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Amazing Facts of Planet Earth

and the Universe


Lilly and Paw Saw Htee's
Amazing Facts of Planet Earth and the Universe. (Karen version)
w>*h>vDRurXur.b.C;[D.cd.zsX.’D;rluydmt*h>I
Drum Publication Group
P.O Box 66
Kanchanaburi 71000
Thailand
drum@drumpublications.org

May 2006

ISBN - 974-94338-2-3

ii
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What is the hottest place on Earth?


w>vD>tud>’d.uwX>vX[D.cd.rh>w>vD>rEkRvJ.I 1
What makes thunder?
w>rEkR’k;uJx.D vDo.D vJ.I 2
Can rocks float?
vX>wz.xD.zDo{h gI 3
Can rocks grow?
vX>wz.’d.xD.oh{gI 4
How much space dust falls to Earth each year?
weH.b.weH.w>url.vXrlys’D v
H RD ql[.D cd.xJv.J I 5
How far does regular dust blow in the wind?
w>url.rk>qh.rk>*DR’HvXuvHRusg,HRxJv.J I 6
What is the most rain to fall in just one minute?
wrH;eH;twD>ylRw>plRtguwX>xJv.J I 7
Is Earth round?
rh>[D.cd.uzsX.{gI 8
How long is a Martian year?
rlzsX.vXtbl;uwX>’D;[D.cd. (rh) rg(pf) M.weH.,HmxJv.J I 9
How long is the average Martian day?
rg(pf) tylRrk>eHRweHRxDxv
J .J I 10
What is the largest volcano?
upX>rh.tlt’d.uwX>rh>upX>rh.tlrEkRvJ.I 11
iii
What was the strongest earthquake in recent times?
[D.cd.[l;tql.uwX>vXtuJx.D o;zJw,Hmb.t
wD>ylRM.rh>zJv.J wcgvJ.I 12
Has the moon always been so close?
rh>vgbl;’D;[D.cd.xDb{d gI 13
Do earthquakes sing?
[D.cd.[l;o;0H.w>{gI 14
What is the wettest place on Earth?
w>vD>tb.pD.uwX>vX[D.cd.M.rh>w>vD>rEkRvJ.I 15
Which of Earth’s oceans is the largest?
r;orH;tvJ>uwX>vX[D.cd.rh>r;orH;zJv.J wbh.vJ.I 16
What plant can live for thousands of years?
w>rk>w>bdrEkRwuvkmvXttd.rlow
h Rk teH.wuxdv.J I 17
What is the highest mountain?
upX>vXtxDuwX>M.rh>upX>rEkRwzsX.vJ.I 18
Is it possible to drill a hole to the center of the earth?
rh>ecl.w>ylRl ql[.D cd.to;uH>M>{gI 19
Which of the following sources stores the greatest volume
of fresh water worldwide: lakes, streams or ground water?
ed.< xHzu
d srd w
h rh>[D.vmxHwz.tusgzJv.J wcgymzS.d
xHbsgM>tguwX>vJ.I 20
What is the largest canyon?
w>}wdt’d.d uwX>rh>w>}wdrEkRvJ.I 21
How much of Earth’s surface consists of volcanic rock?
[D.cd.rJmzH;cd.upX>rh.tltvX>td.xJv.J I 22
iv
How are colors produced in fireworks?
rh.zDwz.’k;uJx.D w>tvG>J ’fv.J I 23
What is the world’s largest island?
uD;t’d.vX[D.cd.csXrh>uD;rEkRwzsX.vJ.I 24
How much would seas rise if the Antarctic Ice Sheet melted?
t.w.wh;xHvRD ouRtbh.rh>yS>H vDRM.yD.vJ.xHu
tgxD.xJvJ.I 25
Why is Earth mostly crater-free compared to the pockmarked moon?
yrh>b.xd.o}wDRM.b.rEkR[D.cd.trJmzH;cd.tHRbV’D;vg
trJmzH; cd.wcDt.d xJw>vDRqX.vDRuvdmM.vJ.I 26
Can an earthquake cause a tsunami?
[D.cd.[l;’k;uJx.D pl.e.rH.oh{gI 27
What is the fastest surface wind ever recorded?
[D.cd.rJmzH;cd.uvHRvXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXtchsuwX>
M.rh>uvHRrEkRvJ.I 28
Do things inside Earth flow?
rh>w>zdw>vHRvXtd.vX[D.cd.ttdyRl wz.,GRvDRoh{gI 29
Were Earth and the moon separated at birth?
rh>[D.cd.’D;vgM.vDRz;zJttd.xD.oDot
D cgvHM.{gI 30
Does Earth have the worst weather in the solar system?
vXrk>t’l.zdxXzdtusgrh>[D.cd.td.’D;w>uwD>vX
ttXuwX> {gI 31
Have there always been continents?
rh>uD>rd>yS>wz.td.wh>vH’t
f RH xDb{d gI 32
Does all of Earth spin at the same rate?
rh>[D.cd.w&H;t,lmcJvXm’fo;d od;{gI 33
How long is a day on Venus?
vX0HeX;pf Venus M.woD,mH qH;tgvJ.I 34
Which planets have moons?
rlzsX.zJv.J wz.td.’D;tvgvJ.I 35
What causes a rainbow?
w>rEkR’k;uJx.D wX>uGRJ vJ.I 36
v
Can people tell when an earthquake will happen?
rh>ySRunDw[
J .D cd.u[l;tcgzJv.J b.w*R*R{gI 37
What is the difference between stars and planets?
q.’D;rlzsX.wz.vDRqDvmd to;’fv.J I 38
Will the sun ever go out?
rh>rk>u[Jx.D xDb{d gI rh>rk>td.ywkmwbsDbsD{gI 39
Where do most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur on Earth?
[D.cd.[l;’D;upX>rh.tlwz.tgwuh>yd>z; ([l;*JR) vXw>vD>
zJv.J I 40
How can you tell how old a mountain is?
upX>wzsX.to;yS>xJv.J M.ewJtRD oh’v
f .J I 41
What is the world’s deepest lake?
[D.cd.csXed.t,dmuwX>M.rh>ed.rEkRvJ.I 42
What is the world’s largest desert?
rJ;rk>cd.tvJ>uwX>vX[D.cd.csXrh>rJ;rk>cd.rEkRwbh.vJ.I 43
How many people would it take to stretch around the world?
ySRunDr>h zD.vdmpk’;D td.u0DR[D.cd.u0;t*D>uvd.
ySRySRJ *RvJ.I 44
Why do you see the lightning before you hear the thunder?
b.rEkRexH.qdv0D >’H;wcsK;ee>[lvo
D .D vJ.I 45
Is air mostly oxygen?
rh>uvHRtgwuh>rh>tD;pH.u‹.F {gI 46
How big was the largest diamond?
w>rs>t’d.uwX>M.’d.xJv.J I 47
Why is space black and the sky blue?
b.rEkRCdryl st
D vG>J ol’;D rluydmvdRtvG>J vgtJ;vJ.I 48
What percentage of the world’s water is in the oceans?
[D.cd.txHt.d vXr;orH;tylRySRJ rs;u,RvJ.I 49
Will Earth always be here?
rh>[D.cd.utd.’.zJtRH xDb{d gI 50

vi
1

1. What is the hottest place on Earth?


Count one wrong if you guessed in a paddy field in April. The hottest
temperature ever measured was 58°C in the shade in Africa in 1992.

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erh>qdr.d vXzJvgthjz.h w>ud>’d.tuwD>’D;eb.td.vXpHmyscD X.o;t
cgM.ew>uur.vDRI w>ud>’d.uwX>vXw>xH.M>tDRvXuD>tR_zHR
uRtylRzJ 1992 eH.M.teD.xd.td.0J 58 H pJ;wH.u&h;M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that the coldest temperature ever measured on Earth
was -89 Celsius, (-129 Fahrenheit) at Vostok, Antarctica, on July
21, 1983?

♦ 1983 eH.,lRvH 21 oDteHRw>xd.


w>ck.’d.uwX>w>vD>vX[D.cd.csXtHR
M.td.zJb;D pwD;vXtd.vXt.w.wh;
c.’D;w>ck.teD.xd.td.0J = 89 pJvpf H
,X.pf< (=129 zJ&.H [J;) M.eoh.ng{gI
2

2. What makes thunder?


If you thought, “Lightning!” then good for you. But I had a more detailed
answer in mind. The air around a lightning bolt is superheated to about
five times the temperature of the sun. This sudden heating causes the
air to expand faster than the speed of sound, which compresses the air
and forms a shock wave; we hear it as thunder.

2I w>rEkR’k;uJx.D vDo.D vJ.I


erh>qdr.d vX?vD0>’H;/M.*hRvXe*D>vDRI b.q.vX,o;ylR,td.’D;
w>pH;qXvDRwH>M>t0JM.vDRI uvHRvXtd.0;w&H;vD0>’H;wz.ud>’d.
r;’D;ud>M>rk>tw>ud> 5 q;vDRI w>ud>owl>uvmtHRtCduvHRw
z.ov.vDRto;chsM>w>uvk>vJRw>tchs';D w>tHRqD.oeH;0JuvHR
’D;’k;td.xD.zk;0Jw>uvk>vyD (Shock Wave) (w>uvk>z;’d.) vXy
e>[ltRD ’fvo D .D tod;M.vDRI

♦Did you know that on average, lightning strikes occur worldwide


about 100 times every second?

