the elbow will be 460 volts, 1750 rpm, 31 FLA
relatively low due to its large cross-sectional area.
Therefore, SEF 1 = 0. In judging SEF 2, the rapidly GENERAL
diverging transition fitting downstream of the fan is
considered equivalent to no duct at the fan outlet. In Fan connected to motor through belt drive
order to calculate the value of SEF2, it is necessary
to measure the outlet area of the fan, A2. CALCULATIONS

7. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure, DENSITIES

Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2 For Plane 3 conditions of:

Where: td3 = 86.5°F


tw3 = 75.5°F
Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1)
p3 = pb + (Ps3/13.6)
Ps1 and Ps2 are calculated on the basis of total = 28.90 + (1.5/13.6)
pressure considerations, using Ps4, Ps5, and the = 29.01 in. Hg
calculated velocity pressures at Planes 1, 2, 4, and 5.
Use Figure N.1 from Annex N to obtain ρ3 = 0.0694
8. In order to compare the test results to the quoted lbm/ft3
fan curve drawn for operation at 1580 rpm and
0.0690 lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the The density at Plane 4:
results to the specified conditions. The basis for the
calculations is described in Section 14. ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
ρ 4 = ρ3 ⎜ s4 ⎟⎜ ⎟
OBSERVATIONS ⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d4 + 460 ⎠
⎛ −1.57 + 13.6 × 28.90 ⎞ ⎛ 546.5 ⎞
= 0.0694 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 545 ⎟
SITE MEASUREMENTS ⎝ 13.6 × 29.01 ⎠⎝ ⎠
= 0.0691 lbm/ft 3
pb = 28.90 in. Hg
td3 = 86.5°F
tw3 = 75.5°F It is assumed that td1 = td4 and at the low pressure
td4 = 85°F levels which exist at Planes 1 and 4, the difference
between these pressures will be small, and assuming
Ps3 = 1.5 in. wg
ρ1 = ρ4, will result in an error which is considered
Pv3 = 0.044 in. wg
negligible. By similar reasoning, it is assumed that
Ps4 = -1.57 in. wg
ρ5 = ρ2 = ρ3.
Ps5 = 1.22 in. wg
N = 1590 rpm FLOW RATES
A1 = A2 = 8.0 ft2
A3 = 29.8 ft2 V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5
A4 = 12.4 ft2 = 1096 (0.044/0.0694)0.5
A5 = 9.6 ft2 = 873 fpm

MEASURED MOTOR DATA Q3 = V3A3


= 873 × 29.8
Volts = 450, 449, 448 = 26015 cfm
= 449 av
Amps = 25.0, 24.5, 25.0 Q = Q1
= 24.8 av = Q3 (ρ3/ρ1)
NLA = 9.4 = 26015 (0.0694/0.0691)
= 26128 cfm

Field Performance Measurement | 187


FAN POWER INPUT FAN STATIC PRESSURE

Measured amps/FLA = (24.8/31) Pv4 = Pv3 (A3/A4)2 (ρ3/ρ4)


= 0.80 = 0.044 (29.8/12.4)2 (0.0694/0.0691)
= 80% = 0.26 in. wg

Annex K indicates that the average of the results of Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1)
Equation A and Equation B will provide a reasonably
accurate estimate of motor power output for a 25 hp = 0.044 (29.8/8.0)2 (0.0694/0.0691)
motor operating at 80% FLA. = 0.61 in. wg

Eqn A = 25 (24.8/31) (449/460) Ps1 + Pv1 = Ps4 + Pv4


= 19.52 hp Ps1 = Ps4 + Pv4 - Pv1
= -1.57 + 0.26 - 0.61
Eqn B = 25 [(24.8 - 9.4)/(31 - 9.4)] (449/460) = -1.92 in. wg
= 17.40 hp
Pv5 = Pv3 (A3/A5)2 (ρ3/ρ5)
Hmo = (19.52 + 17.40)/2 = 0.044 (29.8/9.6)2 (0.0694/0.0694)
= 18.46 hp = 0.42 in. wg

