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# CHAPTER 6

DESIGN OF BEAMS

114 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
Moment Results from Grasp:

## Exterior Beams Interior Beams

Midspan Support Midspan support
Roof Deck 45.1587 -92.7698 54.6783 -100.902
4th Floor 80.8547 -179.847 93.9771 -200.572
3rd Floor 139.8988 -233.931 126.8842 -242.67
2nd Floor 156.3688 -254.288 141.9795 -260.629

## Solving for 𝝆b; f’c = 28 Mpa; fy = 414 Mpa; db = 25 mm

0.85f′cβ600 0.8(28)(0.85)600
𝝆b = =
fy(600+fy) 414(600+414)

𝝆b = 0.02891

Solving for 𝝆,

## 𝝆max = 0.75 𝝆b = 0.75(0.02891) = 0.02168

1.4 1.4
𝝆min = = = 0.003381
fy 414

## So, use 𝝆 = 0.01301

Solving for ω,

ρfy (0.01301)(414)
ω= =
f′c 28

ω = 0.19236

## Solving for 𝝎𝒎𝒂𝒙,

ρ𝑚𝑎𝑥fy (0.02168)(414)
𝝎𝒎𝒂𝒙 = =
f′c 28

𝝎𝒎𝒂𝒙 = 0.32055

115 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
Designing for Exterior Beams:

Roof Deck

Mumidspan = 45.1587 kN - m
Musupport = -92.7698 kN - m

Midspan

## Mu = 45.1587 kN – m fy = 414 MPa

𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa Investigate:
ω = 0.19236
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
Solution: where:
As = ρbd
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) 𝜋(25)2
(2) = ρ (220) (327.5)
45.1587×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 – 4
0.59 (0.19236)) ρ = 0.0136 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
bd2 = 10508570.9 mm ρfy (0.0136)(414)
ω= =
f′c 28
Assume d = 1.75b
b(1.75b)2 = 10508570.9 mm ω = 0.2011
b = 150.83 mm “say” 220 mm
d = 263.95 mm “say” 300 mm Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.2011) (220) (327.5)2
(1 – 0.59 (0.2011))
As = ρbd = 0.01301 (150.83) (263.95) = Mu(capacity) = 105.39 kN – m
517.95 mm2
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 45.1587 kN – m
Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
517.95
N= π(25)2
= 1.06 “say” 2 bars AND OKAY!
4

## S = 220 – 100 – 2(25) = 70 mm > 50 mm Support

(OK!)
Mu = -92.7698 kN – m fy = 414 MPa
2 A ȳ = 2 A (62.5) 𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
ȳ = 62.5 mm ωmax = 0.32055

## D = 300 + 62.5 = 362.5 mm “say” 390 mm Solution:

dnew = 390 – 62.5 = 327.5 mm
Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd2(1 − 0.59ωmax)
Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (220) (327.5)2 (1
– 0.59 (0.32055))
Mumax = 154.56 kN – m > Mu(design)

116 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
𝜋(25)2
(2) = ρ (220) (327.5)
DESIGN AS SINGLY REINFORCED 4
ρ = 0.0136 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) ρfy (0.0136)(414)
92.7698 x 106 = 0.9 (28) (ω) (220) (327.5)2 ω= =
f′c 28
(1 – 0.59 (ω))
ω = 0.1738 ω = 0.2011
ρfy
ω= Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.2011) (220) (327.5)2
f′c
ρ(414) (1 – 0.59 (0.2011))
0.1738 = Mu(capacity) = 105.39 kN – m
28
ρ = 0.0118 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 92.7698 kN – m
As = ρbd = 0.0118 (220) (327.5) = 850.19
mm2 THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
AND OKAY!
Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
850.19 4th Floor
N= π(25)2
= 1.73 “say” 2 bars
4
Mumidspan = 80.8547 kN - m
S = 220 – 100 – 2(25) = 70 mm > 50 mm Musupport = -179.847 kN - m
(OK!)
Midspan
2 A ȳ = 2 A (62.5)
ȳ = 62.5 mm Mu = 80.8547 kN – m fy = 414 MPa
𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa
dnew = 390 – 62.5 = 327.5 mm ω = 0.19236

Solution:

Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
80.8547×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 –
0.59 (0.19236))
bd2 = 18815141.89 mm

Assume d = 1.75b
b(1.75b)2 = 18815141.89 mm
b = 183.15 mm “say” 270 mm
d = 320.51 mm “say” 350 mm

## Investigate: As = ρbd = 0.01301 (183.15) (320.51) =

763.71 mm2
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
where: Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
As = ρbd

117 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
763.71 Support
N= π(25)2
= 1.56 “say” 2 bars
4
Mu = -179.847 kN – m fy = 414 MPa
S = 270 – 100 – 2(25) = 120 mm > 50 mm 𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
(OK!) ωmax = 0.32055

2 A ȳ = 2 A (62.5) Solution:
ȳ = 62.5 mm
Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd2(1 − 0.59ωmax)
D = 350 + 62.5 = 412.5 mm “say” 430 mm Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (270) (367.5)2 (1
dnew = 430 – 62.5 = 367.5 mm – 0.59 (0.32055))

## DESIGN AS SINGLY REINFORCED

Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
179.847 x 106 = 0.9 (28) (ω) (270) (367.5)2
(1 – 0.59 (ω))
ω = 0.2258

ρfy
ω=
f′c
ρ(414)
0.2258 =
28
ρ = 0.01527 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Investigate:
As = ρbd = 0.01527 (270) (367.5) = 1515.17
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) mm2
where:
As = ρbd Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
𝜋(25)2 1515.17
(2) = ρ (270) (367.5) N = π(25)2 = 3.09 “say” 4 bars
4
ρ = 0.00989 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!) 4

ω= = (OK!)
f′c 28

## ω = 0.14623 4 A ȳ = 2 A (62.5) + 2 A (112.5)

ȳ = 87.5 mm
Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.14623) (270)
(367.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.14623)) dnew = 430 – 87.5 = 342.5 mm
Mu(capacity) = 122.78 kN – m

## THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE

AND OKAY!

118 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
Solution:

Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
139.8988×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 –
0.59 (0.19236))
bd2 = 32554888.85 mm

Assume d = 1.75b
b(1.75b)2 = 32554888.85 mm
b = 219.88 mm “say” 290 mm
d = 384.79 mm “say” 390 mm
Investigate:
As = ρbd = 0.01301 (219.88) (384.79) =
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) 1100.75 mm2
where:
As = ρbd Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
𝜋(25)2
(4) = ρ (270) (342.5) 1100.75
4
ρ = 0.02123 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!) N= π(25)2
= 2.24 “say” 3 bars
4

ρfy (0.02123)(414)
ω= = S=
290−100−3(25)
= 57.5 mm > 50 mm
f′c 28 2
(OK!)
ω = 0.3139
3 A ȳ = 3 A (62.5)
Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.3139) (270) (342.5)2 ȳ = 62.5 mm
(1 – 0.59 (0.3139))
Mu(capacity) = 204.14 kN-m D = 390 + 62.5 = 452.5 mm “say” 470 mm
dnew = 470 – 62.5 = 407.5 mm
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 179.145 kN – m

## THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE

AND OKAY!

3rd Floor

Mumidspan = 139.8988 kN - m
Musupport = -233.931 kN - m

Midspan

## Mu = 139.8988 kN – m fy = 414 MPa Investigate:

𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa
ω = 0.19236 Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
where:
As = ρbd

119 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
𝜋(25)2
(3) = ρ (290) (407.5)
4 Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
ρ = 0.01246 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
1772.63
ρfy (0.01246)(414) N= π(25)2
= 3.61 “say” 4 bars
ω= = 4
f′c 28

## ω = 0.18423 S = 290 – 100 – 2(25) = 140 mm > 50 mm

(OK!)
Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.18423) (290)
(407.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.18423)) 4 A ȳ = 2 A (62.5) + 2 A (112.5)
Mu(capacity) = 199.27 kN – m ȳ = 87.5 mm

AND OKAY!