♦wpJ;u;twD>ylRvD0>’H;vX[D.cd.’Dwbh.
tw>xd.Clt.d 0J 100 bsDM.eoh.ng{gI
3

3. Can rocks float?


In a volcanic eruption, the violent separation of gas from lava produces
a “frothy” rock called pumice, loaded with gas bubbles. Some of it can
float, geologists say. I’ve never seen this happen, and I’m thankful for
that.

3I vX>wz.xD.zDoh{gI
zJupX>rh.tly>d z;xD.M.*mo0HvXtd.vXupX>rh.tltvX>zDvmwz.
qD.xD.vX>tHR’D;yd>z;xD.ql.ql.tCd’;k td.xD.vX>vXtpJb;l ’D;xH
tpH.ydvdwz.’D;uvDR*m’fvX>xHobSJtod;’D;vX>tHRyud;tDRvX
vX>xHobSJ (Pumice) vDRI ySRCko.h ng[D.cd.yDngpH;0JvXupX>rh.tl
tvX>wz.tHRtusg< weDRM.xD.zD0v J RD I ,wxH.b.w>tHRuJx.D
to;eDwbsD’;H b.I ‘D;,o;ckp>h uD;vX,wxH.b.tCdvRD I

♦ Did you know that as of the year 2000, scientists estimated that
volcanoes posed a tangible risk to at least 500 million people?

♦zJ2000 eH.ySRpJth.zdwz.ymzsg
xD.0J’.vXupX>rh.tltCdyRS 500
uuG>J C.C.tw>td.rlt.d vXw>
b.,d.tylRM.eoh.ng{gI
4

4. Can rocks grow?


Yes, but observing the process is less interesting than watching paint
dry. Rocks called iron-manganese crusts grow on mountains under the
sea. The crusts precipitate material slowly from seawater, growing about
1 millimeter every million years. Your fingernails grow about the same
amount every two weeks.

4I vX>wz.’d.xD.oh{gI
rh>< vX>wz.’d.xD.ohb.q.euqh.eDRcd;vX>’d.xD.M.vDRuX.’d.
M>’H;eqh.eDRuG>epkr.h uxDx.D M.vDRI vX>rJ;ueH; (Maganese) tbh.
ukwz.w>xH.M>tDRvXupX>vXtd.vXyD.vJ.tcH’;wz.tzDc.d M.
vDRI vX>tbh.ukwz.tHRymzSd.0JyD.vJ.tw>zdw>vHRvXvDR’;vX
tzDc.d tCdteH.wuuG>J M.u’d.xD.0J 1 rHvrH x H X.M.vDRI erh>b.
xd.o}wDRuG>M.epkr.h uxDx.D 1 rHvrH x H X.M.,Hm’.xJcEH {HG Rd vDRI

♦ Did you know that the oldest rocks on the ocean floor are less than
300 million years but the oldest continental rocks are 4.5 billion
years old?
♦ vX>to;yS>uwX>vXr;orH;tcH’;
M.teH.td.0JtuuG>J 300 eH.b.
q.vX>to;yS>uwX>vXuD>rd>yS>
tylRM.td.0JteH. 4I5 uxdu
uG>M.eoh.ng{gI
5

5. How much space dust falls to Earth each year?


Estimates vary, but scientists say at least 1 billion grams, or roughly
1,000 tons of material enters the atmosphere every year and makes its
way to Earth’s surface. One group of scientists claims microbes rain
down from space, too, and that extraterrestrial organisms are respon-
sible for flu epidemics. There’s been no proof of this, and I’m not
holding my breath.

5I weH.b.weH.w>url.vXrlys’D v H RD ql[.D cd.xJv.J I


w>w,mtDRvXw’fo;d vdmto;b.I b.q.ySRpJt.h zdwz.pH;0JvX
tpSRuwX>w>url.utd.0J 1<000 uuG>J }uJ. (rf) ’D;ud;eH.’J;M.w>zd
w>vHRtw.vXtuxdC.C.vJREkmqluvHRuxXtusg’D;vJRwkR
0J’.vX[D.cd.trJmzH;cd.M.vDRI ySRpJt.h zdt.d w’l.pH;0JvXw>rl_yu
H ’H
(Microbes) wz.u[JvDRvXrlysD’D;w>oh.wz.tHRu’k;td.xD.w>
b.orkmM.vDRI w>*h>tHRw>tk.o;wtd.b.I emuh,’J , k wuDRu
ogb.I

♦ Did you know that the Earth’s surface area covers 510,100,000
square kilometers or196,950,711 square miles?

♦ [D . cd . trJ m zH ; cd . tvJ > txD t d . 0J


510<100<000 puG, J guHvrd x H X. (rh)
196<950<711 puG, J grH;vm
M.eoh.ng{gI
6

6. How far does regular dust blow in the wind?


A 1999 study showed that African dust finds its way to Florida and
can help push parts of the state over the prescribed air quality limit for
particulate matter set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
The dust is kicked up by high winds in North Africa and carried as high
as 20,000 feet (6,100 meters), where it’s caught up in the trade winds
and carried across the sea. Dust from China makes its way to North
America, too.

6I w>url.rk>qh.rk>*DR’HvXuvHRusg,HRxJv.J I
zJ 1999 eH.w>ymzsgwcgtylRpH;0JvXuvHRtl’w H >url.vXtR_zHRuR
qlzvd>&H>’. (Florida) uD>pJ.vXttd.vXuD>trJ&uRohvRD I w>u
rl.tHRb.w>tlx.D tDRvXuvHRxD.xD ( High Winds) qluvHRpd;tR
_zHRuR’D;’Hxx
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tHRb.o*X>vdmto;‘D;uvHRuRw> (TradeWinds) M.pdmcDtRD qly.D
vJ.0>b;cDM.vDRI w>url.vXttd.vXw%l;uD>wz.‘H0w J Rk qltrJ&
uRuvHRpd;ohp>h uD;d vDRI

♦ Did you know that tornadoes can have windspeeds up to 500 km


per hour (300 mph)?

♦ uvHRrk>w0H; (Tornadoes) we.&H.tl


w>chswkRvX 500 uHvrd xH X.M.eoh.ng
{gI
7

7. What is the most rain to fall in just one minute?


In 1970, nearly 4 cm (about 1.5 inches) of rain fell in 60 seconds on
the island of Guadeloupe in the West Indies. It must have been like
standing under a waterfall.

7I wrH;eH;twD>ylRw>plRtguwX>xJvJ.I
zJ 1970 eH.< uD>th’,.rk>Ekm< uD;uG.’.vl;yh. (Guadeloupe) tylRw>
plRvXttd. 4 pJ;xH.rHxX. (1I5) pkr>k ’d.M.plRvDR0J’.xJvX 60 pJ;u;
twD>ylRvDRI w>tHRuvDR*m‘fy*JRqXxX.vXxHvDRqltzDvmt
od;vDRI

♦ Did you know that the highest waterfall in the world is Angel Falls in
Venezuela and its’ water drops 979 meters or 3,212 feet?

♦thuXF . (Angel) xHvRD qlvXtrh>xHvRD qltxDuwX>vX[D.cd.csX<


vXttd.vXbJ.eH.pGvJ . (Venezuela) M.txDt.d 0J 979 rHxX.(rh)
3<212 cD.,D>M.eoh.ng{gI
8

8. Is Earth round?
Because the planet rotates and is more flexible than you might imagine,
it bulges at the midsection, creating a sort of pumpkin shape. The bulge
was lessening for centuries but now, suddenly, it is growing, a recent
study showed. Accelerated melting of Earth’s glaciers is taking the
blame for the gain in equatorial girth.

8I rh>[D.cd.uzsX.{gI
rh>vX[D.cd.w&H;tCd< [D.cd.tHRrRto;< qDwvJto;uohtgM>e
qdurd.vDRI [D.cd.tHRuuzdx.D 0J’.zJtcX.o;’D;uvDR*m0J’.’fv>l
cho.tod;M.vDRI vXtylRuGmH teH.wu,RM.tuzdwz.pSRvDR0J
b.q.ySRCkoh.ngw>wz.ymzsg0J’.vXowl>uvmcJtHRM.[J’d.
xD.u’guhRM.vDRI tH.uUxX.[J’.d xD.M.ySRymw>ur.vXxHvRD o
uRusw d z.yS>H vDR0Jcsh csh tCdM.vDRI

♦Did you know that it is about 6,378 kilometers from the surface of
Earth to the center?

♦ [D.cd.trJmzH;cd.’D;qlto;uH>
M.td.0J 6<378 uHvrd x
H X.M.eoh.
ng{gI
9

9. How long is a Martian year?


It’s a year long, if you’re from Mars. To an earthling, it’s nearly twice
as long. The Red Planet takes 687 Earth days to go around the sun —
compared with 365 days for Earth. Taking into account Mars’ different
rotational time, calendars on Mars would be about 670 days long with
some leap days needed to keep things square. If you find one, please
mail it to me. I’m curious how they worked out the months, given they
have two moons.

