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IELTS Reading Actual 2018

IELTS Reading

Actual 2018

IELTS Reading Actual 2018 IELTS Reading Actual 2018 Quy ể n sách t ổ ng h

Quyn sách tng hp những Passages đã ra trong năm 2018 (Tháng 1 11/ 2018).

Phn ln những Passage được ra trong các khu vc thi (New Zealand, Australia, Philippines, China, Vietnam…

l ớ n nh ững Passage đượ c ra trong các khu v ự c thi

BReading này skhác hoàn toàn bActual Reading Test (1-6) đang được share rng rãi hin nay.

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IELTS Actual Reading Test 1 Activities for Children Language Strategy in Multinational Company Vanishing Voices IELTS Actual Reading Test 2 The History of Pencil The History of Automobiles What Do Babies Know? IELTS Actual Reading Test 3 A Wonder Plant Saving the British Bitterns The Power of Nothing IELTS Actual Reading Test 4 Texting! The television Natural Pesticide in India Leaf-Cutting Ants and Fungus IELTS Actual Reading Test 5 Koalas Bright children Save Endangered Language IELTS Actual Reading Test 6 Tasmanian Tiger E-training Mammoth kill IELTS Actual Reading Test 7 Museum Blockbuster The secret of the Yawn Key answers Reading Test 1 Reading Test 2 Reading Test 3 Reading Test 4 Reading Test 5

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IELTS Actual Reading Test 1

Activities for Children

A Twenty-five years ago, children in London walked to school and played in parks and playing fields

after school and at the weekend. Today they are usually driven to school by parents anxious about safety and spend hours glued to television screens or computer games. Meanwhile, community playing fields are being sold off to property developers at an alarming rate. ‘This change in lifestyle has, sadly, meant greater restrictions on children,’ says Neil Armstrong, Professor of Health and Exercise Sciences at the University of Exeter. ‘If children continue to be this inactive, they’ll be storing up big problems for the future.’

B In 1985, Professor Armstrong headed a five-year research project into children’s fitness. The results, published in 1990, were alarming. The survey, which monitored 700 11-16-year-olds, found that 48 per cent of girls and 41 per cent of boys already exceeded safe cholesterol levels set for children by the American Heart Foundation. Armstrong adds, “heart is a muscle and need exercise, or it loses its strength.” It also found that 13 per cent of boys and 10 per cent of girls were overweight. More disturbingly, the survey found that over a four-day period, half the girls and one-third of the boys did less exercise than the equivalent of a brisk 10-minute walk. High levels of cholesterol, excess body fat and inactivity are believed to increase the risk of coronary heart disease.

are believed to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. C Physical education is under pressure

C

Physical education is under pressure in the UK most schools devote little more than 100 minutes a

UK – most schools devote little more than 100 minutes a week to it in curriculum

week to it in curriculum time, which is less than many other European countries. Three European countries are giving children a head start in PE, France, Austria and Switzerland offer at least two hours in primary and secondary schools. These findings, from the European Union of Physical Education Associations, prompted specialists in children’s physiology to call on European governments to give youngsters a daily PE programme. The survey shows that the UK ranks 13th out of the 25 countries, with Ireland bottom, averaging under an hour a week for PE. From age six to 18,British children received, on average, 106 minutes of PE a week. Professor Armstrong, who presented the findings at the meeting, noted that since the introduction of the national curriculum there had been a marked fall in the time devoted to PE in UK schools, with only a minority of pupils getting two hours a week.

D As a former junior football international, Professor Armstrong is a passionate advocate for sport.

Although the Government has poured millions into beefing up sport in the community, there is less commitment to it as part of the crammed school curriculum. This means that many children never acquire the necessary skills to thrive in team games. If they are no good at them, they lose interest and establish an inactive pattern of behaviour. When this is coupled with a poor diet, it will lead inevitably to weight gain. Seventy per cent of British children give up all sport when they leave school, compared with only 20 per cent of French teenagers. Professor Armstrong believes that there is far too great an emphasis on team games at school. “We need to look at the time devoted to PE and balance it between individual and

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pair activities, such as aerobics and badminton, as well as team sports. “He added that children need to have the opportunity to take part in a wide variety of individual, partner and team sports.

E The good news, however, is that a few small companies and children’s activity groups have reacted

positively and creatively to the problem. Take That, shouts Gloria Thomas, striking a disco pose astride her mini-spacehopper. Take That, echo a flock of toddlers, adopting outrageous postures astride their space hoppers. ‘Michael Jackson, she shouts, and they all do a spoof fan- crazed shriek. During the wild and chaotic hopper race across the studio floor, commands like this are issued and responded to with untrammelled glee. The sight of 15 bouncing seven-year-olds who seem about to launch into orbit at every bounce brings tears to the eyes. Uncoordinated, loud, excited and emotional, children provide raw comedy.

F Any cardiovascular exercise is a good option, and it doesn’t necessarily have to be high intensity. It

can be anything that gets your heart rate up: such as walking the dog, swimming, miming, skipping, hiking. “Even walking through the grocery store can be exercise,” Samis-Smith said. What they don’t know is that they’re at a Fit Kids class, and that the fun is a disguise for the serious exercise plan they’re covertly being taken through. Fit Kids trains parents to run fitness classes for children. ‘Ninety per cent of children don’t like team sports,’ says company director, Gillian Gale.

like team sports,’ says company director, Gillian Gale. G A Prevention survey found that children whose

G

A Prevention survey found that children whose parents keep in shape are much more likely to have

healthy body weights themselves. “There’s nothing worse than telling a child what he needs to do and not doing it yourself,” says Elizabeth Ward, R.D., a Boston nutritional consultant and author of Healthy Foods, Healthy Kids . “Set a good example and get your nutritional house in order first.” In the 1930s and ’40s, kids expended 800 calories a day just walking, carrying water, and doing other chores, notes Fima Lifshitz, M.D., a pediatric endocrinologist in Santa Barbara. “Now, kids in obese families are expending only 200 calories a day in physical activity,” says Lifshitz, “incorporate more movement in your family’s life park farther away from the stores at the mall, take stairs instead of the elevator, and walk to nearby friends’ houses instead of driving.”

and walk to nearby friends’ houses instead of driving.” Questions 1-4 The reading Passage has seven

Questions 1-4

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-G.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-G, in boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet.

1 Health and living condition of children

2 Health organization monitored physical activity

3 Comparison of exercise time between UK and other countries

4 Wrong approach for school activity

Questions 5-8

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

In boxes 5-8 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

5 According to American Heart Foundation, cholesterol levels of boys are higher than girls’.

6 British children generally do less exercise than some other European countries.

7 Skipping becomes more and more popular in schools of UK.

8 According to Healthy Kids, the first task is for parents to encourage their children to keep the same healthy body weight.

their children to keep the same healthy body weight. Questions 9-13 Choose the correct letter, A,

Questions 9-13

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 9-13 on your answer sheet.

9. According to paragraph A, what does Professor Neil Armstrong concern about?

A.

B.

C.

D.

Spending more time on TV affect academic level

A. B. C. D. Spending more time on TV affect academic level Parents have less time

Parents have less time stay with their children

Future health of British children

Increasing speed of property’s development

10. What does Armstrong indicate in Paragraph B?

A.

We need to take a 10 minute walk everyday

B.

We should do more activity to exercise heart

C.

Girls’ situation is better than boys

D.

Exercise can cure many disease

11. What is aim of Fit Kids’ trainning?

A. Make profit by running several sessions

B. Only concentrate on one activity for each child

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C. To guide parents how to organize activities for children

D. Spread the idea that team sport is better

12. What did Lifshitz suggest in the end of this passage?

A. Create opportunities to exercise your body

B. Taking elevator saves your time

C. Kids should spend more than 200 calories each day

D. We should never drive but walk

13. What is main idea of this passage?

A. Health of the children who are overweight is at risk in the future

B. Children in UK need proper exercises

risk in the future B. Children in UK need proper exercises C. Government mistaken approach for

C. Government mistaken approach for children

D. Parents play the most important role in children’s activity

C. Government mistaken approach for children D. Parents play the most important role in children’s activity

Language Strategy in Multinational Company

A. The importance of language management in multinational companies has never been greater than

today. Multinationals are becoming ever more conscious of the importance of global coordination as a source of competitive advantage and language remains the ultimate barrier to aspirations of international harmonization. Before attempting to consider language management strategies, companies will have to evaluate the magnitude of the language barrier confronting them and in doing so they will need to examine it in three dimensions: the Language Diversity, the Language Penetration and the Language Sophistication. Companies next need to turn their attention to how they should best manage language. There is a range of options from which MNCs can formulate their language strategy.

B. Lingua Franca: The simplest answer, though realistic only for English speaking companies, is to rely

on ones native tongue. As recently as 1991 a survey of British exporting companies found that over a

third used English exclusively in dealings with foreign customers. This attitude that ―one language fits all‖ has also been carried through into the Internet age. A survey of the web sites of top American companies confirmed that over half made no provision for foreign language access, and another found

that

company‘s language. Widespread though it is however, reliance on a single language is a strategy that is fatally flawed. It makes no allowance for the growing trend in Linguistic Nationalism whereby buyers in Asia, South America and the Middle East in particular are asserting their right to ―work in the language of the customer‖. It also fails to recognize the increasing vitality of languages such as Spanish,

less than 10% of leading companies were able to respond adequately to emails other than in the

were able to respond adequately to emails other than in the Arabic and Chinese that overtime

Arabic and Chinese that overtime are likely to challenge the dominance of English as a lingua franca. In the IT arena it ignores the rapid globalization of the Internet where the number of English-language

of the Internet where the number of English-language ecommerce transactions, emails and web sites, is rapidly

ecommerce transactions, emails and web sites, is rapidly diminishing as a percentage of the total. Finally, the total reliance on a single language puts the English speaker at risk in negotiations. Contracts, rules

and

language is vulnerable.

legislation are invariably written in the local language, and a company unable to operate in that

C. Functional Multilingualism: Another improvised approach to Language is to rely on what has been

termed ―Functional Multilingualism‖. Essentially what this means is to muddle through, relying on a

mix of languages, pidgins and gestures to communicate by whatever means the parties have at their

disposal. In a social context such a shared effort to make one another understand might be considered an

aid to the bonding process with the frustration of communication being regularly punctuated by moments of absurdity and humor. However, as the basis for business negotiations it appears very hit-and-nuts. And yet Hagen‘s recent study suggests that 16% of international business transaction; are conducted in a ―cocktail of languages.‖ Functional Multilingualism shares the same defects as reliance on a lingua franca and increases the probability of cognitive divergence between the parties engaged in the communication.

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D. External Language Resources: A more rational and obvious response to the language barrier is to employ external resources such as translators and interpreters, and certainly there are many excellent companies specialized in these fields. However, such a response is by no means an end to the language barrier. For a start these services can be very expensive with a top Simultaneous Interpreter, commanding daily rates as high as a partner in an international consulting company. Secondly, any good translator or interpreter will insist that to be fully effective they must understand the context of the subject matter. This is not always possible. In some cases it is prohibited by the complexity or specialization of the topic. Sometimes by lack of preparation time but most often the obstacle is the reluctance of the parties to explain the wider context to an ̳outsider‖. Another problem is that unless there has been considerable pre-explaining between the interpreter and his clients it is likely that there will be ambiguity and cultural overtones in the source messages the interpreter has to work with. They will of course endeavor to provide a hifidelity translation but in this circumstance the interpreter has to use initiative and guess work. This clearly injects a potential source of misunderstanding into the proceedings. Finally while a good interpreter will attempt to convey not only the meaning but also the spirit of any communication, there can be no doubt that there is a loss of rhetorical power when communications go through a third party. So in situations requiring negotiation, persuasion, humor etc. the use of an interpreter is a poor substitute for direct communication.

interpreter is a poor substitute for direct communication. E. personnel development and certainly the language training

E.

personnel development and certainly the language training industry is well developed. Offering programs at almost every level and in numerous languages. However, without doubting the value of language training no company should be deluded into believing this to be assured of success. Training in most companies is geared to the economic cycle. When times are good, money is invested in training. When belts get tightened training is one of the first ―luxuries‖ to be pared down. In a study conducted across four European countries, nearly twice as many companies said they needed language training in coming years as had conducted training in past years. This disparity between ―good intentions‖ and ―actual delivery‖, underlines the problems of relying upon training for language skills. Unless the company is totally committed to sustaining the strategy even though bad times, it will fail.

Training: The immediate and understandable reaction to any skills shortage in a business is to consider

reaction to any skills shortage in a business is to consider F. One notable and committed

F. One notable and committed leader in the field of language training has been the Volkswagen Group.

They have developed a language strategy over many years and in many respects can be regarded as a model of how to manage language professionally. However, the Volkswagen approach underlines that language training has to be considered a strategic rather than a tactical solution. In their system to progress from ―basics‖ to ―communications competence‖ in a language requires the completion of 6 language stages each one demanding approximately 90 hours of refresher course, supported by many more hours of self-study, spread over a 6-9 month period. The completion of each stage is marked by a post-stage achievement test, which is a pre-requisite for continued training. So even this professionally managed program expects a minimum of three years of fairly intensive study to produce an accountant. Engineer, buyer or salesperson capable of working effectively in a foreign language. Clearly companies intending to pursue this route need to do so with realistic expectations and with the intention of sustaining the program over many years. Except in terms of ―brush-up‖ courses for people who were previously fluent in a foreign language, training cannot be considered a quick fix and hence other methods will have to be considered.

Questions 27-32

Summary

Complete the following summary of the Whole Paragraphs of Reading

Passage, choosing A-L words from the following options.

Write your answers in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet.

MNCs often encounter language barrier in their daily strategy, then they seek several approaches to solve

such problems. First, native language gives them a realistic base in a different language speaking country,

For example, operation on

translation of some key 28

, yet a report

written that over one-tenth business 30

hire translators. However, firstly it is 31

, besides if they are not well-prepared, they have

but problem turned up when they deal with oversea 27

, it is inevitable to generate differences by rules from different

countries. Another way is to rely on a combination of spoken language and 29

processed in a party language setting. Third way:

to

take 32

A

gestures

D

assumption

G

managers

work.

B clients

E accurate

H body language

C transaction F documents I long-term L costly
C transaction
F documents
I long-term
L costly
language C transaction F documents I long-term L costly J effective K rivals Questions 33-39 Answer

J effective

K rivals

Questions 33-39

Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer.

33 What understandable reaction does Training pay attention to according to the author?

34 In what term does the writer describe training during economy depression?

35 What contribution does Volkswagen Group do for multinational companies?

36 What does Volkswagen Group consider language training as in their company?

37 How many stages are needed from basic course to advanced in training?

38 How long does a refresher course need normally?

39 At least how long is needed for a specific professional to acquire a foreign language?

Questions 40 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answers in boxes 40 on your answer sheet. 40 What is the Main function of this passage?