Figure L.1 in Annex L indicates estimated belt drive Pv2 = Pv3 (A3/A2)2 (ρ3/ρ2)
loss of 4.9%. = 0.044 (29.8/8.0)2 (0.0694/0.0694)
= 0.61 in. wg
HL = 0.049 Hmo
= 0.049 × 18.46 Ps2 + Pv2 = Ps5 + Pv5
= 0.90 hp Ps2 = Ps5 + Pv5 - Pv2
= 1.22 + 0.42 - 0.61
H = Hmo - HL = 1.03 in. wg
= 18.46 - 0.90 Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2
= 17.56 hp = 1.03 - (-1.92) - 0.61 + 0 + 0.24
= 2.58 in. wg
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS
Losses between Planes 1 and 4 and between Planes
SEF 1 = 0 See item 6 under COMMENTS. 2 and 5 have been ignored.
To determine the value of SEF 2, AMCA Publication CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
201-90, Figure 8.2 indicates that a vaneaxial fan with
no outlet duct will use System Effect Curve U. Qc = 26128 (1580/1590)
= 25964 cfm
Q2 = Q3 (ρ3/ρ2)
= 26015 (0.0694/0.0694)
Psc = 2.58 (1580/1590)2 (0.0690/0.0691)
= 26015 cfm
= 2.54 in. wg
V2 = (Q2/A2)
Hc = 17.56 (1580/1590)3 (0.0690/0.0691)
= (26015/8.0)
= 3252 fpm = 17.21 hp

From Figure 7.1, using 3252 fpm and curve U, SEF 2


= 0.26 in. wg at 0.075 lbm/ft3. At 0.0694 lbm/ft3:

SEF 2 = 0.26 (0.0694/0.075)


= 0.24 in. wg

188 | Field Performance Measurement


EXAMPLE 2D: CENTRIFUGAL FAN IN A SCRUBBER SYSTEM

INLET BOX DAMPER

STATIC PRESSURE TAPS

SEF 1

3
1

L
INLET BOX

DIFFUSER

SIDE VIEW OUTLET SIDE VIEW

COMMENTS

1. This fan, as supplied and rated by the 5. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
manufacturer, includes the inlet box damper and the and if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
inlet box. Performance ratings for fans with inlet box nameplate data, including volts (NPV), and full load
dampers cover operation with the dampers in the full amps (FLA). If the motor power output is to be
open positions. In order to be able to compare the estimated by using the phase current method
test results to the fan performance ratings, it is described in Annex K, it is not necessary to measure
essential that the damper be fixed in the full open motor watts; however, it may be necessary to
position for the duration of the test. disconnect the drive and measure the no load amps
(NLA) if the motor is not operating at or near its full
2. Determine Pv3 by using the root mean square of load point. Refer to Annex K.
the velocity pressure measurements made in a
traverse of Plane 3, located shortly upstream of the 6. SEF 1 is due to the effect of insufficient length of
inlet damper. Determine Ps3 by averaging the static duct at the fan outlet. In order to calculate the value
pressure measurements made in the same traverse. of SEF 1, it is necessary to measure the length of the
Procedures for traverses are described in Section outlet duct, L; the fan outlet area, A2; and the blast
9.4. Measure A3, the area of the traverse plane, area of the fan.
located at the tip of the Pitot-static tube and A1, the
area of the inlet to the damper. 7. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure:

3. Determine Ps2 by averaging the pressure Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1


measurements at each of four static pressure taps
located near the end of the fan outlet. See Annex E Since Plane 1 is located shortly downstream of Plane
for details of static pressure taps. 3 in an airway of uniform cross-section (A1 = A3), the
conditions which exist at Plane 3 are assumed to
4. Measure td3 and tw3 in the traverse plane. exist at Plane 1. Therefore, Ps1 = Ps3 and Pv1 = Pv3.
Determine pb for the general vicinity of the fan.
Measure td2 in Plane 2. These measurements are 8. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
used in the determination of densities at the various fan curve drawn for operation at 1780 rpm and 0.059
planes of interest. lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the results