Support

## Mu = -233.931kN – m fy = 414 MPa

𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
ωmax = 0.32055

Solution:

## Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd2(1 − 0.59ωmax)

Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (290) (407.5)2 (1 Investigate:
– 0.59 (0.32055))
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
Mumax = 315.43 kN – m > Mu(design) where:
As = ρbd
𝜋(25)2
DESIGN AS SINGLY REINFORCED (4) = ρ (290) (382.5)
4
ρ = 0.0177 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
233.931 x 106 = 0.9 (28) (ω) (290) (407.5)2 ρfy (0.0177)(414)
(1 – 0.59 (ω)) ω= =
f′c 28
ω = 0.22179
ω = 0.26171
ρfy
ω=
f′c Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.26171) (290)
ρ(414)
0.22179 = (382.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.26171))
28
ρ = 0.015 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!) Mu(capacity) = 236.61 kN – m

## As = ρbd = 0.015 (290) (407.5) = 1772.63 Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 233.038 kN – m

mm2

120 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
AND OKAY!

2nd Floor

Mumidspan = 156.3688 kN - m
Musupport = -254.288 kN - m

Midspan

## Mu = 156.3688 kN – m fy = 414 MPa

𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa Investigate:
ω = 0.19236
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
Solution: where:
As = ρbd
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) 𝜋(25)2
(3) = ρ (300) (402.5)
156.3688×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 – 4
0.59 (0.19236)) ρ = 0.0122 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
bd2 = 36387509.43 mm ρfy (0.0122)(414)
ω= =
f′c 28
Assume d = 1.75b
b(1.75b)2 = 36387509.43 mm ω = 0.18039
b = 228.19 mm “say” 300 mm
d = 399.33 mm “say” 400 mm Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.18039) (300)
(402.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.18039))
As = ρbd = 0.01301 (228.19) (399.33) = Mu(capacity) = 197.42 kN – m
1185.51 mm2
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 156.3688 kN – m
Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
1185.51
N= π(25)2
= 2.42 “say” 3 bars AND OKAY!
4

300−100−3(25)
S= = 62.5 mm > 50 mm Support
2
(OK!)
Mu = -254.288 kN – m fy = 414 MPa
3 A ȳ = 3 A (62.5) 𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
ȳ = 62.5 mm ωmax = 0.32055

## D = 400 + 62.5 = 462.5 mm “say” 465 mm Solution:

dnew = 465 – 62.5 = 402.5 mm
Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd2(1 − 0.59ωmax)
Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (300) (402.5)2 (1
– 0.59 (0.32055))

121 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
Mumax = 318.35 kN – m > Mu(design) As = ρbd
𝜋(25)2
(5) = ρ (300) (382.5)
DESIGN AS SINGLY REINFORCED 4
ρ = 0.02139 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) ρfy (0.02139)(414)
254.288 x 106 = 0.9 (28) (ω) (300) (402.5)2 ω= =
f′c 28
(1 – 0.59 (ω))
ω = 0.24224 ω = 0.31627
ρfy
ω= Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.31627) (300)
f′c
ρ(414) (382.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.31627))
0.24224 = Mu(capacity) = 284.54 kN – m
28
ρ = 0.01638 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 254.288 kN – m
As = ρbd = 0.01631 (300) (402.5) = 1969.43
mm2 THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
AND OKAY!
Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
1969.43
N= π(25)2
= 4.01 “say” 5 bars
4 Designing for Interior Beams:

300−100−3(25)
S= = 62.5 mm > 50 mm
2 Roof Deck
(OK!)
Mumidspan = 54.6783 kN - m
5 A ȳ = 3 A (62.5) + 2 A (112.5) Musupport = -100.902 kN - m
ȳ = 82.5 mm
Midspan
dnew = 465 – 82.5 = 382.5 mm
Mu = 54.6783 kN – m fy = 414 MPa
𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa
ω = 0.19236

Solution:

Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
54.6783×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 –
0.59 (0.19236))
bd2 = 12723811.64 mm

Assume d = 1.75b
b(1.75b)2 = 12723811.64 mm
Investigate:
b = 160.76 mm “say” 250 mm
d = 281.33 mm “say” 300 mm
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
where:
122 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
As = ρbd = 0.01301 (160.76) (281.33) = Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 54.6783 kN – m
588.40 mm2
THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
Using 25 mm ∅ main bars: AND OKAY!
588.40
N= π(25)2
= 1.20 “say” 2 bars
4 Support