9I rlzsX.vXtbl;uwX>’D;[D.cd. (rh) rg(pf) M.weH.,HmxJvJ.I


erh>td.b.vX rg(pf) tylRM.weH.urh>eH.vXt,HmtxDr;weH.vXe
*D>vDRI rhr>h ySRtd.vX[D.cd.wz.t*D>u,Hm0Jcq H ;M.vDRI rh>b.xd.
o}wDRM.[D.cd.w&H;rk>,Hm 365 oDrrh >h rg(pf) rh>td.b.zk;’D;tvHmeH.
vHmvgvDRqDM.weH.utd.0J 670 oDCmk ’D;eH.’d.toDpRS oD’o f ;d urR
b.vdmeHRwz.t*D>vDRI erh>xH.t0Jo.h tvHmeH.vHmvg’D;qSXM>,R
ph>uD;wuh>I rh>vXt0Jo.h tvgtd. 2 bh.tCd,tJ.’d;oh.ngrh>t
0Jo.h qDvRD tvgwz.’fv.J M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that the gravity on Mars is 38 percent of that found
on Earth at sea level so a 100-pound person on Earth would weigh
38 pounds on Mars?

♦ rg(pf) Mars tw>xk;CXM.xJod;'.


[D.cd.tyD.vJ.rJmzH;cd.tw>xk;CX 38
rs;u,RvDRI tCdyRS vXttd. 100 yD.
vX[D.cd.w*RM.vX rg(pf) tylRM.
utd.'.xJ 38 yD.M.eoh.ng{gI
10

10. How long is the average Martian day?


A Martian can sleep (or work) an extra half-hour every day compared
to you. Mars days are 24 hours and 37 minutes long, compared with
23 hours, 56 minutes on Earth. A day on any planet in our solar system
is determined by how long it takes the world to spin once on its axis,
making the sun appear to rise in the morning and sending it down in the
evening.

10I rg(pf) tylRrk>eHRweHRxDxvJ .J I


rh>b.xd.o}wDR’D;[D.cd.M. rg(pf) tylRud;eHR’J;erRw>rhwrh>rHtgM>
30 rH;eH;ohvDRI rg(pf) weHR,Hm 24 e.&H. 37 rH;eH;’D;vX[D.cd.M.
utd.0J 23 e.&H. 58 rH;eH;vDRI vXyrk>t’l.zdxXzdtusgrlzsX.ud;zsX.
’J;teHRweHRM.b.w>xd.’G;tDRcDzst d 0Jo.h w&H;vXtup>’.0Jtus.H
vdRw0D,mH xJv.J 'D;vXu’k;td.zsgxD.rk>[Jx.D vXrk>*DR’D;vDREkmu’g
uhRvX[gcDvRD t*D>M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that from Mars, Earth would be


seen to go through distinct phases like the moon
is seen from Earth?

♦ erh>td.vX rg(pf) ’D;uG>[D.cd.M.uvDR


*m’fetd.vX[D.cd.’D;xH.b.vgtd.’D;t
uh>t*DRvDRqDvXwuwD>’D;wuwD>tod;
M.eoh.ng{gI
11

11. What is the largest volcano?


The Mauna Loa volcano in Hawaii holds the title here on Earth. It rises
more than 50,000 feet (9.5 miles or 15.2 kilometers) above its base,
which sits under the surface of the sea. But that’s all volcanic chump
change. Olympus Mons on Mars rises 16 miles (26 kilometers) into
the Martian sky. Its base would almost cover the entire Shan state.

11I upX>rh.tlt’d.uwX>rh>upX>rh.tlrEkRvJ.I
r.,le.vdR (Mauna Loa) upX>rh.tlvXtd.vX[.0.,H. (Hawaii)
uD;tylRM.rh>upX>rh.tlt’d.uwX>vX[D.cd.tHRvDRI td.ol.vDR
to;vXyD.vJ.tcH’;’D;vXtcD.xH;qltzDcd.M.tupDRxD.td.0J
50<000 cD.,D>< 9I5 rH;vm (rh) 15I2 uHvdrHxX.vDRI b.q.upX>
rh.tlcJvXmM.t’d.txDqDwvJxDbdvDRI td.vH.zX;rd (Olympus
Mons) vX rg(pf) tylRM.upDRxD.0J’.ql rg(pf) trluydmvdR 16 rH;
vm (26 uHvrd x
H X.) ’D;tcD.xH;M.xJo;d ’D;,dRuD>pJm’Dwbh.M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that about 540 volcanoes on land are known to have
erupted in historic time? No one knows how many undersea
volcanoes have erupted through history.

♦ vXw>pH.pdRwJpdRtylRw>oh.ng0J’.vX
upX>rh.tl 540 zsX.vXttd.vXcdocl .d t
zDc.d yd>z;xD.wh>0J’.M.rh>eoh.ng{gI rhr>h u
pX>rh.tlvXyD.vJ.tzDvmyd>z;xD.0J’.qH;
tgvJ.M.ySRwoh.ngeDw*Rb.I
12

12. What was the strongest earthquake in recent times?


A 1960 Chilean earthquake, which occurred off the coast, had a
magnitude of 9.6 and broke a fault more than 1,000 miles (1,600
kilometers) long. An earthquake like that under a major city would
challenge the best construction techniques.

12I [D.cd.[l;tql.uwX>vXtuJx.D o;zJw,Hmb.twD>ylRM.rh>


zJv.J wcgvJ.I
[D.cd.[l;vXtuJxD.wh>vHto;vXcFHvHyD.vJ.uX>eHRzJ 1960
eH.M.teD.xd.td. 9I6 ‘D;’k;td.xD.0J[D.cd.wJRz;xDvXtxDtd.
1000 rH;vm (1600 uHvdrHxX.) M.vDRI [D.cd.[l;’fod;wcg
tHRrh>uJx.D b.zk;vX0h>z;’d.wzsX.tzDvmM.w>ol.xD.vXtwvDR
yS>D b.M.wtd.b.I tCdw>tHRrh>w>vXtwRw>’D;pdRoDw>ol.xD.
bSx D .D tusRd tust
J *hRuwX>wz.M.vDRI
♦Did you know that the world’s deadliest recorded earthquake oc-
curred in 1557 in central China, killing an estimated 830,000 people?

♦ [D.cd.’Dbh.w>rReD.ySRoHp&Dw>ym
zsgtylR[D.cd.[l;vXw%l;uD>cX.o;zJ
1557 eH.M.ySRoH0J 830<000 *RM.rh>
eoh.ng{gI
13

13. Has the moon always been so close?


It used to be much closer! A billion years ago, the moon was in a
tighter orbit, taking just 20 days to go around us and make a month. A
day on Earth back then was only 18 hours long. The moon is still
moving away — about 1.6 inches (4 centimeters) a year. Meanwhile,
Earth’s rotation is slowing down, lengthening our days. In the distant
future, a day will be 960 hours long!

13I rh>vgbl;’D;[D.cd.xDbd{gI
vXtylRuGmH M.bl;M>tcJtRH vDRI ‘D;zJtylRuGmH teH. 1<000 uuJ>G M.vg
trlzsX.usdRtH.’D;w&H;0J’.[D.cd. 20 oD0;w0D’D;w>tHRyud;vX
wvgM.vDRI tcgzJM.vX[D.cd.woD,mH ’.xJ 18 e.&H.vDRI weH.
M.vgok;,HRxD.to;’D;rk> 1I6 pkrk>’d. (4 pJ;xH.rHxX.) tCd[D.
cd.w&H;o;u,DvRD ’D;rk>eHRwz.xDx.D 0J’.M.vDRI rk>eHRvXu[Jqn l g
wz.woDM.u,Hm0J’. 960 e.&H.M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that the Moon is about one-quarter the size of Earth?

♦ vgM.xJo;d ’D;d [D.cd.vG>H ylwylM.eoh.ng{gI


14

14. Do earthquakes sing?


Not really, but they do make an incredible sound. The Earth rings like
a bell after a large earthquake – the lowest ring tone is E flat in the 20th
octave below middle C.

14I [D.cd.[l;o;0H.w>{gI
wvDRwH>b.I b.q.t0Jo.h ’k;td.xD.w>uvk>vXwvDRemb.w
cgohvRD I [D.cd.[l;z;’d.wcg0HRtvD>cHw>uvk>uoD.xD.’f’XvGo
J .D
tod;'D;w>uvk>tvDRuwX>rh>0J E Flat vXtd.vXwe>yS>D pkt Middle
C tvD>cH< cHqb H w
d bdM.vDRI

♦Did you know that around 1400 earthquakes rock the planet every
day, or roughly one earthquake every minute?

♦ ud;eHR’J;[D.cd.[l;0J 1400 bsr


Dw
h rh>
wrH;eH;wbsMD .eoh.ng{gI
15

15. What is the wettest place on Earth?


Lloro, Colombia, averages 523.6 inches of rainfall a year, or more
than 13 meters. That’s about 2 or 3 times more rain than the wettest
areas of Burma or Thailand.

15I w>vD>tb.pD.uwX>vX[D.cd.M.rh>w>vD>rEkRvJ.I
tJvvf &d .d (L-loro) vXttd.vXcd.v.bH.,.M.weH.w>plRxHtw>
xd.Cltd.0J 523I6 pkrk>‘d.rhwrh>tgM> 13 rHxX.vDRI w>plRtgM>’H;
w>vD>vXrlc.d plRttguwX>uD>y,DRrhwrh>uD>uF.D wJ.cHq;qloXq;
tzDc.d vDRI

♦ Did you know that Arica, in Chile is the driest place on Earth and
gets just 0.76 millimeters of rain per year. At that rate, it would
take a century to fill a coffee cup?

