Sunteți pe pagina 1din 55




OF NALCO National Aluminium Company LTD

Submitted to

North Orissa University, Baripada

In Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Award of Degree of Master

of Business Administration (MBA)

Session 2018-19

Under the Guidance of:

Internal Guide

Miss Rupali Paikray

Faculty at Department of professional studies

D.D (Auto.) College, Keonjhar

Submitted by:

Parasmani Pradhan
MBA 2nd Year
Roll No: 099117013

Department of Professional Studies

Dharanidhara Autonomous College, Keonjhar
Dharanidhar Autonomous College, Keonjhar


Mentor/ guide name: Miss Rupali Paikray

Designation: Faculty at Department of Professional studies

This is to certify that the dissertation report entitled “Training and

Development” in NALCO, has been prepared by Parasmani Pradhan under my
supervision and guidance, for fulfilment of Master of Business

His field work is satisfactory

Date: Signature of the guide:

Place: Dept. of Professional studies

D.D(Auto)College, Keonjhar

I hereby declare that the study entitled “TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT AT

NALCO ” submitted by me the partial fulfillment of the award of degree of

Master of Business Administration is a record of my own work.

This project is my original work and it has been presented earlier in this manner
to any other university or institution. This information is purely of academic

It is certified that the above statement made is correct to the best of my

knowledge and belief.

Date: Parasmani Pradhan

Place: MBA(LE)2nd year

Roll-No: 099117013

This Project Report was undertaken for the fulfilment of Master of Business
Administration Program pursuing at D. D .(Auto.) College. I would like to pay
my heartfelt thanks to my Guide Miss Rupali Paikray , for his invaluable help
and guidance throughout my work. He was kind to evince keen interest in my
work and furnished some useful comments, which could enrich the work

In fact it is very difficult to acknowledge all the names and nature of help
and encouragement provided by them. I would never forget the help and
support extended directly or indirectly to me by all.

I express my sincere obligation and thanks to Miss Rupali Paikray faculty

member at, Dept. of Professional Studies, D. D .(Auto.) college, Keonjhar, for
his valuable advice in guiding me at every stage in bringing out this report to a
real one.

Last but not the least I would like to thank all the staff members of my
department, my friends and also to all my family members, through which my
dreams came to reality and success.

Parasmani Pradhan Date:

Roll No: 099117013 Place:

MBA 2nd Year


In today’s highly competitive world, it is absolutely essential to highly

efficient and effective workforce in the organisation. So we need to adopt and
implement the most effective and latest method of training and development while
preparing the workforce for the organisation. The present report has been prepared to
give a deep insight to the present situation of training and development. The project
concentrated on finding out the effective method of training and development. The
stated objective of the study was further broken down to secondary objective which
has been carried out to get information regarding the frequency of the training
program to be designed with-in year, usual method of training and development,
length of training and development module, use of audio/visual aids etc. The
exploratory research was carried out by interacting whit 50 respondents whit a set of
18 open ended questions. A survey was conducted in the corporate offices with the
managerial level employees based on the questionnaire to know the ground situation.
The exploratory findings helped us in determining the key factors which are required
to be further explored for marketing training program more effective. Each of the
questions has been designed to satisfy at last one of the secondary objective of the
research. The response format has been a mixed variety which also helped in getting
better outcomes.
Table of Contents



1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objectives of the study
1.3 Scope of the study
1.4 Limitations of the study
1.5 Research methodology

CHAPTER 2 Company profile 6-14

CHAPTER 3 Literature review 15-38

Theoretical aspect of the study

CHAPTER 4 Finding 39

Suggestion 40

Conclusion 41

Bibliography 42
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Objectives of the study
1.3 Scope of the study
1.4 Limitations of the study
1.5 Research methodology

1.1 Introduction
Training can be introduced simply as a process of assisting a person for enhancing his
efficiency and effectiveness to particular work area by getting more knowledge and practices.
Also training is important to established specific skill, abilities and knowledge to an
employee. For an organisation, Training and development are important as well as
organisational growth, because the organisational growth and profit are also dependent on the
training. But the training is not core of organisational development. It is a function of the
organisation development.

Training is different from education; particularly formal education. The education is

concerned mainly with enhancement of knowledge, but the aim of training are increasing
knowledge while changing attitudes and competences in good manner. Basically the
education is formulated within the framework and syllabus, but the training is not formed in
to the frame and as well as syllabus. It may differ from one employee to another, one group
of another, even the group in the same class. The reason for that can be mentioned as
difference of attitude and skill from one person to another. Even the situation is that, after
good training program, all different type skilled one group of employees can get into similar
capacity, similar skilled group, that is an advantage of training.

In the field of Human resources management, Training and development is the field concern
with organisation activities which are aimed to bettering individual and group performances
in organisational setting. It has been know by many names in the field HRM, such as
employee development, human resources development, learning and development etc.
Training is really development employee’s capacities through learning and practices.

Training and development is the framework for helping employees to develop their personal
and organisational skill, knowledge and abilities. The focus of all aspect of Human Resource
and Development is on developing the most superior workforce so that the organisation and
individual employees can accomplished their work goals in service to customers.

All employees want to be valuable and remain competitive in the labour market at all times.
Cause they make some demand for employees in the labour market. This can only be
achieved through employees training and development. Hence to employees have a chance to
negotiate as wells employee has a good opportunity to select most suitable person for this
vacancy. Employees always want to develop career-enhancing skills, which is always lead to
employee motivation there is no doubt well-trained and develop staff will be a valuable asset
to the company and thereby increase the chances of the efficiency in discharging his or her

Training is an organisation can be mainly of two types; Internal or External training sessions.
Internal training involves when training is organised in-house by the human resources
development or training department either a senior staff or any talented staff in the particular
department as a resource person.

On the other hand external training is normally arrange outside the firm and is mostly
organised by training institutes or consultants. Whichever training, it is very important for all
staff and help in building career positioning and preparing staff for greater challenge in
developing world. However the train is costly. Because of that, people who work at firms do
not received external training is most of time. The cost is the major issue for the lack of
training programs is Sri Lanka. But now a days, a new concept has come with this trainings
which are “trainers through trainees” while training their employees in large quantities, many
countries use that method in present days to reduce their training cost. The theory of this is,
sending a little group or an individual for a training programmes under a bonding agreement
or without a bond. When they come back to work, the external trained employees train the
employees who have not participated for above training programmer by internal training

Employees of labour should enable employees to pursue training and development in a

direction that they choose and are interested in, not just in company-assigned directions.
Companies should support learning, in general, and just in support to knowledge needed for
the employee’s current or next anticipated job. It should be noted that the key factor is
keeping the employee interested, attending, engaged, motivated and retained.

For every employee to perform well, especially supervisors and managers, there is a need
constant training and development. The right employee training, development and education
provide big payoffs for the employer in increased productivity, knowledge, loyalty and
contribution to general growth of the firm. In most case internal trainings for instance provide
participants with the avenue to meet new set of people in the same field and network. The
meeting will give them the chance to compare issues and find out what is obtainable in each
other’s environment. This for will sure introduce positive change where necessary.

It is not maintained anywhere that the employees, manager and supervisor are not suitable for
training programme. They also must be highly trained if they are expected to do their best for
the organisation. Through that they will have best abilities and competencies to manage the
organisation. Training employees not only create a more positive corporate culture, but also
add a value to its key resources.

Raw human resources can make only limited contribution to the organisation to achieve it
goals and objectives. Hence the demands for the developed employees are continuously
increasing. Thus the training is a kind of investment

1.2 Objective of the study

 To study the existing training & development process in NALCO.