## S = 250 – 80 – 2(25) = 120 mm > 50 mm Mu = -100.902 kN – m fy = 414 MPa

(OK!) 𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
ωmax = 0.32055
2 A ȳ = 2 A (52.5)
ȳ = 52.5 mm Solution:

## D = 300 + 52.5 = 352.5 mm “say” 380 mm Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd2(1 − 0.59ωmax)

dnew = 380 – 52.5 = 327.5 mm Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (250) (327.5)2 (1
– 0.59 (0.32055))
Mumax = 175.64 kN – m > Mu(design)

## DESIGN AS SINGLY REINFORCED

Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
100.902 x 106 = 0.9 (28) (ω) (250) (327.5)2
(1 – 0.59 (ω))
ω = 0.16548

ρfy
ω=
f′c
ρ(414)
0.16548 =
28
ρ = 0.01119 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Investigate:
As = ρbd = 0.01119 (250) (327.5) = 916.18
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) mm2
where:
As = ρbd Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
𝜋(25)2
(2) = ρ (250) (327.5)
4 916.18
ρ = 0.01199 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!) N= π(25)2
= 1.87 “say” 2 bars
4
ρfy (0.01199)(414)
ω= = S = 250 – 80 – 2(25) = 120 mm > 50 mm
f′c 28
(OK!)
ω = 0.17728
2 A ȳ = 2 A (52.5)
Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.17728) (250) ȳ = 52.5 mm
(327.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.17728))
Mu(capacity) = 107.26 kN – m dnew = 380 – 52.5 = 327.5 mm

123 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
Solution:

Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
93.9771×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 –
0.59 (0.19236))
bd2 = 21868765.46 mm

Assume d = 1.75b
b(1.75b)2 = 21868765.46 mm
b = 192.57 mm “say” 270 mm
d = 337 mm “say” 380 mm
Investigate:
As = ρbd = 0.01301 (192.57) (337) = 844.30
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) mm2
where:
As = ρbd Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
𝜋(25)2
(2) = ρ (250) (327.5) 844.30
4
ρ = 0.01199 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!) N= π(25)2
= 1.72 “say” 2 bars
4

ρfy (0.01199)(414)
ω= = S = 270 – 80 – 2(25) = 140 mm > 50 mm
f′c 28
(OK!)
ω = 0.17728
2 A ȳ = 2 A (52.5)
Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.17728) (250) ȳ = 52.5 mm
(327.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.17728))
Mu(capacity) = 107.26 kN – m D = 380 + 52.5 = 432.5 mm “say” 450 mm
dnew = 450 – 52.5 = 397.5 mm
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 100.902 kN – m

## THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE

AND OKAY!

4th Floor

Mumidspan = 93.9771 kN - m
Musupport = -200.572 kN - m

Midspan

## Mu = 93.9771 kN – m fy = 414 MPa Investigate:

𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa
ω = 0.19236 Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
where:
As = ρbd

124 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
𝜋(25)2 Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
(2) = ρ (270) (397.5)
4
ρ = 0.00915 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!) 1549.77
N= π(25)2
= 3.16 “say” 4 bars
ρfy (0.00915)(414) 4
ω= =
f′c 28
S = 270 − 80 − 2(25) = 140 mm > 50 mm
ω = 0.13529 (OK!)

## Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.13529) (270) 4 A ȳ = 2 A (52.5) + 2 A (102.5)

(397.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.13529)) ȳ = 77.5 mm
Mu(capacity) = 133.84 kN – m
dnew = 450 – 77.5 = 372.5 mm
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 93.9771 kN – m

AND OKAY!

Support

## Mu = -200.572 kN – m fy = 414 MPa

𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
ωmax = 0.32055

Solution:
Investigate:
Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd (1 − 0.59ωmax)
2

## Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (270) (397.5)2 (1 Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)

– 0.59 (0.32055)) where:
Mumax = 279.44 kN – m > Mu(design) As = ρbd
𝜋(25)2
(4) = ρ (270) (372.5)
4
DESIGN AS SINGLY REINFORCED ρ = 0.01952 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) ρfy (0.01952)(414)
200.572 x 106 = 0.9 (28) (ω) (270) (397.5)2 ω= =
f′c 28
(1 – 0.59 (ω))
ω = 0.21345 ω = 0.28862

## ρfy Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.28862) (270)

ω=
f′c (372.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.28862))
ρ(414)
0.21345 = Mu(capacity) = 226.09 kN – m
28
ρ = 0.01444 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 200.572 kN – m
As = ρbd = 0.01444 (270) (397.5) = 1549.77
mm2 THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
AND OKAY!