♦ t.&H.u. (Arica) vXtd.vXuD>cFH


vHM.rh>w>vD>tChxu D wX>vX[D.cd.
'D;weH.’d;M>b.w>plRxHxJ 0I76 rH
vHrxH X.vDRI w>rh>plR’.’fM.M.teH.
wu,Rr;xHuySRJ cDz.H cG;wzsX.
vDRM.eoh.ng{gI
16

16. Which of Earth’s oceans is the largest?


The Pacific Ocean covers 64 million square miles (165 million square
kilometers). It is more than two times the size of the Atlantic. It has an
average depth of 2.4 miles (3.9 kilometers).

16I r;orH;tvJ>uwX>vX[D.cd.rh>r;orH;zJv.J wbh.vJ.I


ypH;zh;r;orH;M.tvJ>txDtd.0J’. 64 uuGJ>puGJ,grH;vm (165u
uG>J puG,
J guHvrd x
H X.) ’D;‘d.M>tJ;wvJw;h r;orH;cHq;'D;t,dmtw>
xd.Cltd.0J 2I4 rH;vm (3I9uHvdrHxX.) vDRI

♦ Did you know that by size and volume the Caspian Sea, located
between southeast Europe and west Asia is the largest lake in the
world?

♦ cJ;pyH,gyD.vJ.vXttd.vX,l&yRrk>xD.uvHRxH;’D;rk>Ekmth%XS .t
bX.pXRM.rh>b.uG>vXtvJ>txD’;D tw>wX>ySRJ M.rh>ed.vXt’d.uwX>
vX[D.cd.csXM.eoh.ng{gI
17

17. What plant can live for thousands of years?


The creosote bush, which grows in the Mojave, Sonoran, and
Chihuahuan deserts, has been shown by radiocarbon dating to have
lived since the birth of Christ. Some of these plants may endure 10,000
years, scientists say. If only they could talk.

17I w>rk>w>bdrEkRwuvkmvXttd.rlow h Rk teH.wuxdv.J I


c&H.td.pd; (Creosote) wySmD vXtrJx.D 0J’.vXrd.[.bh> (Mojave)<
pd.ed.&. (Sonoran) ’D;cF.H [l0g[l>0> (Chihuahuan) rJ;rk>cd.wz.tzDc.d
M. (radio carbon dating) ymzsgxD.wh>0J’.vXwySmD tHRtd.wh>vH0’J .
vXc&Hm[Jt.d zs.J tqXuwD>vHM.vDRI ySRpJt.h zdwz.pH;0JvXw>rk>w>
bdwz.weDRtd.rl0’J .wkRvXteH.wuv;M.vDRI w>rk>w>bdwz.
wJw>rh>oh’kuwJb.ySRvXtw>vJRcDzsdwz.’D;urh>w>vXtuJbsK;
uJz.dS ’d.r;vDRI

♦ Did you know that about one-third of the Earth’s land surface is
desert?

♦ [D.cd.rJmzH;cd.oXylwylr>h rJ;rk>cd.M.eoh.
ng{gI
18

18. What is the highest mountain?


Climbers who brave Mount Everest in the Nepal-Tibet section of the
Himalayas reach 29,035 feet (nearly 9 kilometers) above sea level. Its
height was revised upward by 7 feet based on measurements made in
1999 using the satellite-based Global Positioning System.

18I upX>vXtxDuwX>M.rh>upX>rEkRwzsX.vJ.I
ySRvXtxD.b;upX>tJ;b&J;wzsX.vXttd.vXeHzv D ’f ;D wHb;J uD>M.
vXt*D>vDR*m’fttd.vXyD.vJ.rJmzH;cd.vXtxD 29<035 cD.,D> (9
uHvrd x
H X.) tzDc.d vDRI zJ 1999 eH.M.w>ol0’J .rlzsX.’dtw>qDvRD
ymvDR[D.cd.tusu J ylR’D;xd.uG>u’guhRM.w>xH.vXupX>tHRxDM>
tylRuGmH 7 cD.,D>vDRI

♦Did you know that the greatest ocean known depth is 36,198 feet
or 11 kilometers at the Mariana Trench, in the Pacific Ocean well
south of Japan near the Mariana Islands?

♦ w>vD>t,dmuwX>vXr;orH;tylRM.w>
oh.ngtDRvXtrh>r.&H.,gegw>}wDRz;xDvX
ttd.vXypH;zH;r;orH;vX,y.uD>tuvHRxH;
bl;’D;r.&H.,geguD;’D;t,dmtd.0J 36< 198
cD.,D>rhwrh> 11 uHvrd x
H X.M.eoh.ng{gI
19

19. Is it possible to drill a hole to the center of the earth?


The deepest hole ever drilled has a depth of 12 km (8 miles), so far,
2003. Progress is slow because the drill tip quickly gets blunt and
lifting 12 km of drill out to replace it takes ages. This is only 0.2% of
the radius of the Earth (6361 km, 3953 miles) – so a ‘Journey to the
Center of the Earth is not feasible.

19I rh>ecl.w>ylRl ql[.D cd.to;uH>M>{gI


w>ylRt,dmuwX>vXb.w>cl.wh>tDRzJ 2003 eH.M.,dm0J 12 uHvrd H
xX. (8 rH;vm) vDRI rh>vXx;ysHmvXw>cl.w>ylRtue.vlRchs’D;b.
xk;xD.u’guhRx;ysmH vXttd.vXw>ylR,dm 12 uHvrd x H X.wbdtRH
vXuqDwvJx;ysmH tcd.toDt*D>M.,HmvXteH.wz.teH.tCdw>
zH;w>rRtHRvJRto;u,DvRD I yrh>uG> 12 uHvrd x
H X.M.td.’.[D.cd.
t[D.z;ulmxJ 0I2 rs;u,R< (6361 uHvrd x H X.< 3953 rH;vm) vDRI
tCdvHmw>wJvXtrh>w>vJRql[D.cd.to;uH> a “ Journey to the
center of the Earth ” M.uJx.D o;wohb.I
♦ Did you know that the Earth’s crust’s average thickness is 35 km
(22 miles) under continents and 6 km (4 miles) under oceans? As a
comparison, it is roughly like a postage stamp stuck on a football.

♦ [D.cd.bh.ukw.
D tw>xd.Cl 35
uHvdrHxX. (22 rH;vm) M.td.vX
uD>rd>yS>tzDvm’D; 6 uHvdrHxX.
(4 rH;vm) M.td.vXr;orH;tzDvm
vDRI rh>b.xd.o}wDRuG>M.uvDR*m
'feus;vDRw>*DRcd. Stamp wbh.vX
bDvw f zsX.tzDc.d tod;M.eoh.ng{gI
20

20. Which of the following sources stores the greatest volume


of fresh water worldwide: lakes, streams or ground water?
Groundwater comprises 30 times greater volume than all freshwater
lakes, and more than 3,000 times what’s in the world’s streams and
rivers at any given time. Groundwater is housed in natural underground
aquifers, in which the water typically runs around and through the stone
and other material.

20I ed.< xHzud srd w


h rh>[D.vmxHwz.tusgzJv.J wcgymzS.d xHbsgM>tg
u wX>vJ.I
[D.vmxHymzSd.xHbsgtgM>ed.xHuqSDcJvXmtbsDoXqH’D;tgM>[D.
cd.csXtxHzu d s‘d ;D xHusw
d z. 3<000 bsv
D RD I [D.vmxHwz.td.0JvX
MqX.[D.cd.vmvX>xHpSH>wz.tylR< vXxH,GRw&H;tDR'D;,GRcDzsd0J
vX>’D;w>zdw>vHRt*Rwz.vDRI
♦ Did you know that the Nile River in Africa is 6,695 kilometers long
making it the longest river in the world?

♦ eJvx
f u
H sv
d Xtd.vXuD>tR_zRH uRM.rh>xHust
d xDuwX>vX[D.cd.csX
'Dd;txDtd.0J 6<695 uHvdrHxX.M.eoh.ng{gI
21

21. What is the largest canyon?


The Grand Canyon in America is the world’s largest canyon system.
Its main branch is 277 miles (446 kilometers) long. But let’s compare.
Valles Marineris on Mars extends for about 3,000 miles (4,800
kilometers). (If it were added to an Asia map, it would stretch from
Burma to Japan. In places this vast scar on the Martian surface is 5
miles (8 kilometers) deep.

21I w>}wdt'dd.uwX>rh>w>}wdrEkRvJ.I
}uJw>}wd (The Grand conyon) vXuD>trJ&uRtylRM.rh>w>}wdt'd.
uwX>vX[D.cd.csXvDRI w>}wdtrd>yS>M.xD0J 277 rH;vm< (446 uHvrd H
xX.)vDRI b.q.yuxd.o}wDRuG>bhvfr.&H.eX.&Hpf (Valles
Marineris vXtd.vX rg(pf) M.ov.vDRto;td.0J 3<000 rH;vm<
(4<800 uHvrd xH X.)vDRI yrh>uG>vXth%XS .[D.cd.*DRM.< utd.xJo;d
’D;uD>y,DRql,y.uD>M.vDRI w>vDRuvdmtHRvX rg(pf) trJmzH;cd.
M.,dm0J 5 rH;vm (8 uHvdrHxX.)vDRI

♦ Did you know that Antarctica is the highest, driest, and coldest
continent on Earth?

