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THE 1987 CONSTITUTION


OF THE
REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES
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PREAMBLE

ARTICLE I National Territory

ARTICLE II Declaration of Principles and State Policies

ARTICLE III Bill of Rights

ARTICLE IV Citizenship

ARTICLE V Suffrage

ARTICLE VI Legislative Department

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ARTICLE IX Constitutional Commissions

A. Common Provisions

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ARTICLE X Local Government

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ARTICLE XVII Amendments or Revisions

ARTICLE XVIIITransitory Provisions

ORDINANCE
MEMBERS OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL COMMISSION
DONESIA A. ATTING
Bagulin, La Union
Contact Number: 09305768630

Objectives:
-Seeking a challenging career with a progressive organization that provides an opportunity to broaden my
technical skills and abilities. In addition, be a part of company that provides an opportunity to work with
enthusiastic people and encourage my professional career.

PERSONAL INFORMATION

Date of Birth: May 11, 1993


Gender : Female
Height: 4’8
Civil Status: Single
Weights: 45
Citizenship: Filipino
Religion: CTCOPI

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND

Elementary Libbo Elementary School


(2001-2006)
Secondary Baay Integrated School
(2007-2011)
College Baguio School of Business and Technology
(2011-2014)

Works Experience
Caregiver Mamaga, Balili, La Trinidad, Benguet (11 months)
Child Development Worker Libbo Child Development Center (3 years)
Barangay Secretary Libbo Bagulin La Union (2 months)

Donesia Atting
Name of Applicants

HARD COPY VS SOFT COPY:


A MORE EFFECTIVE STUDYING TOOL
FOR GRADE 12 STEM STUDENTS

A Quantitative Research Paper


Presented to the Senior High School Department
University of the Cordilleras

In Partial Fulfillment of
the Requirements for the Senior High School II
STEM Strand

NICASIO D. MANGOSAN JR.


KYLE A. MANLONGAT
ARJAY B. MARASIGAN
ALICIA KATE S. MANGUSAN
RHEA JOY B. MEANA
EFRELLA MHAE K. MELANO
CRIZZA JOI T. MENDOZA

March 2019
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
First and foremost, we would like to give our gratitude to the almighty God for having blessed us with the
necessary knowledge and strength to do all the tasks designated to us.

The completion of this study would not also have been possible if not for the help of the following teachers
who have reached out their hands when the study was still ongoing. To the expertise of Ma’am Joan Pucya
who have lent us her wisdom and knowledge for the validity test of our questionnaires; to Sir Dexter
Apnoyan who let us do our reliability testing of our questionnaires in his class; and finally to ma’am Gerlem
Datic, who we consulted in order to verify our results of our reliability test.

This research paper has been prepared and completed by all the members involved, but it wouldn’t have
been completed without the participation of all the classes that were involved in our data gathering,
specifically STEM D, E, H, I, L, N, O, R and T who gave their most accurate and humble answers in our
test questionnaires.

We would also like to give our gratitude to our teacher Ma’am Angeli Nerisse Cedo who have always been
by our side continuing to guide us in keeping track of what we are to do in order to complete the research
paper we have been working on.

Lastly, we express our immense appreciation to our parents. They have always provided us with the things
we need, whether monetary or emotional support, that let us do our best for the completion of our work.
Without them, none of these would indeed be possible.
ABSTRACT

Students in a digital age is presented with two hand-outs that are used for studying, they are soft copy or
hard copy. It is unknown however, which of the two hand-out tool is more effective in studying for Grade
12 STEM students. The researchers assessed the effectiveness of the two hand-out tools through a survey,
and saw the difference of effectiveness between the two tools. The respondents were 300 Grade 12 STEM
students of the University of the Cordilleras and all of them had the choice of whether to accept the survey
or not. The hard copy hand-outs were agreed to be fairly effective in the studying of Grade 12 STEM
students, as it was the same for the soft copy hand-outs. But it was also found out that there was a significant
difference in the level of effectiveness between the two tools. The results provided enough data that showed
soft copy hand-outs to be more effective than the hard copy hand-outs.

