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Name Shahab R Class Block 2 Date 10/29/10

Section Summary

In the early 1600s, Russia was far behind the more advanced READING CHECK
western European nations. By the end of that century, however,
What does westernization
a new tsar, Peter the Great, turned Russia into a leading power. mean?
To modernize Russia, Peter began a new policy of
westernization—the adoption of Western ideas, technologies,
and culture. Many resisted change. To enforce this new policy,
Peter became an autocratic monarch. This meant that he ruled
with unlimited authority.
All Russian institutions were under Peter the Great’s con-
trol. He executed anyone who resisted the new order. He
forced the boyars—landowning nobles—to serve the state in
civilian or military positions. Peter also stipulated that they
shave their beards and wear Western-style clothing.
Peter built up Russia’s military power and extended the
borders. To increase Russia’s trade with the West, the Russians VOCABULARY STRATEGY
needed a warm-water port. The nearest port was on the Black Find the word stipulated in the
Sea in the Ottoman empire. Peter, however, could not defeat underlined sentence. It comes
the Ottomans. from a Latin word that means “to
Determined to expand Russia’s territory, however, Peter bargain.” Think about the bar-
fought a long war against Sweden. On the land he won, he gaining process. Usually people
have to agree on specific terms.
built a beautiful capital city, St. Petersburg. It became the sym- Use this word-origins clue to
bol of modern Russia. When Peter died in 1725, he had help you figure out the meaning
expanded Russian territory, gained ports on the Baltic Sea, and of stipulated.
created a strong army.
In 1762, Catherine the Great followed Peter’s lead in
embracing Western ideas and expanding Russia’s borders. She,
too, ruled as an absolute monarch. She was able to defeat the
Ottoman empire and finally won the warm-water port on the
Black Sea.
In the 1770s, Russia, Prussia, and Austria each wanted
Poland as part of their territory. To avoid war, they agreed to READING SKILL
partition, or divide up, Poland. In 1772, Russia gained part of Identify Main Ideas Circle the
eastern Poland, while Prussia and Austria took over the west. statement below that identifies
Poland ceased to exist. the main idea of the Summary.

Catherine the Great freed the

Review Questions serfs.
1. Who transformed Russia into a leading power?
Peter the Great, who used westernization and the powers of Peter and Catherine enjoyed
Western-style clothing.
A autocratic monarch.
Peter and Catherine ruled as
2. What kept Peter the Great from gaining a warm-water port? absolute monarchs.
The Ottomans, who were later defeated by Catherine the Great.

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