125 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
3rd Floor

Mumidspan = 126.8842 kN - m
Musupport = -242.67 kN - m

Midspan

## Mu = 126.8842 kN – m fy = 414 MPa

𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa
ω = 0.19236
Investigate:
Solution:
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
Mu = ∅f′cωbd (1 − 0.59ω)
2
where:
126.8842×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 – As = ρbd
0.59 (0.19236)) 𝜋(25)2
(3) = ρ (260) (372.5)
bd2 = 29526350.68 mm 4
ρ = 0.0152(ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
Assume d = 1.75b ρfy (0.0152)(414)
b(1.75b)2 = 29526350.68 mm ω= =
f′c 28
b = 212.84 mm “say” 260 mm
d = 372.47 mm “say” 375 mm ω = 0.2247

As = ρbd = 0.01301 (212.84) (372.47) = Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.2247) (260) (372.5)2
1031.39 mm2 (1 – 0.59 (0.2247))
Mu(capacity) = 177.20 kN – m
Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 126.8842 kN – m
1031.39
N= π(25)2
= 2.10 “say” 3 bars
4 THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
AND OKAY!
260−80−3(25)
S= = 52.5 mm > 50 mm (OK!)
2

3 A ȳ = 3 A (52.5) Support
ȳ = 52.5 mm
Mu = -242.67 kN – m fy = 414 MPa
D = 375 + 52.5 = 427.5 mm “say” 425 mm 𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
dnew = 425 – 52.5 = 372.5 mm ωmax = 0.32055

Solution:

## Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd2(1 − 0.59ωmax)

Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (260) (372.5)2 (1
– 0.59 (0.32055))
Mumax = 236.31 kN – m < Mu(design)

126 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
DESIGN AS DOUBLY REINFORCED 0.85f’c ab = As1fy
0.85(28) a (260) = 2099.71 (414)
As1 = ρbd = 0.02168 (260) (372.5) = a = 140.48 mm
2099.71 mm2
a = β1c
2099.71 140.48 = 0.85c
N1 = π(25)2
= 4.28 “say” 5 bars
4 c = 165.27 mm

## Mu1 = Mumax = 236.31 kN – m f’s = 600

𝑐−𝑑′
= 600
165.27−52.5
𝑐 165.27

Mu2 = Mu – Mu1
f’s = 409.40 MPa < fy = 414 MPa
Mu2 = ∅As2fy(d-d’)
242.67x106 – 236.31x106 = 0.9 (As2) (414)
compression steel does not yield
(372.5 – 52.5)
As2 = 53.34 mm2 𝑓𝑦
A’s = As2 𝑓′𝑠
53.34
N= π(25)2
= 0.11 “say” 2 bars
414
4 A’s = 53.34 409.40 = 53.94 mm2
260−80−3(25)
S= = 52.5 mm > 50 mm (OK!) Investigate:
2

## 5 A ȳ = 3 A (52.5) + 2 A (102.5) Assume compression steel yields (f’s = fy)

ȳ = 72.5 mm
𝜋 (25)2
As = (5) = 2454.37 mm2
dnew = 425 – 72.5 = 352.5 mm 4

𝜋 (25)2
As2 = A’s = (2) = 981.75 mm2
4

𝜋 (25)2 𝜋 (25)2
As1 = As – As2 = (5) - (2) =
4 4
1472.62 mm2

## Solve for a and c:

C1 = T1

0.85f’c ab = As1fy
0.85(28) a (260) = 1472.62(414)
a = 98.52 mm
Check if compression steel yields:
a = β1c
𝑐−𝑑′ 98.52 = 0.85c
f’s = 600 𝑐 c = 115.91 mm
where: Solve for the stress in compression steel
C1 = T1