Keywords: effectiveness; hard copy; soft copy; hand-out; studying tool, Grade 12-STEM
I. INTRODUCTION

Background of the Study

Since before even technological devices were incorporated as a means of recording information, classrooms in the
past have always been using the common way of transcribing notes being taught through the pen and paper. This group
acknowledges the emergence of the ever increasing smart phones and touch screen devices; it has changed the way students
make their notes. The traditional making of hand-outs in which students use the pen to take notes or when they receive a
rough copy of the lesson is termed a hard copy; while the modernized version of the notes that are being kept on electronic
devices is called a soft copy. When it comes to studying, the differences of preference between the two methods, hard and
soft copy hand-outs vary from student to student. It is in this thought that the researchers aim to discover the effectiveness
rates of hard and soft hand-out copies and how it affects the studying of students.

According to Ferry (2015), in relation to the problem being tackled, Taiwan has a school where their library has
been transformed into an e-learning area. Instead of the usual books that dominate most libraries everywhere, their library
is an open space with easy chairs and tables for using their iPads. Teachers in that school believe that making use of
technology, like searching for their lessons in YouTube, is vital to the modern classroom. However, many educators disagree
with the rush to put technology into the classroom, citing the lack of concrete evidence that students learn better through
technology and suggesting that such gadgets can simply be a distraction.

In addition, Avvisati (2015), author of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
reports “Students, Computers, and Learning: Making the Connection,” over the past decades, countries including Australia,
New Zealand, the United Kingdom and the United States, have put a great emphasis on bringing technology into classrooms.
“Yet there has been no appreciable improvement in student achievement in reading, mathematics or science in most of the
countries that have invested heavily in ICT for education,” He also added with his interview in an online publisher
CMRubinWorld that, even when disadvantaged students had access to the latest Educational Technology, it failed to close
gaps between disadvantaged and privileged students. This shows how one country might consider investing in e-learning
would be a difficult choice.

The research of Doeppner (2000) explicates the benefits that students have received when the creation of electronic
notebook is incorporated into studying. It was found out that electronic notebook device would enhance the interactive
learning experience of students. They would be able to receive, organize, and annotate both instructor-supplied lecture notes
and other course materials, all of which will be distributed electronically. Devices like this then could help students to
efficiently mass produce materials for their lessons.

In the study made by Javellana et al. (2014) their study found out that student opinions about the use of tablets were
significantly positive. In addition to the benefits of being economically cheap and easy to carry, students found the use of
tablets enjoyable.
In addition to their research however showed the ineffectiveness of e-books when compared to printed texts. The
study of Muter and Maurutto (1991); Nielson (1997); Rho and Gedeon (2000) spotted that paper has been found to be more
effective because readers are able to browse electronic texts more easily, reducing their ability to remember the details of a
text. According to Blanco and Leirøs (2000), because Cathode Ray Tubes (CRT) monitors are brighter than paper, readers
prefer printed paper to reduce eye fatigue.

Possible effects of using hand outs were also provided through the study of Stacy and Cain (2015) that showed
giving hand-outs to students did affect the learning of students but it was more in a negative way. Hand-outs gave issues
like student’s decreased attendance and a reliance on external aids for learning. Another study also presented the effects of
either method to note-taking students; here, students who were having the traditional way of taking hand outs (by pen and
paper) where ‘somewhat distracted’ but it was even more so when electronic devices were used for taking notes (Berkovatz
and De Guzman, 2011).

Through devices, the sharing of handouts is truly a simple task. Problems may arise however when users do not use
them in the right way. A potential problem may happen however with students using their devices for social media instead
of focusing on their lessons (Wainwright, 2014). Through the pen and paper, this may significantly be reduced as students
could focus more on the thoughts that they are writing than using soft copies. The reason for it is because downloaded
handouts on your device can make you lose focus to your main objective.