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A to reveal all kinds of language problems that companies may encounter

B to exhibits some well-known cases in dealing with language difficulties

C to evaluate various approaches for language barrier in multinational companies

D to testify that training is only feasible approach to solve language problem

in multinational companies D to testify that training is only feasible approach to solve language problem

Vanishing Voices

One language dies every 14 days. By the next century nearly half of the roughly 7,000 languages spoken on Earth will likely disappear, as communities abandon native tongues in favor of English, Mandarin,or Spanish. What is lost when a language goes silent?

A One morning in early fall Andrei Mongush and his parents began preparations for supper, selecting

a black-faced, fat-tailed sheep from their flock and rolling it onto its back on a tarp outside their livestock paddock. The Mongush family’s home is on the Siberian taiga, at the edge of the endless steppes, just over the horizon from Kyzyl, the capital of the Republic of Tuva, in the Russian Federation. They live near the geographic center of Asia, but linguistically and personally, the family inhabits a borderland, the frontier between progress and tradition. Tuvans are historically nomadic herders, moving their aalan encampment of yurtsand their sheep and cows and reindeer from pasture to pasture as the seasons progress. The elder Mongushes, who have returned to their rural aal after working in the city, speak both Tuvan and Russian. Andrei and his wife also speak English, which they are teaching themselves with pieces of paper labeled in English pasted onto seemingly every object in their modern kitchen in Kyzyl. They work as musicians in the Tuvan National Orchestra, an ensemble that uses traditional Tuvan instruments and melodies in symphonic arrangements. Andrei is a master of the most characteristic Tuvan music form: throat singing, or khoomei.

characteristic Tuvan music form: throat singing, or khoomei. B When I ask university students in Kyzyl

B When I ask university students in Kyzyl what Tuvan words are untranslatable into English or Russian, they suggest khoomei, because the singing is so connected with the Tuvan environment that only a native can understand it, and also khoj ozeeri, the Tuvan method of killing a sheep. If slaughtering livestock can be seen as part of humans’ closeness to animals, khoj ozeeri represents an unusually intimate version. Reaching through an incision in the sheep’s hide, the slaughterer severs a vital artery with his fingers, allowing the animal to quickly slip away without alarm, so peacefully that one must check its eyes to see if it is dead. In the language of the Tuvan people, khoj ozeeri means not only slaughter but also kindness, humaneness, a ceremony by which a family can kill, skin, and butcher a sheep, salting its hide and preparing its meat and making sausage with the saved blood and cleansed entrails so neatly that the whole thing can be accomplished in two hours (as the Mongushes did this morning) in one’s good clothes without spilling a drop of blood. Khoj ozeeri implies a relationship to animals that is also a measure of a people’s character. As one of the students explained, “If a Tuvan killed an animal the way they do in other places”~by means of a gun or knife—“they’d be arrested for brutality.”

a gun or knife—“they’d be arrested for brutality.” C Tuvan is one of the many small

C Tuvan is one of the many small languages of the world. The Earth’s population of seven billion people

speaks roughly 7,000 languages, a statistic that would seem to offer each living language a healthy one million speakers, if things were equitable. In language, as in life, things aren’t. Seventy-eight percent of the world’s population speaks the 85 largest languages, while the 3,500 smallest languages share a mere 8.25 million speakers. Thus, while English has 328 million first- language speakers, and Mandarin 845 million, Tuvan speakers in Russia number just 235,000. Within the next century, linguists think, nearly

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half of the world’s current stock of languages may disappear. More than a thousand are listed as critically or severely endangered teetering on the edge of oblivion.

D In an increasingly globalized, connected, homogenized age, languages spoken in remote places are

no longer protected by national borders or natural boundaries from the languages that dominateworld communication and commerce. The reach of Mandarin and English and Russian and Hindi and Spanish and Arabic extends seemingly to every hamlet, where they compete with Tuvan and Yanomami and Altaic in a house-to-house battle. Parents in tribal villages often encourage their children to move away from the insular language of their forebears and toward languages that will permit greater education and success.

E Who can blame them? The arrival of television, with its glamorized global materialism, its luxury-

consumption proselytizing, is even more irresistible. Prosperity, it seems, speaks English. One linguist, attempting to define what a language is, famously (and humorously) said that a language is a dialect with an army. He failed to note that some armies are better equipped than others. Today any language with a television station and a currency is in a position to obliterate those without, and so residents of Tuva must speak Russian and Chinese if they hope to engage with the surrounding world. The incursion of dominant Russian into Tuva is evident in the speaking competencies of the generation of Tuvans who grew up in the mid-20th century, when it was the fashion to speak, read, and write in Russian and not their native tongue.

read, and write in Russian and not their native tongue. F Yet Tuvan is robust relative

F

Yet Tuvan is robust relative to its frailest counterparts, some of which are down to a thousand

frailest counterparts, some of which are down to a thousand speakers, or a mere handful, or

speakers, or a mere handful, or even one individual. Languages like Wintu, preaictln a native tongue

in California, or Siletz Dee-ni, in Oregon, or Amurdak, an Aboriginal tongue in Australia’s Northern Territory, retain only one or two fluent or semi-fluent speakers. The last speaker with no one to talk to exists in unspeakable solitude.

G Increasingly, as linguists recognize the magnitude of the modern language die-off and rush to catalog

and decipher the most vulnerable tongues, they are confronting underlying questions about languages’ worth and utility. Does each language have boxed up within it some irreplaceable beneficial knowledge? Are there aspects of cultures that won’t survive if they are translated into a dominant language? What unexpected insights are being lost to the world with the collapse of its linguistic variety?

H Fortunately, Tuvan is not among the world’s endangered languages, but it could have been. Since the

breakup of the Soviet Union, the language has stabilized. It now has a well-equipped armynot a television station, yet, or a currency, but a newspaper and a respectable 264,000 total speakers (including some in Mongolia and China). Yet Tofa, a neighboring Siberian language, is down to some 30 speakers. Tuvan’s importance to our understanding of disappearing languages lies in another question linguists are struggling to answer: What makes one language succeed while another dwindles or dies?

Question 27 30

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D

27. What point the writer making in the second paragraph?

A. Some present studies on children’s mother tongues are misleading

B. A culturally rich educational program benefits some children more than others

C. Bilingual children can make a valuable contribution to the wealth of a country

D. The law on mother tongue use at school should be strengthened

28. Why does the writer refer to something that Goethe said?

A. To lend weight his argument

B. To contradict some research

C. To introduce a new concept

D. To update current thinking

C. To introduce a new concept D. To update current thinking 29. The writer believes that

29. The writer believes that when young children have a firm grasp of their mother tongue

A. They can teach older family members what they learn at school

B. They go on to do much better through their time at school

C. They can read stories about their cultural background

C. They can read stories about their cultural background D. They develop stronger relationships with their

D. They develop stronger relationships with their family than with their peers

30. Why are some people suspicious about mother tongue-based teaching program?

A. They worry that children will be slow to learn to read in either language

B. They think that children will confuse words in the two languages

C. They believe that the program will make children less interested in their lessons

D. They fear that the program will use up valuable time in the school day

Questions 31 35

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of reading passage using no more than two words from the reading passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 31 35 on your answer sheet.

Bilingual Children

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to converse in the majority language

Is less well

understood. This phenomenon depends to a certain extent, on the proportion of people with the same

if this is limited, children are likely to lose

, although they

may still understand it. it follows that teenager children in these circumstances experience a sense of

35 in relation to all aspects of their lives.

the active use of their mother tongue. As thus no longer employ it even with 34

linguistic background that have settled in a particular 33

remarkable quickly. The fact that the mother tongue can disappear at a similar 32

It was often recorded that Children acquire the 31

;

A Teachers

B School

C Dislocation

D

Rate

E Time

F Family

G

Communication

H Type

I Ability

J Area

Questions 36 40

Do the following statement agree with the views of the writer in Reading passage 3?

In

agree with the views of the writer in Reading passage 3? In boxes 36 – 40

boxes 36 40 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this 36. Less than half the children

36. Less than half the children who attend kindergarten in Toronto have English as their Mother tongue.

37. Research proves that learning that host country language at school can have an adverse effect on a

child’s mother tongue.

38. The foyer program is to be accepted by the French education system

39. Billing children are taught to tell the time earlier than monolingual children.

40. Bilingual children can eventually apply reading comprehension strategies acquired in one language

when reading in the other.

IELTS Actual Reading Test 2 The History of Pencil

The beginning of the story of pencils started with a lightning. Graphite, the main material for producing pencil, was discovered in 1564 in Borrowdale in England when a lightning struck a local tree during a thunder. Local people found out that the black substance spotted at the root of the unlucky tree was different from burning ash of wood. It was soft, thus left marks everywhere. Chemistry was barely out of its infancy at the time, so people mistook it for lead, equally black but much heavier. It was soon put to use by locals in marking their sheep for ownership and calculation.

Britain turns out to be major country where mines of graphite can be detected and developed. Even so, the first pencil was invented elsewhere. As graphite is soft, it requires some form of encasement. In Italy, graphite sticks were initially wrapped in string or sheepskin for stability, becoming perhaps the very first pencil in the world. Then around 1560, an Italian couple made what are likely the first blueprints for the modern, wood-encased carpentry pencil. Their version was a flat, oval, more compact type of pencil. Their concept involved the hollowing out of a stick of juniper wood. Shortly thereafter in 1662, a superior technique was discovered by German people: two wooden halves were carved, a graphite stick inserted, and the halves then glued together - essentially the same method in use to this day. The news of the usefulness of these early pencils spread far and wide, attracting the attention of artists all over the known world. Although graphite core in pencils is still referred to as lead, modern pencils do not contain lead as the “lead” of the pencil is actually a mix of finely ground graphite and clay powders. This mixture is important because the amount of clay content added to the graphite depends on the intended pencil hardness, and the amount of time spent on grinding the mixture determines the quality of the lead. The more clay you put in, the higher hardness the core has. Many pencils across the world, and almost all in Europe, are graded on the European system. This system of naming used B for black and H for hard; a pencil’s grade was described by a sequence or successive Hs or Bs such as BB and BBB for successively softer leads, and HH and HHH for successively harder ones. Then the standard writing pencil is graded HB. In England, pencils continue to be made from whole sawn graphite. But with the mass production of pencils, they are getting drastically more popular in many countries with each passing decade. As demands rise, appetite for graphite soars.

According to the United States Geological Survey (USGS), world production of natural graphite in 2012 was 1,100,000 tonnes, of which the following major exporters are: China, India, Brazil, North Korea and Canada. However, much in contrast with its intellectual application in producing pencils, graphite was also widely used in the military. During the reign of Elizabeth I, Borrowdale graphite was used as a refractory material to line moulds for cannonballs, resulting in rounder, smoother balls that could be fired farther, contributing to the strength of the English navy. This particular deposit of graphite was extremely pure and soft, and could easily be broken into sticks. Because of its military importance, this unique mine and its production were strictly controlled bythe Crown.

That the United States did not use pencils in the outer space till they spent $1000 to make a pencil to use in zero gravity conditions is in fact a fiction. It is widely known that astronauts in Russia used grease pencils, which don’t have breakage problem. But it is also a fact that their counterparts in the United States used pencils in the outer space before real zero gravity pencil was invented. They preferred mechanical pencils, which produced fine line, much clearer than the smudgy lines left by the grease

mechanical pencils, which produced fine line, much clearer than the smudgy lines left by the grease
mechanical pencils, which produced fine line, much clearer than the smudgy lines left by the grease

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pencils that Russians favored. But the lead tips of these mechanical pencils broke often. That bit of graphite floating around the space capsule could get into someone’s eye, or even find its way into machinery or electronics, causing an electrical short or other problems. But despite the fact that the Americans did invent zero gravity pencils later, they stuck to mechanical pencils for many years.

Against the backcloth of a digitalized world, the prospect of pencils seems bleak. In reality, it does not. The application of pencils has by now become so widespread that they can be seen everywhere, such as classrooms, meeting rooms and art rooms, etc. A spectrum of users are likely to continue to use it into the future: students to do math works, artists to draw on sketch pads, waiters or waitresses to mark on order boards, make-up professionals to apply to faces, and architects to produce blue prints. The possibilities seem limitless.

Question 14-19

Complete the sentences below.

Choose ONE WORD ONLY from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.

in borrowable
in borrowable

Graphite was found under a 14

Ancient people used graphite to sign possession and number of 15

The first pencil was graphite wrapped in 16

In the eighteenth century, the 17

During the reign of Elizabeth I people was condemnable if they 18

“wad”.

Russian astronauts preferred 19

or animal skin.

“wad”. Russian astronauts preferred 19 or animal skin. value of graphite was realized. pencils to write

value of graphite was realized.

pencils to write in the outer space.

or receive the

Question 20-26

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

In boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement agrees with the information

FALSE if the statement contradicts the information

NOT GIVEN if these is no information on this

20. Italy is probably the first country of the whole world to make pencils.

21.

Germany used various kinds of wood to make pencils.

23. Pencils are not produced any more since the reign of Elizabeth.

24. Pencil was used during the first expedition.

25. American astronauts did not replace mechanical pencils immediately after the zero gravity pencils

were invented.

26. Pencils are unlikely to be used in the fixture.

after the zero gravity pencils were invented. 26. Pencils are unlikely to be used in the

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The History of Automobiles

A The history of the automobile begins as early as 1769, with the creation of steam-engine automobiles

capable of human transport. In 1806, the first cars powered by an internal combustion engine running on fuel gas appeared, which led to the introduction in 1885 of the ubiquitous modern petrol-fueled internal combustion engine.

B It is generally acknowledged that the first really practical automobiles with petrol/gasoline- powered

internal combustion engines were completed almost simultaneously by several German inventors working independently: Karl Benzbuilt his first automobile in 1885 in Mannheim. Benz was granted a patent for his automobile on 29 January 1886, and began the first production of automobiles in 1888 in a company later became the famous Mercedes-Benz.

C At the beginning of the century the automobile entered the transportation market for the rich. The

drivers of the day were an adventurous lot, going out in every kind of weather, unprotected by an enclosed body, or even a convertible top. Everyone in town knew who owned what car and the cars were soon to become each individual's token of identity. However, it became increasingly popular among the general population because it gave travelers the freedom to travel when they wanted to and where they wanted. As a result, in North America and Europe the automobile became cheaper and more accessible to the middle class. This was facilitated by Henry Ford who did two important things. First he priced his car to be as affordable as possible and second, he paid his workers enough to be able to purchase the cars they were manufacturing.

to be able to purchase the cars they were manufacturing. D The assembly line style of

D

The assembly line style of mass production and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.S.

and interchangeable parts had been pioneered in the U.S. This concept was greatly expanded by Henry

This concept was greatly expanded by Henry Ford, beginning in 1914. The large-scale, production-line manufacturing of affordable automobiles was debuted Ford's cars came off the line in fifteen minute intervals, much faster than previous methods, increasing productivity eightfold (requiring 12.5 man- hours before, 1 hour 33 minutes after), while using less manpower. Ford's complex safety proceduresespecially assigning each worker to a specific location instead of allowing them to roam aboutdramatically reduced the rate of injury. The combination of high wages and high efficiency is called "Fordism," and was copied by most major industries.

