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# Lab Report: EEE202 East West University

## LAB TITLE: Observation of BJT common-emitter (CE) characteristics.

Prepared by:
Student of Name:Tridib paul

Group : 02

## Department of Electrical Engineering 1

Lab Report: EEE202 East West University

ABSTRACT
The motto of this experiment is mainly to introduce with Common Emitter (CE)
characteristics of Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). In this experiment we use Q2N2222
transistor. In this transistor, voltage across the base and emitter (VBE ) is called electron
donor and voltage across the collector and emitter (VCE) is called electron sweeper. We also
introduce with the relation between collector current (IC) and voltage across the collector
and emitter (VCE) by graph plotting. At last we able to reach our goal by using the X-Y
mode function from the oscilloscope.

THEORY
It is convenient to represent the current voltage characteristics of transistor graphically. In a
BJT common-emitter (CE) configuration, the emitter serves as the common terminal
between input and output. The input is applied at the base terminal and the output is taken
from the collector terminal. The typical CE output is shows some dependence on VCE due to
early effect. As a result, IC characteristics are not horizontal straight lines. This dependence
of IC on VCE is included in the equivalent circuit via an output resistance ro.

1. QUESTION:

## Department of Electrical Engineering 2

Lab Report: EEE202 East West University

## IC/VCE curve (IB=15uA)

2. Question: From the curves plotted using MATLAB, determine β for each IB (5 and 15
uA) at VCE = 1V. How does β for different IB compare with the value measured with DMM?

β = IC/IB = 147

## When IB = 15uA, IC = 2.67mA at VCE = 1V.

β = IC/IB = 178

Comparison:
Measured β IB Calculated β difference
158 5uA 147 11
158 15uA 178 20

Comment:
There are some differences between measured and calculated β. Its due to different value of
IB .

## Department of Electrical Engineering 3

Lab Report: EEE202 East West University

4 & 5. Question: From the curves, calculate ro for IB = 5uA, 15uA at VCE = 1V. Determine
the Early voltage VA for each characteristics curve. Show all calculations.

For IB = 5uA,

## ∂IC = 0.745-0.735 = 0.01mA, ∂VCE = 2-1 = 1V

ro = [∂IC/∂VCE]-1 = 100 kΩ

We have,

ro = [(‌‌VA+VCE)/IC ]
 VA =( ro IC - VCE ) = 0

For IB = 15uA,

## ∂IC = 2.69-2.67 = 0.02mA, ∂VCE = 2-1 = 1V

ro = [∂IC/∂VCE]-1 = 50 kΩ

We have,

ro = [(‌‌VA+VCE)/IC ]
 VA =( ro IC - VCE ) = 0

Comparison:
IB ro VA
5uA 100 kΩ 0
15uA 50 kΩ 0

## Department of Electrical Engineering 4

Lab Report: EEE202 East West University

Question 6:
For IB = 5 uA

* Schematics Netlist *

## V_V2 \$N_0001 0 15V

R_R2 \$N_0003 \$N_0002 100k
R_R1 \$N_0004 \$N_0001 2.106k
Q_Q1 \$N_0004 \$N_0002 0 Q2N2222
V_V1 \$N_0003 0 1.15V

* Examine Output *

IB 5.12E-06
IC 8.59E-04
VBE 6.38E-01
VBC -1.26E+01
VCE 1.32E+01
GM 3.31E-02
RO 1.01E+05
BETAAC 1.86E+02
30V

20V

10V

0V
0V 5V 10V 15V 20V 25V
V(Q1:c)
V_V2

## Department of Electrical Engineering 5

Lab Report: EEE202 East West University

For IB = 15 uA

* Schematics Netlist *

## V_V2 \$N_0001 0 15V

R_R2 \$N_0003 \$N_0002 100k
R_R1 \$N_0004 \$N_0001 2.106k
Q_Q1 \$N_0004 \$N_0002 0 Q2N2222
V_V1 \$N_0003 0 2.18V
* Examine Output *

IB 1.51E-05
IC 2.69E-03
VBE 6.69E-01
VBC -8.66E+00
VCE 9.33E+00
GM 1.03E-01
RO 3.07E+04
BETAAC 1.94E+02
30V

20V

10V

0V
0V 5V 10V 15V 20V 25V
V(Q1:c)
V_V2

## Department of Electrical Engineering 6

Lab Report: EEE202 East West University

EQUIPMENTS USED
1. Q2N2222.
2. DC milli-ammeter.
3. DC micro-ammeter.
4. MATLAB.
5. PSpice.

RESULTS

I saw an IC Vs VCE characteristics in XY mode from the oscilloscope in the lab. It was like a
curve which is given in data sheet. At the finishing of the lab, I saw that, when I change V2
then the curve shift from left to right.

REFERENCES