♦ tJ.w.wH;c.rh>uD>rd>yS>vXtupDRxD.
xDuwX>< w>ChxDuwX>'D;w>ck.u
wX>vX[D.cd.M.eoh.ng{gI
22

22. How much of Earth’s surface consists of volcanic rock?


Scientists’ estimate that more than three-quarters of Earth’s surface is
of volcanic origin — that is, rocks either erupted by volcanoes or molten
rock that cooled below ground and has subsequently been exposed at
the surface. Most of Earth’s volcanic rocks are found on the sea floor.

22I [D.cd.rJmzH;cd.upX>rh.tltvX>td.xJv.J I
ySRpJt.h zdwz.w,;0JvX[D.cd.rJmzH;cd.w>vD>oXylbs.J M.rh>upX>rh.tlw
z.vDRI w>oh.wz.tHRrh>upX>rh.tltvX>vXt[JxD.zJupX>
rh.tlyd>z;xD.rhwrh>vX>ySH>vDRvXtck.'D;uJxD.vX>vX[D.cd.zD
vmwz.vXcH[Jyd>z;xD.0J'.qlw>csXM.vDRI [D.cd.tupX>rh.tl
tvX>wz.tgwuh>b.w>xH.M>tDRvXyD.vJ.tcH';M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that the three countries with the greatest number of
historically active volcanoes are Indonesia, Japan and the United
States?

♦ vXw>pH.pdRwJpRd tylRxHu>D oXbh.


vXb.uG>qX.rJmupX>rh.tltw>[l;
*JRttguwX>rh>tH.'d.eH±Sg< ,y.<
trJ&uRwz.M.eoh.ng{gI
23

23. How are colors produced in fireworks?


Mineral elements taken from Earth provide the colors. Strontium yields
deep reds, copper produces blue, sodium yields yellow and iron filings
and charcoal pieces produce gold sparks. Bright flashes and loud bangs
come from aluminum powder.

23I rh.zDwz.’k;uJx.D w>tvG>J ’fv.J I


[D.vmyeH.*mpDvXt[;xD.vX[D.cd.M.’k;uJx.D w>tvG>J wz.vDRI
p}wdx.H ,X. (Strontium) [h.xD.tvG>J *DR< wd>*DR (Copper) xk;xD.
tvG>J vgtJ;< tHo. (Sodium) xk;xD.tvG>J bD< x;’D;oG.J v;tud.
vd.wz.xk;xD.0Jr.h tltzDy>h bDb’D xf tl vG>J tod;wz.vDRI rh.tlu
jy>h ’D;w>uvk>z;’d.wz.uJx.D o;cDzst d vl.rH.eH.,.turl.vDRI

♦ Did you know talc is the softest of minerals? It is commonly used to


make talcum powder.

♦ Talc rh>[D.vmyeH.tuykmuwX>
’D;nDEk>w>oltDRvXw>u’k;uJxD.
Talcum turl.t*D>M.eoh.ng{gI
24

24. What is the world’s largest island?


Greenland covers 840,000 square miles (2,176,000 square kilometers).
Continents are typically defined as land masses made of low-density
rock that essentially floats on the molten material below. Greenland fits
this description, but it’s only about one-third the size of Australia. Some
scientists call Greenland an island, others say it’s a continent.

24I uD;t’d.vX[D.cd.csXrh>uD;rEkRwzsX.vJ.I
}uHevf t J vJ>txDt.d 0J 840<000 puG, J grH;vm (2<176<000 puG, J g
uHvrd x H X.) vDRI uD>rd>yS>wz.nDE>k w>ymzsgtcDynD'tf rh>[D.cd.ud.
vd.vX[Jux J .D vXvX>vXtw>wH>Cg (Density) pSRvXxD.zDvXw>zd
w>vHRvXtyS>H vDRvXw>zDvmtzDc.d vDRI }uHev f MJ .vDR*m’D;w>ymzsg
tcDynDt0JtRH < b.q.utd.xJo;d ’.tD;p-xhv,.oXylwylvRD I
ySRpJt.h zdweDRud;}uHevf v J XuD;’D;t*Rwz.pH;vXrh>uD>rd>yS>vDRI

♦ Did you know that nearly 70 percent of the Earth’s fresh-water


supply is locked up in the icecaps of Antarctica and Greenland?

♦ [D.cd.txHbsg 70 rs;u,RC.C.td.wH>CmvXt.w.wh;c.’D;
}uHefvJxHck.ubs.tusgM.eoh.ng{gI
25

25. How much would seas rise if the Antarctic Ice Sheet melted?
The Antarctic Ice Sheet holds nearly 90 percent of the world’s ice and
70 percent of its fresh water. If the entire ice sheet were to melt, sea
level would rise by nearly 220 feet, or the height of a 20-story building.
Scientists know there’s a melting trend under way. The United Nations
has said that in a worst-case scenario — depending on how much
global air temperatures increase — seas could jump 3 feet (1 meter)
by 2100.

25I t.w.wh;xHvDRouRtbh.rh>ySH>vDRM.yD.vJ.xHutgxD.xJ
vJ.I
[D.cd.csXxHc.k ud.vd. 90 rs;u,RM.rh>t.w.wh;xHvRD ouR’D; 70
rs;u,RM.rh>xHbsgvDRI xHvRD ouRtbh.’Dwcgrh>yS>H vDRM.yD.vJ.rJm
zH;cd.uupDRxD. 220 cD.,D>rhwrh>uupDRxD.xJod;w>ol.xD. 20
uxXwzsX.M.vDRI ySRpJt.h zdwz.oh.ng0JvXxHc.k ud.vd.wz.p;
xD.ySH>vDR0J’.vHM.vDRI [D.cd.bDrk>pXzSd.u&XpH;0JvXw>*h>ttXu
wX>M.zJ 2100 eH.yD.vJ.rJmzH;cd.xHutgxD. 3 cD.,D>'D;w>*h>wcgtHR
’d;oMRxD.to;vX[D.cd.uvHRtw>ud>w>ck.tgxD.xJv.J tzDc.d
vDRI

♦ Did you know that on average, about 400 billion


gallons of water is used worldwide each day?

♦ xHb.w>oltRD vX[D.cd.’Db.h weHRt


w>xd.Cltd.0J 400 ubDu.v.M.eoh.
ng{gI
26

26. Why is Earth mostly crater-free compared to the pockmarked


moon?
Earth is more active interms of both geology and weather. On Earth -
craters that can be millions of years old — get overgrown by vegetation,
weathered by wind and rain, and modified by earthquakes and
landslides. The moon, meanwhile, is geologically quiet and has almost
no weather; its craters tell a billion-year-long tale of catastrophic
collisions.

26I yrh>b.xd.o}wDRM.b.rEkR[D.cd.trJmzH;cd.tHRbV’D;vgtrJmzH;
cd.wcDt.d xJw>vDRqX.vDRuvdmM.vJ.I
yrh>uG>M.[D.cd.tHRtd.’D;tw>[l;w>*JRvX[D.’GyJ n D g’D;rlc.d uvHR
oD.*DRwuyRtgM>’H;vgM.vDRI ylRuGmH teH.vXtuuG>J wz.M.[D.
cd.tzDc.d w>vDRqX.wz.td.0Jb.q.cDzsv d Xw>rk>w>bdwz.rJx.D cJ
bXuGmH tDRrh>*hR< cDzsdrcl .d uvHRoD.*DRtw>qDwvJr>h *hR[D.cd.[l;’D;
[D.cd.vDRvmwz.tCd’;k td.xD.[D.cd.rJmzH;cd.tw>qDwvJM.vDRI
b.q.vgtzDc.d M.cDzsdvX[D.cd.rJmzH;cd.tw>qDwvJwtd.’D;w>
qXuwD>wtd.eDwrHRb.tCdw>vDRqX.wz.tHRtd.’H;’.w>’D;zsg
vXtwJzsgxD.0Jw>uJx.D o;vXtylRuGmH teH.vXtuuG>J wz.t*h>
M.vDRI
♦ Did you know that the Earth
travels at more than 105,000
kph or 29.17 km/s, covering
millions of miles each year as it
journeys through space?

♦ we.&H.[D.cd.vJRw>tgM>’H;
105<000 uHvdrHxX.rhwrh>wpJ;u;
tgM> 29I17 uHvrd x
H X.'D;vJRw&H;rlysD
weH.M>rH;vmvXtuuG>J M.eoh.ng{gI
27

27. Can an earthquake cause a tsunami?


If the earthquake originates under the ocean, yes. Near the earthquake’s
epicenter, the sea floor rises and falls, pushing all the water above it up
and down. This motion produces a wave that travels outward in all
directions. A tsunami can be massive but remain relatively low in height
in deep water. Upon nearing the shore, it is forced up and can reach
the height of tall buildings. One in December 26th, 2004 was triggered
by an earth quake off the coast of Sumatra in Indonesia which carried
waves all the way to Thailand, India and even as far as East Africa.
Asteroids can cause tsunami, too.