Field Performance Measurement | 189


to the specified conditions. The basis for the pe = 0.5603 in. Hg
calculations is described in Section 14.
pp = pe - [p3 (td3 - tw3)/2700]
OBSERVATIONS = 0.5603 - [24.28 (63 - 62)/2700]
= 0.5513 in. Hg
SITE MEASUREMENTS
1.3257( p3 − 0.378 pp )
pb = 29.44 in. Hg ρ3 =
td2 = 97°F t d3 + 460
td3 = 63°F 1.3257 ( 24.28 − 0.378 × 0.5513 )
=
tw3 = 62°F 63 + 460
Ps2 = 1.1 in. wg = 0.0610 lbm/ft 3
Ps3 = -70.2 in. wg
Pv3 = 0.64 in. wg
Consider ρ1 to be equal to ρ3.
N = 1790 rpm
A1 = 6.5 ft2 The density at Plane 2:
A2 = 5.32 ft2
A3 = 6.5 ft2 ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
Blast Area = 1.89 ft2 ρ2 = ρ3 ⎜ s2 ⎟⎜ ⎟
L = 2.50 ft ⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d2 + 460 ⎠
⎛ 1.1 + 13.6 × 29.44 ⎞ ⎛ 523 ⎞
= 0.0610 ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟
MEASURED MOTOR DATA ⎝ 13.6 × 24.28 ⎠ ⎝ 557 ⎠
= 0.0696 lbm/ft 3
Volts = 4160, 4150, 4150
= 4153 av
Amps = 50, 51, 52 FLOW RATES
= 51 av
NLA = 14 V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5
= 1096 (0.64/0.0610)0.5
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA = 3550 fpm

500 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz Q3 = V3A3


4160 volts, 1785 rpm, 61 FLA = 3550 × 6.5
= 23075 cfm
GENERAL Q = Q1 = Q3
= 23075 cfm
Inlet box damper in full open position. Fan direct
connected to motor. FAN POWER INPUT

CALCULATIONS Measured amps/FLA = 51/61


= 0.84
DENSITIES = 84%

For Plane 3 conditions of: Annex K indicates that the average of the results of
Equation A and Equation B will provide a reasonably
td3 = 63°F accurate estimate of motor power output for a 500 hp
tw3 = 62°F motor operating at 84% FLA.

p3 = pb + (Ps3/13.6) Eqn A = 500 (51/61) (4153/4160)


= 29.44 + (-70.2/13.6) = 417 hp
= 24.28 in. Hg
Eqn B = 500 [(51 - 14)/(61 - 14)] (4153/4160)
Use the modified Apjohn equation, described in = 393 hp
Section M.2.3 in Annex M, and the table in Figure N.2
in Annex N to calculate the density at Plane 3. Hmo = (417 + 393)/2
= 405 hp

190 | Field Performance Measurement


Since the fan is direct-connected to the motor, there Blast area ratio = Blast Area/A2
is no drive loss, and: = 1.89/5.32
= 0.36
H = Hmo
= 405 hp For a blast area ratio of 0.36, and 25% effective duct
length, Figure 8.3 shows System Effect Curve U
SYSTEM EFFECT FACTOR applies. For 3802 fpm velocity and curve U, Figure
7.1 shows SEF 1 = 0.36 in. wg at 0.075 lbm/ft3. At
AMCA Publication 201-90, Figures 7.1 and 8.3 0.0696 lbm/ft3:
indicate the following calculations.
SEF 1 = 0.36 (0.0696/0.075)
Q2 = Q3 (ρ3/ρ2) = 0.33 in. wg
= 23075 (0.0610/0.0696)
= 20224 cfm FAN STATIC PRESSURE