E The original Jeep vehicle that first appeared as the prototype Bantam BRC became the primary light

4-wheel-drive vehicle of the United States Army and Allies and made a huge leap in sale during World War IT, as well as the postwar period. Many Jeep variants serving similar military and civilian roles have since been created and kept being improved on general performance in other nations.

F Throughout the 1950s, engine power and vehicle speeds rose, designs became more integrated and

artful, and cars spread across the world. The market changed somewhat in the 1960s, as Detroit began to worry about foreign competition, the European makers adopted ever-higher technology, and Japan appeared as a serious car-producing nation. General Motors, Chrysler, and Ford tried radical small cars, like the GM A-bodies, but had little success. Captive imports and badge engineering swept through the US and UK as amalgamated groups like the British Motor Corporation consolidated the market. BMC's revolutionary space-saving Mini, which first appeared in 1959, captured large sales worldwide. Minis were marketed under the Austin and Morris names, until Mini became a marque in its own right in 1969.

The trend for corporate consolidation reached Italy as niche makers like Maserati, Ferrari, and Lancia were acquired by larger companies. By the end of the decade, the number of automobile marques had been greatly reduced.

G In America, performance became a prime focus of marketing, exemplified by pony cars and muscle

cars. But everything changed in the 1970s as the 1973 oil crisis, automobile emissions control rules, Japanese and European imports, and stagnant innovation wreaked havoc on the American industry. Though somewhat ironically, full-size sedans staged a major comeback in the years between the energy crisis, with makes such as Cadillac and Lincoln staging their best sales years ever in the late 70s. Small performance cars from BMW, Toyota, and Nissan took the place of big-engined cars from America and Italy.

H On the technology front, the biggest developments in Post-war era were the widespread use of

independent suspensions, wider application of fuel injection, and an increasing focus on safety in the design of automobiles. The hottest technologies of the 1960s were NSU's "Wankel engine", the gas turbine, and the turbocharger. Of these, only the last, pioneered by General Motors but popularized by BMW and Saab, was to see widespread use. Mazda had much success with its "Rotary" engine which, however, acquired are potation as a polluting gas-guzzler. Other Winkle licensees, including Mercedes- Benz and General Motors, never put their designs into production after the 1973 oil crisis. (Mazda's hydrogen-fuelled successor was later to demonstrate potential as an "ultimate eco-car".) Rover and Chrysler both produced experimental gas turbine cars to no effect.

both produced experimental gas turbine cars to no effect. I The modern era has also seen

I The modern era has also seen rapidly rising fuel efficiency and engine output. Once the automobile emissions concerns of the 1970s were conquered with computerized engine management systems, power began to rise rapidly. In the 1980s, powerful sports car might have produced 200 horsepower (150 kW) - just 20 years later, average passenger cars have engines that powerful, and some performance models offer three times as much power.

and some performance models offer three times as much power. J Most automobiles in use today

J Most automobiles in use today are propelled by an internal combustion engine, fueled by gasoline or diesel. Both fuels are known to cause air pollution and are also blamed for contributing to climate change and global warming. Rapidly increasing oil prices, concerns about oil dependence, tightening environmental laws and restrictions on greenhouse gas emissions are propelling work on alternative power systems for automobiles. Efforts to improve or replace existing technologies include the development of hybrid vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles and hydrogen vehicles. Vehicles using alternative fuels such as ethanol flexible-fuel vehicles and natural gas vehicles are also gaining popularity in some countries.

Questions 15-19

Look at the following statements (Questions15-19) and the list of auto companies or car types in the box belong:

Match each statement with the correct person A-G

Write the appropriate letter A-G in boxes15-19 on your answer sheet.

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15. The company which began the first manufacture of automobiles

16. The company that produces the industrialized cars that consumers can afford

17. The example of auto which improved the space room efficiency

18. The type of auto with greatest upgraded overall performance in Post-war era

19. The type of autos still keeping an advanced sale even during a seemingly unproductive period

A. The Ford (American, Henry Ford)

E. Mazda

B. The BMC's Mini

F. Jeep

C. Cadillac and Lincoln (American)

G. NSU's "Wankel engine" car

D. Mercedes-Benz (German)

H. Mascrati, Ferrari, and Iancia

Mercedes-Benz (German) H. Mascrati, Ferrari, and Iancia Questions 20-26 Answer the questions below. Choose NO MORE

Questions 20-26

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR ANUMBER from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet.

Write your answers in boxes 20-26 on your answer sheet. 20. What is a common feature

20. What is a common feature of modem cars ‘engine type since late 19th century?

21. In the past, what did the rich take owing a car as?

22. How long did Ford's assembly line take to produce a car?

23. What does people call the Mazda car designed under Wankel engine?

24. What is the major historical event that led American cars to suffer when competing with Japanese

imported cars?

25. What has greatly increased with computerized engine management systems?

26. What factor is blamed for contributing to pollution, climate change and global warming?

Questions 27

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C, or D.

Write your answers in boxes 27 on your answer sheet

27 What is the main idea of this passage?

A. the historical contribution of the Ford’s mass production assembly line

B. the historical development and innovation in car designs

C. the beginning of the modern designed gasoline engines

D. the history of human and the Auto industry

C. the beginning of the modern designed gasoline engines D. the history of human and the

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What Do Babies Know?

As Daniel Haworth is settled into a high chair and wheeled behind a black screen, a sudden look of worry furrows his 9-month-old brow. His dark blue eyes dart left and right in search of the familiar reassurance of his mother’s face. She calls his name and makes soothing noises, but Daniel senses something unusual is happening. He sucks his fingers for comfort, but, finding no solace, his month crumples, his body stiffens, and he lets rip an almighty shriek of distress. This is the usual expression when babies are left alone or abandoned. Mom picks him up, reassures him, and two minutes later, a chortling and alert Daniel returns to the darkened booth behind the screen and submits himself to baby lab, a unit set up in 2005 at the University of Manchester in northwest England to investigate how babies think.

Watching infants piece life together, seeing their senses, emotions and motor skills take shape, is a source of mystery and endless fascinationat least to parents and developmental psychologists. We can decode their signals of distress or read a million messages into their first smile. But how much do we really know about what’s going on behind those wide, innocent eyes? How much of their understanding of and response to the world comes preloaded at birth? How much is built from scratch by experience? Such are the questions being explored at baby lab. Though the facility is just 18 months old and has tested only 100 infants, it’s already challenging current thinking on what babies know and how they come to know it.

Daniel is now engrossed in watching video clips of a red toy train on a circular track. The train disappears into a tunnel and emerges on the other side. A hidden device above the screen is tracking Daniel’s eyes as they follow the train and measuring the diametre of his pupils 50 times a second. As the child gets bored—or “habituated”, as psychologists call the processhis attention level steadily drops. But it picks up a little whenever some novelty is introduced. The train might be green, or it might be blue. And sometimes an impossible thing happensthe train goes into the tunnel one color and comes out another.

Variations of experiments like this one, examining infant attention, have been a standard tool of developmental psychology ever since the Swiss pioneer of the field, Jean Piaget, started experimenting on his children in the 1920s. Piaget’s work led him to conclude that infants younger than 9 months have no innate knowledge of how the world works or any sense of “object permanence” (that people and things still exist even when they’re not seen). Instead, babies must gradually construct this knowledge from experience. Piaget’s “constructivist” theories were massively influential on postwar educators and psychologist, but over the past 20 years or so they have been largely set aside by a new generation of “nativist” psychologists and cognitive scientists whose more sophisticated experiments led them to theorize that infants arrive already equipped with some knowledge of the physical world and even rudimentary programming for math and language. Baby lab director Sylvain Sirois has been putting these smart-baby theories through a rigorous set of tests.

His conclusions so far tend to be more Piagetian: “Babies,” he says, “know nothing.” What Sirois and his postgraduate assistant Lain Jackson are challenging is the interpretation of a variety of classic experiments begun in the mid-1980s in which babies were shown physical events that appeared to violate such basic concepts as gravity, solidity and contiguity. In one such experiment, by University of Illinois psychologist Renee Baillargeon, a hinged wooden panel appeared to pass right through a

by University of Illinois psychologist Renee Baillargeon, a hinged wooden panel appeared to pass right through
by University of Illinois psychologist Renee Baillargeon, a hinged wooden panel appeared to pass right through

box. Baillargeon and M.I.T’s Elizabeth Spelke found that babies as young as 3 1/2 months would reliably look longer at the impossible event than at the normal one. Their conclusion: babies have enough built-in knowledge to recognise that something is wrong. Sirois does not take issue with the way these experiments were conducted. “The methods are correct and replicable,” he says, “it’s the interpretation that’s the problem.”

In a critical review to be published in the forthcoming issue of the European Journal of Developmental Psychology, he and Jackson pour cold water over recent experiments that claim to have observed innate or precocious social cognition skills in infants. His own experiments indicate that a baby’s fascination with physically impossible events merely reflects a response to stimuli that are novel. Data from the eye tracker and the measurement of the pupils (which widen in response to arousal or interest) show that impossible events involving familiar objects are no more interesting than possible events involving novel objects. In other words, when Daniel had seen the red train come out of the tunnel green a few times, he gets as bored as when it stays the same color. The mistake of previous research, says Sirois, has been to leap to the conclusion that infants can understand the concept of impossibility from the mere fact that they are able to perceive some novelty in it. “The real explanation is boring,” he says. So how do babies bridge the gap between knowing squat and drawing trianglesa task

Daniel’s sister Lois, 2 1/2, is happily tackling as she waits for her brother? “Babies have to learn everything, but as Piaget was saying, they start with a few primitive reflexes that get things going,” said Sirois. For example, hardwired in the brain is an instinct that draws a baby’s eyes to a human face. From brain imaging studies we also know that the brain has some sort of visual buffer that continues to represent objects after they have been removeda lingering perception rather than conceptual understanding. So when babies encounter novel or unexpected events, Sirois explains, “there’s a mismatch between the buffer and the information they’re getting at that moment. And what you do when you’ve got a mismatch is you try to clear the buffer. And that takes attention.” So learning, says Sirois, is essentially the laborious business of resolving mismatches. “The thing is, you can do a lot of it with this wet sticky thing called a brain. It’s a fantastic, statistical-learning machine”. Daniel, exams ended, picks up a plastic tiger and, chewing thoughtfully upon its heat, smiles as if to agree.

chewing thoughtfully upon its heat, smiles as if to agree. Questions 27-32 Do the following statements
chewing thoughtfully upon its heat, smiles as if to agree. Questions 27-32 Do the following statements

Questions 27-32

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3?

In boxes 27-32 on you answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true

FALSE if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

27 Baby’s behavior after being abandoned is not surprising.

28 Parents are over-estimating what babies know.

29 Only 100 experiments have been done but can prove the theories about what we know.

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30

Piaget’s theory was rejected by parents in 1920s.

31

Sylvain Sirois’s conclusion on infant’s cognition is similar to Piaget’s.

32

Sylvain Sirois found serious flaws in the experimental designs by Baillargeon and Elizabeth Spelke.

Questions 33-37 Complete each sentence with the correct ending, A-E, below.

Write the correct letter, A-E, in boxes 33-37 on your answer sheet.

33

34

35

36

37

Jean Piaget thinks infants younger than 9 months won’t know something existing

Jean Piaget thinks babies only get the knowledge

Some cognitive scientists think babies have the mechanism to learn a language

Sylvain Sirois thinks that babies can reflect a response to stimuli that are novel

Sylvain Sirois thinks babies’ attention level will drop

Sylvain Sirois thinks babies’ attention level will drop Endings A before they are born. B before
Sylvain Sirois thinks babies’ attention level will drop Endings A before they are born. B before

Endings

A before they are born.

B before they learn from experience.

C when they had seen the same thing for a while.

D when facing the possible and impossible events.

E when the previous things appear again in the lives.

Questions 38-40 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes38-40 on your answer sheet.

38 What can we know about Daniel in the third paragraph?

A. Daniel’s attention level rose when he saw a blue train.

B. Kid’s attention fell when he was accustomed to the changes.

C. Child’s brain activity was monitored by a special equipment.

D. Size of the train changed when it came out of the tunnel.

39 What can we know from the writer in the fourth paragraph?

A. The theories about what baby knows changed over time.

B. Why the experiments that had been done before were rejected.

C. Infants have the innate knowledge to know the external environment.

D. Piaget’s “constructivist” theories were massively influential on parents.

40 What can we know from the argument of the experiment about the baby in the sixth

A. Infants are attracted by various colours of the trains all the time.

B. Sylvain Sirois accuses misleading approaches of current experiments.

C. Sylvain Sirois indicates that only impossible events make children interested.

D. Sylvain Sirois suggests that novel things attract baby’s attention

events make children interested. D. Sylvain Sirois suggests that novel things attract baby’s attention P a

IELTS Actual Reading Test 3

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A Wonder Plant

The wonder plant with an uncertain future: more than a billion people rely on bamboo for either their shelter or income, while many endangered species depend on it for their survival. Despite its apparent abundance, a new report says that species of bamboo may be under serious threat.

A Every year, during the rainy season, the mountain gorillas of Central Africa migrate to the foothills

and lower slopes of the Virunga Mountains to graze on bamboo. For the 650 0r so that remain in the wild, it’s a vital food source. Although there are at almost 150 types of plant, as well as various insects and other invertebrates, bamboo accounts for up t0 90 percent of their diet at this time of year. Without it, says Ian Redmond, chairman of the Ape Alliance, their chances of survival would be reduced significantly. Gorillas aren’t the only locals keen on bamboo. For the people who live close to the Virungas, it’s a valuable and versatile raw material used for building houses and making household items such as mats and baskets. But in the past 100 years or so, resources have come under increasing pressure as populations have exploded and large areas of bamboo forest have been cleared to make way for farms and commercial plantations.

the people
the
people

Sadly, this isn’t an isolated story. All over the world, the ranges of many bamboo species appear to

that

depend upon them. But despite bamboo’s importance, we know surprisingly little about it. A recent report published by the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) and the Inter-national Network for Bamboo and Rattan (INBAR) has revealed just how profound is our ignorance of global bamboo resources, particularly in relation to conservation. There are almost l,600 recognized species of bamboo, but the report concentrated on the l,200 or so woody varieties distinguished by the strong stems, or culms, that most people associate with this versatile plant. Of these, only 38 ‘priority species’ identified for their commercial value have been the subject of any real scientific research, and this has focused mostly on

be shrinking,

B

endangering

and

animals

focused mostly on be shrinking, B endangering and animals matters relating to their viability as a

matters relating to their viability as a commodity. This problem isn’t confined to bamboo. Compared to the work carried out on animals, the science of assessing the conservation status of plants is still in its infancy. “People have only started looking hard at this during the past 10-15 years, and only now are they getting a handle on how to go about it systematically,” says Dr. Valerie Kapos, one of the report’s authors and a senior adviser in forest ecology and conservation to the UNEP.