27I [D.cd.[l;’k;uJx.D pl.e.rH.oh{gI


[D.cd.[l;tcD.xH;rh>uJx.D to;vXr;orH;tzDvmM.’k;uJx.D pl.e.rH.
ohvDRI bl;‘D;[D.cd.[l;uJxD.tvD>t*H>xH;M.< yD.vJ.xHupH.yDyk<
xHwz.uxD.qlw>zDc.d ’D;uvDRwJmuhRvDRI w>[l;w> *JRtHRu’k;td.
xD.vyD’D;uov.vDRto;qlw>vD>oukRM.vDRI pl.e.rH.M.’d.
b.q.zJttd.vXxH,md tcgM.tvyDwxDb.I wkRtwkRvXxHuX>
eHRM.ozSx
d .D to;’D;vkmbX0J’.w>ol.xD.z;xDwz.oh0v J RD I 2004
eH.vg'H.pJbX.26 teHR[D.cd.[l;vXuD>tH.'d.eH%gS uD;pl.r.-w.tylR
tCd';k td.xD.0Jp.l e.rH.'D;vyDwz.vJRwkR0Jqul >D uF.D wJ.< uD>th'
,.'D;qlr>k xD.tR_zHRuR'.vJmM.vDRI rlzsX._yHwz.rh>vDRwJmqly.D
vJ.ylRM.'k;uJx.D pl.e.rH;ohp>h uD;vDRI
♦ Did you know that most tsunami waves
come onshore more like very strong and
fast tides and not giant breaking waves?

♦ pl.e.rH.vyDwz.tgwuh>wkRt[JwRk
xHu H X>eHRM.ql.’d.r;< txHx.D xHvRD M.
chs';D wrh>vyDz;'d.vXt[JwzsX.wzsX.
b.M.eoh.ng{gI
28

28. What is the fastest surface wind ever recorded?


The fastest “regular” wind that’s widely agreed upon was 231 mph
(372 kilometers per hour), recorded at Mount Washington, N.H., on
April 12, 1934. But during a May 1999 tornado in Oklahoma,
researchers clocked the wind at 318 mph (513 kilometers per hour).
For comparison, Neptune’s winds can rage to 900 mph (1,448
kilometers per hour).

28I [D.cd.rJmzH;cd.uvHRvXtb.w>ymyeD.tDRvXtchsuwX>M.rh>
uvHRrEkRvJ.I
uvHRtlw>vXtb.w>ymyeD.tDR'ftrh>uvHRtcs›uwX>M.w>rR
eD.wh>tDRzJupX> Washington, NH zJ 1934< thjzh. 12 oDeHRvDdRI u
vHRtchsuwX> regular uvHRrk>< we.&H.tlw> 231 rHxX. (372 uHvd
rHxX.) b.q.zJvgrhR 1999 eH.M.uvHRrk>o0H;vXttlw>zJ
(oklahoma) M.ySRCkoh.ngw>wz.ymzsg0JvXwe.&H.tlw> 31*
rHxX.rhwrh> 513 uHvrd x
H X.vDRI yrh>b.xd.o}wDRuG>M.uvHRvX
ttlw>vXrlzsX.eJ;yuFL. Neptune’s M.we.&H.tlw> 900
rHxX.rhwrh> 1448 uHvdrHxX.ngvDRI
♦ Did you know that Debris flows are like mud avalanches and can
move at speeds in excess of 160 kilometers per hour?

♦ Debris uyHmxH,RG wz.vDR*m


’fuyHmxH[Jovl.vDRo;vXu
pX>cd.tod;’D;we.&H.M.vJR
w>chs0J 160 uHvdrHxX.M.e
oh.ng{gI
29

29. Do things inside Earth flow?


You bet. In fact, scientists found in 1999 that molten material in and
around Earth’s core moves in vortices, swirling pockets whose dynamics
are similar to tornadoes and hurricanes. And as you’ll learn later in this
list, the planet’s core moves in other strange ways, too.

29I rh>w>zdw>vHRvXtd.vX[D.cd.ttdyRl wz.,GRvDRoh{gI


rh>< zJ 1999 eH.ySRpJt.h zdwz.xH.M>0JvXw>tyD;tvDvXtyS>H vDRvX
ttd.0;w&H;[D.cd.to;uH>ylR’D;tcsXwz.[l;0;’D;w&H;0J’.’D;t
o[D.M.vDR*m’D;uvHRrk>o0H;’D;uvHRrk>[.&H.uh (Hurricanes) w
z.vDRI ‘fw>zdw>vHRwz.w&H;[D.cd.tod;M.[D.cd.to;uH>ph>uD;
w&H;vXusv J RD qDt*Rwbdt*h>M.vXcHeurRvdb.M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that the temperature of Earth increases about 20


degrees Celsius for every kilometer you go down? Near the
center, its thought to be at least 3,870 Celsius.

♦ [D.cd.tw>ud>tgxD.0J 1 uHvr
d x
H X.M. 20 'H.u&H.pJvpf H
,X.pfzeJ vJRvDRql[.D cd.to;uH>'D;vXbl;'D;[D.
cd.to;uH>M.w>ud>tpSRuwX>utd.0J
3<870 pJvfpH,X.pfM.eoh.ng{gI
30

30. Were Earth and the moon separated at birth?


Not quite. But leading theory holds that our favorite satellite was carved
partly from Earth shortly after the Earth formed. A Mars-sized object
slammed into our fledgling planet. The impactor was destroyed. Stuff
flew everywhere and a lot of it went into orbit around Earth. The moon
gathered itself together out of the largely vaporized remains of the col-
lision, while Earth hung in there pretty much intact.

30I rh>[D.cd.’D;vgM.vDRz;zJttd.xD.oDot D cgvHM.{gI


wvDRwH>b.I vgM.b.w>’k;uJxD.tDRvX[D.cd.tuhtcDwz.zJ
[D.cd.uJx.D wpd>zd0RH tvD>cHM.vDRI w>tud.vd.vXtxJo;d ’D; rgpf
M.[Jb.xH;vdmto;’D;y[D.cd.zJttd.xD.oDo0D RH tvD>cH’;D w>vX
t[Jb.xH;w>wcgM.[;*DRoh.z;0JvRD I w>tuhtcDwz.,lR0hR0DR
oukR’D;tuhtcDtgr;wz.vJRwkRqlrlzsX.tusdRvXttd.0;w&H;
[D.cd.ttd.vDRI w>tuhtcDvXt’d.wz.tHRymzS.d xD.vdmto;’D;
uJx.D vgM.vDRI rhr>h [D.cd.wcDt.d ’ftvD>vD>tod;M.vDRI

♦ Did you know our planet is more than 4.5


billion years old, just a shade younger than the
sun?

♦y[D.cd.tHRto;eH.tgM> 450 ubD’;D to;


p>M>’H;rk>M.eoh.ng{gI
31

31. Does Earth have the worst weather in the solar system?
Right now, it’s the worst that most humans I know ever experience.
But there’s lots of wilder weather elsewhere. Mars can whip up
hurricanelike storms four times bigger than Burma. Dust storms on the
Red Planet can obscure the entire globe! Jupiter has a hurricane twice
the size our entire planet, and it’s lasted for at least three centuries
(another storm on Jupiter is even bigger). Venus is a living hell, and
Pluto is routinely more frigid than the coldest place on Earth (though
may change one day, and Pluto may in fact become the last oasis for
life).

31I vXrk>t’l.zdxXzdtusgrh>[D.cd.td.’D;w>uwD>vXttXuwX>
{gI
chcgcJtRH rh>w>qXuwD>te;uwX>vX,xH.b.wh>vXySR[D.cd.zdw>l b.
0JvDRI b.q.w>qXuwD>vXtue;M>t0JtHRtd.ph>uD;vDRI uvHR
rk>vXtvDR*m’D;[.&H.uhvXttlw>vX rgpf tylRM.’d.M>uD>y,DR
vG>H bsv
D RD I uvHRrk>tlw>vX rgpf vXtrh>rlzsX.*DRwzsX.tylRM.w>u
rl.wz.usX>bXuGmH [D.cd.zsX.’DwzsX.ohvRD I Jupiter tuvHRrk>[.
&H.uhM.’d.M>y[D.cd.cHbs<D ‘D;tlw>tpSRuwX>u,HmteH.oXu,R
vDRI uvHRrk>td.wcgvX Jupiter M.’d.M>t0JtRH vDRI Venus
M.vDR*m’D;v&m< ‘D; pluto M.nDE>k ck.M>’H;w>ck.’d.u
wX>tvD>vX[D.cd.vDRI
♦ Everyone knows that Saturn has rings. But did
you know that Jupiter and Neptune both have
subtle ring systems and even Earth may once
have been a ringed planet?
♦ ySRud;*R’J;oh.ng0J’.vX Saturn M.td.’D;
w>tuGRD vXtvdRvDRI Jupiter ‘D; Neptune td.
ph>uD;’D;w>tuGRD qH;qH;zdvXyxH.tDRoh’;D [D.cd.
emuhwbst D .d ’D;w>tuGRD vXtvdRM.eoh.ng{gI
32

32. Have there always been continents?


Not as we know them today. Many scientists figure Earth began as
one huge continent — dry as a bone. Water was delivered in comets,
the thinking goes, and the oceans developed. Much more recently, all
the world’s land masses were huddled into one supercontinent called
Pangaea. It began to break up about 225 million years ago, eventually
fragmenting into the continents as we know them today.