V2 = Q2/A2 Ps1 = Ps3


= 20224/5.32 = - 70.2 in. wg
= 3802 fpm Pv1 = Pv3
= 0.64 in. wg
Duct diameter equivalent to the diffuser outlet area: Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1
= 1.1 - (-70.2) - 0.64 + 0.33
De2 = (4A2/π)0.5 = 71.0 in. wg
= (4 × 5.32/π)0.5
= 2.60 ft CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS

Figure 8.3 shows that for velocities over 2500 fpm Qc = 23075 (1780/1790)
100% effective duct length is one duct diameter for = 22946 cfm
every 1000 fpm:
Psc = 71.0 (1780/1790)2 (0.059/0.0610)
= De2 (V2/1000) = 67.9 in. wg
= 2.60 (3802/1000)
= 9.89 ft. Hc = 405 (1780/1790)3 (0.059/0.0610)
= 385 hp
L in % effective duct length:

= (L/9.89) 100
= (2.50/9.89) 100
= 25%

Field Performance Measurement | 191


EXAMPLE 2E: CENTRIFUGAL FAN IN A PROCESS SYSTEM

STATIC OUTLET DAMPER


PRESSURE TAPS 5
2

INLET BOXES

INLET BOX 1a 1b
DAMPERS 3a 3b

SIDE VIEW OPPOSITE OUTLET SIDE VIEW

COMMENTS

1. This fan, as supplied and rated by the 4. Measure td3a, td3b, and td5. Since flue gas is being
manufacturer, includes the inlet box dampers and the handled by the fan, the Orsat apparatus is used by
inlet boxes, but does not include the outlet damper. process personnel to determine the density of the
Performance ratings for fans with inlet box dampers gas. Determine pb for the general vicinity of the fan.
cover operation with the dampers in the full open These data are used in the determination of densities
positions. Also, performance ratings for items such as at the various planes of interest.
the outlet damper are for operation in the full open
position. In order to be able to compare the test 5. Measure the fan speed and the motor amps, volts,
results to the fan performance ratings, it is essential and if possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor
that the outlet damper and the inlet dampers be fixed nameplate data, including volts (NPV) and full load
in their full open positions. amps (FLA). If the motor power output is to be
estimated by using the phase current method
2. Determine Pv3a and Pv3b by using the root mean described in Annex K, it is not necessary to measure
square of the velocity pressure measurements made motor watts; however, it may be necessary to
in Planes 3a and 3b. Determine Ps3a and Ps3b by disconnect the drive and measure the no load amps
averaging each of the two sets of static pressure (NLA) if the motor is not operating at or near its full
measurements made in the same traverses. load point. Motor performance data, supplied by the
Procedures for traverses are described in Section motor manufacturer, are used in the determination of
9.4. Measure A3a and A3b, the areas of the traverse motor power output for this example.
planes and A1a and A1b, the areas of the inlets to the
inlet dampers. 6. In this example, the duct downstream of the outlet
damper is of sufficient length, and no SEF applies.
3. Determine Ps5 by averaging the pressure
measurements of each of four static pressure taps 7. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure:
located downstream of the outlet damper.
Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1

192 | Field Performance Measurement


Ps2 is calculated on the basis of total pressure MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA
considerations using Ps5, the outlet damper pressure
loss, and the calculated velocity pressures at Planes 3000 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz
2 and 5. Since the inlets to the inlet dampers (Planes 4000 volts, 880 rpm, 385 FLA
1a and 1b) are located shortly downstream of the
traverse planes (Planes 3a and 3b) in an airway of GENERAL
uniform cross-section, the conditions which exist at
the traverse planes are assumed to exist at the inlets Inlet box dampers and outlet damper in full open
to the inlet dampers. positions. Fan direct connected to motor. Motor
efficiency data supplied by motor manufacturer.
Ps1 = Ps3 Pressure loss data supplied by manufacturer of outlet
= (Ps3a + Ps3b)/2 damper.

