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0 (de) vizualizări6 paginiThe purpose of this supplement is to present the basic material needed to understand the
operation of simple DC motors

Mar 28, 2019

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The purpose of this supplement is to present the basic material needed to understand the
operation of simple DC motors

© All Rights Reserved

0 (de) vizualizări

The purpose of this supplement is to present the basic material needed to understand the
operation of simple DC motors

© All Rights Reserved

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Magnet Tubular Linear DC Motor by Using PID and

Fuzzy-PID Controllers

Ezgi Guney Memnun Demir

Vocational High School, Department Gerze Voc. High School, Dept. of

of Electrical and Energy, Computer Technologies

Sinop University Sinop University

Sinop, Turkey Sinop, Turkey

eguney@sinop.edu.tr mdemir@sinop.edu.tr

Abstract² This paper presents, PID and Fuzzy-PID (FPID) systems [4]. A mathematical model and the system must be

controller to control frequency of Permanent Magnet Tubular provided in order to ensure the control of linear structure. The

Linear Direct Current Motor (PMTLDCM). In the study firstly, inability to succeed in control of nonlinear systems is one of

D 307/'&0¶V YHORFLW\ is released by motor frequency can be the disadvantages of this controller. To overcome these

controlled using PID and FPID controller. There are 27 fuzzy difficulties, various types of modified conventional PID

rules for FPID of each parameter of PID controller. FPID controllers were developed lately [5-8]. And a class of

controller has two inputs as error and change of error and has nonconventional type of PID controller by using fuzzy logic

output signal. After all, the control program is loaded to has been designed and simulated for this purpose [9]. Fuzzy

LPC1768FBD100 ARM microcontroller, the rotor frequency

logic method, due to its ability to provide quick and easy

regulation system PID controller and FPID controller is applied

adaptation to changing conditions in the control algorithms

and experimental results have been transferred to PC by

MATLAB. Consequently, PID and FPID control based have recently been used widely [1]. This paper aims to

simulation and experimental results examine and the simulation manage real-time frequency control of PMTLDCM with PID

demonstrate that the FPID controller has a better behavior of the and Fuzzy- PID control.

PMTLDCM motor, an excellent frequency tracking with

minimum overshoot and minimum steady state error and give

better performance compared to conventional PID controller. II. PMTLDCM’S Construction and

Keywords—Linear Motor; Permanent Magnet Tubular DC Running

Motor; PID; FPID; Real Time Control In Figure 1 the general mechanical construction is given of

simple a Tubular Motor (TM). As can be seen from this figure,

these motors are the easiest ones to manufacture among the

I. Introduction linear motors (LM). Even in some applications do this motors

,Q UHFHQW \HDUV OLQHDU PRWRU¶V XVDJH LV PXFK PRUH do not contain even a primary iron core. Because of the

widespread due to the significant advantages such as mechanic reasons tubular motors are generally used for short-

reliability, efficiency, safety control, position accuracy etc. distance movements and strokes [10].

[1]. The energy loses is impeded and productivity is increased

by usage of DC motors in propulsion of linear motion systems

with no need of mechanical means such as V-belts, rack and

pinion, screw, cylinder or crank [2]. In such systems failure

rate is less thanks to the use of fewer elements. The usage of

linear motion systems in train escalators, printers, elevators,

photocopiers, some product processing, sorting and packing

machines is becoming increasingly common. Demand for this

type of engine has been increasing due to the advantages like;

high sensitivity, low cost, high response speed, more efficient

functioning, the reduction of accident rates due to reduced

mechanical elements and long-lasting [3].

The proportional ± integral ± derivative (PID) control

method is often used in industrial applications due to its

simple structure, simplicity of operation, inexpensive

maintenance, low cost, and effectiveness for most linear Fig. 1. General Mechanical Construction of a Simple Tubular Motor [10].

In a PMTLDCM, the rotor is moving and the stator is fixed Rotor position is determined by the coil triggered via

parts or vice versa. Construction can be changes depend on the driver circuit. System is operated in open loop to show the

XVHU¶V UHTXLUHPHQWV $V LW LV NQRZQ WR VWLPXODWH WKH PRWRU LV position reached by the rotor according to the activated coil.

provided by permanent magnets. The stator of tubular linear Obtained open loop rotor-position graph is given in Figure 3.

motor is cylindrical. The windings of such motors composed

of circular (disk) coil.

Transverse or longitudinal flux types of PMTLDCM are

available. Because of that PMTLDCMs are generally used in

low speeds, dynamic-end-effect can be ignored and static-end-

effects can be minimized with proper design. Due to the

cylindrical body, transverse-end-effect does not occur.

The complete block diagram of frequency control of three

phases PMTLDCM is given in the Figure 2. The stator of

PMTLDCM is the coil and the rotor is the permanent magnet. Fig. 3. Open Loop Rotor ± Position Control

Phases windings are produce the induced magnetic field and

this magnetic field causes the induced current paths in the Fuzzy logic rules of sequence are generated with the help

movable portion of the motor. The thrust in PMTLDCM¶V of the data depending on the rotor position and direction

moving part emerges from the interaction between the eddy obtained rotor position control. Fuzzy logic rules of sequence

currents formed on the steel tube induced from this unstable are seen in Figure 4.

magnetic field [11].

