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ICCAD’17, Hammamet - Tunisia, January 19-21, 2017

A Comparative Velocity Control Study of Permanent


Magnet Tubular Linear DC Motor by Using PID and
Fuzzy-PID Controllers
Ezgi Guney Memnun Demir
Vocational High School, Department Gerze Voc. High School, Dept. of
of Electrical and Energy, Computer Technologies
Sinop University Sinop University
Sinop, Turkey Sinop, Turkey
eguney@sinop.edu.tr mdemir@sinop.edu.tr

Abstract² This paper presents, PID and Fuzzy-PID (FPID) systems [4]. A mathematical model and the system must be
controller to control frequency of Permanent Magnet Tubular provided in order to ensure the control of linear structure. The
Linear Direct Current Motor (PMTLDCM). In the study firstly, inability to succeed in control of nonlinear systems is one of
D 307/'&0¶V YHORFLW\ is released by motor frequency can be the disadvantages of this controller. To overcome these
controlled using PID and FPID controller. There are 27 fuzzy difficulties, various types of modified conventional PID
rules for FPID of each parameter of PID controller. FPID controllers were developed lately [5-8]. And a class of
controller has two inputs as error and change of error and has nonconventional type of PID controller by using fuzzy logic
output signal. After all, the control program is loaded to has been designed and simulated for this purpose [9]. Fuzzy
LPC1768FBD100 ARM microcontroller, the rotor frequency
logic method, due to its ability to provide quick and easy
regulation system PID controller and FPID controller is applied
adaptation to changing conditions in the control algorithms
and experimental results have been transferred to PC by
MATLAB. Consequently, PID and FPID control based have recently been used widely [1]. This paper aims to
simulation and experimental results examine and the simulation manage real-time frequency control of PMTLDCM with PID
demonstrate that the FPID controller has a better behavior of the and Fuzzy- PID control.
PMTLDCM motor, an excellent frequency tracking with
minimum overshoot and minimum steady state error and give
better performance compared to conventional PID controller. II. PMTLDCM’S Construction and
Keywords—Linear Motor; Permanent Magnet Tubular DC Running
Motor; PID; FPID; Real Time Control In Figure 1 the general mechanical construction is given of
simple a Tubular Motor (TM). As can be seen from this figure,
these motors are the easiest ones to manufacture among the
I. Introduction linear motors (LM). Even in some applications do this motors
,Q UHFHQW \HDUV OLQHDU PRWRU¶V XVDJH LV PXFK PRUH do not contain even a primary iron core. Because of the
widespread due to the significant advantages such as mechanic reasons tubular motors are generally used for short-
reliability, efficiency, safety control, position accuracy etc. distance movements and strokes [10].
[1]. The energy loses is impeded and productivity is increased
by usage of DC motors in propulsion of linear motion systems
with no need of mechanical means such as V-belts, rack and
pinion, screw, cylinder or crank [2]. In such systems failure
rate is less thanks to the use of fewer elements. The usage of
linear motion systems in train escalators, printers, elevators,
photocopiers, some product processing, sorting and packing
machines is becoming increasingly common. Demand for this
type of engine has been increasing due to the advantages like;
high sensitivity, low cost, high response speed, more efficient
functioning, the reduction of accident rates due to reduced
mechanical elements and long-lasting [3].
The proportional ± integral ± derivative (PID) control
method is often used in industrial applications due to its
simple structure, simplicity of operation, inexpensive
maintenance, low cost, and effectiveness for most linear Fig. 1. General Mechanical Construction of a Simple Tubular Motor [10].