 To study the effectiveness of the training and development system in NALCO
 To study the training policy, programme & different type of training method
formulated and carried out in NALCO

1.3 Scope of the study

It is an established factor that training help in improving sense of confidence among

employees. It also helps to increase their technical & manual efficiency necessary to do the
job. It improve the employer employee relations, manual understanding & openness.

1.4 Limitations of the study

 The researcher was carried out in a short span of time, where in the researcher could
not widen the study.
 The major limitation of the study is that I have collected only secondary data but not
collected the primary data from NALCO.
1.5 Research Methodology

Research methodology is a methodology for collecting all sorts of information & data
pertaining to the subject in question. The objective is to examine all the issues involved &
conduct situational analysis. the methodology includes the overall research design, sampling
procedures, framework and finally the analysis procedure. There is only one method for
studying the data for the project that is secondary data.

Secondary data:

Secondary data were collected from available books, publications, research studies,
articles and websites.

National Aluminium Company Limited (NALCO) is a Navratna CPSE under ministry of

mines .It was established on 7January,1981 in the public sector , with it is register office at
Bhubaneswar. The company is a group ‘A’ CPSE having integrated & diversified operation
in mining , metal & power sales turnover of Rs.8,100 crore in financial year 2017-18
presently , Govt. Of India holds 60.2% equity of NALCO.

NALCO is one of the largest integrated Bauxite-Alumina-Aluminium-Power complex in the

country. The company has a 68.25lakhs TPA bauxite mine & 21.00lakhs TPA (normative
capacity) Alumina refinery located at Damanjodi in Koraput dist. Of Odisha, NALCO has
bolk shipment facilities at vizaj port of report of alumina/aluminium and import of caustic
soda & also utilities the facilities at Kolkata & Paradeep ports. The company has registered
self offices in Delhi, Kalkata, Mumbai, Chennai & Banglore & 11 Stockyards at various
location in the country to facilitate domestic marketing.

The company is low cost producer of metallurgical gard alumina in the world as per wood
McKenzie report . With sustain quality producer , the companies export earnings accounted
for about 43.46% of the sale turnover in the year 2018-19 & the company was rated 2nd
highest next report earning CPSE in 2016-17 as per public enterprises survey report.

With it is consistence track record in capacity utilization , technology absorption, quality

assurance , export performance & posting profits, NALCO is a bright examples of industrial

NALCO is the first public sector company in the country to venture into international market
in a big way with London metal exchange (LME) registration since May 1989. The company
listed at Bombay Stock Exchange(BSE) since 1992 & National Stock Exchange (NSE) since
1999. Besides , ISO 9001, ISO 1401, OHSAS 1800 & SA 1800-certification; the company
has also adopted ISO 5001 standards for energy management system.

Following a new all-weather business model, NALCO has extensive plans for brownfield &
green field explanation projects, which include the ongoing 5th stream refinery project of 1
MTPA capacity in existing alumina refinery at Damanjodi (brownfield) , development of
Pottangibuxite mines, Utkal DND coal mines in Odisha, estimate of 6th lakhs TPA green field
& 5lakh TPA brownfield smelters in Odisha. The power for the purposes smelters expansions
are envisaged to the supplied from the 2400MW call based power project in JV with NTPC.

As a responsible corporate entity the company has given thrust to renewable energy sector by
commissioning 198MW wind power plants & is in processes of finalizing 17MW solar &
50MW wind power project. For backward integration, the company is going ahead for a 2.7
lakh TPA caustic soda plant in JV with Gujarat Alkalies& Chemicals Limited (GACL) in
Gujarat. As part of forward integration, NALCO has form JV Company named “Angul
Aluminium Park Private Ltd (AAPPL) with Odisha industrial infrastructure development
corporation (IDCO) to give a boost to ancillary, upstream and downstream product related to
aluminium industry Land acquisition for this is already completed and pricing mechanism of
hot metal has been finalized.

Company’s long term sequrity in terms of raw materials. Bauxite and coal got a boost whit
allocation of Utkal-E&D with a minable reserve of about 160 million ton and commitment
for Pottangibuxitedeposite with a minable reserve of about 75 million ton.

The company persues its R&D activities pervently& has already filed 31 patents out of which
9 patents have been granted & 5 have been commercialised. As a part of its effort to convert
waste to health, the company is endeavouring to salvage iron concerntrate form red mud,
gallium from spent liquor. The company has also successfully commissioned a first of its
kind de-fluoridation process based on nano-technology to decontaminate the effluent water of
smelter solving a long standing fluoride contamination problem of the area.

The company is actively involved in playing a significant role in the socio economic
development of the areas where it operates. Rehabilitation of displaced families, employment,
income generation, health care & sanitation of local people, education skill development
providing safe drinking water, development of infrastructure, population control,
environmental majors, rural development, promotion of arts, crafts & culture & various
humanitarian goodwill missions have earned NALCO a place of pride in the corporate world.
The company earmarks 2% of its average net profit made during the three immediately
preceding financial year for CSR activities in compliance with provisions of the companies
act. Since inception, NALCO has spent about Rs.297crore towards CSR activities till YF
2018-19. NALCO has setup a standalone foundation in 2010 for taking up its CSR activities
in more empathetic manner to fulfil the basic needs of the people of the periphery village of
its plant.
NALCO has always been the flag bearer of the Govt. Welfare schemes. Under Swachh
Vidyalaya Abhiyan NALCO has constructed 473 toilets (133% of target) in Odisha in
Andhra Pradesh before time. The endeavour of NALCO has duly appreciated by MHRD.
Joining hands with Hon’ble prime minister’s call of BetiBachao&BetiPadhao Abhiyan
NALCO has adopted 181 poor & meritorious girls under NALCO Ki ladli scheme. Under
prime minister’s Swachh Bharat mission and Iconic Shrine Development programme 13
project have been taken of Shri Jagannath Temple, Puri& it’s surrounding to upgrade the
infrastructure & maintain cleanliness.

In terms of nation building by empowering the youths, NALCO has committed to contribute
10% of CSR fund for Skill Development. A centre of excellence for Skill development in
mining sector has been inaugurated at Bhubaneswar to facilitate training of unemplyoyed

To provide better health-care service to inhabitants of periphery villages, NALCO

collaborated with reputed residential institution e.g. (i) Kalinga Institute of social science
(KISS),Bhubaneswar, (ii) Koraput Development foundation (KDF), Jeypore and (iii) Bikash
Vidyalaya, Koraput for providing quality education to the children of periphery villages of
Damanjodi sector in Koraput. The company has so far inducted 755 children from 18 tribal
dominated periphery villages for residential education. The total cost towards study, lodging
and boarding of those students till they complete schooling is being borne by NALCO.



It’s assuming ever important role in wake of the advancement of technology which has
resulted in ever increasing competition, rise in customer’s expectation of quality & service &
a subsequent need to lower costs. It is also become more important globally in order to
prepares workers for new jobs. In the current write up, we will focus more on the emerging
need of training & development, its implications upon individuals & the employers.

Before we say that technology is responsible for increased need of training inputs to
employees, it is important to understand that there are other factors too that contribute to the
later. Training is also necessary for the individual development & progress of employee,
which motivates him to work for a certain organization part from just money. We also require
training update employees of the market trends, the change in the employment policies &
other things.

The following are the two biggest factors that contribute to the increased need to training &
development in organization:

1. Change: The word change encapsulates almost everything. It is one of the biggest factors
that contribute to the need of training & development. There is in fact a direct relationship
between the two. Change leads to the need for training & development &training &
development leads to individual & organizational change, & the cycle goes on and on. More
specially it is the technology that is driving the need; changing the way how business
function, complete & deliver.