C Bamboo is a type of grass. It comes in a wide variety of forms, ranging in heightfrom 30 centimeters

to more than 40 meters. It is also the world’s fastest-growing woody plant; some species can grow more than a meterin a day. Bamboo’s ecological rote extends beyond providing food and habitat for animals. Bamboo tends to grow in stands made up of groups of individual plants that grow from root systems known as rhizomes. Its extensive rhizome systems, which tie in the top layers of the soil, are crucial in preventing soil erosion. And there is growing evidence that bamboo plays an important part in determining forest structure and dynamics. “Bamboo’s pattern of mass flowering and mass death leaves behind large areas of dry biomass that attract wildfire,” says Kapos. “When these burn, they create patches of open ground within the forest far bigger than would be left by a fallen tree.”Patchiness helps

to preserve diversity because certain plant species do better during the early stages of regeneration when there are gaps in the canopy.

D However, bamboo’s most immediate significance lies in its economic value. Modern processing

techniques mean that it can be used in a variety of ways, for example, as flooring and laminates. One of the fastest growing bamboo products is paper-25 percent of paper produced in India is made from bamboo fiber, and in Brazil, 100,000 hectares of bamboo are grown for its production. Of course, bamboo’s main function has always been in domestic applications, and as a locally traded commodity it’s worth about $4.5billion annually. Because of its versatility, flexibility and strength (its tensile strength compares to that of some steel), it has traditionally been used in construction. Today, more than one billion people worldwide live in bamboo houses. Bamboo is often the only readily available raw material for people in many developing countries, says Chris Stapleton, a research associate at the Royal Botanic Gardens. “Bamboo can be harvested from forest areas or grown quickly elsewhere, and then converted simply without expensive machinery or facilities,” he says. “In this way, it contributes substantially to poverty alleviation and wealth creation.”

E Given bamboo’s value in economic and ecological terms, the picture paintedby theUNEP report is all the more worrying. But keen horticulturists will spot an apparent contradiction here. Those who’ve followed the recent vogue for cultivating exotic species in their gardens will point out that if it isn’t kept in check, bamboo can cause real problems. “In a lot of places, the people who live with bamboo don’t perceive it as being endangered in any way,” says Kapos. “In fact, a lot of bamboo species are actually very invasive if they’ve been introduced.”So why are so many species endangered? There are two separate issues here, says Ray Townsend, vice president of the British Bamboo Society and arboretum manager at the Royal Botanic Gardens. “Some plants are threatened because they can’t survive in the habitat-they aren’t strong enough or there aren’t enough of them, perhaps. But bamboo can take care of itself-it is strong enough to survive if left alone. What is under threat is its habitat. “It is the physical disturbance that is the threat to bamboo, says Kapos. “When forest goes, it is converted into something else: there isn’t anywhere for forest plants such as bamboo to grow if you create a cattle pasture.”

such as bamboo to grow if you create a cattle pasture.” F Around the world, bamboo
such as bamboo to grow if you create a cattle pasture.” F Around the world, bamboo

F Around the world, bamboo species are routinely protected as part of forest Eco-systems in national

parks and reserves, but there is next to nothing that protects bamboo in the wild for its own sake. However, some small steps are being taken to address this situation. The UNEP-INBAR report will help conservationists to establish effective measures aimed at protecting valuable wild bamboo species. Towns end, too, sees the UNEP report as an important step forward in promoting the cause of bamboo conservation. “Until now, bamboo has been perceived as a second-class plant. When you talk about places such as the Amazon, everyone always thinks about the hardwoods. Of course these are significant, but there is a tendency to overlook the plants they are associated with, which are often bamboo species. In many ways, it is the most important plant known to man. I can’t think of another plant that is used so much and is so commercially important in so many countries. “He believes that the most important first step is to get scientists into the field. “We need to go out there, look at these plants and see how they survive and then use that information to conserve them for the future.”

Questions 1-7

Reading Passage has six sections A-F. Which section contains the following information ?

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Write the correct letter A-F in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet

NB You may use any letter more than once

1………………

Comparison of bamboo with other plant species

2………………

Commercial products of bamboo

3………………

Limited extent of existing research

4………………… A human development that destroyed large areas of bamboo

5………………… How bamboos are put to a variety of uses

6…………………. An explanation of how bamboo can help the survival of a range of plants

7…………………

The methods used to study bamboo

Questions 8-11

The methods used to study bamboo Questions 8-11 Use the information in the passage to match

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-D) with opinions or deeds below.

Write the appropriate letters A-D in boxes 8-11 on your answer sheet.

NB you may use any letter more than once

A Ian Redmond

B Valerie Kapos

C Ray Townsend

D Chris Stapleton

Ian Redmond B Valerie Kapos C Ray Townsend D Chris Stapleton 8 …………………… Destroying bamboo jeopardizes

8…………………… Destroying bamboo jeopardizes to wildlife.

9……………………. People have very confined knowledge of bamboo.

10…………………… Some people do not think that bamboo is endangered.

11……………………. Bamboo has loads of commercial potentials.

Questions 12-13

Answer the questions below using NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 12-13 on your answer sheet

12. What environmental problem does the unique root system of bamboo prevent? 13. Which bamboo product is experiencing market expansion?

Saving the British Bitterns

A Breeding bitterns became extinct in the UK by 1886 but, following re-colonisation early last

century, numbers rose to a peak of about 70 booming (singing) males in the 1950s, falling to fewer than 20 by the 1990s. In the late 1980s it was clear that the bittern was in trouble, but there was little information on which to base recovery actions.

B Bitterns have cryptic plumage and a shy nature, usually remaining hidden within the cover of

reedbed vegetation. Our first challenge was to develop standard methods to monitor their numbers. The boom of the male bittern is its most distinctive feature during the breeding season, and we developed a method to count them using the sound patterns unique to each individual. This not only allows us to be much more certain of the number of booming males in the UK, but also enables us to estimate local survival of males from one year to the next

C Our first direct understanding of the habitat needs of breeding bitterns came from comparisons of

reedbed sites that had lost their booming birds with those that retained them. This research showed that bitterns had been retained in reedbeds where the natural process of succession, or drying out, had been slowed through management. Based on this work, broad recommendations on how to manage and rehabilitate reedbeds for bitterns were made, and funding was provided through the EU LIFE Fund to manage 13 sites within the core breeding range. This project, though led by the RSPB, involved many other organisations.

though led by the RSPB, involved many other organisations. D To refine these recommendations and provide

D

To refine these recommendations and provide fine-scale, quantitative habitat prescriptions on the

bitterns preferred feeding habitat, we radio-tracked male bitterns on the RSPB’s Minsmere and Leighton Moss reserves. This showed clear preferences for feeding in the wetter reedbed margins, particularly within the reedbed next to larger open pools. The average home range sizes of the male bitterns we followed (about 20 hectares) provided a good indication of the area of reedbed needed when managing or creating habitat for this species. Female bitterns undertake all the incubation and care of the young, so it was important to understand their needs as well. Over the course of our research, we located 87 bittern nests and found that female bitterns preferred to nest in areas of continuous vegetation, well into the reedbed, but where water was still present during the driest part of the breeding season.

still present during the driest part of the breeding season. E The success of the habitat

E The success of the habitat prescriptions developed from this research has been spectacular. For

instance, at Minsmere, booming bittern numbers gradually increased from one to 10 following reedbed lowering, a management technique designed to halt the drying out process. After a low point of 11 booming males in 1997, bittern numbers in Britain responded to all the habitat management work and started to increase for the first time since the 1950s.

F The final phase of research involved understanding the diet, survival and dispersal of bittern chicks.

To do this we fitted small radio tags to young bittern chicks in the nest, to determine their fate through to fledgingand beyond. Many chicks did not survive to fledging and starvation was found to be the most likely reason for their demise. The fish prey fed to chicks was dominated by those species penetrating into the reed edge. So, an important element of recent studies (including a PhD with the

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University of Hull) has been the development of recommendations on habitat and water conditions to promote healthy native fish populations

G Once independent, radio-tagged young bitterns were found to seek out new sites during their first winter; a proportion of these would remain on new sites to breed if the conditions were suitable. A second EU LIFE funded project aims to provide these suitable sites in new areas. A network of 19 sites developed through this partnership project will secure a more sustainable UK bittern population with successful breeding outside of the core area, less vulnerable to chance events and sea level rise.

H By 2004, the number of booming male bitterns in the UK had increased to 55, with almost all of the increase being on those sites undertaking management based on advice derived from our research. Although science has been at the core of the bittern story, success has only been achieved through the trust, hard work and dedication of all the managers, owners and wardens of sites that have implemented, in some cases very drastic, management to secure the future of this wetland species in the UK. The constructed bunds and five major sluices now control the water level over 82 ha, with a further 50 ha coming under control in the winter of 2005/06. Reed establishment has principally used natural regeneration or planted seedlings to provide small core areas that will in time expand to create a bigger reed area. To date nearly 275,000 seedlings have been planted and reed cover is extensive. Over 3 km of new ditches have been formed, 3.7 km of existing ditch have been re-profiled and 2.2 km of old meander (former estuarine features) has been cleaned out.

meander (former estuarine features) has been cleaned out. I Bitterns now regularly winter on the site

I Bitterns now regularly winter on the site some indication that they are staying longer into the spring. No breeding has yet occurred but a booming male was present in the spring of 2004. A range of wildfowl breed, as well as a good number of reedbed passerines including reed bunting, reed, sedge and grasshopper warblers. Numbers of wintering shoveler have increased so that the site now holds a UK important wintering population. Malltraeth Reserve now forms part of the UK network of key sites for water vole (a UK priority species) and 12 monitoring transects has been established. Otter and brown-hare occur on the site as does the rare plant. Pillwort.

occur on the site as does the rare plant. Pillwort. Questions 1-7 The reading passage has

Questions 1-7

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-H

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-H from the list below. Write the correct number, i-viii, in boxes 14-20 on your answer sheet.

Example: Paragraph E vii

List of Headings

i. research findings into habitats and decisions made

ii. fluctuation in bittern number

iii. protect the young bittern

iv. international cooperation works

1. Paragraph A

2. Paragraph B

3. Paragraph C

4. Paragraph D

5. Paragraph F

6. Paragraph G

7. Paragraph H

v. Began in calculation of the number

vi. importance of food

vii. Research has been successful.

viii. research into the reedbed

ix. reserve established holding bittern in winter

Questions 8-13

Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each

answer.

8. When did the bird of bitten reach its peak of number?

9. What does the author describe the bittern’s character?

10.

11.

12.

13.

What is the main cause for the chick bittern’s death?

13. What is the main cause for the chick bittern’s death? What is the main food

What is the main food for chick bittern?

What system does it secure the stability for bittern’s population?

Besides bittern and rare vegetation, what mammal does the plan benefit?

and rare vegetation, what mammal does the plan benefit? Questions 14 Choose the correct letter, A,

Questions 14

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 27 on your answer sheet.

14. What is the main purpose of this passage?

A Main characteristic of a bird called bittern.

B Cooperation can protect an endangered species.

C The difficulty of access information of bittern’s habitat and diet.

D To save wetland and reedbed in UK.

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The Power of Nothing

Geoff Watts, New Scientist (May26th, 2001)

A Want to devise a new form of alternative medicine? No problem. Here is the recipe. Be warm,

sympathetic, reassuring and enthusiastic. Your treatment should involve physical contact, and each session with your patients should last at least half an hour. Encourage your patients to take an active part in their treatment and understand how their disorders relate to the rest of their lives. Tell them that their own bodies possess the true power to heal. Make them pay you out of their own pockets. Describe your treatment in familiar words, but embroidered with a hint of mysticism: energy fields, energy flows, energy blocks, meridians, forces, auras, rhythms and the like. Refer to the knowledge of an earlier age: wisdom carelessly swept aside by the rise and rise of blind, mechanistic science. Oh, come off it, you are saying. Something invented off the top of your head could not possibly work, could it?

B Well yes, it could-and often well enough to earn you a living. A good living if you are sufficiently

convincing, or, better still, really believes in your therapy. Many illnesses get better on their own, so if you are lucky and administer your treatment at just the right time you will get the credit. But that’s only part of it. Some of the improvement really would be down to you. Your healing power would be the outcome of a paradoxical force that conventional medicine recognizes but remains oddly ambivalent about: the placebo effect.

but remains oddly ambivalent about: the placebo effect. C Placebos are treatments that have no direct

C

Placebos are treatments that have no direct effect on the body, yet still work because the patient has

faith in their power to heal. Most often the term refers to a dummy pill, but it applies just as much to any device or procedure, from a sticking plaster to a crystal to an operation. The existence of the placebo effect implies that even quackery may confer real benefits, which is why any mention of placebo is a touchy subject for many practitioners of complementary and alternative medicine, who are likely to regard it as tantamount to a charge of charlatanism. In fact, the placebo effect is a powerful part of all medical care, orthodox or otherwise, though its role is often neglected or misunderstood.

though its role is often neglected or misunderstood. D One of the great strengths of CAM

D One of the great strengths of CAM may be its practioners’ skill in deploying the placebo effect to

accomplish real healing. “Complementary practitioners are miles better at producing non-specific effects and good therapeutic relationships,” says Edzard Ernst, professor of CAM at Exeter University. The question is whether CAM could be integrated into conventional medicine, as some would like, without losing much of this power.

E At one level, it should come as no surprise that our state of mind can influence our physiology:

anger opens the superficial blood vessels of the face; sadness pumps the tear glands. But exactly how placebos work their medical magic is still largely unknown. Most of the scant research done so far has focused on the control of pain, because it’s one of the commonest complaints and lends itself to experimental study. Here, attention has turned to the endorphins, morphine-like neurochemicals known to help control pain.

F But exactly how placebos work their medical magic is still largely unknown. Most of the scant research to date has focused on the control of pain, because it’s one of the commonest complaints and lends itself to experimental study. Here, attention has turned to the endorphins, natural counterparts of

morphine that are known to help control pain. “Any of the neurochemicals involved in transmitting pain impulses or modulating them might also be involved in generating the placebo response,” says Don Price, an oral surgeon at the University of Florida who studies the placebo effect in dental pain.

G “But endorphins are still out in front.”That case has been strengthened by the recent work of Fabrizio Benedetti of the University of Turin, who showed that the placebo effect can be abolished by a drug, naloxone, which blocks the effects of endorphins. Benedetti induced pain in human volunteers by inflating a blood-pressure cuff on the forearm. He did this several times a day for several days, using morphine each time to control the pain. On the final day,without saying anything, he replaced the morphine with a saline solution. This still relieved the subjects’ pain: a placebo effect. But when he added naloxone to the saline the pain relief disappeared. Here was direct proof that placebo analgesia is mediated, at least in part, by these natural opiates.