32I rh>uD>rd>yS>wz.td.wh>vH’t f RH xDb{d gI


wrh>’fyoh.ngrk>rqgweHRtHRtod;b.I ySRpJt.h zdtg*Rymzsg0JvX[D.
cd.uJx.D tcD.xH;M.vDR*m’fu>D rd>yS>z;vJ>wbh.tod;’D;Chx0D ’J n
f .
Chtod;vDRI w>w,;vX[D.cd.M.u’d;M>xHvXq.rJ>xD.ttd.’D;
’k;uJx.D 0Jr;orH;vDRI tylRuGmH teH.wz.teH.M.[D.cd.csX’Db.h t
[D.cd.ud.vd.wz.b.w>ymzS.d CkmtDR’fu>D rd>yS>wbh.CDvXtb.w>
ud;tDRvX Pangaea M.vDRI tylRuGmH teH. 225 uuG>J eH.M. Pangaea
tHRoh.z;vDRrk>vDRz;’D;vXcHuwX>uJx.D uD>rd>yS>wz.’fyoh.ngrk>r
qgweHRtHRtod;vDRI

♦ Did you know that if the ocean’s total


salt content were dried, it would cover
the continents to a depth of 1.2 meters?

♦ r;orH;tHo.xHrh>ChxDuGHmM.tHo.
tHRuusX>bXuD>rd>yS> 1I2 rHxX.M.e
oh.ng{gI
33

33. Does all of Earth spin at the same rate?


The solid inner core — a mass of iron comparable to the size of the
moon — spins faster than the outer portion of the iron core, which is
liquid. A study in 1996 showed that over the previous century, the
extra speed caused the inner core to gain a quarter-turn on the planet
as a whole. So the inner core makes a complete revolution with re-
spect to the rest of Earth in about 400 years. Immense pressure keeps
it solid.

33I rh>[D.cd.w&H;t,lmcJvXm’fo;d od;{gI


[D.cd.to;uH>tud.vd.vXtrh> (x;ud.vd.)vXtutd.xJod;
vgM.w&H;cVM>’H;w>o;uH>tcsXvXtrh> (w>txH) vDRI w>Cko.h ng
zJ 1996 eH.ymzsg0JvXtylRuGmH teH.wu,RM.w>o;uH>tylRw&H;cV
xD.M>w&H;wh>0Jw0DtvGH>ylwylvDRI tCdteH. 400 twD>ylRw>o;
uH>tylRtHRw&H;ucsx › .D M>[D.cd.zsX.t*R’Dw0DM.vDRI

♦ Did you know much of Earth is fluid with the mostly solid skin of the
planet averages only 35 kilometers thick — thinner than the skin
of an apple, relatively speaking.

♦ [D.cd.’Dwbh.M.rh>xH’;D tzH;vXtrh>w>toH;ud.vd.twD.tw>xd.Cl
td.0J J 35 uHvrd x
H X.vDRI tCdr>h b.wJM.[D.cd.tzH;M.blM>’H;zDo.
wzsX.tzH;M.eoh.ng{gI
34

34. How long is a day on Venus?


A day on Venus is longer than a year on the planet! It takes Venus 243
Earth days to rotate once on it’s axis but only 225 Earth days to revolve
around the Sun.

34I vX0HeX;pf Venus M.woD,mH qH;tgvJ.I


vX0HeX;pf Venus M.woD,mH M>’H;weH.vXrlzsX.vDRI 0HeX;pfw&H; vXt
0.&dzDcd.u0;w0Dt*D>,HmM>[D.cd.toD 243 oD’D;w&H;rk>u0; w0D
M.,Hm’.xJ[.D cd.toD 225 oDM.vDRI

♦Did you know that Venus rotates in the opposite direction as Earth?
On Venus, the Sun rises in the west and sets in the east!

♦ 0HeX;pfw&H;M.cd.csXvdmo;’D;[D.cd.’D;vX0HeX;pf Venus M.rk>[Jx.


D
vXrk>Ekm’D;vDREkmvXrk>xD.M.eoh.ng{gI
35

35. Which planets have moons?


Well of course Earth has one moon but several other planets have
moons, as well. Mars has 2, Jupiter has at least 61, Saturn at least 31,
Uranus at least 25, Neptune at least 8 and Pluto has at least 1.
Astronomers often find new moons orbiting the planets so these
numbers may continue to rise.

35I rlzsX.zJv.J wz.td.’D;tvgvJ.I


[D.cd.tvgtd.wbh.b.q.rlzsX.t*Rtgbh.td.’D;tvgwz.ph>uD;
vDRI rgpf Mars tvgtd.cHbh.< Jupiter uFL.zH.xX.tvgtpSRu
wX>td. 61 bh.< Saturn pJ;xX.tpSRuwX>tvgtd. 31 bh.< uranus
,l.&heX;pf 25 bh.< Neptune eJ;yuFL. 8 bh.‘D; pluto yvl.wd.tpSR
uwX>wbh.vDRI ySRohru l ydmyDngwz.xH.M>vgtoDwz.vJRw&H;
rlyscD t
J RH cJtRH tCdvgwz.teD.*H>utgxD.’H;0J%>k %k>vDRI

♦ Did you know that it takes the Moon 27.3 days to revolve around
the Earth?

♦ vgw&H;[D.cd.w0D,mH 27I3 oDM.


eoh.ng{gI
36

36. What causes a rainbow?


It takes two things to cause a rainbow: sunlight and raindrops. When
sunlight shines through raindrops, the light is bent, and beautiful colors
are seen against the clouds. Each color of the rainbow is made by
many raindrops bending the light at a particular angle.

36I w>rEkR’k;uJxD.wX>uGJRvJ.I
rk>w>uyDR’D;w>plRxHtzsX.wz.rh>w>cHrRH vXu’k;uJx.D wX>uGRJ M.vDRI
zJr>k tw>uyDRqJ;vDRb.xHtzsX.zdwz.’D;w>uyDRqJ;uvRuhRM.e
uxH.b.w>tvG>J CHvRwz.zsgvXw>tX.usgM.vDRI wX>uGRJ tvG>J
wcgb.wcgpkmpkmM.b.w>’k;uJx.D tDRvXw>plRxHtgzsX.qJ;uvR
0J’.w>uyDR (‘fwzsX.’D;wzsX.tw>vDRqDt.d tod;) M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that a passing cyclone once dropped nearly 4 meters
of rain in just 24 hours on the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean
1952? That is a world record.

♦ vX[D.cd.w>rReD.tylRuvHRrk>o0H;vXtplRvDR0J’.vXuD;
Reunion vXtd.vXth’,.r;orH;tylRzJ 1952 eH.vX 24 e.
&H.twD>ylRM.w>plRxHtd.0J 4 rH
xX.M.eoh.ng{gI
37

37. Can people tell when an earthquake will happen?


No, they can’t. Scientists have no way to accurately predict earthquakes
but animals might to able to. Stories tell about rats, snakes, centipedes,
worms and beetles leaving Hellas, Greece, in droves just before a
large earthquake in 373 B.C. It is said that in Tashkent, Uzbekistan
1966, one hour before an earthquake, masses of ants carried their
eggs out of their anthills.

37I rh>ySRunDw[ J .D cd.u[l;tcgzJv.J b.w*R*R{gI


t0Jo.h wJwb.b.I ySRpJt.h zdwz.uwJqyd m[D.cd.u[l;t*h>vDR
wH>vDRqJ;M.wJ0w J b.b.I b.q.q.zdu>D zdwz.wJq0d u J b.wcD
’H;I zJwcsK;c&HmeH. 373 wcsK;[D.cd.[l;z;’d.b.M.w>wJ0v J X,k>< *k><
‘;bD< xd;’D;pGHRwz.ymwh>tw>td.w>qd;tvD>zJ[Jv;pfvXttd.zJ
}uH;pf’D;Ch>uGHmqlw>vD>t*RM.vDRI w>pH;0J’.vX 1966 eH.tylRzJ
uD>v;pfceJ f (laskent), ’D;tl;pfb.J uH;pfw. (Uzbekistan) tylRwX>*D>
rk>wz.pdmxD.0J’.t’H.qlw>csXwcsK;zJ[.D cd.[l;trJmngwe.&H.M.
vDRI
♦ Did you know that most earthquakes are triggered less than 80
kilometers from Earth’s surface?

♦ [D.cd.[l;tgwuh>p;xD.zJw>vD>vXt,HR’D;[D.cd.rJmzH;cd.vXtpSR
M> 80 uHvdrHxX.M.eoh.ng{gI
38

38. What is the difference between stars and planets?


Planets aren’t as big or as hot as stars, and they can’t make light of
their own. They were made from the leftovers of the same gas and
dust cloud that gave birth to their nearest star.

38I q.’D;rlzsX.wz.vDRqDvmd to;’fv.J I


rlzsX.wz.w’d.’D;wud>xJo;d ’D;q.wz.b.I ‘D;teD>up>tw>uyDR
wtd.b.I t0Joh.b.w>’k;td.xD.tDRvX*mo0H’D;w>urSHRvXt
td.wh>zJw>’k;td.xD.q.0HRwz.M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that light from our star, the Sun, takes 8.3 minutes to
reach us?

♦ w>uyDRvXt[JvXyq.’D;rk>ttd.M.uwkRqlytd.t*D>,Hm 8I3
rH;eH;M.eoh.ng{gI
39

39. Will the sun ever go out?


One day the Sun will use up all its gas fuel and die. But this won’t
happen in your lifetime, or even your great-great-great grandchildren’s!
Astronomers think that the Sun has enough gas fuel to last for at least
another 5 billion years.