2. Development: It is again one the strong reasons for training & development becoming all
the more important. Money is not the sole motivator at work & this is especially very true for
the 21st century. People who work with organizations seek more than just employment out of
their work; they look at holistic development of self. Spiritually & self-awareness for
example are gaining momentum world over. People seek happIeness at jobs which may not
be possible unless an individual is aware of the self. At ford, for example, an individual can
enrollhimslef / herself in a course on ‘self-awareness’, which apparently seems
inconsequential to ones performance at work but contributes to the spiritual wellbeing of an
individual which is all the more important.
His process of needs assessment happens at three stages or levels, the organizational, the job
& the person or the individual. This is the basis for any needs assessment survey & remains
the same more or less in all organizations around the globe. There are however many
techniques for collecting the data for training need analysis. This article discusses some of the
methods used for the same.

The needs assessment conducted at various stages tries to answer a different sect of
questions. Organizational analysis, for example, aims at the ‘Where in the organization’ of
the training. Person analysis similarly attempts to decipher the question of ‘Whom in the
organization’. There are therefore various instruments or techniques that are used to collect
data for the analysis at each stage.

Techniques for collecting data at Organizational Level

As discussed already, in organizational analysis we try to ascertain the areas in the

organization that require training interventions. For example, among the various kinds of
interventions that organizations chose it was found out managerial training is picking up fast
among corporations & also that managerial contemporaries amount for 98% of success in the

Personnel & skill inventories, organizational climate & efficiency indices, Management
requests, Exit interviews, management by objectives (MBO) are the various kinds of
techniques that are used at the level of organizational analysis for collecting data for training
needs analysis.

Essentially all these tools collect data that is inferential in nature, but does not give a clear
picture of the training needs. For example, the above mentioned tools may lead an
organization to reduce that ‘there is a need for aligning the work processes with the
organizational goals / objectives’, which is not very rich diagnostically. It may require further
analysis, which is done with the help of tools at the level of job or the task.
The techniques for data collection at the level of the job include job description, performance
standards, work sampling, job specifications, job literature analysis, & analysis of operational
problems among others. These techniques are aimed at extracting data for understanding the
target of training i.e. what exactly should be taught in training. Time management may be
may be one critical intervention in project handling / management.


A. On-the-job training methods:

Under these methods new or inexperienced employees learn through observing peers or
managers performing the job and trying to imitate their behaviour. These methods do not cost
much and are less disruptive as employees are always on the job, training is given on the
same machines and experience would be on already approved standards, and above all the
trainee is learning while earning. Some of the commonly used methods are:

1. Coaching:

Trained only Coaching is a one-to-one training. It helps in quickly identifying the weak areas
and tries to focus on them. It also offers the benefit of transferring theory learning to practice.
The biggest problem is that it perpetrates the existing practices and styles. In India most of
the scooter mechanics are through this method.

2. mentoring:
The focus in this training is on the development of attitude. It is used for managerial
employees. Mentoring is always done by a senior inside person. It is also one-to- one
interaction, like coaching.

3. Job Rotation

It is the process of training employees by rotating them through a series of related jobs.
Rotation not only makes a person well acquainted with different jobs, but it also alleviates
boredom and allows to develop rapport with a number of people. Rotation must be logical

4. Job Instructional Technique (JIT)

It is a Step by step (structured) on the job training method in which a suitable trainer (a)
prepares a trainee with an overview of the job, its purpose, and the results desired, (b)
demonstrates the task or the skill to the trainee, (c) allows the trainee to show the
demonstration on his or her own, and (d) follows up to provide feedback and help. The
trainees are presented the learning material in written or by learning machines through a
series called ‘frames’. This method is a valuable tool for all educators (teachers and trainers).
It helps us:

a. To deliver step-by-step instruction

b. To know when the learner has learned

c. To be due diligent (in many work-place environments)

5. Apprenticeship

Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of practitioners of a skill. This

method of training is in vogue in those trades, crafts and technical fields in which a long
period is required for gaining proficiency. The trainees serve as apprentices to experts for
long periods. They have to work in direct association with and also under the direct
supervision of their masters.

The object of such training is to make the trainees all-round craftsmen. It is an expensive
method of training. Also, there is no guarantee that the trained worker will continue to work
in the same organisation after securing training. The apprentices are paid remuneration
according the apprenticeship agreements.

6. Understudy:

In this method, a superior gives training to a subordinate as his understudy like an assistant to
a manager or director (in a film). The subordinate learns through experience and observation
by participating in handling day to day problems. Basic purpose is to prepare subordinate for
assuming the full responsibilities and duties.

B. Off-the-job Training Methods:

Off-the-job training methods are conducted in separate from the job environment, study
material is supplied, there is full concentration on learning rather than performing, and there
is freedom of expression. Important methods include:

1. Lectures and Conferences:

Lectures and conferences are the traditional and direct method of instruction. Every training
programme starts with lecture and conference. It’s a verbal presentation for a large audience.
However, the lectures have to be motivating and creating interest among trainees. The
speaker must have considerable depth in the subject. In the colleges and universities, lectures
and seminars are the most common methods used for training.

2. Vestibule Training:

Vestibule Training is a term for near-the-job training, as it offers access to something new
(learning). In vestibule training, the workers are trained in a prototype environment on
specific jobs in a special part of the plant.
An attempt is made to create working condition similar to the actual workshop conditions.
After training workers in such condition, the trained workers may be put on similar jobs in
the actual workshop.

This enables the workers to secure training in the best methods to work and to get rid of
initial nervousness. During the Second World War II, this method was used to train a large
number of workers in a short period of time. It may also be used as a preliminary to on-the
job training. Duration ranges from few days to few weeks. It prevents trainees to commit
costly mistakes on the actual machines.

3. Simulation exercises:

Simulation is any artificial environment exactly similar to the actual situation. There are four
basic simulation techniques used for imparting training: management games, case study, role
playing, and in-basket training.

(a) Management games:

Properly designed games help to ingrain thinking habits, analytical, logical and reasoning
capabilities, importance of team work, time management, to make decisions lacking complete
information, communication and leadership capabilities. Use of management games can
encourage novel, innovative mechanisms for coping with stress.

Management games orient a candidate with practical applicability of the subject. These
games help to appreciate management concepts in a practical way. Different games are used
for training general managers and the middle management and functional heads – executive
Games and functional heads.

(b) Case Study:

Case studies are complex examples which give an insight into the context of a problem as
well as illustrating the main point. Case Studies are trainee centered activities based on topics
that demonstrate theoretical concepts in an applied setting.

A case study allows the application of theoretical concepts to be demonstrated, thus bridging
the gap between theory and practice, encourage active learning, provides an opportunity for
the development of key skills such as communication, group working and problem solving,
and increases the trainees” enjoyment of the topic and hence their desire to learn.
Four Major Theories of Training and Development

Competitive advantage is referred to that ability of an organization which is not possessed by the other
organizations and it is a competitive advantage which leads the organization to the top positions. There are
many organizations in the world who are leading the markets by gaining competitive advantage in different
fields of their business activities. One of the way in which a firm can attain a competitive advantage over the
competitors is by building a force of superior human resource. Now the question arises that how this force of
superior human resource can be build. The answer lies in a very important function of human resource
management i.e. training and development. It has been observed that the employees or labor working in a
competitive environment of market always welcome the training and development programs which can enhance
their skills and knowledge. Now days every job holder understands that to sustain and grow in the career it is
very important to polish their skills. It is not that time where one degree or diploma is sufficient for the whole
life. Employees actively participate in several programs which are organized by their organization and it has
been observed that in some organization employee’s demand from their human resource department to arrange
such training and development programs. Successful organization of today has built their human resource work
force over the passage of time. There is no doubt that this work force is a highly valuable asset for any
organization and the only possible way to build this workforce is training and development. There are several
theories which emphasize on the importance of training and development in the organization and provides
different alternative methods for training and development. A discussion of four major theories of training and
development is given below.