H Still, no one knows how belief triggers endorphin release, or why most people can’t achieve placebo pain relief simply by willing it. Though scientists don’t know exactly how placebos work, they have accumulated a fair bit of knowledge about how to trigger the effect. A London rheumatologist found, for example, that red dummy capsules made more effective painkillers than blue, green or yellow ones. Research on American students revealed that blue pills make better sedatives than pink, a color more suitable for stimulants. Even branding can make a difference: if Aspro or Tylenol are what you like to take for a headache, their chemically identical generic equivalents may be less effective. It matters, too, how the treatment is delivered. Decades ago, when the major tranquillizer chlorpromazine was being introduced, a doctor in Kansas categorized his colleagues according to whether they were keen on it, openly skeptical of its benefits, or took a “let’s try and see” attitude. His conclusion: the more enthusiastic the doctor, the better the drug performed. And this year Ernst surveyed published studies that compared doctors’ bedside manners. The studies turned up one consistent finding:

manners. The studies turned up one consistent finding: “Physicians who adopt a warm, friendly and reassuring
manners. The studies turned up one consistent finding: “Physicians who adopt a warm, friendly and reassuring

“Physicians who adopt a warm, friendly and reassuring manner,” he reported, “are more effective than those whose consultations are formal and do not offer reassurance.”

J Warm, friendly and reassuring is precisely CAM’S strong suits, of course. Many of the ingredients of that opening recipethe physical contact, the generous swathes of time, the strong hints of supernormal healing power are just the kind of thing likely to impress patients. It’s hardly surprising, then, that complementary practitioners are generally best at mobilizing the placebo effect, says Arthur Kleinman, professor of social anthropology at Harvard University.

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Questions 27-32

Use the information in the passage to match the deed (listed A-H) with people below. Write the appropriate letters A-H in boxes 27-32 on your answer sheet. NB you may use any letter more than once

A Should easily be understood

B should improve by itself

C Should not involve any mysticism

D Ought to last a minimum length of

time.

E Needs to be treated at the right time.

F Should give more recognition.

G Can earn valuable money.

H Do not rely on any specific treatment

27

Appointments with alternative practitioner

28

An alternative practitioner’s description of treatment

29

An alternative practitioner who has faith in what he does

30

The illness of patients convinced of alternative practice

31

Improvements of patients receiving alternative practice

32

Conventional medical doctors

alternative practice 32 Conventional medical doctors Questions 33-35 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or

Questions 33-35

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 33-35 on your answer sheet.

33

In the fifth paragraph, the writer uses the example of anger and sadness to illustrate that:

A

B

C

the example of anger and sadness to illustrate that: A B C People’s feeling could affect

People’s feeling could affect their physical behavior

Scientists don’t understand how the mind influences the body.

Research on the placebo effect is very limited

34

How placebo achieves its effect is yet to be understood.

Research on pain control attracts most of the attention because

D

A Scientists have discovered that endorphins can help to reduce pain.

B Only a limited number of researchers gain relevant experience

C Pain reducing agents might also be involved in placebo effect.

D Patients often experience pain and like to complain about it

35

Fabrizio Benedetti’s research on endorphins indicates that

A They are widely used to regulate pain.

B They can be produced by willful thoughts

C They can be neutralized by introducing naloxone.

D Their pain-relieving effects do not last long enough.

Questions 36-40 Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 3? In boxes 36-40 on your answer sheet, write TRUE if the sataement agrees with the information FALSE if the statement contradicts the information NOT GIVEN if there is no information on this

36 There is enough information for scientists to fully understand the placebo effect.

37 A London based researcher discovered that red pills should be taken off the market.

38 People’s preference on brands would also have effect on their healing.

39 Medical doctors have a range of views of the newly introduced drug of chlopromazine.

of views of the newly introduced drug of chlopromazine. 40 Alternative practitioners are seldom known for

40 Alternative practitioners are seldom known for applying placebo effect.

drug of chlopromazine. 40 Alternative practitioners are seldom known for applying placebo effect. P a g

IELTS Actual Reading Test 4

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Texting! The television

A There was a time when any self-respecting television show, particularly one aimed at a young

audience, had to have an e-mail address. But on Europe's TV screens, such addresses are increasingly being pushed aside in favor of telephone numbers to which viewers can send text messages from their mobile phones. And no wonder: according to research about to be published by Gartner, a consultancy, text messaging has recently overtaken Internet use in Europe. One of the fastest-growing uses of text messaging, moreover, is interacting with television. Gartner’s figures show that 20% of teenagers in France, 11 % in Britain and 9% in Germany have sent messages in response to TV shows.

B This has much to do with the boom in “reality TV” shows, such as “Big Brother”, in which viewers’

voles decide the outcome. Most reality shows now allow text-message voting, and in some cases, such as the most recent series of “Big Brother” in Norway, the majority of votes are cast in this way. But there is more to TV-texting than voting. News shows encourage viewers to send in comments; games shows allow viewers to compete; music shows take requests by text message; and broadcasters operate on-screen chartrooms. People tend to have their mobiles with them on the sofa, so “it’s a very natural form of interaction,” says Adam Daum of Gartner.

natural form of interaction,” says Adam Daum of Gartner. C It can also be very lucrative,

C

It can also be very lucrative, since mobile operators charge premium rates for messages to particular

numbers. The most recent British series of “Big Brother”, for example, generated 5.4m text-message votes and £1.35m (S2. lm) in revenue. According to a report from Van Dusseldorf & Partners, a consultancy based in Amsterdam, the German edition of MTV's “Video clash ”, which invites viewers to vote for one of two rival videos, generates up to 40,000 messages an hour, each costingcuro0.30 ($0.29). A text contest alongside the Belgian quiz show “1 Against100” attracted 110.000 players in a month, each of whom paid euro 0.50 per question in an eight-round contest. In Spain, a cryptic- crossword clue is displayed before the evening news broadcast; viewers are invited to text in their answers at a cost of euro 1, for a chance to win acuro300 prize. On a typical day, 6,000 people take part. TV-related text messaging now accounts for an appreciable share of mobile operators' data revenues. In July, a British operator, mmO2, reported better-than- expected financial results, thanks to the flood of messages caused by “Big Brother”. Operators typically lake 40-50% of the revenue from each message, with the rest divided between the broadcaster, the programme maker and the firm providing the message-processing system. Text message revenues are already a vital element of the business model for many shows. Inevitably, there is grumbling that the operators take too much of the pie. Endemol, the Netherlands-based production company behind “Big Brother”, and many other reality TV shows has started building its own database of mobile-phone users. The next step will be to establish direct billing relationships with them, and bypass the operators.

billing relationships with them, and bypass the operators. D Why has the union of television and

D Why has the union of television and text message suddenly proved so successful? One important

factor is the availability of special four-, five- or six-digit numbers, called “short codes”. Each operator controls its own short codes, and only relatively recently have operators realized that it makes sense to co-operate and offer short codes that work across all networks. The availability of such common short

codes was a breakthrough, says Lars Becker of Flytxt, a mobile-marketing firm, since short codes are far easier to remember when flashed up on the screen.

E The operators' decision to co-operate in order to expand the market is part of a broader trend,

observes Katrina Bond of Analysis, a consultancy. Faced with a choice between protecting their margins and allowing a new medium to emerge, operator shave always chosen the first. WAP a technology for reading cut-down web pages on mobile phones, failed because operators were reluctant to share revenue with content providers. Having learnt their lesson, operators are changing their time. In France, one operator. Orange, has even gone so far as to publish a rate card for text-message revenue-sharing, a degree of transparency that would once have been unthinkable.

F At a recent conference organized by Van Dusseldorp & Partners, Han Weegink of CMG, a firm that

provides text-message infrastructure, noted that all this is subtly changing the nature of television. Rather than presenting content to viewers, an increasing number of programmes involve content that reacts to the viewer's input. That was always the promise of interactive TV, of course. Interactive TV was supposed to revolve around fancy set-top boxes that plug directly into the television. But that approach has a number of drawbacks, says Mr Daum. It is expensive to develop and test software for multiple and in compatible types of set-top box, and the market penetration, at 40% or less, is lower than that for mobile phones, which are now owned by around 85% of Europeans. Also, mobile-phone applications can be quickly developed and set up. “You can get to market faster, and with fewer grasping intermediaries,” says Mr Daum. Providers of set-top box technology are adding text- messaging capabilities to their products.

are adding text- messaging capabilities to their products. G The success of TV-related texting is a

G

The success of TV-related texting is a reminder of how easily an elaborate technology can be

unexpected overtaken by a simpler, lower-tech approach. It does not mean that the traditional approach to interactive TV is doomed: indeed, it demonstrates that there is strong demand for interactive services. People, it seems, really do want to do more than just stare at the screen. If nothing else, couch potatoes like to exercise their thumbs.

nothing else, couch potatoes like to exercise their thumbs. Questions 28-32 The reading passage has seven

Questions 28-32

The reading passage has seven paragraphs, A-E

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-E from the list below.

Write the correct number, i-ix, in boxes 28-32 on your answer sheet.

List of Headings

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i an existed critical system into operating in a new way

ii Overview of a fast growing business

iii profitable games are gaining more concerns

iv Netherlands takes the leading role

v a new perspective towards sharing the business opportunities

vi opportunities for all round prevalent applications

vii revenue gains and bonus share viii the simpler technology prevails over complex ones

ix set-top box provider changed their mind

28 Paragraph A

29 Paragraph B

30 Paragraph C

31 Paragraph D

32 Paragraph E

Questions 33-35 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 33-35 on your answer sheet

or D. Write your answers in boxes 33-35 on your answer sheet 33. In Europe, a

33. In Europe, a consultancy suggested that young audiences spend more money on:

A thumbing text message

B writing E-mail

C watching TV program

D talking through Mobile phones

E-mail C watching TV program D talking through Mobile phones 34. What happened when some TV

34. What happened when some TV show invited audience to participate?

A get attractive bonus

B shows are more popular in Norway than in other countries

C change to invite them to the reality show

D their participation could change the result

35. Interactive TV change their mind of concentrating set-top box but switched to:

A increase their share in the market

B change a modified set-top box

C build an embedded message platform

D march into European market

Questions 36-40

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-E) with opinions or deeds below. Write the appropriate letters A-F inboxes 36-40 on your answer sheet.

Name

A Lars Becker Flytxt

B Katrina Bond of Analysis

C Endemol

D CMC

E mmO2

F Gartner

36. offer mobile phone message technology

37. earned considerable amount of money through a famous program

38. short codes are convenient to remember when turn up

39. build their own mobile phone operating applications

40. it is easy for people to send messages in an interactive TV

it is easy for people to send messages in an interactive TV Natural Pesticide in India

Natural Pesticide in India

messages in an interactive TV Natural Pesticide in India A A dramatic story about cotton farmers

A

A dramatic story about cotton farmers in India shows how destructive pesticides can be for people

and the environment; and why today’s agriculture is so dependent on pesticides. This story also shows that it’s possible to stop using chemical pesticides without losing a crop to ravaging insects, and it explains how to do it.

B The story began about 30 years ago, a handful of families migrated from the Guntur district of

Andhra Pradesh, southeast India, into Punukula, a community of around 900 people farming plots of between two and 10 acres. The outsiders from Guntur brought cotton-culture with them. Cotton wooed farmers by promising to bring in more hard cash than the mixed crops they were already growing to eat and sell: millet, sorghum, groundnuts, pigeon peas, mung beans, chilli and rice. But raising cotton meant using pesticides and fertilisers until then a mystery to the mostly illiterate farmers of the community. When cotton production started spreading through Andhra Pradesh state. The high value of cotton made it an exceptionally attractive crop, but growing cotton required chemical fertilizers and pesticides. As most of the farmers were poor, illiterate, and without previous experience using agricultural chemicals, they were forced to rely on local, small-scale agricultural dealers for advice. The dealers sold them seeds, fertilizers, and pesticides on credit and also guaranteed purchase of their crop. The dealers themselves had little technical knowledge about pesticides. They merely passed on promotional information from multinational chemical companies that supplied their products.

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C At first, cotton yields were high, and expenses for pesticides were low because cotton pests had not

yet moved in. The farmers had never earned so much! But within a few years, cotton pests like bollworms and aphids plagued the fields, and the farmers saw how rapid insect evolution can be. Repeated spraying killed off the weaker pests, but left the ones most resistant to pesticides to multiply. As pesticide resistance mounted, the farmers had to apply more and more of the pesticides to get the same results. At the same time, the pesticides killed off birds, wasps, beetles, spiders, and other predators that had once provided natural control of pest insects. Without these predators, the pests could destroy the entire crop if pesticides were not used. Eventually, farmers were mixing pesticide “cocktails” containing as many as ten different brands and sometimes having to spray their cotton as frequently as two times a week. They were really hooked!

D The villagers were hesitant, but one of Punukula’s village elders decided to risk trying the natural

methods instead of pesticides. His son had collapsed with acute pesticide poisoning and survived but the hospital bill was staggering. SECURE’s staff coached this villager on how to protect his cotton crop by using a toolkit of natural methods chat India’s Center for Sustainable Agriculture put together in collaboration with scientists at Andhra Pradesh’s state university. They called the toolkit “Non- Pesticide Management” — or” NPM.”

toolkit “Non - Pesticide Management” — or” NPM.” E The most important resource in the NPM

E

The most important resource in the NPM toolkit was the neem tree (Azadirachta indica ) which is

common throughout much of India. Neem tree is a broad-leaved evergreen tree related to mahogany. It protects itself against insects by producing a multitude of natural pesticides that work in a variety of ways: with an arsenal of chemical defenses that repel egg-laying, interfere with insect growth, and most important, disrupt the ability of crop-eating insects to sense their food.

F

In fact, neem has been used traditionally in India to protect stored grains from insects and to produce

India to protect stored grains from insects and to produce soaps, skin lotions, and other health

soaps, skin lotions, and other health products. To protect crops from insects, neem seeds are simply ground into a powder that is soaked overnight in water. The solution is then sprayed onto the crop. Another preparation, neem cake, can be mixed into the soil to kill pests and diseases in the soil, and it doubles as an organic fertilizer high in nitrogen. Neem trees grow locally, so the only “cost” is the labor to prepare neem for application to fields.

G The first farmer’s trial with NPM was a complete success! His harvest was as good as the harvests of farmers that were using pesticides, and he earned much more because he did not spend a single rupee on pesticides. Inspired by this success, 20 farmers tried NPM the next year. SECURE posted two well-trained staff in Punukula to teach and help everyone in the village, and the village women put pressure on their husbands to stop using toxic chemicals. Families that were no longer exposing themselves to pesticides began to feel much better, and the rapid improvements in income, health, and general wellbeing quickly sold everyone on the value of NPM. By 2000, all the farmers in Punukula were using NPM, not only for cotton, but for their other crops as well.