In the digital age that we are living, we cannot disapprove of the fact that technology is catching up in how it affects
the studying of students in the classroom. In the posts by statista.com and publishersweekly.com, electronic books that were
sold only in 2017 amounted to about 266 million units while the traditional books were 687.2 million units. Though the
number of traditional books was more than the amount of e-books, it stipulated enough that the buying of electronic books
is becoming more apparent. This is so as e-books are nearly a quarter of the global book sales.

This gives reason as to why the researchers also believe in what Javellana et al. believes about how devices are
becoming the ‘stepping stones to a paperless generation’. With the amount of devices becoming more and more through the
years, people will soon realize the worth of using smart phones and the like in writing their handouts. Likewise, students
may still prefer the traditional kind of notes for they want less distractions and less strain in the eyes (Schaub, 2016). This
research paper will be able to find out the effectiveness of the two tools, hard copy hand-outs and soft copy hand-outs, and
what they bring to the students who are studying in a digital age.

Conceptual Framework

This study has adapted the concepts or definitions of the necessary terminologies of the following studies to be a
guide and basis on the main objective of the research, which is to determine the effectiveness of the two tools, hard copy or
soft copy, to the studying of Grade 12 STEM Students.

Student-Focused Hand-outs Theory

A theory explaining the effectiveness of tools to learning is based on the research, Students’ Perceptions of
‘Technology-Based’ Lecture Hand-outs by Islam et al. (2005). According to them, these tools are more of a supplement to
the overall studying of a student rather than a substitute to a student’s regular reading. For them, hand-outs made lectures
‘bearable’ and has led to greater information recollection and student performance. During their time in 2005, only a few
researches were done in this topic so they took the initiative to learn the effectiveness of two different kinds of hand-outs.
The two types were conventional paper-based and the computer-based or web-based hand-outs.

In their study, they gave questionnaires to 142 first year medical students to determine their insights with regards
to lecture hand-outs provided for them. Their questionnaires were consisted of statements to which students listed their level
of agreement using five-point Likert type scale as well as two open-ended questions on strength and weaknesses of the
hand-outs provided to them over the past one year. The results showed that almost all of the students agreed to the point of
hand-outs as being a basis for reference in studying. However, a majority of the students has expressed their discontent with
how the format of the hand-outs was presented. Overall, the usage of hand-outs was very beneficial to students who were
using them.
The following are the major variables affecting our research and definitions of terms:

Age

Age is included in our research as it is believed to affect our study as it is according to the study authored by Clark,
R., et al. (2015), age affects cognitive abilities that are often associated with learning new skills. It is said in their research
that the ability to acquire knowledge is unaffected by cognitive aging. In another research, it shows that student age and
student preference has a significant relationship for certain types of online learning activities. Older students have a higher
preference for lecture-type learning as they find it to be useful learning activities while the younger students prefer more of
the interactive-type as they seem to be more of kinesthetic learners (Simonds, T. and Brock, B., n.d).

Gender

These studies present the result of how gender can affect studying, which is not always true in every area but is
significant enough to be included. The study made by Joseph, A., et al. (2015) and another research of Wangu, M. (2014)
explains the effect of gender in studying. Both researches showed that males outperformed the females overall however
males did not outperform females in every area.

Effectiveness

This is the degree of which something is useful in producing a desired result (Oxford University Press, 2018).

Hand-out

A physical/written or digital information given by an instructor before or after a lesson. It is a general term used by
the researchers that refers to either the hard copy or soft copy.

Hard Copy

It is the physical and/or written information about a lesson or topic taught by an instructor or teacher. Examples of
these include: a student’s hand-written notes, a teacher’s overall lecture summarized and printed on paper/s, and a printed
copy of a lesson or topic from the Internet.