Theory of Reinforcement

This theory emphasizes on the learning behavior of a person and suggests that the learner will repeat
that behavior which is attached with a positive outcome or result. Skinner an economist of behaviorist
school of thought proposed the theory of reinforcement and suggested that the training and
development programs should be aligned with the organizational objectives and a positive outcome
should be expected with such training and development programs. Further elaborating this concept
suggested in reinforcement theory, it can be argued that there are several techniques available in
human resource practices which can be associated with the training and development programs and
the required suggestion by this theory can be fulfilled. Different types of rewards in the form of
bonuses, salary raises, promotion and awarding of certificate after the training program can be
associated with the training and development activities and these rewards will definitely generate a
positive outcome. If this is done by an organization then according to the Skinner’s theory of
reinforcement the trainer i.e. the employee will show more interest in the training and development
programs held by the organization
Theory of Learning Types

The theory presented by Gagne emphasized on learning of intellectual skills. These are such
skills which are found rare among the persons. He suggested by different learning types in his
theory and each learning type contains some external and internal conditions. The five
categories of learning which Gagne defined in his theory include intellectual skills, verbal
information, attitudes, cognitive strategies and motor skills

Theory of Experiential Learning

Experiential and cognitive types of learning are differentiated by experiential theory of

learning presented by C. Rogers. According to Rogers, the wants and needs of the learner are
addressed by this type of learning. Experience gives the person a maturity and increases the
learning power along with the knowledge. Due to the personal involvement, the learner is
able to conduct a self-evaluation test, which allows him to understand the effect of learning
on his/her attitude.

Theory of Social Learning

Social theory presents a new view of learning i.e. social. According to the presenter of this
theory, Albert Bandura, direct reinforcement cannot address all types of learning. Here by
direct enforcement means the training and development programs that is organized to
enhance the skills. According to this theory such programs are not address all learning types
as there are some social elements which cannot be taught. Those elements are learned by the
leaner from his/her surroundings. Such type of learning is called observational learning and
this learning is associated with the understanding of different human behaviors. The first type
of learning defined in this theory is through observation. In an organization the environment
and the surroundings plays a very important role. The environment should be very
professional and the surroundings should be in such a way that the people (employees) learn
from them. This theory also suggests that it is not necessary that the behavior is changed after
learning something. It is expected that a person’s behavior changes after learning something,
but it is not in all cases. Furthermore the theory also explains about the mental states which
play a vital role in learning process. If the mental status of the person is negative regarding
any learning activity then he will not take part in that learning process and even if he is forced
to do so, he will not gain any positivity from that process. In organizational training programs
the mental state can be made positive regarding the training and development programs by
associating the rewards and benefits with such programs which will motivate the employees
and help to build a positive mental state. The case company also follow this theory as it
allows the employees to learn from the surrounding and provides an environment where they
can learn from their supervisors/managers and coworkers.

Opportunities of employment in training and development

Opportunities of employment in training and development Governments have traditionally

played a significant role in the promotion and development of occupational psychology with
regard to training, because of their responsibilities for employment, military, health and other
services. People with an occupational psychology background have been employed directly
by governments in areas such as job training, military training and health and safety.
Government agencies have also been a major sponsor of training research and development;
such investment has often provided the major underpinning of developments in this area.
Governments can also affect the impetus for change in organisations through legislation,
taxation, and the general health of the economy, which in turn can create more disposable
income to create new demands for products and services, affect the supply of raw materials
and services, or put such pressure on consumers that markets are adversely affected.
Also,government initiatives can affect health and safety requirements, fiscal issues,
competition laws, and ecological concerns, working with new technology and employment
practices. Such changes prompt new ways of organising and delivering these products and
services, creating new training needs. The other major source of employment and funding in
training and development, where occupational psychology plays a specialist role, is private
companies. Specialists might be employed directly within an organisation’s training and
development functions or in consultancy offering services to clients. Organisations often
employ their own specialist training and development staff who have been recruited from the
organisation’s own ranks. Organisations often prefer this approach because they feel it is
more appropriate for their training staff to have operational and business experience than for
them to be experts in training or occupational psychology. It is often assumed that training is
simply a matter of following well established procedures and principles.This is an ill
informed view because often training cannot always proceed simply by application of
standard methods. It is often necessary to understand variations that have not been
responsive to the standard procedures. This entails understanding how people learn and how
training can support this learning. Training and development staff are generally responsible
for maintaining company training and development systems, to judge training needs and to
organise the delivery of training and development. Practitioners with an occupational
psychology background may be encountered in departments concerned with organizational
development where they are engaged with the processes of organisational change of which
training and development is a part. It is impossible to be more specific than this.
Opportunities for occupational psychology specialists to become engaged in training
arise in different contexts and circumstances. It is important to remain alert to where these
opportunities might occur and be adaptive and constructive in responding to opportunities.

Characteristics of Training Research

Learning and training research Application of occupational psychology to training and

development needs to relate this work to the occupational psychology literature in order to
understand how this area has developed. Work that emerged from laboratory studies of
learning was dominant. This involved examining training principles associated with simpler
tasks, such as learning lists or learning to carry out simple judgment tasks that could be said
to contain features that are present in real jobs, but at a far simpler level. This reduction ist
approach to psychological research is often a cause for concern when we try to apply
psychology to practical things.Many learning experiments can be viewed as training
experiments. A researcher controls an independent variable that influences the conditions
under which an experimental participant is able to learn a task under controlled conditions in
the laboratory. From these research findings, the researcher will speculate about the processes
underlying learning. But these also provide insights into training methods, because if
someone learns something more effectively as a result of a different experimental condition,
this experimental condition can, in principle, be offered as a training condition that might be
applied in other contexts. However, when we design experiments, we know that research
findings are influenced by other features of the experiment in which they are studied. This is
why experimental psychologists are careful to design and specify learning conditions
carefully and to use control conditions in order to make inferences about what has caused
learning and what has not. Unfortunately, this need for careful control of learning conditions
also means that it is difficult for us to draw generalizations about learning and training,
because, when applied in a different context, these features may work differently. This is
always a problem in applying psychology. Another common approach has been to reduce
complex tasks to simpler analogies so that they are easier to study. In this way we might be
tempted to assume that the same psychological components apply in these simpler versions as
in the more complex version,thus findings that have emerged from studying a simpler, more
controllable, version of a task may be applied to the more complex version. Again, simple
generalisation is not really justified. When something is simplified, it is easier. When
something is studied out of context of a real job, the pressures and complexities of events and
the consequences of error are generally missing, so the person’s strategy may be different.
Things that have been shown to be beneficial in one context cannot automatically be assumed
to benefit a new context this makes for difficulties in applying training research. It means that
every time we assert that a particular approach to training is appropriate to that new situation
we need to obtain evidence that this is indeed the case just because we think a particular
training method is appropriate, it does not mean that it will work in practiceThat every
intervention is an experiment is why it is necessary to understand something of scientific
method. It is an area where an understanding of occupational psychology is invaluable to the
trainer. Unfortunately clients often fail to appreciate the hypothetical nature of training or,
indeed, any organisational change and they assume it is possible to deal in certainties. Many
consultants reinforce this incorrect view by maintaining they are offering proven
solutions,rather than simply working as effectively as they can in a given set of
circumstances. While simple application of training and learning research is far from st
raigh tforward, a knowledge of principles of learning and training is still useful. Learning
research is generally undertaken with a view to developing theories rather than simply
accumulating individual findings. As such, learning research is useful to training because it
provides important pointers to how learning takes place. This enables us to generate ideas
about what a person should experience in order to help them learn.Providing these
opportunities for experience is what training actually is. We shall be looking at this again
with regard to definitions.