978-1-5090-5987-4/17/$31.00 ©2017 IEEE 390


In a PMTLDCM, the rotor is moving and the stator is fixed Rotor position is determined by the coil triggered via
parts or vice versa. Construction can be changes depend on the driver circuit. System is operated in open loop to show the
XVHU¶V UHTXLUHPHQWV $V LW LV NQRZQ WR VWLPXODWH WKH PRWRU LV position reached by the rotor according to the activated coil.
provided by permanent magnets. The stator of tubular linear Obtained open loop rotor-position graph is given in Figure 3.
motor is cylindrical. The windings of such motors composed
of circular (disk) coil.
Transverse or longitudinal flux types of PMTLDCM are
available. Because of that PMTLDCMs are generally used in
low speeds, dynamic-end-effect can be ignored and static-end-
effects can be minimized with proper design. Due to the
cylindrical body, transverse-end-effect does not occur.
The complete block diagram of frequency control of three
phases PMTLDCM is given in the Figure 2. The stator of
PMTLDCM is the coil and the rotor is the permanent magnet. Fig. 3. Open Loop Rotor ± Position Control
Phases windings are produce the induced magnetic field and
this magnetic field causes the induced current paths in the Fuzzy logic rules of sequence are generated with the help
movable portion of the motor. The thrust in PMTLDCM¶V of the data depending on the rotor position and direction
moving part emerges from the interaction between the eddy obtained rotor position control. Fuzzy logic rules of sequence
currents formed on the steel tube induced from this unstable are seen in Figure 4.
magnetic field [11].

Fig. 4. Fuzzy Logic Rules of Sequence for Coils Energized

Fig. 2. General Scheme of the System Propagation time between these rules steps vary according
to information from sensors. Both frequency and rotor position
An electronic control card consists of three separate units; work in close-loop so the control with feedback can be
drive unit, LPC1768FBD100 ARM microcontroller unit and a managed. The voltage applied to the system is the most
sensor unit, has been established to control the PMTLDCM. effective factor for the frequency. PID and FPID is used to set
This card can be governed by MATLAB software through this voltage. It is tried to catch the frequency of rotor
Universal Serial Bus (USB). The control of system is done movement by increasing or decreasing the PWM rate.
with closed loop PID and FPID Supervision. The system According to data obtained from the system sensors, which
generally ensures that the motor windings create the coil to be activated is determined according to the rule
reciprocating motion of the rotor in case of that it is activated sequence which is given in Figure 4.
with given power by Pulse Width Modulation (PWM).
The amplitude of PWM signal to be applied to DC-DC
converter assigned according to information the frequency
III. Controller Design sent by the model from the serial port created in the software.
Simultaneously the calculated frequency data is sent to the
ARM based controllers offer a high processing speed,
computer. The frequency is calculated by dividing a second to
complex control algorithms solution and hardware resources.
the time that passes for a full range of motion (forward and
7KHUHIRUH WKH 1;3 &RPSDQ\¶V /3&)%' $50
backward directions).
based controller has been used for this study.

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A. PID Controller Design for Velocity Control In this study, the difference between position-frequency
PID controllers are frequently used in industrial control information from sensor and reference value is calculated and
systems form an audit. Due to simple structure, less variable found the e(t). The change for these values is calculated as
number to set and physical implementation, it is greatly derivative, total value in that time period is calculated as
preferred. PID control is a supervisory unit ensures that integral. Flow chart of the PID method is as seen in Figure 6.
system response reaches to the new steady state value as soon
as possible and in a stable way [12]. Block diagram and
transfer function of the PID type supervisory unit is given as
Figure 5.

Fig. 5. PID Velocity Control Diagram of PMTLDCM

PID controller output function;


d
u t K p e t  K i ³ e t dt  K D e t (1)
dt
Where;
u(t): PID controller output Fig. 6. PID Method Flow Chart

e(t): Fault
B. FPID Controller Design for Velocity Control
Kp: Proportional Impact Gain
Fuzzy controllers have a lot of difference inputs and
Kd: Differential Impact Gain outputs that can be used for different systems. In this study,
controller two input variables are used for the control system
Ki: Integral Impact Gain
and one control output is produced [12-14].
The input to the FPID controller are error e(t) and change
and e(t) error value of error de(t) as given in Eqn.2 and in Eqn.3. Using fuzzy
control rules, PID parameters Kp, Ki and Kd is adjusted,
e t r t  y t (2) which constitute FPID controller is shown in Figure 7. The
gains parameters Kp, Ki and Kd are finalized and optimized
de(t) change of error value automatically instead of manual calculation of the gains.
de t e t  e t  1 (3)
Every PID parameters has a difference effect on the
operating performance. For this reason, PID controller
parameters must be selected properly. Effects on system
performance of each PID coefficient are shown in Table I.