H The suicide epidemic came to an end. And with the cash, health, and energy that returned when

they stopped poisoning themselves with pesticides, the villagers were inspired to start more community and business projects. The women of Punukula created a new source of income by collecting, grinding, and selling neem seeds for NPM in other villages. The villagers rescued their indentured children and gave them special six-month “catch-up’ courses to return to school.

I Fighting against pesticides, and winning, increased village solidarity, self-confidence, and optimism about the future.When dealers tried to punish NPM users by paying less for NPM cotton, the farmers united to form a marketing cooperative that found fairer prices elsewhere. The leadership and collaboration skills that the citizens of Punukula developed in the NPM struggle have helped them to take on other challenges, like water purification, building a cotton gin to add value to the cotton before they sell it, and convincing the state government to support NPM over the objection of multi-national pesticide corporations.

Questions 1-4

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 1-4 on your answer sheet, write

TRUE if the statement is true

FALSE if the statement is false

NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

1.

Cotton in Andhra Pradesh state could really bring more income to the bcal farmers than traditional

bring more income to the bcal farmers than traditional farming. 2. The majority of farmers had

farming.

2. The majority of farmers had used the agricultural pesticides before 30 years ago.

3. The yield of cotton is relatively tower than that of other agricultural crops.

4. The farmers didn’t realize the spread of the pests was so fast.

didn’t realize the spread of the pests was so fast. Questions 5-11 Complete the summary below.

Questions 5-11

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer, Write your answers in boxes 5-10 on your answer sheet.

The Making of pesticide protecting crops against insects

The broad-leaved neem tree was chosen, it is a fast-growing and 5

produces amount of 6

Firstly, neem seeds need to be crushed into 7

tree and

for itself that can be effective like insects repellent.

form, which is left behind

8

in water. Then we need to spray the solution onto the crop. A special

9

is used when mix with soil in order to eliminate bugs and bacteria, and

its effect 10 meanwhile.

when it adds the level of 11

in

this organic fertilizer

Questions 12-14

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Answer the questions below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS AND/OR A NUMBER from the passage for each answer Write your answers in boxes 12-14 on your answer sheet.

12. In which year did all the farmers use NPM for their crops in Punukula?

13. What gave the women of Punukula a business opportunity to NPMs?

14. Name one project that the citizens of Punukula decide to develope in the NPM.

Leaf-Cutting Ants and Fungus

The ants and their agriculture have been extensively studied over the years, but the recent research has uncovered intriguing new findings about the fungus they cultivate, how they domesticated it and how they cultivate it and preserve it from pathogens. For example, the fungus farms, which the ants were thought to keep free of pathogens, turn out to be vulnerable to a devastating mold, found nowhere else but in ants’ nests. To keep the mold in check, the ants long ago made a discovery that would do credit to any pharmaceutical laboratory.

Leaf-cutting ants and their fungus farms are a marvel of nature and perhaps the best known example of symbiosis, the mutual dependence of two species. The ants’ achievement is remarkable -he biologist Edward O. Wilson has called it “one of the major breakthroughs in animal evolution” -because it allows them to eat, courtesy of their mushroom’s digestive powers, the otherwise poisoned harvest of tropical forests whose leaves are laden with terpenoids, alkaloids and other chemicals designed to sicken browsers

Fungus growing seems to have originated only once in evolution, because all gardening ants belong to a single tribe, the descendants of the first fungus farmer. There are more than 200 known species of the attine ant tribe, divided into 12 groups, or genera. The leaf-cutters use fresh vegetation; the other groups, known as the lower attines because their nests are smaller and their techniques more primitive, feed their gardens with detritus like dead leaves, insects and feces. In 1994 a team of four biologists, Ulrich G. Mueller and Ted R. Schultz from Cornell University and Ignacio H. Chapela and Stephen A. Rehner from the United States Department of Agriculture, nanlyzed the DNA of ant funguses. The common assumption that the funguses are all derived from a single strain, they found, was only half true.

The leaf-cutters’ fungus was indeed descended from a single strain, propagated clonally, or just by budding, for at least 23 million years. But the lower attine ants used different varieties of the fungus, and in one case a quite separate species, the four biologists discovered. Cameron R. Currie, a Ph.D. student in the University of Toronto, it seemed to Mr. Currie, resembled the monocultures of various human crops, that are very productive for a while and then succumb to some disastrous pathogen, such as the Irish potato blight. Monocultures, which lack the genetic diversity to respond to changing environmental threats, are sitting ducks for parasites. Mr. Currie felt there had to be a parasite in the ant- fungus system. But a century of ant research offered no support for the idea.

had to be a parasite in the ant- fungus system. But a century of ant research
had to be a parasite in the ant- fungus system. But a century of ant research

Textbooks describe how leaf-cutter ants scrupulously weed their gardens of all foreign organisms. “People kept telling me, ‘You know the ants keep their gardens free of parasites, don’t you?’ “ Mr. Currie said of his efforts to find a hidden interloper.

But after three years of sifting through attine ant gardens, Mr. Currie discovered they are far from free of infections. In last month’s issue of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, he and two colleagues, Dr. Mueller and David Mairoch, isolated several alien organisms, particularly a family of parasitic molds called Escovopsis. Escovopsis turns out to be a highly virulent pathogen that can devastate a fungus garden in a couple of days. It blooms like a white cloud, with the garden dimly visible underneath. In a day or two the whole garden is enveloped.

“Other ants won’t go near it and the ants associated with the garden just starve to death,” Dr. Rehner said. “They just seem to give up, except for those that have rescued their larvae.”

Evidently the ants usually manage to keep Escovopsis and other parasites under control. But with any lapse in control, or if the ants are removed, Escovopsis will quickly burst forth. Although new leaf- cutter gardens start off free of Escovopsis, within two years some 60 percent become infected.

The discovery of Escovopsis’s role brings a new level of understanding to the evolution of the

brings a new level of understanding to the evolution of the attine ants. “In the last

attine ants. “In the last decade, evolutionary biologists have been increasingly aware of the role of

parasites as driving forces in evolution,” Dr. Schultz said. There is now a possible reason to explain

why the lower attine species keep changing the variety of fungus in their mushroom gardens, and

occasionally domesticating new onesto stay one step ahead of the relentless Escovopsis.

Interestingly, Mr. Currie found that the leaf-cutters had in general fewer alien molds in their

Interestingly, Mr. Currie found that the leaf-cutters had in general fewer alien molds in their

gardens than the lower attines, yet they had more Escovopsis infections. It seems that the price

they pay for cultivating a pure variety of fungus is a higher risk from Escovopsis. But the leaf-

cutters may have little alternative: they cultivate a special variety of fungus which, unlike those

grown by the lower attines, produces nutritious swollen tips for the ants to eat.

Discovery of a third partner in the ant-fungus symbiosis raises the question of how the attine ants,

especially the leaf-cutters, keep this dangerous interloper under control. Amazingly enough, Mr.

Currie has again provided the answer. “People have known for a hundred years that ants have a

whitish growth on the cuticle,” said Dr. Mueller, referring to the insects’ body surface. “People

would say this is like a cuticular wax. But Cameron was the first one in a hundred years to put

these things under a microscope. He saw it was not inert wax. It is alive.” Mr. Currie discovered a

specialized patch on the ants’ cuticle that harbors a particular kind of bacterium, one well known

Actual Reading Tests | Dohoangnam.com to the pharmaceutical industry, because it is the source of half the antibiotics used in medicine.

From each of 22 species of attine ant studied, Mr. Cameron and colleagues isolated a species of

Streptomyces bacterium, they reported in Nature in April. The Streptomyces does not have much

effect on ordinary laboratory funguses. But it is a potent poisoner of Escovopsis, inhibiting its

growth and suppressing spore formation. Because both the leaf-cutters and the lower attines use

Streptomyces, the bacterium may have been part of their symbiosis for almost as long as

theEscovopsis mold. If so, some Alexander Fleming of an ant discovered antibiotics millions of

years before people did. Even now, the ants are accomplishing two feats beyond the powers of

human technology. The leaf-cutters are growing a monocultural crop year after year without

disaster, and they are using an antibiotic apparently so wisely and prudently that, unlike people,

they are not provoking antibiotic resistance in the target pathogen.

not provoking antibiotic resistance in the target pathogen. P a g e 3 | 4 IELTS

P a g e 3 | 4

IELTS Nam Đỗ

Địa Chỉ: 74 DX 70, Kp 5, Phường Định Hòa, Tp TDM, Bình Dương

Blog: Dohoangnam.com | SĐT: 0963 470 110 | Facebook.com/mr.dohoangnam

| SĐT: 0963 470 110 | Facebook.com/mr.dohoangnam Questions 1-6 Use the information in the passage to

Questions 1-6

Use the information in the passage to match the options (listed A-C) with activities or features of

ants below.

Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet

NB you may use any letter more than once

A Leaf-cutting ants

B Lower attines

C Both leaf-cutting ants and lower attine ants

1. Can use toxic leaves to feed fungus

2. Build small nests and live with different foreign fungus

3. Use dead vegetation to feed fungus

4. Raise a single fungus which do not live with other variety of foreigners

5.

Normally keep a highly dangerous parasite under control

6. Use special strategies to fight against Escovopsis

Questions 7-11 The reading Passage has ten paragraphs A-J. Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-J, in boxes 7-11 on your answer sheet.

7. Dangerous outcome of Escovopsis.

8. Risk of growing single fungus.

9. Comparison of features of two different nests for feeding gardens.

10. Discovery of significant achievements made by ants earlier than human.

11. Advantage of growing new breed of fungus in the ant farm.

Advantage of growing new breed of fungus in the ant farm. Questions 12-13 Choose the correct

Questions 12-13 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write your answers in boxes 12-13 on your answer sheet. 12. How does author think of Currie’s opinion on the saying “ants keep their gardens free of parasites”?

the saying “ants keep their gardens free of parasites”? P a g e 4 | 4

P a g e 4 | 4 IELTS Nam Đỗ Địa Chỉ: 74 DX 70, Kp 5, Phường Định Hòa, Tp TDM, Bình Dương Blog: Dohoangnam.com | SĐT: 0963 470 110 | Facebook.com/mr.dohoangnam

A.

His viewpoint was verified later.

B.

His earlier study has sufficient evidence immediately.

C.

There is no details mentioned in the article.

D.

His opinion was proved to be wrong later on.

13.

What did scientists find on the skin of ants under microscope?

A. Some white cloud mold embed in their skin

B. That wax is all over their skin

C. A substance which is useful to humans

D. A substance which suppresses growth of fungus.

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is useful to humans D. A substance which suppresses growth of fungus. Actual Reading Tests |

IELTS Actual Reading Test 5

Koalas

A Koalas are just too nice for their own good. And except for the occasional baby taken by birds of

prey, koalas have no natural enemies. In an ideal world, the life of an arboreal couch potato would be perfectly safe and acceptable.

B Just two hundred years ago, koalas flourished across Australia. Now they seem to be in decline, but

exact numbers are not available as the species would not seem to be 'under threat'. Their problem, however, has been an, more specifically, the white man. Koala and aborigine had co-existed peacefully for centuries.

C Today koalas are found only in scattered pockets of southeast Australia where they seem to be at the

risk on several fronts. The koala‘s only food source, the eucalyptus tree has declined. In the past 200 years, a third of Australia's eucalyptus forests have disappeared. Koalas have been killed by parasites, chlamydia epidemics and a tum our-causing retro-virus. And every year 11000 are killed by cars, ironically most of them in wildlife sanctuaries, and thousands are killed by poachers. Some are also taken illegally as pets. The animals usually soon die, but they are easily replaced.

The animals usually soon die, but they are easily replaced. D Bush fires pose another threat.

D

Bush fires pose another threat. The horrific ones that raged in New South Wales recently Killed

between 100 and1000 Koalas. Many that were taken into sanctuaries and shelters were found to have burnt their paws on the glowing embers .But zoologists say that the species should recover. The Koalas will be aided by the eucalyptus, which grows quickly and is already burgeoning forth after the fires. So the main problem to their survival is their slow reproductive rate -they produce only one baby a year over a reproductive lifespan of about nine years.

a year over a reproductive lifespan of about nine years. E The latest problem for the

E The latest problem for the species is perhaps more insidious. With plush, grey fur dark amber eyes

and button nose, koalas are cuddliness incarnate Australian zoos and wildlife parks have taken advantage of their uncomplaining attitudes, and charge visitors to be photographed hugging the furry bundles. But people may not realize how cruel this is, but because of the koala’s delicate disposition, constant handling can push an already precariously balanced physiology (over the edge.

F Koalas only eat the foliage of certain species of eucalyptus trees, between 600 and 1250 grams a

day. The tough leaves are packed with cellulose, tannins, aromatic oils and precursors of toxic cyanides. To handle this cocktail, koalas have a specialized digestive system. Cellulose- digesting bacteria in the caecum break down fiber, while a specially adapted gut and liver process the toxins. To digest their food properly, koalas must sit still for 21 hours every day.

G Koalas are the epitome of innocence and inoffensiveness. Although they are capable of ripping

open a man’s arm with their needle-sharp claws, or giving a nastynip, they simply wouldn't. If you upset a koala, it may blink or swallow, or hiccup. But attack? No way! Koalas are just not aggressive. "They use their claws to grip the hard smooth bark of eucalyptus trees.

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H They are also very sensitive and the slightest upset can prevent them from breeding, cause them to go off their food, and succumb to gut infections. Koalas are stoic creatures and put on a brave face until they are at death's door. One day they may appear healthy, the next they could be dead. Captive koalas have to be weighed daily to check that they are feeding properly. A sudden loss of weight is usually the only warning keepers have that their charge is ill. Only two keepers plus a vet were allowed to handle London Zoo's koalas, as these creatures are only comfortable with people they know. A request for the koala to be taken to Beet the Queen was refused because of the distress this would have caused the marsupial. Sadly. London's Zoo no longer has a koala. Two years ago the female koala died of a cancer caused by are trovirus. When they come into heat, female koalas become more active, and start losing weight, but after about sixteen days, heat ends and the weight piles back on. London’s koala did not. Surgery revealed hundreds of pea-sized tumors.

I Almost every zoo in Australia has koalas-the marsupial has become the Animal Ambassador of the nation, but nowhere outside Australia would handling by the public be allowed. Koala cuddling screams in the face of every rule of good care. First, some zoos allow koalas to be passed from stranger to stranger, many children who love to squeeze. Secondly, most people have no idea of how to handle the animals: they like to cling on to their handler, all in their own good time and use his or her arm as a tree. For such reasons, the Association of Fauna and Marine parks, an Australian conservation society is campaigning to ban koala cuddling. Policy on koala handling is determined by state government authorities. "And the largest of the numbers in the Australian nature Conservation Agency, with the aim of instituting national guidelines. Following a wave of publicity, some zoos and wildlife parks have stopped turning their koalas into photo.

Question 1-5

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

photo. Question 1-5 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter
photo. Question 1-5 Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D. Write the correct letter

Write the correct letter in boxes 1-5 on your answer sheet.