Advantages of training
1. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward
profits orientation.
2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization.
3. Improves the morale of the workforce.
4. Helps people identify with organizational goals.
5. Helps create a better corporate image.
6. Fasters authentically, openness and trust.
7. Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate.
8. Aids in organizational development.
9. Learns from the trainee.
10. Helps prepare guidelines for work.
11. Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
12. Provides information for future needs in all areas of the organization.
13. Organization gets more effective decision-making and problem solving.
14. Aids in development for promotion from within.
15. Aids in developing leadership skill,motivation, loyalty, better attitudes, and other aspects
that successful workers and mangers usually display.
16. Aids in increasing productivity and/or quality of work.
17. Helps keep costs down in many areas, e.g. production, personnel. Administration, etc.
18. Develops a sense of responsibility to the organization for being competent
and knowledgeable.
19. Improves labor-management relations.
20. Reduces outside consulting costs by utilizing competent internal

Disadvantages of training
1. Can be a financial drain on resources; expensive development and
testing, expensive to operate?
2. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time;
3. Equips staff to leave for a better job .
4. Bad habits passed on
5. Narrow experience

Hamlin observed development as training of future jobs. According to Nadler: development
is concerned with providing learning experiences to employees so that they may be ready to
move in new directions that organisational change may require. A limitation of training needs
based solely on needs analysis that it fails to address the development issue Development is
the need to enhance competencies beyond those required by the
immediate job, for example:
- Values & ethics of organization & professional group
- Sources of enthusiasm
Employee Orientation

The first step in training is an employee orientation. Employee orientation is the process used
for welcoming a new employee into the organization. The importance of employee
orientation is two-fold. First, the goal is for employees to gain an understanding of the
company policies and learn how their specific job fits into the big picture. Employee
orientation usually involves filling out employee paperwork such as I-9 and 401(k) program
forms. The goals of an orientation are as follows:

1.The framework used to help employees develop their personal and organizational skills,
knowledge, and abilities.
2.The process used for welcoming a new employee into the organization Training and
1.To reduce start-up costs. If an orientation is done right, it can help get the employee up to
speed on various policies and procedures, so the employee can start working right away. It
can also be a way to ensure all hiring paperwork is filled out correctly, so the employee is
paid on time.
2.To reduce anxiety.Starting a new job can be stressful. One goal of an orientation is to
reduce the stress and anxiety people feel when going into an unknown situation.
3.To reduce employee turnover. Employee turnover tends to be higher when employees don’t
feel valued or are not given the tools to perform. An employee orientation can show that the
organization values the employee and provides tools necessary for a successful entry.
4.To save time for the supervisor and coworkers. A well-done orientation makes for a better
prepared employee, which means less time having to teach the employee.
5.To set expectations and attitudes.If employees know from the start what the expectations
are, they tend to perform better. Likewise, if employees learn the values and attitudes of the
organization from the beginning, there is a higher chance of a successful tenure at the
company.Some companies use employee orientation as a way to introduce employees not
only to the company policies and procedures but also to the staff. For an example of
an orientation schedule for the day.

Importance of Training and Development

As organizations evolve their infrastructure and approaches to employee development
becomes more established. Whilst employee development vocational programmers and
supporting management techniques, tools, procedures and standards, etc, are essential they
often introduce organizational rigidity. Also with "maturity" organizations often become too
big, have too many management levels and get over complicated. Consequently departments,
ftinctions, or divisions, do not interconnect well. The result is decision making becomes
unclear, information is poorly communicated, and projects do not get over complicated.
Consequently department's functions, or divisions, do not interconnect well. The result is
decision making becomes unclear, information is poorly communicated, project does not get
finished or late and internal politics creep in, resulting in power based and pressure group
becoming established. Ergo organizational paralysis, even chaos, sets in with problems
and fiiistration spreading resulting in falling performance. This eventually leads the
organizations to become an eco-system that can be difficult to change. Within this general
confiisions and with constant organizational change begging a modem necessity the
individual's role becomes in clear and difficult to executed even to the point of being
meaningless. People ask "Why am I here?", and "I no longer seem to have a purpose, a
direction or adequate support". Consequently they either leave or slide into impotence and so
the organizations becomes weakened, even unmanageable, certainly organization cease to
ftinctions well.The challenge for the organization therefore is to introduce a range of new
innovative training and development programmes. Training is the most important technique
of human resource development. No organization can get a candidate who exactly
matches with the job and the organizational requirements. Hence training is important to
develop the employee and make him suitable for the job. Training and development programs
are the comer stone of sound management, for it makes employees more effective and
productive. When carried out properly, training enables both people and organization to
create more opportunities which arises. It is simple fact that the final challenge in making
management development acceptable is to demonstrate to senior management that the
organizational benefit far outweigh the cost. Trainers today will probably find themselves
working in a range of different operations. They need to understand business and financial
concepts if they are to make a full and effective contribution, where they work as an internal
trainer or as an external training consultant.

Following are some important aspects of training:

Optimum Development of Human Resource

Training and development helps to provide an opportunity and broad structure for the
development of human resources' technical and behavioral skills in an organization. It also
help the employee in attaining personal growth. Providing training to the personnel increases
the skill, knowledge and talent in them. They can make themselves capable of occupying
positions at higher levels.

Enhanced Utilization of Human Resources

Training and development helps in optimizing the utilization of human resource that fiirther
helps the employee to achieve harmony between the organizational goals as well as their
individual goals.
Development of Skills
Taining and development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employee at
each level. It helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the
employees. Training increases the skills of employees and they perform the job better than
Increases Productivity
Training and development helps in increasing of the employees. Increased performance and
productivity, because of training, are most evident on the part of employee who are not
yet fully aware of the most efficient and effective ways of performing their jobs .
Creates Team Spirit
Training and development helps in including the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-
team collaborations. It helps in including the zeal to learn within the employees. Team
learning is a process of aligning and developing the capacity of a team to create the
results its members truly desire.
Improves Organizational Culture
Training and development helps to develop and improve the organizational health, culture
and effectiveness and it also helps in creating a learning culture within the organization.
Improves Organizational Climate
Training and development helps in building positive perception and feeling about the
organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates and peers.