Soft Copy

It is the digital information of the lesson or topic taught by an instructor or teacher. Examples of these include: the
notes of the teacher on the topic that can be in the file format of PDF, Word, PowerPoint, etc., and the downloaded file of
the lesson from the Internet.

Studying

It is the learning about a subject, especially in an educational course or by reading books (Cambridge Dictionaries,
2018).

Studying Tool

It refers to both hard and soft copy notes that the researchers are studying on, specifically on its effectiveness.

In relation to the study, the researchers used IPO (input-process-output) model. This model of teamwork examines
relationships between variables that people bring with them to an interaction (inputs), the interaction among people
(process), and the subjective and objective outcomes of this interaction (output) (Savan, et.al, n.d). The IPO model will
provide the general structure guide for the direction of the study. (Eusebio, 2014)

The method is used to in different ways such as planning, processing, and troubleshooting. It gives a visual
understanding when explaining complex processes (Patrick,n.d).
INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT

STEM student’s age and Analysis of data Profiles of STEM


gender through questionnaire students are determined
and statistical treatment
How effective are the two Effectiveness of the
tools, soft copy or hard copy, two tools to the
in the studying of students studying of students,
and the difference of
Difference of effectiveness
effectiveness of the
between students who use soft
two tools are
copy for studying and students
determined
who use hard copy for
studying

Figure 1. Paradigm of the Study


Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine which of the two tools, hard copy and soft copy, is more effective in studying for
Grade 12 STEM students.

Moreover, it seeks to answer the following:

1. What is the level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs to Grade 12 STEM students when compared according to their
age and gender?

Hypothesis: There is a significant level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs to Grade 12 STEM students when compared
according to their age and gender.

2. What is the level of effectiveness of soft copy hand-outs to Grade 12 STEM students when compared according to their
age and gender?

Hypothesis: There is a significant level of effectiveness of soft copy hand-outs to Grade 12 STEM students when compared
according to their age and gender.

3. What is the difference in the level of effectiveness of hard copy and soft copy hand-outs according to Grade 12 STEM
Students?

Hypothesis: There is a significant difference in the level of effectiveness of hard copy and soft copy hand-outs.

II. MATERIALS AND METHODS

Research Design

This study is a quantitative type of research. According to Matthews and Ross (2010), quantitative research methods
are basically applied to the collection of data that is structured and which could be represented numerically. This study
needs data techniques to answer questions of the problem; thus needing a quantitative design to explicate the effectiveness
of the two tools, i.e. hard copy and soft copy. Quantitative design in this study is used to emphasize statistical analysis of
numerical data collected through a survey method in the form of a questionnaire. The objective of this study is for the
researchers to have a general idea of the people’s awareness and knowledge towards the topic.
The specific designs used in this study are descriptive and comparative methods. The descriptive method research
was defined by Polit and Hungler (1997) as a method that involves the collection of data that will provide an account or
description of individual or groups. This type of research also describes what exist and may help to uncover new facts and
meanings. The researchers used descriptive for them to determine the efficiency of the said tools for their studies.

They also used comparative method to compare the effectiveness of the two tools to the studying of Grade 12 STEM
students as based on their age and gender. According to Richardson (2018), comparative research essentially compares two
or more groups in an attempt to draw a conclusion about the study. They used comparative method for them to know the
more effective tool for studying.

Population and Locale of the Study

The respondents of the researchers were the Grade 12 STEM students as the researchers specifically wanted to
know the thoughts and opinions of the respondents towards the topic. As the Grade 12 STEM students are about to graduate
and transition into college where a lot of hand-outs are used, the dilemma of which hand-out tool to use for studying comes
into mind. With this, they could prove to be great respondents in order to know which type of hand-out is more effective.
Later, when they are in college, they could use the results of the study as insights to choose the better type of hand-out for
studying. The population of the study was the whole Grade 12 STEM students, which had a total population of 1116 students
with 24 sections. The researchers used the Slovin’s formula on determining the number of samples. In the Slovin’s formula,
the researchers used 0.05 as their margin of error. The computed value using the Slovin’s formula was 295 students, thus
the required sample size for this study is at least 295 STEM students.