127 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
f’s = 600
𝑐−𝑑′
= 600
115.91−52.5 𝝆 = 0.01301 f’c = 28 MPa
𝑐 115.91
ω = 0.19236
f’s = 328.24 MPa < fy = 414 MPa
Solution:
compression steel does not yield
Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
141.9795×106 = 0.9 (28) (0.19236) bd2 (1 –
Investigate:
0.59 (0.19236))
𝑐−𝑑′ 𝑐−52.5 bd2 = 33039074.26 mm
f’s = 600 = 600
𝑐 𝑐
Assume d = 1.75b
C1 + C2 = T b(1.75b)2 = 33039074.26 mm
0.85f’c ab + A’sf’s = Asfy b = 220.96 mm “say” 300 mm
𝑐−52.5
0.85(28)(0.85c)(260) + 981.75(600 𝑐 ) = d = 386.68 mm “say” 400 mm
2454.37(414)
c = 127.36 mm As = ρbd = 0.01301 (220.96) (386.68) =
1111.58 mm2
a = β1c
a = 0.85(127.36) Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
a = 108.26 mm 1111.58
N= π(25)2
= 2.26 “say” 3 bars
𝑐−𝑑′ 127.36−52.5 4
f’s = 600 = 600
𝑐 127.36
300−80−3(25)
S= = 72.5 mm > 50 mm (OK!)
f’s = 352.67 MPa 2

## Mu = Mu1 + Mu2 3 A ȳ = 3 A (52.5)

Mu = ∅f′c ab (d – a/2) + ∅A’sf’s (d-d’) ȳ = 52.5 mm
Mu = 0.9(28) (108.26)(260)(372.5 –
108.26/2) + 0.9(981.75)(352.67)(352.5-52.5) D = 400 + 52.5 = 452.5 mm “say” 460 mm
Mu(capacity) = 319.31 kN - m dnew = 460 – 52.5 = 407.5 mm

## THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE

AND OKAY!

2nd Floor

Mumidspan = 141.9795 kN - m
Musupport = -260.629 kN - m

Midspan Investigate:

## Mu = 141.9795 kN – m fy = 414 MPa Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)

where:

128 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e
As = ρbd As = ρbd = 0.01638 (300) (407.5) = 2002.46
𝜋(25)2 mm2
(3) = ρ (300) (407.5)
4
ρ = 0.01205 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!) Using 25 mm ∅ main bars:
ρfy (0.01205)(414)
ω= = N=
2002.46
= 4.08 “say” 5 bars
f′c 28 π(25)2
4
ω = 0.17817
300−80−3(25)
S= = 72.5 mm > 50 mm (OK!)
2
Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.17817) (300)
(407.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.17817)) 5 A ȳ = 3 A (52.5) + 2 A (102.5)
Mu(capacity) = 200.16 kN – m ȳ = 72.5 mm
Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 141.9795 kN – m dnew = 460 – 72.5 = 387.5 mm
THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
AND OKAY!

Support

## Mu = -260.629 kN – m fy = 414 MPa

𝝆max = 0.02168 f’c = 28 MPa
ωmax = 0.32055

Solution: Investigate:
Mumax = ∅f′cωmaxbd2(1 − 0.59ωmax) Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω)
Mumax = 0.9 (28) (0.32055) (300) (407.5)2 (1 where:
– 0.59 (0.32055)) As = ρbd
Mumax = 326.31 kN – m > Mu(design) 𝜋(25)2
(5) = ρ (300) (387.5)
4
DESIGN AS SINGLY REINFORCED ρ = 0.02111 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)

Mu = ∅f′cωbd2(1 − 0.59ω) ω=
ρfy
=
(0.02111)(414)
260.629 x 106 = 0.9 (28) (ω) (300) (407.5)2 f′c 28
(1 – 0.59 (ω))
ω = 0.24223 ω = 0.31213

ρfy
Mu(capacity) = 0.9 (28) (0.31213) (300)
ω= (387.5)2 (1 – 0.59 (0.31213))
f′c
ρ(414) Mu(capacity) = 289.07 kN – m
0.24223 = Mu(capacity) > Mu(design) = 260.629 kN – m
28
ρ = 0.01638 (ρmin < ρ < ρmax) (OK!)
THEREFORE, THE DESIGN IS SAFE
AND OKAY!

129 | R e i n f o r c e d C o n c r e t e