Improves Quality of Work and Life

Training and development helps in improving quality of work and life. Quality increases may
be in relationship to a company product or service, or in reference to the intangible
organizational employment atmosphere .
Improve Health and Safety
Training and development helps to improve health and safety of the organization.
Increases Productivity
Training and development helps in increasing productivity of the employees. Increased
performance and productivity, because of training, are most evident on the part of employee
who are not yet fully aware of the most efficient and effective ways of performing their jobs .
Creates Team Spirit
Training and development helps in including the sense of team work, team spirit, and inter-
team collaborations. It helps in including the zeal to learn within the employees. Team
learning is a process of aligning and developing the capacity of a team to create the results its
members truly desire.
Improves Organizational Culture-
Training and development helps to develop and improve the organizational health, culture
and effectiveness and it also helps in creating a learning culture within the organization.
Improves Organizational Climate
Training and development helps in building positive perception and feeling about the
organization. The employees get these feelings from leaders, subordinates and peers.
Improves Quality of Work and Life
Training and development helps in improving quality of work and life. Quality increases may
be in relationship to a company product or service, or in reference to the intangible
organizational employment atmosphere .
Improve Health and Safety
Training and development helps to improve health and safety of the organization.
Bemard H. Baum, Peter F. Sorensen and W. S. Place, 'The Effect of Managerial
Training on Organization Control: An Experimental Study, Organization Behaviour
and Human Performance, Peter M. Senge, The fifth Discipline. 'The Art and Practice of the
Learning Organization Random House Business Book Technology and Educational
Structure Educational Technology
Creates Healthy Work Environment
Training and development helps in creating healthy working environment and it also helps to
build good employee relationships so that individual goals align with organizational
Increases Morale and Loyalty
Training and development helps in improving the morale and loyalty of the work force. A
trained worker's morale increases because of the support and encouragement he gets from
seniors at work place.
Enhance Profitability
Training and development helps to improve profitability and more positive attitude towards
profit orientation.
It is better to retain the existing talent than to hire on a continuous basis. it is an established
fact that human resources are assets and strategic business tools in an organization to drive
corporate performance that provides a distinct competitive advantage motivation is a tonic for
the workers. the more you motivate your subordinate, the more productive they become in
their work. work becomes enjoyable, challenging, and attains a supreme level through
constant motivation. the motivation quotient of the employee seems to have a positive
correlation with brand or corporate success employee training programmes becomes the
vehicle for getting a common understanding of organizational problems. introduce employee
development workshops between hey people. and where corporate information can be shared
and acted upon. let employee development programme focus on how teamwork and the status
of the can be improved. let the employee development workshop plan the adoption of matrix
working. let employee development initiatives cultivate a philosophy that everyone can be
improvers not caretakers, that all have an identity and a key role to play, and that everything
can be caretakers, that all have an identity and a key role to play, and that everything can be
done that little bit better, to the benefit of everyone. let employee development cultivate
recognition of personnel interdependence with an ethics of "treat other as you would like to
be traded". modem management development is about encouraging individuality and
creativity without loss of team working and organizational cohesion.

Role of Training and Development in Organizational Development

In a changed economic set up with fierce competition, training & development Programmes
are must; otherwise managerial personnel would become obsolete. David EwingIn his book
'The knowledge of an executive' has rightly said: "The Management personnel must realize
that they will not survive unless they keep pace With modem management education,
research theory, principles and practices". Various organizations have discovered that
whatever leaming an employee embarks On, even outside the workplace for their own
satisfaction, has potential benefits for the Organization. Employees are the internal customer
of the human resource philosophy Of the company. Any organization committed to its
mission and vision captures the Heart and soul of its workforce. Opportunities to leam and
grow are powerful Motivators to inspire talented workforce. When work allows employees to
use their Minds, acquire new skills, and face situations that enable them to grow, they
become Enthusiastic about the work Benefits of training & development to the Organization
are as under Leads to improved profitability and/ or more positive attitudes towards profit
orientation. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. Improves
the morale of the executives. Helps people identify with organizational goals. Helps create a
better corporate image. Fosters authenticity, openness and trust. Improves relationship
between boss and subordinate. Aids in organizational development. Learns from the trainee.
Helps prepare guidelines for work. Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational
policies. Provides information for fiiture needs in all areas of the organization. Organization
gets more effective decision-making and problem-solving skills. Aids in development for
promotion from within the organization. Aids in developing leadership skills, motivation,
loyalty, better attitudes and other aspects that successful workers and managers usually
display. Aids in increasing productivity and/ or quality of work.

The Training Process

Earlier the function of training was very simple - a person selected by an organization was
trained so that he fitted into the job he was appointed for and employers start extracting the
services of the employee. This was primitive concept of training. With the changes in values
and many other factors, the trend has changed. Training is viewed as an ongoing lifelong
cyclical process. Training process is an integral part of human resources management and
organization. Outline the inter-related steps in training process given by Bhatia as below.

1.Organizational vision and perspective plans

2.Assessment of training needs
3.Setting training objectives
4.Designing a training programme
5.Implementation of training programme
6. Evaluation of training programme

1.Organization Vision and Perspective Plans:

The initial step in the training process is linking the organizations vision, mission, strategies
and objectives (overall and division-wise for thrust). Training activities have to contribute to
the corporate foals by increasing the effectiveness of work being carried out in particular
parts. The contribution can be seen to have two main aspects:

a) Achieving the immediate nee related to organizations strategic

b) Training to be based on long-term plan and to preparing employees for
new challenges (futuristic need) of the people and the organization.
Training fiinction has to play proactive role even towards strategic
direction of the organization by designing and implementing in creative
way training programmes which move people in that direction

2.Assessment of Training Needs:

Knowledge, skills and attitudes are the three criteria around which all job are based. A
training need is a gap between the knowledge, skills and attitudes desired and already
possessed by the employees. An individual needs training when his performance falls short of
standards, i.e. when there is performance deficiency. Inadequacy in performance may be due
to lack of skill or knowledge or any other problem, e.g. uninspiring supervision or some
personal problem of the employee. The problem of performance deficiency caused by
absence of skills or knowledge or attitude can be remedied by a proper training.
a) Whether Training is needed?
Three major arrears in which staff display such gaps, i.e. they don't meet The job
requirements. There are:
• when their performance in their present position does not match up to the required
• when the requirement of the job changes due to the changing circumstances, and
• when the present job ceases to exist or the job holders changes jobs, therefore creating new
'gaps' in the newjob.

b)Future Needs: The following future needs will force the company to train, or retrain its
New Methods.
New Equipment.
New Products.
Seasonal Variations.
Change in Layout.
Special Jobs.
Changes in Manning Levels.

• Organization Culture.
• Organization Development.
c) Existing Problems Training need is also indicated from such problems existing in the
• Standards of work performance not being met;
• Accidents;
• Excessive scrap; incidence of errors or faults in
job are high;
• Frequent need for equipment repair;
• High rate of transfer and turnover;
• Too many low ratings on employee evaluation reports;
• Many people using different methods to do the same job;
• Excessive fatigue, fumbling, struggling with the job;
• Bottlenecks and deadlines not being met.

3.Setting Training Objectives

After assessing training needs for the organization, training and development objectives are
to be established. Objective can help in measuring the training program's effectiveness.
Objectives of training program should be tangible and measureable. The objectives of
training provide the following:
1.A record of condition that exist prior to the training.
2.A basis for evaluation of training. Training objectives are of great significance to the
number of stakeholder perspectives;
1.Trainers - Training objectives help the trainer to measure progress of trainee and make
appropriate adjustments for improvement.
2.Trainees - Training objectives are beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the
anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. It helps in increase in concentration, which is crucial
factor to make training successfiil.
3.Designer - Training objective is allows designer to translate the training needs into training
outcome. It also helps in development of better training plan.
4.Evaluator - It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the
trainees because he knows the expected outcome of that training program.
5Designing a Training Programme Designing training program denotes the strategy and
planning through which training program could be conducted effectively. Designing of a
training program should consider following contents careflilly-

1.Statement of obj ectives

2.Choice of participants
3.The place of training
4.Duration of training program
5.Pace of the training program
6. The level of instruction
7.Choice of training technique
8. The need of feedback
5. Implementation of Training Programme

Conducting a training program requires considerable effort and coordination. Implementation

involves a series of activities, through which training managers bring the course to learners in
accordance with approved design. It involves scheduling of courses, faculties, equipments,
service providers, classroom support etc. For effective implementation of the training
program following factors are important-

1.The trainer : The choice of faculty is important to the success of training program. Trainer
must have specialized knowledge on the subject and his experience and skills to be reflected
in handling working sessions.