Pv1 is calculated using the total flow rate and the total CALCULATIONS
area at the inlets to the inlet dampers.
DENSITIES
Pv1 = (Q1/1096A1 )2 ρ1
The densities at Planes 3a and 3b are:
8. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
fan curve drawn for operation at 880 rpm and 0.049 ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ 70 + 460 ⎞
ρ3a = 0.0725 ⎜ s3a ⎟⎜ ⎟
lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the results ⎝ 13.6 × 29.92 ⎠ ⎝ t d3a + 460 ⎠
to the specified conditions. The basis for calculations ⎛ −18.8 + 13.6 × 30.12 ⎞ ⎛ 530 ⎞
is described in Section 14. = 0.0725 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 805 ⎟
⎝ 13.6 × 29.92 ⎠⎝ ⎠
OBSERVATIONS = 0.0458 lbm/ft 3

SITE MEASUREMENTS
⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ 70 + 460 ⎞
ρ3b = 0.0725 ⎜ s3b ⎟⎜ ⎟
pb = 30.12 in. Hg ⎝ 13.6 × 29.92 ⎠ ⎝ t d3b + 460 ⎠
td3a= 345°F ⎛ −18.3 + 13.6 × 30.12 ⎞ ⎛ 530 ⎞
td3b= 359°F = 0.0725 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 819 ⎟
⎝ 13.6 × 29.92 ⎠⎝ ⎠
td5 = 363°F
= 0.0451 lbm/ft 3

Ps3a= -18.8 in. wg


Ps3b= -18.3 in. wg
Pv3a= 2.053 in. wg It is assumed that ρ1a = ρ3a and ρ1b = ρ3b.
Pv3b= 2.028 in. wg
The density at Plane 5:
Ps5 = -1.6 in. wg
N = 892 rpm
A1a = A1b ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ 70 + 460 ⎞
ρ5 = 0.0725 ⎜ s5 ⎟⎜ ⎟
= 60.7 ft2 ⎝ 13.6 × 29.92 ⎠ ⎝ t d5 + 460 ⎠
A2 = 115 ft2 ⎛ −1.6 + 13.6 × 30.12 ⎞ ⎛ 530 ⎞
A3a = A3b = 0.0725 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 823 ⎟
⎝ 13.6 × 29.92 ⎠⎝ ⎠
= 60.7 ft2
= 0.0468 lbm/fft 3
A5 = 140 ft2
Blast Area = 80 ft2
It is assumed that ρ2 = ρ5.
The density of the gas, as determined by Orsat
analysis, is 0.0725 lbm/ft3 at 29.92 in. Hg and 70°F. FLOW RATES

MEASURED MOTOR DATA V3a = 1096 (Pv3a/ρ3a)0.5


= 1096 (2.053/0.0458)0.5
Volts = 4300, 4250, 4200 = 7338 fpm
= 4250 av
Amps = 378, 376, 380 Q3a = V3aA3a
= 378 av = 7338 × 60.7
kW = 2519 = 445417 cfm
Field Performance Measurement | 193
V3b = 1096 (Pv3b/ρ3b)0.5 FAN STATIC PRESSURE
= 1096 (2.028/0.0451)0.5
= 7349 fpm Pv1 = (Q1/1096A1)2 ρ1
= (891501/1096 × 121.4)2 0.0455
Q3b = V3bA3b = 2.04 in. wg
= 7349 × 60.7
= 446084 cfm Pv2 = Pv1 (A1/A2)2 (ρ1/ρ2)
= 2.04 (121.4/115)2 (0.0455/0.0468)
Q3 = Q3a + Q3b = 2.21 in. wg
= 445417 + 446084
= 891501 cfm Pv5 = Pv1 (A1/A5)2 (ρ1/ρ5)
= 2.04 (121.4/140)2 (0.0455/0.0468)
Since the air is divided evenly between the two inlet = 1.49 in. wg
boxes:
Ps2 + Pv2 = Ps5 + Pv5 + Damper Loss
ρ1 = ρ3
= (ρ3a + ρ3b)/2 Ps2 = Ps5 + Pv5 + Damper Loss - Pv2
= (0.0458 + 0.0451)/2 = -1.6 + 1.49 + 0.75 - 2.21
= 0.0455 lbm/ft3 = -1.57 in. wg