The researchers used cluster sampling in selecting their respondents. Cluster sampling is a probability sampling
technique that is usually applied to large populations or geographic areas (Kolb, 2008). This sampling allows the researchers
to ascertain that every element in the research population has an equal chance of being selected; thereby making the results
representative (Leedy and Ormrod, 2005).

The research was conducted in a private University in the City of Baguio, Philippines. The University offers various
Senior High School strands, and one of which was the population of this study, grade 12 STEM (Science, Technology,
Engineering, and Mathematics). The researchers conducted a study in an institution that is more accessible for them since
the accessibility of a population is a factor to have a better study (Daniel, 2012) and that is affected by the ability of the
researchers to successfully implement a research design.

Table 1. The Respondents


Section Number of Students
STEM D 47
STEM E 31
STEM H 24
STEM I 35
STEM L 39
STEM N 18
STEM O 44
STEM R 39
STEM T 23
TOTAL 300

Data Collection Tool

The research instrument for the data that the researchers used was questionnaire which is a set of systematically
structured questions used by researchers to get needed information from respondents (Ododa, 2009). The questionnaire is
designed as structured questionnaire. This type is also called close-ended where questions have limited set of possible
answers and it can easily be analyzed statistically (Farrell, 2016). It includes getting the demographic profile of STEM
students specifically the gender and age in order to answer the following data needed for the study: Profile of STEM
students, the efficacy of the two tools to the studying of students and the difference of effectiveness of the two tools.
The questionnaire contains 16 questions, which is divided into 2 for each type of tool where responses are graded
in a four-point scale. Four-point scales are also called as a forced scale since the user is forced to form an opinion. The
difference of this four-point scale from a five-point scale is that it has no neutral option. It only contains four distinguishing
patterns or levels. Four-point scales are done in order to extract a specific response from the respondents (Marketing
Universe, 2012). As a result, the researches choose the pattern ‘strongly agree’ as the most positive statement and it follows
that it has the highest numerical value, ’4’. Conversely, ‘strongly disagree’ as the most negative statement and it has the
lowest numerical value, ‘1’.

Questions on the study underwent a validity test in order to approve whether the questionnaires made by the
researchers is efficient. Furthermore, the researchers conducted a pilot testing that proved the internal validity of the
questionnaire. It is also called pre-testing that provides better information on whether the type of survey is effective in
fulfilling the purpose of the study (Sincero, 2012). It was then analyzed using the Cronbach’s Alpha which is a measure
used to assess the reliability, or internal consistency, of a set of scale or test items. In other words, the reliability of any
given measurement refers to the extent to which it is a consistent measure of a concept, and Cronbach’s alpha is one way of
measuring the strength of that consistency (Goforth, 2015).

With regards to the survey relating the effectiveness of hard copy and soft copy hand-out that was handed out by
the researchers, it has a reliability coefficient of 0.79 in Cronbach’s Alpha and 0.74 in Guttman Split-Half Correlation that
were both interpreted as acceptable.

Data Collection Procedures

To begin the study, the researchers constructed their title and determine the scope of the study and identified its
limitations to make sure that it is research worthy then it got accredited by their Practical Research 1 teacher. Then they
constructed the first chapter wherein a brief background of the study and is discussed. Next, the researchers plotted on how
to process the data through a paradigm and decided to produce their own questionnaire.

The type of sampling that the researchers decided to do is cluster sampling and to ensure the questions being asked
in the questionnaire is acceptable to the parameters of the study, it underwent to a validity test and a reliability test to check
if it is both valid and reliable.

Then the researchers prepared the questionnaires and the letter asking for the consent of the respondents to
participate in their study is already embedded on top of the questionnaire. The researchers then proceeded to the classroom
of the selected respondents of Grade 12 STEM sections.