2.The trainees : The trainees should be form fairly homogenous group with respect to
experience, knowledge, and potential for learning so as to avoid disparity in the group.
3.Curriculum : It should be relevant to trainer's level and job to be performed.
4.Training material: Learning material has to designed with great care. It should be properly
indexed and even distributed in advance.
5.Methods and Techniques : Methods and Techniques of instruction are important as they are
responsible to maintain interest and participation of trainee in the training.
6. Duration of training : Duration of a training program generally depends upon skills to
acquired and the learning capacity of the trainee. Effective use of visual aids can reduce
training duration significantly.
7.Location : Training managers can decide venue of training depend upon the availability of
funds and resources.
6. Evaluation of training programme The last stage in the training and development process is
the evaluation of results. Since the huge money and resources are spent on training and
development programs, how far the program has been useful must be judged. Training
evaluation is an activity aimed to determine effectiveness of training program in terms of
achievement of objective of training program. Evaluation of training program also provides
useful information about the design of future training programs. Training evaluation can
bemade during three periods, namely, before the training, during the training, and after the
completion of training. Evaluation is needed for the following reasons:

1.To make the training program more effective : Through evaluation we can examine the
various methods of teaching, content of lessons, training environment etc.
2.It is used as training aid : Once an evaluation is made, it becomes a full proof method of a
training program, which will be useful for subsequent training program.
3.To verify whether goals are achieved against targets : Every training program as well as
organizations fixes goals for the training program. Outcome of training program should be
compared with objectives to measure success of the training program.
4.Cost effectiveness achieved or not : The money spent on the training program must be
fruitful and useful in terms of producing efficiency, improvement in work, new procedures
5.To find useful to the individual and organization : A training evaluation pave the way for
effective utilization thereby resulting in benefits to the organization as well as to the

New Concepts in Training and Development

Traditional management training is concerned with examining the fundamental principles and
practice of management. These management training courses remain very important but
management training is now becoming more convened with the learning needs of people
within an organization, HR management issues, change management, finical accountability,
strategy, technology e.g. e-Commerce, etc. Fundamentals of management training are :
1.Organization planning and role/Process analysis.
2.Coordinating plans and setting objectives.
3.Management control information.
4.The management process, organization and communications.
5.Power and authority in the process.
6. Leadership styles and its effects on culture and productivity.
7.Expectations of people in organizations.
8. Social structures and work groups.
9. Participative management.

Today, management training programs are less concerned with vocational awareness and
more concerned with business awareness and continuous improvement.whybecaus supervisor
and junior management training programmes have successfully developed departmental
resources that are well able to manage day-to-day operations. Therefore the key challenge for
middle management training is in developing the skills needed to lead empowered
individuals, and teams, in the journey to make the organizations vision and values a reality.
This means that middle management training needs to focus on environmental management
issues, across the process chain, between organizational units and transcending organizational
levels, and through effective working relationships with the organizational strategic partners.
It is therefore imperative that management training programmes focus on leadership and
change management techniques to foster the attitudes, behaviors and skills necessary to break
down and overcome barriers and constraints. Management training also needs to develop
management ability to cope with organizational metamorphosis, unitization, flatter structures,
change in power bases, etc.with e-commerce, and other high-tech influences, the paradox is it
has never been more easier to realize excellence but potentially it has never been more harder
to find the management time needed to develop new management skills, or utilize them, in
the pursuit of excellence. This then is the challenge facing management training. Training
consultants must stress the importance of working in conjunction with your internal
facilitators in the formulation of management training strategies and supporting management
laining programmes. This could evolve in better middle management training programmes
for the employees. For management training to create a learning culture the management
training programme must focus on developing greater awareness and understanding of
motivation, expectations and behavior of people at work, prior to examining the learning
process and how to relate learning to needs and the effective application in work. These
management training courses could consider:
1.Role analysis and competence & capability assessment.
2.Performance appraisal-the instrument for organizational development.
3.Identifying organization and junior management training needs.
4.Designing management training opportunities for individual career expectations.
5.Motivation theories and their impact upon organizational culture.
6. Leadership, behavior characteristics and attitudes.
7.Leadership process-Difference between junior and middle management training.
8. Use of learning in styles for effective management training.
9. Self management training thought experiential learning methods.
10.Barriers and blockages to management training and organization development.
11.Learning method and management training techniques.
12.Communication skills including advising, influencing, counseling, coaching, mentoring,
consulting and presenting.
13.Validating and evaluating, management training and learning applications. Lynton and
Pareek"" have suggested some new concepts to make training more effective and useful to
the organization.

Role of Training and Development in Enriching Human Resource.

Training is a very important activity for organizational development. Modem organizations

cannot survive without appropriate training inputs to their employee Training as a
management development activity has multiple advantages which can be listed as under:
1.Enhance speed of learning new skills Training as input helps employee to enhance their
ability, new knowledge, concepts, and skills. Hands on technology can be improved with the
help of training. Formal training programme often helps to understand concept and skills in
more efficient marmer. The employees need not learn by observing others.
2.Systematic Development Training is a rational and systemic approach to learn and develop
a mindset. It helps to improve work procedures and work culture. Activities can be well
defined and can be performed systematic manner which reduces errors and mistakes at
workplace and enhance the performance level of the employee while performing the job.
3.Enhancement of Efficiency and Economy Of Operations Rightly defined training
programme helps to change attitude and mindset of workers. A highly awakened employee
can be developed through training programme. This reduces loss of resources and hence
resulting in improving level of efficiency of employee.Reduction in wastage thus helps to
avail advantages of economy of operations.
4.To Boost up Employee Moral There is a invisible relation between productivity, moral and
skills. Naturally when the skills are developed, ability of employee is also enhanced which
make him highly motivated and committed towards organizational cause. Proper training
generates better cooperation among employees and loyalty towards organization. This in turn
improves employee's moral level. The synergic effect of which is enhancement of
5.Reduction in level of Supervision Trained and skilled employees are self motivated. They
perform their job with due verge and enthusiasm. The numbers of mistakes are minimized
and thus the need for floor level supervision can be minimized.
6.Succession Planning and Managerial Development Trained employees are able to accept
new responsibilities and assignment. Internal development of leadership is long time
exercise. Succession planning and development of employee to become to conceptual
managers is possible through systematic training and development programme. Organizations
at large are also benefitted because of training and development activities. There are many
invisible and visible advantages because of systematic training. A few important points are
presented here.
1.Ability to accept New Challenges. Organizations with trained employee often develop a
high level collective competence which let them to accept new challenges.
2.Ability to meet Environmental changes and Crisis. Organization with well developed
employee and trained staff easily bring out change in their work system and procedures. They
can acquire and adopt to new challenging situations. Crisis can be resolved with help of
trained employee.
3.Develop Organizational loyalty and Commitment. Trained employees are more committed
to organization. They prefer to work in a conducive andhealthy work climate. In many cases,
personality clashes and interpersonal hindrances can be removed through development of
4.Enhances Earning Capacity. Organization having trained employee can improve their
productivity, turnover and performance. This adds to their revenue and profits.
5.Reduces Risks, Losses and Accidents Trained employee are often more cautiousand do not
accept unnecessary risk. Trained workers operate the machines safely. They perform work in
more delight and systemic manner which reduces risk, accidents and wastages. Thus
employee develops a safety network.
6.Systematic Career Development. Most important advantage of training is planned
succession and career development. Training not only improves skills and ability but develop
potential leaders. Automatically career development of employee becomes a systematic
activity where a every employee is assured of appropriate promotions and upword mobility. It
can be concluded that in light of several benefits, training is an important activity, which
should be taken very seriously by the employees as well as the employers