Fig. 2. General Scheme of the System Propagation time between these rules steps vary according

to information from sensors. Both frequency and rotor position

An electronic control card consists of three separate units; work in close-loop so the control with feedback can be

drive unit, LPC1768FBD100 ARM microcontroller unit and a managed. The voltage applied to the system is the most

sensor unit, has been established to control the PMTLDCM. effective factor for the frequency. PID and FPID is used to set

This card can be governed by MATLAB software through this voltage. It is tried to catch the frequency of rotor

Universal Serial Bus (USB). The control of system is done movement by increasing or decreasing the PWM rate.

with closed loop PID and FPID Supervision. The system According to data obtained from the system sensors, which

generally ensures that the motor windings create the coil to be activated is determined according to the rule

reciprocating motion of the rotor in case of that it is activated sequence which is given in Figure 4.

with given power by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).

The amplitude of PWM signal to be applied to DC-DC

converter assigned according to information the frequency

III. Controller Design sent by the model from the serial port created in the software.

Simultaneously the calculated frequency data is sent to the

ARM based controllers offer a high processing speed,

computer. The frequency is calculated by dividing a second to

complex control algorithms solution and hardware resources.

the time that passes for a full range of motion (forward and

7KHUHIRUH WKH 1;3 &RPSDQ\¶V /3&)%' $50

backward directions).

based controller has been used for this study.

391

A. PID Controller Design for Velocity Control In this study, the difference between position-frequency

PID controllers are frequently used in industrial control information from sensor and reference value is calculated and

systems form an audit. Due to simple structure, less variable found the e(t). The change for these values is calculated as

number to set and physical implementation, it is greatly derivative, total value in that time period is calculated as

preferred. PID control is a supervisory unit ensures that integral. Flow chart of the PID method is as seen in Figure 6.

system response reaches to the new steady state value as soon

as possible and in a stable way [12]. Block diagram and

transfer function of the PID type supervisory unit is given as

Figure 5.

d

u t K p et K i ³ et dt K D et (1)

dt

Where;

u(t): PID controller output Fig. 6. PID Method Flow Chart

e(t): Fault

B. FPID Controller Design for Velocity Control

Kp: Proportional Impact Gain

Fuzzy controllers have a lot of difference inputs and

Kd: Differential Impact Gain outputs that can be used for different systems. In this study,

controller two input variables are used for the control system

Ki: Integral Impact Gain

and one control output is produced [12-14].

The input to the FPID controller are error e(t) and change

and e(t) error value of error de(t) as given in Eqn.2 and in Eqn.3. Using fuzzy

control rules, PID parameters Kp, Ki and Kd is adjusted,

et r t yt (2) which constitute FPID controller is shown in Figure 7. The

gains parameters Kp, Ki and Kd are finalized and optimized

de(t) change of error value automatically instead of manual calculation of the gains.

det et et 1 (3)

Every PID parameters has a difference effect on the

operating performance. For this reason, PID controller

parameters must be selected properly. Effects on system

performance of each PID coefficient are shown in Table I.

Percent Fig. 7. FPID Control Block Diagram

Percent

Rise time Settling Time Situation

Overshoot

Fault The boundaries of the membership functions have been

Kp Decrease Increase Small Change Decrease

accepted as (-1, 1). Fuzzy membership function using

WULDQJXODU IXQFWLRQV IRU LQSXW YDULDEOH ³(UURU´ LV VKRZQ LQ

KD Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate

Figure 8; output signal for proportional gain is shown in

Figure 9; output signal for integral gain is shown in Figure 10,

Ki Small Change Decrease Decrease No Change output signal for integral gain is shown in Figure 11.

392

Trial and error method has been used to improve the

controller performance. Flow chart of the FPID method is as

seen in Figure 12.

E (de/dt) Negative Zero Positive

Negative high low medium

Zero medium low medium

Positive low low high

E / (de/dt) Negative Zero Positive

Negative medium very low very low

Zero low very low low

Positive very low very low low

E / (de/dt) Negative Zero Positive

Negative very high medium medium

Zero high medium high

Positive medium medium very high

Fig. 9. 0HPEHUVKLSIXQFWLRQIRURXWSXWYDULDEOH³.3´

Fig. 11. 0HPEHUVKLSIXQFWLRQIRURXWSXWYDULDEOH³.D´

Fuzzy logic controller rules table errors give the ratio of ki, IV. Experimental Results

kp and kd changes according to the error and changing of

error. Rule base parameters for KP is shown in Table II; rule PID values used in the obtained graphics data are

base parameters for KI is shown in Table III; rule base determined as Kp = 0.15, Ki = 0.251, Kd = 0.15 and the

parameters for KD is shown in Table IV. graphics of the system operation with PID controller are given

for comparison between selected value and PID response in

Rules table consists of 2 SLHFHV¶ VHSDUDWH UXOHV IRU WKH Figure 13, the error which is obtained by difference with

FPID controller. Triangular membership functions are frequency position information in Figure 14, The current is

preferred for optimal results as membership functions. applied to the system by PID in Figure 15.