The researchers then seek for permission to the teacher in charge during that period to give the researchers for at
least 5-10 minutes of their time to conduct their survey. After given permission, the researchers explained the purpose of
the study and the data to be gathered was ensured to be kept at outmost confidentiality and made sure that each participant
answered their distributed questionnaires honestly.

The researchers facilitated the whole process of the data gathering and entertained questions that needed
clarification. The researchers collected the data by means of survey questionnaire that comprises their age and gender. After
the papers were compiled, tallied, interpreted and analyzed by the researchers for proof and evidence to help their work
through the use of different statistical tools.

Treatment of Data

All data gathered throughout the study were kept in total confidentiality. Using a questionnaire prepared by the
researchers, the data needed were gathered from respondents who were informed of the topic and were willing to partake in
it. The researchers also took in consideration the age and gender of the respondents of which the data were gathered from.

In this study, the researchers used the following statistical tools: percent frequency distribution, mean and Mann-
Whitney U test to determine the difference in the level of effectiveness of each hand-out tool according to the respondents.

Percent Frequency Distribution


In order to determine the profile of Grade 12 STEM students of the University of the Cordilleras, the researchers
used the percentage frequency distribution method. According to Lavrakas (2008), this method is a display of data that
specifies the percentage of observations that exist for each data point or grouping of data points. It is a particularly useful
method of expressing the relative frequency of survey responses and other data.

Also, he added that the process of creating a percentage frequency distribution involves first identifying the total
number of observations to be represented; then counting the total number of observations within each data point or grouping
of data points; and then dividing the number of observations within each data point or grouping of data points by the total
number of observations (Lavrakas, 2008).

Mean

By definition, the statistical mean refers to the mean or average that is used to derive the central tendency of the
data in question. It is determined by adding all the data points in a population and then dividing the total by the number of
points (Technopedia, 2018). In relation to the study, statistical mean was used to compare the different sets of data and to
determine the respondent’s opinion on the level of effectiveness of the two tools.

Items that discussed the effectiveness of the two tools were measured using the four-point scale in order to see the
difference of the level of effectiveness between the two hand-outs.

Table 1. Interpretation Guide for the Mean


Rating Description Hard Copy Hand-out Soft Copy Hand-out
Interpretation Interpretation
4 Strongly Agree The participant firmly approves The participant firmly approves that
that the hard copy hand-out is the soft copy hand-out is effective in
effective in that area. that area.
3 Agree The participant approves that the The participant approves that the
hard copy hand-out is effective in soft copy hand-out is effective in
that area. that area.
2 Disagree The participant disapproves that The participant disapproves that the
the hard copy hand-out is soft copy hand-out is effective in
effective in that area. that area.
1 Strongly Disagree The participant firmly The participant firmly disapproves
disapproves that the hard copy that the soft copy hand-out is
hand-out is effective in that area. effective in that area.

Table 2. Interpretation Guide for the Level of Effectiveness of the Use of Hand-outs
Mean Interval Description Hard Copy Hand-out Soft Copy Hand-out
Interpretation Interpretation
4.00-3.50 Very High The participant’s level of The participant’s level of
Effectiveness effectiveness to the use of hard copy effectiveness to the use of soft copy
handouts is greatly efficient. handouts is greatly efficient.
3.49-2.50 Fairly High The participant’s level of The participant’s level of
Effectiveness effectiveness to the use of hard copy effectiveness to the use of soft copy
handouts is efficient. handouts is efficient.
2.49-1.50 Low The participant’s level of The participant’s level of
Effectiveness effectiveness to the use of hard copy effectiveness to the use of soft copy
handouts is inefficient. handouts is inefficient.
1.49-1.00 Very Low The participant’s level of The participant’s level of
Effectiveness effectiveness to the use of hard copy effectiveness to the use of soft copy
handouts is greatly inefficient. handouts is greatly inefficient.
Mann-Whitney U Test

According to Statistics Solutions (2018), the test mentioned is the non-parametric alternative test to the independent
sample t-test. It is a non-parametric test that is used to compare two sample means that come from the same population,
and used to test whether two sample means are equal or not.