Q = Q1 Ps1 = Ps3
= Q3 (ρ3/ρ1) = (Ps3a + Ps3b)/2
= 891501 (0.0455/0.0455) = (-18.8 - 18.3)/2
= 891501 cfm = -18.55 in. wg

FAN POWER INPUT Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1


= -1.57 - (-18.55) - 2.04
Measured amps/FLA = (378/385) = 14.94 in. wg
= 0.98
= 98% CONVERSION TO SPECIFIED CONDITIONS
Annex K indicates that Equation A will provide a Qc = 891501 (880/892)
reasonably accurate estimate of motor power output
= 879508 cfm
for a 3000 hp motor operating at 98% FLA.

Hmo = 3000 (378/385) (4250/4000) Psc = 14.94 (880/892)2 (0.049/0.0455)


= 3130 hp = 15.66 in. wg

The data supplied by the motor manufacturer indicate Hc = 3174 (880/892)3 (0.049/0.0455)
motor efficiency of 94% at the measured power input = 3282 hp
of 2519 kW. Using this information:

Hmo = (2519 × 0.94)/0.746


= 3174 hp

The more accurate method of estimating the motor


power output is assumed to be the latter. Since the
fan is direct connected to the motor, there is no drive
loss, and:

H = Hmo
= 3174 hp

194 | Field Performance Measurement


EXAMPLE 2F: AXIAL FAN IN A VENTILATION SYSTEM

GUIDE VANES STATIC PRESSURE TAPS

4 5

SEF 1

2-PIECE ELBOW
(TYPICAL)

INNER SEF 2
L1 L2
CYLINDER

1 2

COMMENTS

1. The unusual duct arrangement in this example 4. Measure td3 and tw3 in the traverse plane.
makes it very difficult to obtain accurate pressure Determine pb for the general vicinity of the fan.
measurements, and this fact should be understood Measure td4. These measurements are used in
before testing begins. Also, the use of a diverging determining densities at the various planes of
inlet fitting and a converging outlet fitting with this fan interest.
can pose additional problems. Unless the degrees of
divergence and convergence are moderate, as they 5. Measure the fan speed, motor amps, volts, and if
are in this example, the fan performance will be possible, watts. Record all pertinent motor nameplate
adversely affected. data, including volts (NPV) and full load amps (FLA).
If the motor power output is to be estimated by using
2. Determine Pv3 by using the root mean square of the phase current method described in Annex K, it is
the velocity pressure measurements made in a not necessary to measure motor watts; however, it
traverse of Plane 3, located well downstream in a may be necessary to disconnect the drive and
straight run of duct, such as shown in the diagram. measure the no load amps (NLA) if the motor is not
Determine Ps3 by averaging the static pressure operating at or near its full load point. Motor
measurements made in the same traverse. performance data, supplied by the motor
Procedures for traverses are described in Section manufacturer, are used in the determination of motor
9.4. Ps3 is used in determining the density at the power output for this example.
traverse plane. Measure the area of the traverse
plane, A3. 6. SEF 1 is due to the effect of insufficient length of
duct between the fan inlet and the elbow upstream of
3. Determine Ps5 by averaging the pressure the fan. SEF 2 is due to the effect of insufficient
measurements at each of four static pressure taps length of duct between the fan outlet and the elbow
located near the end of the duct connection at the fan downstream of the fan. In order to calculate the
outlet. Determine Ps4 by using static pressure taps in values of the SEFs, it is necessary to measure the
the duct connection at the fan inlet. Measure A4 and inlet area and the outlet area of the fan, A1 and A2;
A5, the cross-sectional areas of the duct connections and the lengths of the inlet and outlet duct
at the static pressure taps. connections, L1 and L2.