393

Fig. 16. Comparison between Selected Value and FPID Response in

Fig. 13. Comparison between Selected Value and PID Response in

Fig. 14. The Error which is obtained by Difference with Frequency - Position Fig. 17. The Error which is obtained by Difference with Speed - Position

Information Information

Fig. 15. The current is applied to the system by PID Fig. 18. The current is applied to the system by FPID

The graphics of the system operated with FPID controller Comparison between PID and FPID controller response to

are given for comparison between selected value and FPID

selected value is given in Figure 19 and between PID and

response in Figure 16, the error which is obtained by

FPID controller step response specifications are given in Table

difference with speed - position information in Figure 17, the

current is applied to the system by FPID in Figure 18. V.

394

ZĞĨĞƌĞŶĐĞƐ

[1] M. Dursun and F. Koc, "Linear switched reluctance motor control with

PIC18F452 microcontroller," Turkish Journal of Electrical Engineering

and Computer Sciences, vol. 21, pp. 1107-1119, 2013.

[2] H. S. Lim and R. Krishnan, "Ropeless elevator with linear switched

reluctance motor drive actuation systems," IEEE Transactions on

Industrial Electronics, vol. 54, pp. 2209-2218, Aug 2007.

[3] M. Dursun and S. Ozden, "Design of Monitoring System for Linear

Switched Reluctance Motor with Quadrature Encoder and Current

Sensors," International Journal of Computer Theory and Engineering,

vol. 5, pp. 401-404, 2013.

[4] S. Srikanth and G. R. Chandra, "Modeling and PID control of the

brushless DC motor with the help of Genetic Algorithm," in IEEE-

International Conference On Advances In Engineering, Science And

Management (ICAESM -2012) , pp. 639-644, 2012.

[5] K. S. Tang, K. F. Man, G. R. Chen, and S. Kwong, "An optimal fuzzy

Fig. 19. FPID vs PID Response to Selected Value PID controller," IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 48,

pp. 757-765, Aug 2001.

[6] S. S. Gade, S. B. Shendage, and M. D. Uplane, "MATLAB Based

TABLE V. STEP RESPONSE SPECIFICATION FOR PID AND FPID Response of Systems Using Auto Tune PID Controller," International

Journal of Emerging Technology and Advanced Engineering, vol. 2, pp.

Comparison between Tuning Rule

157-162, 2012.

PID and FPID PID FPID

[7] Mondal, B., Billaha, M. A., Roy, B., and Saha, R.,"Performance

Rise time(s) 0,052 0,68

Comparison of Conventional PID and Fuzzy Logic Controller in the

Response

Steady States error 0,051 0 Field of over headed Water Level Control System." ,2016.

Spec

Settling time(s) 0,48 1,88 [8] R. Kandiban and R. Arulmozhiyal, "Speed control of BLDC motor using

Max overshoot (%) 0,324 0 Adaptive Fuzzy PID controller," International Conference on Modelling

Optimization and Computing, vol. 38, pp. 306-313, 2012.

V. Conclusion [9] W. M. Tang, G. R. Chen, and R. D. Lu, "A modified fuzzy PI controller

for a flexible-joint robot arm with uncertainties," Fuzzy Sets and

Systems, vol. 118, pp. 109-119, Feb 16 2001.

In this paper, comparison between conventional PID and

[10] A. Basak, Permanent-Magnet DC Linear Motors. UK: Clarendon Press,

FPID controller is presented. The results of both the control 1996.

methods are checked by MATLAB coding as well as [11] C. C. Tsai, S. M. Hu, and C. K. Chang, "Vertical linear motion system

simulation. The system results are tabulated in Table V. It is driven by a tubular linear induction motor," 2005 IEEE International

concluded that using FPID controller damping ratio, Conference on Mechatronics, pp. 162-167, 2005.

maximum overshoot and steady states error is better than PID [12] M. S. Mohiuddin, "Comparative study of PID and Fuzzy tuned PID

controller. It can clearly be deduced that Fuzzy- PID can controller for speed control of DC motor," International Journal of

maintain the frequency at desired values irrespective of Innovations in Engineering and Technology, vol. 2, pp. 291-301, 2013.

change of frequency. It can also be concluded that a superior [13] M. Dursun and A. Fenercioglu, "Velocity Control of Linear Switched

performance is guaranteed than other conventional controllers. Reluctance Motor for Prototype Elevator Load," Przeglad

Elektrotechniczny, vol. 87, pp. 209-214, 2011.

In other circumstances, the ease of tuning of the fuzzy

[14] M. Kushwah and A. Patra, "Tuning PID Controller for Speed Control of

mechanism parameters plays a key role in the practical DC Motor Using Soft Computing Techniques-A Review," Advance in

applicability of the methodologies, since it determines the Electronic and Electric Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 141-148, 2014.

improvement in the costly benefit ratio with respect to

standard methods.

395

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