Training as a Tool of Development

training is an important tool in the wholesome strategy for development. a part from
the organization, imparted training creates additional capabilities in the employees to
do the job better and with more confidence. his sharpened skills directly contribute to
his expertise and career progression in the organization. the training result in clearer
thinking on the part of the part of the employee and minimizes interruptions in his own
work cycle as also of others. however, the history of training has revealed different
patterns. in the nineteenth century, the concept of training was based on observation
work guidance pattern. the educational qualifications played the secondary role and
was not considered basic criterion for employment. faith and loyalty were the
foremost considerations. the person was employed and was asked to observe the activities of
his seniors and under his watchful eye was asked to initiate action by copying or imitating
and was give on-the job guidance in case of need by pointing out the shortcomings and by
mild punishments. with the advent of the industrial revolution, education and qualifications
are now given prime importance. prospective employees are short listed, identified,
put to some kind of test before recruiting them and are given training before giving
them an opportunity to take up any activity for which either he had some basic skills
or capabilities and which could be further enriched by training. it is much later that the
concept norms, given exposure relating to the expected job both in theory and practice.
in other words, the process has graduated from pure managerial focus to
developmental focus. now, organizations are developing different approaches, which
are significantly different from one another. some organizations have formulated detailed
human resource policies, which are proactive as far as the staff in the organization is
concerned. the organization have management policies basically oriented towards customers
and their own future role so much so that at points of time they look insensitive to the
staff/workers of theorganization as they basically treat human resource as a part of their
normal activity. still some organization has followed policies, which transform the
organizational progress continuously and innovative steps to provide best customer service
through well prepared and equipped staff obviously, such organization will have a benevolent
approach towards its human resource both in the individual well being as also
organizational placement, enhancement of skills and capabilities and enabling them to
work with a mentor for his long term career progression. the training & development in
today's changing business environment is becoming more & more dynamic. the core function
of any training department is to bridge the gap between the changing requirements of the job
& the abilities that individuals need to perform these tasks such as self-directed leadership,
self-motivated terms & self generated creativity to excel in their respective areas of






1. The most preferred method of training - On the job training

2. A T&D program is successful when it meets all the stated objectives with competent
faculties & useful resources that make the learning easy

3. The T&D program helps in the faster growth rate of employees in the organization by
improving the productivity level and strengthening areas where an employee lags.

4. The success of a T&D program depends on the amount of transfer of training - i.e. how
far the employee could brings the learning ( from the T&D program) back into the job.

5. The motivation obtained from the T&D program impacts the productivity and thus the
success of a T&D program.

6. Job commitments and pressure from superiors are a major factor in attending a T&D

7. The common human psychology of human beings preferring / inclining towards newer and
innovative things and events are applicable to the T&D program as well - factors like new
innovations and technology and the opportunity to interact with other participants (which are
different from the routinely schedule) facilities the employees' mindset to attend the T&D

8. Payoff and ROI for the T&D program is not calculated, although there is always a training

Based on the findings some suggestions are given to the company and to the employees.

Greater awareness about the objectives of the training and development

programme must be created among the trainees at the time of their nomination for
the training so that it helps the trainee easily understand and attain the objectives
and goals of the programme.

Employees must be motivated to take up Training Programmes regularly to update

their skills and learn new technique to perform their work effectively and

Objectives of the training programme must be in line with the need of the trainees
and must be clearly explained to them and so that they can be easily attained.

Training Programme must be conducted at frequent intervals to help the workers

update with new technologies and improve their performance.

Superior Quality of training materials and training aids provided to the trainee will
increased their involvement and participation for the training which in turn help in
their performances, effective communicates and to enhance good relationship
among co-workers.
Trainers must extend their personal care and concern to create a friendly
atmosphere and always be ready to help the trainees in difficult situation.

Organization must take efforts to see that trainees are provided with the best of
facilities bringing in new improvement with every training programme.

More importance should be given to audio visual training programmes.

Training need assessment process should be un biased and to be made transparent,
based on an actual need.

There should be closed interaction of the training catalyst and the trainees in a
periodical interval so as to make the training inputs more effective.

Entertainment Programme should undertake during training periods in order to
reduce monotony of the trainees.

Faculty Member from outside the company should be brought for specialized

Duration of the sessions could be extended and training related with the new
machinery, techniques and methods of operation could be concentrated more.

Merit awards and prizes, will encouraged the trainee and make him participate
with satisfaction.

The trainers role is the core for the success of the training programmes the faculty
whether internal are external should be an exact qualified person. Hence the
suggestion from the trainer prior to the conduct of the training programmes must
be taken.

The company has to concentrate more on training for workers than for supervisors
and executive.

The preferences of employees regarding teaching methods should be collected and
followed during the course.

Training Programme must be given importance according to the expectations of
the employees.

Appropriate planning and execution of the training programme will help to
increase the effectiveness of training.

The Proof of the pudding lies in the eating, so too, the proof of training lies in its
effectiveness. The impact of training is almost as important as the training itself
which helps in the success of the organization.

Organizations need to draw up a training policy that guides the training
department and the rest of the organization on how to conduct training and its

The organization should consistently apply strategies for the evaluation of training
and development initiatives. That is the organization becomes a learning one in
which training and development become critical components of efficiency and
effectiveness and that a performance management system be incorporated into the
training strategy.

A comprehensive and supportive culture, leadership, creation of a learning
organization and effective performance management system should be established
and maintained for the effective evaluation of training and development initiatives
aimed at improving individual, team and organizational performance.

Employees should take training more seriously for the individual development as
well as the development of the organization.

Employees should develop positive attitude on training.

Employees need to consult their superiors before attending the training programme
to clarify their doubts.

NALCO most successful company in the Odisha, Training and development system in the
company is large designed encourage employee to work in such a way that the organisation is
benefited by their performance. Training process as a whole is directly related to the
development process of human resource, however it is difficult to measure the abstract aspect
quantitatively as cost involved in training is a positive and meaningful investment which play
dividend future.The human resource executive should be exposed to lot management
programs. More experienced senior executives should be involved in training sessions and for
experience sharing sessions.The duration training programme should increase.

The employee should be aware about the criteria for selection and should aware about the
objective of the training when being selected.Training should more be relevant to the job and
need the contribute to train knowledge to fullest extendThe training also to impart the
employee based on giving promotion, not just only for the employees who are found
inefficient, this help in motivating the employees and maintains the effectiveness of training.

The Study throws light on the effectiveness and limitations on training and Development
programmes being conducted in one of the Maharathnas of India, SalemSteel Plant, Salem.
Based on the findings, the management can redesign and develop New modules in thetraining
and development programme, so that ultimately the Resources of employees are utilized at
optimum level. Training is an incomparable Resource among the resources of the universe
“no training no development”. Therefore,Training and development is a part of any
organization in the world.The new Millennium will be one of knowledge and competition.
The Salem SteelPlant shall therefore endeavor to make every employees job an exiting one
with adequateOpportunities for personal development. Whenever a need for knowledge
request arises in The system the organization should take steps to update the knowledge and
skill of theEmployees by organizing training programmes. Effective training and
developmentEvaluation strategies are required to measure change in individual, and team in
respect ofOrganizational efficiency and effectiveness.

1. ASWATHAPPA. K – Human Resource & Personnel Management, New Delhi, 2005,

4th Edition.
2. GUPTA & JOSHI, Human Resource Management, Kalyani Publishers
3. RAO V.S.P, Human Resource Management, Excel Publication, 2000, 2nd Edition.
4. KOTHARI.C.R, Research Methodology Methods & Techniques, WISHWA
PRAKASHAN, New Delhi, 2001, 3rd Edition.
5. SEIKH A.M, Human Resource Development & Management, S.CHAND.