1.The main reason why koala declined is that they are killed EXCEPT FOR

A by poachers

B by diseases they got

C giving too many birth yet survived little

D accidents on the road

2 What can help koalas fully digest their food?

A toxic substance in the leaves

B organs that dissolve the fibers

C remaining inactive for a period to digest

D eating eucalyptus trees

3 What would koalas do when facing the dangerous situation?

A show signs of being offended

B counter attack furiously

C use sharp claws to rip the man

D use claws to grip the bark of trees.

4 In what ways Australian zoos exploit koalas?

A encourage people to breed koalas as pets

B allow tourists to hug the koalas

C put them on the trees as a symbol

D establish a koala campaign

5 What would the government do to protect koalas from being endangered?

A introduce koala protection guidelines

B close some of the zoos

C encourage people to resist visiting the zoos

of the zoos C encourage people to resist visiting the zoos D persuade the public to

D persuade the public to learn more knowledge

Question 6-12

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage 1? In boxes 6-12 on your answer sheet, write YES if the statement is true NO if the statement is false NOT GIVEN if the information is not given in the passage

6. New coming human settlers caused danger to koalas.

7. Koalas can still be seen in most of the places in Australia.

8. it takes decade for the eucalyptus trees to recover after the fire.

9. Koalas will fight each other when food becomes scarce.

9. Koalas will fight each other when food becomes scarce. 10. It is not easy to

10. It is not easy to notice that koalas are ill.

11. Koalas are easily infected with human contagious disease via cuddling

12. Koalas like to hold a person's arm when they are embraced.

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Question 13

Choose the correct letter. A. B, C or D.

Write the correct letter in boxes 13 on your answer sheet.

From your opinion this article written by

A a journalist who write for magazine

B a zoo keeper in London Zoo.

C a tourist who traveling back from Australia

D a government official who studies koalas to establish a law

Bright children

who studies koalas to establish a law Bright children A By the time Laszlo Polgar's first

A

By the time Laszlo Polgar's first baby was born in 1969 he already had firm views on child-rearing.

An eccentric citizen of communist Hungary, he had written a book called "Bring up Genius!" and one of his favourite sayings was "Geniuses are made, not born". An expert on the theory of chess, he proceeded to teach little Zsuzsa at home, spending up to ten hours a day on the game. Two more daughters were similarly hot-housed. All three obliged their father by becoming world-class players. The youngest, Judit, is currently ranked 13th in the world, and is by far the best female chess player of all time. Would the experiment have succeeded with a different trio of children? If any child can be turned into a star, then a lot of time and money are being wasted worldwide on trying to pick winners.

money are being wasted worldwide on trying to pick winners. B America has long held "talent

B America has long held "talent searches", using test results and teacher recommendations to select

children for advanced school courses, summer schools and other extra tuition. This provision is set to grow. In his state-of-the-union address in 2006, President George Bush announced the "American Competitiveness Initiative", which, among much else, would train 70,000 high-school teachers to lead advanced courses for selected pupils in mathematics and science. Just as the superpowers' space race made Congress put money into science education, the thought of China and India turning out hundreds of thousands of engineers and scientists is scaring America into prodding its brightest to do their best.

C The philosophy behind this talent search is that ability is innate; that it can be diagnosed with

considerable accuracy; and that it is worth cultivating. In America, bright children are ranked as "moderately", "highly", "exceptionally" and "profoundly" gifted. The only chance to influence innate ability is thought to be in the womb or the first couple of years of life. Hence the fad for "teaching aids" such as videos and flashcards for newborns, and "whale sounds" on tape which a pregnant mother can strap to her belly.

D In Britain, there is a broadly similar belief in the existence of innate talent, but also an egalitarian

sentiment which makes people queasy about the idea of investing resources in grooming intelligence. Teachers are often opposed to separate provision for the best-performing children, saying any extra help should go to stragglers. In 2002, in a bid to help the able while leaving intact the ban on most selection by ability in state schools, the government set up the National Academy for Gifted and Talented Youth. This outfit runs summer schools and master classes for children nominated by their schools. To date, though, only seven in ten secondary schools have nominated even a single child. Last year all schools were told they must supply the names of their top 10%.

E Picking winners is also the order of the day in ex-communist states, a hangover from the times

when talented individuals were plucked from their homes and ruthlessly trained for the glory of the nation. But in many other countries, opposition to the idea of singling out talent and grooming it runs deep. In Scandinavia, a belief in virtues like modesty and social solidarity makes people flinch from the idea of treating brainy children differently.

F And in Japan there is a widespread belief that all children are born with the same innate abilities - and should therefore be treated alike. All are taught together, covering the same syllabus at the same rate until they finish compulsory schooling. Those who learn quickest are expected then to teach their classmates. In China, extra teaching is provided, but to a self-selected bunch. "Children's palaces" in big cities offer a huge range of after-school classes. Anyone can sign up; all that is asked is excellent attendance.

can sign up; all that is asked is excellent attendance. G Statistics give little clue as

G

Statistics give little clue as to which system is best. The performance of the most able is heavily

affected by factors other than state provision. Most state education in Britain is nominally non- selective, but middle-class parents try to live near the best schools. Ambitious Japanese parents have made private, out-of-school tuition a thriving business. And Scandinavia's egalitarianism might work less well in places with more diverse populations and less competent teachers. For what it's worth, the data suggest that some countries - like Japan and Finland, see table - can eschew selection and still thrive. But that does not mean that any country can ditch selection and do as well.

mean that any country can ditch selection and do as well. H Mr Polgar thought any

H Mr Polgar thought any child could be a prodigy given the right teaching, an early start and enough

practice. At one point he planned to prove it by adopting three baby boys from a poor country and trying his methods on them. (His wife vetoed the scheme.) Some say the key to success is simply hard graft. Judit, the youngest of the Polgar sisters, was the most driven, and the most successful; Zsofia, the middle one, was regarded as the most talented, but she was the only one who did not achieve the status of grand master. "Everything came easiest to her," said her older sister. "But she was lazy."

Questions 28 33

Do the following statements agree with the information given in Reading Passage?

In boxes 28 - 33 on your answer sheet, write

YES if the statement agrees with the view of the writer

NO if the statement contradicts the view of the writer

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NOT GIVEN if it is impossible to say what the writer thinks about this

28 America has a long history of selecting talented students into different categories.

29 Teachers and schools in Britain held welcome attitude towards government's selection of gifted

students.

30 Some parents agree to move near reputable schools in Britain. Middle-class parents

31 Middle-class parents participate in their children's education.

32 Japan and Finland comply with selected student's policy.

33 Avoiding-selection-policy only works in a specific environment.

Questions 34 35

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 34 - 35 on your answer sheet.

D. Write your answers in boxes 34 - 35 on your answer sheet. 34 What's Laszlo

34 What's Laszlo Polgar's point of view towards geniuses of children

A Chess is the best way to train geniuses.

B Genius tend to happen on first child.

C Geniuses can be educated later on.

D Geniuses are born naturally.

can be educated later on. D Geniuses are born naturally. 35 What is the purpose of

35 What is the purpose of citing Zsofia's example in the last paragraph

A Practice makes genius.

B Girls are not good at chess.

C She was an adopted child.

D Middle child is always the most talented.

Questions 37 40

Use the information in the passage to match the countries (listed A - E) with correct connection below. Write the appropriate letters, A - E, in boxes 36 - 40 on your answer sheet.

36 Less gifted children get help from other classmates

37 Attending extra teaching is open to anyone

38 People are reluctant to favor gifted children due to social characteristics

39 Both view of innate and egalitarian co-existed

40 Craze of audio and video teaching for pregnant women.

A Scandinavia

B Japan

C Britain

Save Endangered Language

“Obviously we must do some serious rethinking of our priorities, lest linguistics go down in history as the only science that presided obviously over the disappearance of 90percent of the very field to which it is dedicated. “-Michael Krauss, “The World’s Languages in Crisis ”.

- Michael Krauss, “The World’s Languages in Crisis ”. A Ten years ago Michael Krauss sent

A

Ten years ago Michael Krauss sent a shudder through the discipline of linguistics with his

prediction that half the 6,000 or so languages spoken in the world would cease to be uttered within a century. Unless scientists and community leaders directed a worldwide effort to stabilize the decline of local languages, he warned, nine tenths of the linguistic diversity of humankind would probably be doomed to extinction. Krauss’s prediction was little more than an educated guess, but other respected linguists had been clanging out similar alarms. Keneth L. Hale of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology noted in the same journal issue that eight languages on which he had done fieldwork had since passed into extinction. A 1990 survey in Australia found that 70 of the 90 surviving Aboriginal languages were no longer used regularly by all age groups. The same was true for all but 20 of the 175 Native American languages spoken or remembered in the US., Krauss told a congressional panel in

remembered in the US., Krauss told a congressional panel in 1992. B Many experts in the

1992.

B Many experts in the field mourn the loss of rare languages, for several reasons. To start, there is

scientific self-interest: some of the most basic questions in linguistics have to do with the limits of human speech, which are far from fully explored. Many researchers would like to know which structural elements of grammar and vocabularyif anyare truly universal and probably therefore hard wired into the human brain. Other scientists try to reconstruct ancient migration patterns by comparing borrowed words that appear in otherwise unrelated languages. In each of these cases, the wider the portfolio of languages you study, the more likely you are to get the right answers.

C Despite the near constant buzz in linguistics about endangered languages over the past 10 years, the

field has accomplished depressingly little. “You would think that there would be some organized response to this dire situation,” some attempt to determine which language can be saved and which should be documented before they disappear, says Sarah G. Thomason, a linguist at the University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. “But there isn’t any such effort organized in the profession. It is only recently that it has become fashionable enough to work on endangered languages.” Six years ago, recalls

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Douglas H. Whalen of Yale University, “when I asked linguists who was raising money to deal with these problems, I mostly got blank stares. “So Whalen and a few other linguists founded the Endangered Languages Fund. In the five years to 2001 they were able to collect only $80,000 for research grants. A similar foundation in England, directed by Nicholas Oster, has raised just $8,000 since 1995.

D But there are encouraging signs that the field has turned a corner. The Volkswagen Foundation, a

German charity, just issued its second round of grants totaling more than $2 million. It has created a multimedia archive at the MaxPlanck Institute for Psycholinguistics in the Netherlands that can house recordings, grammars, dictionaries and other data on endangered languages. To fill the archive, the foundation has dispatched field linguists to document Aweti (100 or so speakers in Brazil), Ega (about 300 speakers in Ivory Coast),Waima’a (a few hundred speakers in East Timor),and a dozen or so other languages unlikely to survive the century. The Ford Foundation has also edged into the arena. Its contributions helped to reinvigorate a master- apprentice program created in 1992 by Leanne Hinton of Berkeley and Native Americans worried about the imminent demise of about 50indigenous languages in California. Fluent speakers receive $3,000 to teach a younger relative (who is also paid) their native tongue through 360 hours of shared activities, spread over six months. So far about 5 teams have completed the program, Hinton says, transmitting at least some knowledge of 25 languages. “It’s too early to call this language revitalization, ”Hinton admits. “In California the death rate of elderly speakers will always be greater than the recruitment rate of young speakers. But at least we prolong the survival of the language. “That will give linguists more time to record these tongues before they vanish.

more time to record these tongues before they vanish. E But the master- apprentice approach hasn’t

E

But the master-apprentice approach hasn’t caught on outside the U.S., and Hinton’s effort is a drop

in the sea. At least 440languages have been reduced to a mere handful of elders, according to the Ethnologue, a catalogue of languages produced by the Dallas-based group SIL International that comes closest to global coverage. For the vast majority of these languages, there is little or no record of their grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation or use in daily life. Even if a language has been fully documented, all that remains once it vanishes from active use is a fossil skeleton, a scattering of features that the scientist was lucky and astute enough to capture. Linguists may be able to sketch an outline of the forgotten language and fix its place on the evolutionary tree, but little more. “How did people start conversations and talk to babies? How did husbands and wives converse? Hinton asks. “Those are the first things you want to learn when you want to revitalize the language.”

want to learn when you want to revitalize the language.” F But there is as yet

F But there is as yet no discipline of “conservation linguistics, ”as there is for biology. Almost every

strategy tried so far has succeeded in some places but failed in others, and there seems to be no way to predict with certainty what will work where. Twenty years ago in New Zealand, Maori speakers set up “language nests, “in which preschoolers were immersed in the native language. Additional Maori-only classes were added as the children progressed through elementary and secondary school. A similar approach was tried in Hawaii, with some successthe number of native speakers has stabilized at 1,000 or so, reports Joseph E. Grimes of SIL International, who is working on Oahu. Students can now get instruction in Hawaiian all the way through university.

G One factor that always seems to occur in the demise of a language is that the speakers begin to have

collective doubts about the usefulness of language loyalty. Once they start regarding their own language as inferior to themajority language, people stop using it for all situations. Kids pick up on the

attitude and prefer the dominant language. In many cases, people don’t notice until they suddenly realize that their kids never speak the language, even at home. This is how Cornish and some dialects of Scottish Gaelic is still only rarely used for daily home life in Ireland, 80years after the republic was founded with Irish as its first official language.

H Linguists agree that ultimately, the answer to the problem of language extinction is multilingualism. Even uneducated people can learn several languages, as long as they start as children. Indeed, most people in the world speak more than one tongue, and in places such as Cameroon (279 languages),Papua New Guinea (823) and India (387) it is common to speak three or four distinct languages and a dialect or two as well. Most Americans and Canadians, to the west of Quebec, have a gut reaction that anyone speaking another language in front of them is committing an immoral act. You get the same reaction in Australia and Russia. It is no coincidence that these are the areas where languages are disappearing the fastest. The first step in saving dying languages is to persuade the world’s majorities to allow the minorities among them to speak with their own voices.

Questions 27-33

The reading passage has eight paragraphs, A-H

27 Paragraph A

28 Paragraph B

29Paragraph D

30Paragraph E

31Paragraph F

32Paragraph G

33Paragraph H

List of Headings i data consistency needed for language the SI TER ii Solution for

List of Headings

i data consistency needed for language the SI TER

ii Solution for dying out language

iii positive gains for protection

iv minimum requirement for saving a language

v

vi

vii native language program launched

viii Subjective doubts as a negative factor

ix Practise in several developingcountries

x Value of minority language to linguists.

xi government participation in language field

Potential threat to minority language

Value of minority language to linguists.

in language field Potential threat to minority language Value of minority language to linguists. P a

P a g e

56 | 81

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Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-H from the list below. Write the correct number, i- xi, in boxes 27-33 on your answer sheet.

Questions 34-38

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-F) withopinions or deeds below.

Write the appropriate letters A-F in boxes 34-38 onyour answer sheet.

34 Reported language conservation practice in Hawaii

35 Predicted that many languages would disappear soon

36 Experienced languages die out personally

37 Raised language fund in England

38 Not enough effort on saving until recent work

in England 38 Not enough effort on saving until recent work Questions 39-40 Choose the correct

Questions 39-40

Choose the correct letter, A, B, C or D.