Mann-Whitney U test was used by the researchers to compare two different sets of sample means. The test was
used to see the differences in the level of effectiveness of the two tools. To consider the data gathered is significant, they
used a 0.05 level of significance.

III. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In this chapter presents the outcomes of the data that was gathered regarding the level of effectiveness of hard and
soft copy hand-outs according to Grade 12 STEM students in the University of the Cordilleras. It also aims to present the
discussion of the main statement of the problem that seeks to determine which of the two hand-outs, hard copy or soft copy,
is a better tool for studying among Grade 12 STEM students. Also, the results of the study were validated by a statistician
in which it was considered valid.

Profile of the Respondents

In this study, the profile of the respondents was determined according to their age and gender, in which the
respondents must only be from the Academic Track – STEM.

The results of the survey are as follows:

Table 1: Profile of the respondents according to age and gender


Male Female Total
Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Frequency Percent
16 0 0% 3 1% 3 1%
17 43 14.33% 79 26.33% 122 40.67%
18 63 21% 97 32.33% 160 53.33%
19 10 3.33% 5 1.7% 15 5%
Total 116 38.67% 184 61.33% 300 100%

Table 1 shows that most of the responses came from female students with the age of 18 which implies that they
believe hard copy and soft copy hand-outs have an effect to their studying.

A research which has a similar result had concluded that people’s abilities generally grow as a function of age until
they reach a plateau or even decline at old age (Zhang, 2010). This means that age has an impact on what style and or
preferences individuals may take as they grow older.

In another research, Wehrwein et al. (2007) discussed the gender differences in learning style preferences among
undergraduate physiology students. They concluded that females preferred single-mode instruction with a preference toward
kinesthetic learning or through the five senses.
Table 2: Level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs according to age
Age Mean Rank Interpretation
16 2.92 4 Fairly High Effectiveness
17 3.31 1 Fairly High Effectiveness
18 3.28 2 Fairly High Effectiveness
19 3.18 3 Fairly High Effectiveness

Table 2 shows the level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs according to the different age groups which implies
that students of all the different ages agree that the aforementioned hand-out has a fairly high effectiveness when used for
studying.

A research by Mizrachi (2014) has a similar result which states that students primarily in their late teens still prefer
reading their academic texts in print format when they want to achieve a deep learning outcome. They acknowledge that
they comprehend material better when they learn in print format, especially more complex material.

Table 3: Level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs according to gender


Gender Mean Rank Interpretation
Male 3.30 1 Fairly High Effectiveness
Female 3.27 2 Fairly High Effectiveness

Table 3 shows the level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs according to the different genders which implies
that whether the student is male or female; the respondents’ level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs to their studying
is fairly high.

A research by Woody et al. (2010) shows that the experience of reading e-books is not equivalent to reading
textbooks and Shepperd et al. (2008) also stated that students spent less time reading electronic text compared to students
using the paper text and generally evaluated the electronic text unfavorably.

Table 4: Level of effectiveness of soft copy hand-outs according to age


Age Mean Rank Interpretation
16 3.13 3 Fairly High Effectiveness
17 3.38 1 Fairly High Effectiveness
18 3.34 2 Fairly High Effectiveness
19 3.05 4 Fairly High Effectiveness

Table 4 shows the level of effectiveness of soft copy hand-outs according to the different age groups which implies
that students of all the different ages agree that the aforementioned hand-out has a fairly high effectiveness when used for
studying.