TABLE I. EFFECT OF PID PARAMETERS TO SYSTEM RESPONSE


Percent Fig. 7. FPID Control Block Diagram
Percent
Rise time Settling Time Situation
Overshoot
Fault The boundaries of the membership functions have been
Kp Decrease Increase Small Change Decrease
accepted as (-1, 1). Fuzzy membership function using
WULDQJXODU IXQFWLRQV IRU LQSXW YDULDEOH ³(UURU´ LV VKRZQ LQ
KD Decrease Increase Increase Eliminate
Figure 8; output signal for proportional gain is shown in
Figure 9; output signal for integral gain is shown in Figure 10,
Ki Small Change Decrease Decrease No Change output signal for integral gain is shown in Figure 11.

392
Trial and error method has been used to improve the
controller performance. Flow chart of the FPID method is as
seen in Figure 12.

TABLE II. RULE BASE PARAMETERS FOR KP.


E (de/dt) Negative Zero Positive
Negative high low medium
Zero medium low medium
Positive low low high

Fig. 8. 0HPEHUVKLSIXQFWLRQIRULQSXWYDULDEOH³(UURU´ TABLE III. RULE BASE PARAMETERS FOR KI.


E / (de/dt) Negative Zero Positive
Negative medium very low very low
Zero low very low low
Positive very low very low low

TABLE IV. RULE BASE PARAMETERS FOR KD.


E / (de/dt) Negative Zero Positive
Negative very high medium medium
Zero high medium high
Positive medium medium very high

Fig. 9. 0HPEHUVKLSIXQFWLRQIRURXWSXWYDULDEOH³.3´

Fig. 10. 0HPEHUVKLSIXQFWLRQIRURXWSXWYDULDEOH³.,´

Fig. 12. FPID Flow Chart


Fig. 11. 0HPEHUVKLSIXQFWLRQIRURXWSXWYDULDEOH³.D´

Fuzzy logic controller rules table errors give the ratio of ki, IV. Experimental Results
kp and kd changes according to the error and changing of
error. Rule base parameters for KP is shown in Table II; rule PID values used in the obtained graphics data are
base parameters for KI is shown in Table III; rule base determined as Kp = 0.15, Ki = 0.251, Kd = 0.15 and the
parameters for KD is shown in Table IV. graphics of the system operation with PID controller are given
for comparison between selected value and PID response in
Rules table consists of 2 SLHFHV¶ VHSDUDWH UXOHV IRU WKH Figure 13, the error which is obtained by difference with
FPID controller. Triangular membership functions are frequency position information in Figure 14, The current is
preferred for optimal results as membership functions. applied to the system by PID in Figure 15.

393
Fig. 16. Comparison between Selected Value and FPID Response in
Fig. 13. Comparison between Selected Value and PID Response in

Fig. 14. The Error which is obtained by Difference with Frequency - Position Fig. 17. The Error which is obtained by Difference with Speed - Position
Information Information

Fig. 15. The current is applied to the system by PID Fig. 18. The current is applied to the system by FPID

The graphics of the system operated with FPID controller Comparison between PID and FPID controller response to
are given for comparison between selected value and FPID
selected value is given in Figure 19 and between PID and
response in Figure 16, the error which is obtained by
FPID controller step response specifications are given in Table
difference with speed - position information in Figure 17, the
current is applied to the system by FPID in Figure 18. V.

394
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