39I rh>rk>u[Jx.D xDb{d gI rh>rk>td.ywkmwbsDbsD{gI


rk>utd.0JweHRM.rk>uolvXmuGmH t*mo0Hcv J Xm’D;uoHvRD I b.q.
w>t0JtRH wrRto;zJepdRtHR’D;ezdpRd vHRpdR’.vJm’H;b.I ySRohru
l ydm
yDngwz.qdurd.0JvXcHtpSRuwX>teH. 5000 uuG>J emuhr>k utd.
’H;’D;t*mo0H< todvXvXySRJ ySRJ vXuvJRw>t*D>vDRI

♦ Did you know that the Sun uses more than 30 million truck loads of
fuel every second?

♦ wpJ;u;rk>ol0t
J rh.q.tgM>odv.h y’X;w>tcd. 30 uuG>J cd.wD0J
M>M.eoh.ng{gI
40

40. Where do most earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur


on Earth?
The majority occur along boundaries of the dozen or so major plates
that more or less float on the surface of Earth. One of the most active
plate boundaries where earthquakes and eruptions are frequent, for
example, is around the massive Pacific Plate commonly referred to as
the Pacific Ring of Fire. It fuels shaking and baking from Japan to
Alaska to South America.

40I [D.cd.[l;’D;upX>rh.tlwz.tgwuh>yd>z; ([l;*JR) vXw>vD>zJ


vJ.I
[D.cd.[l;’D;upX>rh.tly>d z;teD.*H>ttguwX>uJx.D to;zJ[.D cd.
tuhtcDvXtxD.zDvX[D.cd.rJmzH;cd.wz.to&hRxH;M.vDRI [D.cd.
tuhtcDwcgvXb.xH;vdmto;’D;’k;uJx.D [D.cd.[l;’D;w>yd>z;cJtRH
cJtRH M.t’dt0JM.td.vXypH;zh;[D.ubs.’D;nDE>k yud;tDRvXypH;zh;t
rh.tluRDG " Pacific Ring of Fire "vDRI [D.cd.tubs.0JtRH tCd’;k td.
xD.[D.cd.[l;’D;upX>rh.tlyd>z;wz.vX,y.uD>qlt.v;pfu.’D;
qluvHRxH;trJ&uRM.vDRI
♦Did you know that the sound from the eruption of the Krakatau
volcano in 1883 traveled nearly 5000 km?

♦ Krakatau (c&.uwD.) upX>


rh.tlyd>z;toD.zJ 1883 eH.M.
[l,HRwkR 5000 uHvdrHxX.M.
eoh.ng{gI
41

41. How can you tell how old a mountain is?


The shape of a mountain can tell you a lot. Mountains with sharp,
jagged shapes are fairly young mountains – only a few million years
old! Older mountains have more rounded shapes, worn smooth by the
wind and rain.

41I upX>wzsX.to;yS>xJv.J M.ewJtRD oh’v


f .J I
cDzsu
d pX>tuh>t*DRM.wJeRw>uohtgr;vDRI upX>vXtcd.pltue.
th.&J.to;wz.urh>’.upX>o;p>’D;td.’H;’.xJpRS uuG>J eH.M.vDRI
upX>vXto;yS>xD.wz.rh>vXb.uvHRw>plRxHtCdtcd.uyXR
vDR’D;td.bso
› vH;M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that it takes about 1,000 years to wear down a
mountain only 8 cm?

♦ cDzsdw>tD.vhRuGmH w>tCdteH.wuxdM.upX>qH;vDR’.xJ 8 pJ;


xH.rHxX.M.eoh.ng{gI
42

42. What is the world’s deepest lake?


Lake Baikal in the south central part of Siberia is 1.7 kilometers deep.
It’s about 20 million years old and contains 20 percent of Earth’s fresh
liquid water.

42I [D.cd.csXed.t,dmuwX>M.rh>ed.rEkRvJ.I
ed. Baikal vXttd.vX Siberia uvHRxH;w>cX.o;M.,dm0J 1I7 uH
vdrxH X.vDRI to;yS>0JtuuG>J 20 eH.’D;ymzS.d [D.cd.txHbsgM> 20
rs;u,RvDRI

♦ Did you know that even though we have water coming out of our
ears, only one percent of it is drinkable? Most of it is frozen or
salty.

♦ xHwz.tgwuh>rh>xHvDRo
uRrhwrh>xH[DtCdxHrh>tgxJ
vJ.b.q.ytDo’h .xJ 1 rs;u
,RM.eoh.ng{gI
43

43. What is the world’s largest desert?


The Sahara Desert in northern Africa is the largest desert in the world
and covers about 7,700,000 sq km. This is about one-third of the
whole of Africa.

43I rJ;rk>cd.tvJ>uwX>vX[D.cd.csXrh>rJ;rk>cd.rEkRwbh.vJ.I
rJ;rk>cd.tvJ>uwX>vX[D.cd.csXrh>0J (q[.&;) Sahara, rJ;rk>cd.td.
vXuvHRpd;tR_zHRuRwuyR< tvJ>txDtd.0J 7<700<000 puGJ,g
uHvrd x H X.’D;td.0JtR_zHRuRoXylwylvRD I

♦ Did you know that the highest sand dunes are in the Sahara Desert?
Some are over 400 meters high!

♦ rJ;vl>txDuwX>vX (q[.&;) Sahara rJ;rk>cd.M.weDRxD0J 400


rHxX.’D;weDRxDM>t0JM.M.eoh.ng{gI
44

44. How many people would it take to stretch around the world?
It’s about 40,100 km around Earth from the equator. That means it
would take 33,000,000 people holding hands to reach all the way
around.

44I ySRunDr>h zD.vdmpk’;D td.u0DR[D.cd.u0;t*D>uvd.ySRySRJ *RvJ.I


etd.vXtH.cUxX.’D;w&H;[D.cd.w0DM.td.0J 40<100 uHvdrHxX.
vDRI tCdeu0;[D.cd.t*D>vd.ySRunDz.D vdmpk 33<000<000 *RvDRI

♦ Did you know that according to the UN and other estimates, the
world population reached 6 billion in 1999?

♦ b.xG’
J ;D [D.cd.bDr>k pXzS.d u&Xw>ymzsg’D;w>ymzsgt*Rwz.M.zJ
1999 eH.M.[D.cd.zde.D *H>xD.b;wkRvXtuuG>J 6 uxdM.eoh.
ng{gI
45

45. Why do you see the lightning before you hear the thunder?
The reason we almost always see the lightning before hearing the thunder
is because light travels much faster than sound. Thunder and lightning
happen in the same place at about the same time. In fact, the lightning
produces the thunder. When lightning occurs, the nearby air becomes
very hot and expands quickly, causing an explosion. The sound of
thunder is really the sound of this explosion.

45I b.rEkRexH.qdv0D >’H;wcsK;ee>[lvo D .D vJ.I


rh>vXw>uyDRvJRw>cVM>’H;w>uvk>tCdwcsK;ye>[lvo D .D b.M.nD
Ek>yxH.qdv0D >’H;M.vDRI vDo.D ’D;vD0>’H;M.uJx.D vXw>vD>wwDRCD
’D;w>qXuwD>wuwD>CDvRD I teD>eD>vD0>’H;’k;td.xD.vDo.D M.vDRI
zJv0D >’H;tcguvHRvXtuydmuyRwz.ud>xD.’d.’d.’D;ov.vDRt
o;cVo’H;’D;uJxD.w>yd>z;M.vDRI vXw>M.tCdw>yd>z;t0JtHRt
oD.M.rh>vDo.D M.vDRI

♦ Did you know that you can tell how far away a
storm is by counting the number of seconds
between the lightning and the thunder? The
storm is 1 kilometer away for every
3 seconds you count.

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46

46. Is air mostly oxygen?


Earth’s atmosphere is actually about 80 percent nitrogen. Most of the
rest is oxygen, with tiny amounts of other stuff thrown in. Near the
ground there is plenty of oxygen but the higher you go into the
atmosphere, the less oxygen there is.

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♦ Did you know that the Earth’s atmosphere reaches out into space
about 500 km?

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47

47. How big was the largest diamond?


Did you know that the world’s biggest diamond was found in South
Africa in 1905. It weighted more than half a Kilogram or 3,106 carats.
Named the “The Cullinan”, it was cut into 106 polished diamonds.

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♦ Did you know that diamonds are the hardest mineral in the world?

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48

48. Why is space black and the sky blue?


About 20 miles above the Earth, the sky appears black. So what
happens between there and here? Light, you might know, travels in
waves. And the waves of different colors of light are different lengths.
Sunlight is a mixture of all those different colors. When the sunlight
travels through the thickest part of the atmosphere, the short
wavelengths of blue light get scattered. So what we see when we look
at the sky during the daytime is the scattered blue light.

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♦Did you know that the sea looks blue
because it reflects the color of the sky?

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49

49. What percentage of the world’s water is in the oceans?


About 97 percent. Oceans make up about two-thirds of Earth’s surface,
which means that when the next asteroid hits the planet, odds are good
it will splash down.

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♦ Did you know that more than 3 million cubic km of fresh water is
stored in the planet?

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50

50. Will Earth always be here?


Astronomers know that over the next few billion years, the sun will
swell so large as to envelop Earth. If we’re still here, we’ll probably fry
and the planet will be vaporized. There’s a chance, however, that the
changing mass of the sun will cause Earth to move into a more distant
and pleasant orbit. One mathematical calculation shows it would be
theoretically possible for humans to engineer such a move before it’s
too late.

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