Field Performance Measurement | 195


7. To calculate the Fan Static Pressure: 460 volts, 1760 rpm, 24.6 FLA

Ps = Ps2 - Ps1 - Pv1 + SEF 1 + SEF 2 GENERAL

Where: Fan direct connected to motor. Motor efficiency data


supplied by motor manufacturer. Fan speed
Pv1 = Pv3 (A3/A1)2 (ρ3/ρ1) measurement was not obtained due to the closed
duct arrangements on both sides of the fan. The
Ps2 and Ps1 are calculated using measured static measured amps indicate that the motor is operating
pressure values and constant total pressure very close to the full load condition, so the rpm was
considerations. assumed to be the motor nameplate value of 1760.

Ps1 + Pv1 = Ps4 + Pv4 CALCULATIONS


Ps2 + Pv2 = Ps5 + Pv5
DENSITIES
Where each velocity pressure is calculated in a
For Plane 3 conditions of:
manner similar to the calculation of Pv1, shown
above. td3 = 82.8°F
tw3 = 57.2°F
8. In order to compare the test results to the quoted
fan curve drawn for operation at 1750 rpm and 0.075
p3 = pb + (Ps3/13.6)
lbm/ft3 density, it is necessary to convert the results
= 29.76 + (0.5/13.6)
to the specified conditions. The basis for the
= 29.80 in. Hg
calculations is described in Section 14.
Use Figure N.1 in Annex N to obtain ρ3 = 0.0728
OBSERVATIONS
lbm/ft3.
SITE MEASUREMENTS
It is assumed ρ2 = ρ5 = ρ3.
pb = 29.76 in. Hg
td3 = 82.8°F The density at Planes 1 and 4:
tw3 = 57.2°F
td4 = 80°F ρ1 = ρ 4
Ps3 = 0.5 in. wg ⎛ P + 13.6 pb ⎞ ⎛ t d3 + 460 ⎞
Pv3 = 0.783 in. wg = ρ3 ⎜ s4 ⎟⎜ ⎟
⎝ 13.6 p3 ⎠ ⎝ t d4 + 460 ⎠
Ps4 = -1.1 in. wg
⎛ −1.1 + 13.6 × 29.76 ⎞ ⎛ 542.8 ⎞
Ps5 = 0.82 in. wg = 0.0728 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 540 ⎟
A1 = A2 ⎝ 13.6 × 29.80 ⎠⎝ ⎠
= 7.1 ft2 = 0.0729 lbm/ft 3
A3 = A5
= 4.91 ft2 FLOW RATES
A4 = 6.2 ft2
L1 = 3.0 ft V3 = 1096 (Pv3/ρ3)0.5
L2 = 3.5 ft = 1096 (0.783/0.0728)0.5
= 3594 fpm
MEASURED MOTOR DATA
Q3 = V3A3
Volts = 460, 461, 459 = 3594 × 4.91
= 460 av = 17647 cfm
Amps = 25.0, 25.0, 24.8
= 24.9 av Q = Q1
kW = 18.0 = Q3 (ρ3/ρ1)
= 17647 (0.0728/0.0729)
MOTOR NAMEPLATE DATA
= 17623 cfm
20 hp, 3 phase, 60 hertz

196 | Field Performance Measurement


FAN POWER INPUT Diameter of the fan outlet:

The data supplied by the motor manufacturer indicate D2 = (4A2/π)0.5


motor efficiency of 87.5% at the measured power = (4 × 7.1/π)0.5
input of 18.0 kW. Using this information: = 3.01 ft

Hmo = (18.0 × 0.875)/0.746 Figure 8.1 shows that for velocities of 2500 fpm or
= 21.1 hp less, the 100% effective duct length is 2.5 diameters:

Since the fan is direct connected to the motor, there = 2.5 × 3.01
is no drive loss, and: = 7.53 ft

H = Hmo The length of the outlet duct in % effective duct


= 21.1 hp length:

SYSTEM EFFECT FACTORS = (L2/7.53) 100


= (3.5/7.53) 100
To determine the value of SEF 1, calculate the = 46%
velocity at the fan inlet:
From Figure 8.4, for a vaneaxial fan with a 46%
V1 = (Q1/A1) e