A research by Rockinson et al. (2012) states that students who used e-textbooks in the study had higher levels of
affective and psychomotor learning – they learned actively and they liked it.
Table 5: Level of effectiveness of soft copy hand-outs according to gender
Gender Mean Rank Interpretation
Male 3.40 1 Fairly High Effectiveness
Female 3.32 2 Fairly High Effectiveness

Table 5 shows the level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs according to the different genders which implies
that whether the student is male or female; the respondents’ level of effectiveness of hard copy hand-outs to their studying
is fairly high.

A research by Kobayashi (2006) shows the usage of students of a dictionary in the form of an electronic device and
a printed material. In the research, it was discovered that the electronic device was preferred more than the printed device.
The reason for this was that electronic devices was more effective to use with the different tools the student could use.

In the context of gender-focused preference of hand-outs however, a research stated that gender differences may
not impact the use and selection of e-books (Shepperd et al., 2008).

Table 6: Difference in the level of effectiveness of hard copy and soft copy hand-outs according to Grade 12 STEM
students
Hand-out Mean Level of Effectiveness U P-Value
Hard Copy 3.28 Fairly High Effectiveness 40636.500 0.039
Soft Copy 3.35 Fairly High Effectiveness 40636.500 0.039

Lastly, table 6 shows the difference in the level of effectiveness of hard copy and soft copy hand-outs according to
Grade 12 STEM students. Through the Mann-Whitney test, it was discovered that the P-value of both hand-outs were 0.039
and with it being less than the 0.05 level of significance given earlier, it means that the data gathered was significant. This
means that between the two hand-outs, there is a significant difference in the level of effectiveness of hard copy and soft
copy hand-outs.

A research by Rockinson et al. (2012) had similar results in which their mean results indicated that students who
chose e-textbooks for their education courses had significantly higher perceived affective learning and psychomotor learning
than students who chose to use traditional print textbooks.

IV. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter discussed the conclusions and recommendations of the researchers based on the results of the survey
that the researchers gathered. The results of the survey provide some of the first empirical data about the Level of
Effectiveness of Hard Copy and Soft Copy Hand-outs according to Grade 12 STEM students in the University of the
Cordilleras.

Conclusions

Throughout the study, three problems were set to be answered by the researchers, mainly:

1. In the first problem in which the researchers hypothesized that there is a significant level of effectiveness of hard
copy hand-outs according to age and gender, it was concluded that the participants’ level of effectiveness to the use
of hard copy hand-outs according to age and gender was fairly high.

2. In the second problem in which it was hypothesized that there is a significant level of effectiveness of soft copy
hand-outs according to age and gender, it was concluded that the participants’ level of effectiveness to the use of
soft copy hand-outs according to age and gender is fairly high.

3. For the last problem, the hypothesis that the researchers set indicating a difference in the level of effectiveness of
hard copy and soft copy hand-outs according to Grade 12 STEM students was met. It was concluded that given the
mean score of the two hand-outs, the soft copy hand-out had a higher mean score than the hard copy hand-out. This
means that between the two tools, the soft copy hand-out was more effective than the hard copy hand-out.
Recommendations

Based on the conclusions of the study, the researchers recommended the following in order to improve the study
for future research:

1. Given that the study concluded hard copy hand-outs to be a fairly effective tool for the studying of students, the
researchers then encourage students to continue using hard copy hand-outs as studying tools. Also, given its
effectiveness to the studying of students, it is strongly suggested for instructors and teachers to make use of hard
copy hand-outs as a standard operating procedure for all teachers.

2. Given that the study concluded soft copy hand-outs to be a fairly effective tool for the studying of students, the
researchers then encourage students to continue using soft copy hand-outs as studying tools. Also, given its
effectiveness to the studying of students, it is strongly suggested for instructors and teachers to make use of soft
copy hand-outs as a standard operating procedure for all teachers.

3. With the results of the study concluding that soft copy hand-outs were more effective than hard copy hand-outs, the
researchers then encourage students to use soft copy hand-outs more rather than its counterpart, hard copy hand-
outs. Also, it is strongly suggested that instructors and teachers use soft copy hand-outs as a standard operating
procedure for all teachers.