Write your answers in boxes 39-40 on your answer sheet.

39 What is purpose of master-apprentice program sponsored by The FordFoundation?

A Teach children how to speak

by The FordFoundation? A Teach children how to speak B Revive endangered language C Preserve endanger

B Revive endangered language

C Preserve endanger red language

D Increase communication between students

40 What should majority language speaker should do according to the lastparagraph?

A They should teach their children endangered language

B They should learn at least four languages

C They should show their loyalty to a dying language

D They should be more tolerant to minority language speaker

IELTS Actual Reading Test 6

Tasmanian Tiger

A Although it was called tiger, it looked like a clog with black stripes on its hack and it was the largest

known carnivorous marsupial of modem times. Yet, despite its fame for being one of the most fabled animals in the world, it is one of the least understood of Tasmania's native animals. The scientific name for the Tasmanian tiger is Thylacine and it is believed that they have become extinct in the 20th century.

B Fossils of thylacines dating from about almost 12 million years ago have been dug up at various

places in Victoria, South Australia and Western Australia. They were widespread in Australia 7,000 years ago, hut have probably been extinct on the continent for 2, 000 years. This is belived to be because of the introduction of dingoes around 8, 000 years ago. Because of disease, thylacine numbers may have been declining in Tasmania at the time of European settlement 200 years ago, but the decline was certainly accelerated by the new arrivals. The last known Titsmanijin Tiger died in I lobar! Zoo in 193fi and the animal is officially classified as extinct. Technically, this means that it has not been officially sighted in the wild or captivity for 50 years. However, there are still unsubstantiated sightings.

years. However, there are still unsubstantiated sightings. C Hans Naarding, whose study of animals had taken

C

Hans Naarding, whose study of animals had taken him around the world, was conducting a survey

of a species of endangered migratory bird. What he saw that night is now regarded as the most credible sighting recorded of thylacine that many believe has been extinct for more than 70 years.

D

that many believe has been extinct for more than 70 years. D "I had to work

"I had to work at night." Naarding takes up the story. "I was in the habit of intermittently shining a

spotlight around. The beam fell on an animal in front of the vehicle, less than 10m away. Instead of risking movement by grabbing for a camera, I decided to register very carefully what I was seeing. The animal was about the size of a small shepherd dog, a very healthy male in prime condition. What set it apart from a dog, though, was a slightly sloping hindquarter, with a fairly thick tail being a straight continuation of the backline of the animal. It had 12 distinct stripes on its back, continuing onto its butt. \knew perfectly well what I was seeing. As soon as I reached for the camera, it disappeared into the tea-tree undergrowth and scrub."

E The director of Tasmania s National Parks at the time, Peter Morrow, decided in his wisdom to keep

Naarding's sighting of the thylacine secret for two years. When the news finally broke, it was accompanied by pandemonium. "I was besieged by television crews, including four to five from Japan, and others from the United Kingdom, Germany, New Zealand and South America," said Naarding.

F Government and private search parties combed the region, but no turther sightings were made. The

tiger, as always, had escaped to its lair, a place many insist exists only in our imagination. But since then, the thylacine has staged something of a comeback, becoming part of Australian mythology.

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G There have been more than 4, 000 claimed sightings of the beast since it supposedly died out, and

the average claims each year reported to authorities now number 150. Associate professor of zoology

at the University of Tasmania, Randolph Rose, has said he dreams of seeing a thylacine. But Rose,

who in his 35years in Tasmanian academia has fielded countless reports of thylacine sightings, is now convinced that his dream will go unfulfilled.

H "The consensus among conservationists is that, usually; any animal with a population base of less

than 1, 000 is headed for extinction within 60 years," says Rose. "Sixty years ago, there was only one thylacine that we know of, and that was in Hobart Zoo," he says.

I Dr. David Pemberton, curator of zoology at the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, whose PhD thesis was on the thy thylacine, says that despite scientific thinking that 500 animals are required to sustain a population, the Florida panther is down to a dozen or so animals and, while it does have some inbreeding problems, is still ticking along. "I'll take a punt and say that, if we manage to find a thylacine in the scrub, it means that there are 50-plus animals out there. "

J After all, animals can be notoriously elusive. The strange fish known as the coelacanth' with its "proto-legs", was thought to have died out along with the dinosaurs 700 million years ago until a specimen was dragged to the surface in a shark net off the south-east coast of South Africa in 1938.

shark net off the south-east coast of South Africa in 1938. K totalling 4, 000 since

K

totalling 4, 000 since the mid-1980s, and averaging about 150 a year. It was Mooney who was first consulted late last month about the authenticity of digital photographic images purportedly taken by a German tourist while on a recent bushwalk in the state. On face value, Mooney says, the account of the sighting, and the two photographs submitted as proof, amount to one of the most convincing cases for the species' survival he has seen.

L And Mooney has seen it allthe mistakes, the hoaxes, the illusions and the plausible accounts of

sightings. Hoaxers aside, most people who report sightings end up believing they have seen a thylacine, and are themselves believable to the point they could pass a lie-detector test, according to Mooney. Others, having tabled a creditable report, then become utterly obsessed like the Tasmanian who has registered 99 thylacine sightings to date. Mooney has seen individuals bankrupted by the obsession, and families destroyed. "It is a blind optimism that something is, rather than a cynicism that something isn't, "Mooney says. "If something crosses the road, it's not a case of * I wonder what that

was?' Rather, it is a case of 'that's a thylacine!' It is a bit like a gold prospector's blind faith, 'it has got

to be there'. "

M However, Mooney treats all reports on face value. "I never try to embarrass people, or make fools of them. But the fact that I don’t pack the car immediately they ring can often be taken as ridicule. Obsessive characters get irate that someone in my position is not out there when they think the thylacine is there. "

Wildlife biologist Nick Mooney has the unenviable task of investigating all "sightings" of the tiger

task of investigating all "sightings" of the tiger N But Hans Naarding, whose sighting of a

N

But Hans Naarding, whose sighting of a striped animal two decades ago was the highlight of "a life

of

animal spotting", remains bemused by the time and money people waste on tiger searches. He says

resources would be better applied to saving the Tasmanian devil, and helping migratory bird populations that are declining as a result of shrinking wetlands across Australia.

O Could the thylacine still be out there? "Sure," Naarding says. But he also says any discovery of surviving thylacines would be "rather pointless". "How do you save a species from extinction? What could you do with it? If there are thylacines out there, they are better off right where they are. "

Questions 14-17

Complete the summary below.

Choose NO MORE THAN TWO WORDS from the passage for each answer.

Write your answers in boxes 14-17 on your answer sheet.

The Tasmanian tiger, also called thylacine, resembles the look of a dog and has 14

called thylacine, resembles the look of a dog and has 14 before on its fur years

before

on its fur years

coat. Many fossils have been found, showing that thylacines had existed as early as 15

ago. They lived throughout 16

settlers 17

disappearing from the mainland. And soon after the

arrived the size of thylacine population in Tasmania shrunk at a higher speed.

Questions 18-23

Look at the following statements (Questions 18-23) and the list of people below. Match each statement with the correct person, At B, C or D.

Match each statement with the correct person, At B, C or D. Write the correct letter,

Write the correct letter, A, B, C or D, in boxes 18-23 on your answer sheet.

NB You may use any letter more than once.

18 His report of seeing a live thylacine in the wild attracted international

interest.

19 Many eye-witnesses ' reports are not trustworthy.

20 It doesn't require a certain number of animals to ensure the survival of a

species.

21 There is no hope of finding a surviving Tasmanian tiger.

22 Do not disturb them if there are any Tasmanian tigers still living today.

23 The interpretation of evidence can be affected by people's beliefs.

List of People

A Hans Naarding

B Randolph Rose

C David Pemberton

D Nick Mooney

Questions 24-26

Choose the correct letter. A, B, C or D.

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Write the correct letter in boxes 24-26 on your answer sheet.

24 Hans Naarding's sighting has resulted in

A government and organisations' cooperative efforts to protect thylacine

B extensive interests to find a living thylacine.

C increase of the number of reports of thylacine worldwide.

D growth of popularity of thylacine in literature.

25 The example of coelacanth is to illustrate

A it lived in the same period with dinosaurs.

B how dinosaurs evolved legs.

C some animals are difficult to catch in the wild.

D extinction of certain species can be mistaken.

26 Mooney believes that all sighting reports should be

26 Mooney believes that all sighting reports should be A given some credits as they claim

A given some credits as they claim even if they are untrue.

B acted upon immediately.

C viewed as equally untrustworthy.

B acted upon immediately. C viewed as equally untrustworthy. E-training A E-learning is the unifying term

E-training

A E-learning is the unifying term to describe the fields of online learning, web-based training, and

technology-delivered instruction, which can be a great benefit to corporate e-learning. IBM, for instance, claims that the institution of its e-training program, Basic Blue, whose purpose is to train new managers, saved the company in the range of $200 million in 1999. Cutting the travel expenses required to bring employees and instructors to a central classroom accounts for the lion’s share of the savings. With an online course, employees can learn from any Internet- connected PC, anywhere in the world. Ernst and Young reduced training costs by 35 percent while improving consistency and scalability.

B In addition to generally positive economic benefits, other advantages such as convenience,

standardized delivery, self-paced learning, and variety of available content, have made e-learning a high priority for many corporations. E-learning is widely believed to offer flexible “any time, any place” learning. The claim for “any place” is valid in principle and is a great development. Many people can engage with rich learning materials that simply were not possible in a paper or broadcast distance learning era. For teaching specific information and skills, e-training holds great promise. It can be especially effective at helping employees prepare for IT certifications programs. E-learning also

seems to effectively address topics such as sexual harassment education,5 safety training and management training all areas where a clear set of objectives can be identified. Ultimately, training experts recommend a “blended” approach that combines both online and in-person training as the instruction requires. E-learning is not an end- all solution. But if it helps decrease costs and windowless classrooms filled with snoring students, it definitely has its advantages.

C Much of the discussion about implementing e-learning has focused on the technology, but as

Driscoll and others have reminded us, e-learning is not just about the technology, but also many human factors. As any capable manager knows, teaching employees new skills is critical to a smoothly run business. Having said that, however, the traditional route of classroom instruction runs the risk of being expensive, slow and, often times, ineffective. Perhaps the classroom’s greatest disadvantage is the fact that it takes employees out of their jobs. Every minute an employee is sitting in a classroom training session is a minute they’re not out on the floor working. It now looks as if there is a way to circumvent these traditional training drawbacks. E-training promises more effective teaching techniques by integrating audio, video, animation, text and interactive materials with the intent of teaching each student at his or her own pace. In addition to higher performance results, there are other immediate benefits to students such as increased time on task, higher levels of motivation, and reduced test anxiety for many learners. A California State University Northridge study reported that e-learners performed 20 percent better than traditional learners. Nelson reported a significant difference between the mean grades of 406 university students earned in traditional and distance education classes, where the distance learners outperformed the traditional learners.

the distance learners outperformed the traditional learners. D On the other hand, nobody said E-training technology

D

On the other hand, nobody said E-training technology would be cheap. E-training service providers,

on the average, charge from $10,000 to $60,000 to develop one hour of online instruction. This price varies depending on the complexity of the training topic and the media used. HTML pages are a little cheaper to develop while streaming-video (presentations or flash animations cost more. Course content is just the starting place for cost. A complete e-learning solution also includes the technology platform (the computers, applications and network connections that are used to deliver the courses). This technology platform, known as a learning management system (LMS), can either be installed onsite or outsourced. Add to that cost the necessary investments in network bandwidth to deliver multimedia courses, and you’re left holding one heck of a bill. For the LMS infrastructure and a dozen or so online courses, costs can top $500,000 in the first year. These kinds of costs mean that custom e-training is, for the time being, an option only for large organizations. For those companies that have a large enough staff, the e-training concept pays for itself. Aware of this fact, large companies are investing heavily in online training. Today, over half of the 400-plus courses that Rockwell Collins offers are delivered instantly to its clients in an e-leaming format, a change that has reduced its annual (training costs by 40%. Many other success stories exist.

(training costs by 40%. Many other success stories exist. E E-learning is not expected to replace

E E-learning is not expected to replace the classroom entirely. For one thing, bandwidth limitations

are still an issue in presenting multimedia over the Internet. Furthermore, e-training isn’t suited to every mode of instruction or topic. For instance, it’s rather ineffective imparting cultural values or building teams. If your company has a unique corporate culture it would be difficult to convey that to first time employees through a computer monitor. Group training sessions are more ideal for these purposes. In addition, there is a perceived loss of research time because of the work involved in developing and teaching online classes. Professor Wallin estimated that it required between 500 and

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1,000 person-hours, that is, Wallin-hours, to keep the course at the appropriate level of currency and usefulness. (Distance learning instructors often need technical skills, no matter how advanced the courseware system.) That amounts to between a quarter and half of a person-year. Finally, teaching materials require computer literacy and access to equipment. Any e-Learning system involves basic equipment and a minimum level of computer knowledge in order to perform the tasks required by the system. A student that does not possess these skills, or have access to these tools, cannot succeed in an e-Learning program.

F While few people debate the obvious advantages of e-learning, systematic research is needed to confirm that learners are actually acquiring and using the skills that are being taught online, and that e- learning is the best way to achieve the outcomes in a corporate environment. Nowadays, a go-between style of the Blended learning, which refers to a mixing of different learning environments, is gaining popularity. It combines traditional face-to-face classroom methods with more modem computer- mediated activities. According to its proponents, the strategy creates a more integrated approach for both instructors and learners. Formerly, technology-based materials played a supporting role to face-to- face instruction. Through a blended learning approach, technology will be more important

blended learning approach, technology will be more important Questions 1-6 The reading passage has seven paragraphs,A-F

Questions 1-6

The reading passage has seven paragraphs,A-F

Choose the correct heading for paragraphs A-F from the list below. Write the correct number, i- xi in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.

1. Paragraph A

2. Paragraph B

3. Paragraph C

4. Paragraph D

5. Paragraph E

6. Paragraph F

List of Headings i overview of the benefits for the application of E-training ii IBM’s

List of Headings

i overview of the benefits for the application of E-training

ii IBM’s successful choice of training

iii Future direction and a new style of teaching

iv learners achievement and advanced teaching materials

v limitations when E-training compares with traditional class

vi multimedia over the Internet can be a solution

vii technology can be a huge financial burden

viii the distance learners outperformed the traditional university learners in

worldwide

ix other advantages besides economic consideration

x Training offered to help people learn using computers

Questions 7-10

The reading Passage has seven paragraphs A-F.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter A-F, in boxes 35-37 on your answer sheet.

7. Projected Basic Blue in IBM achieved a great success.

8. E-learning wins as a priority for many corporations as its flexibility.

9. The combination of the traditional and e-training environments may prevail.

10. Example of a fast electronic delivery for a company’s products to its customers.

Questions 11-13

Choose Three correct letters, among A-E

Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet.

A-E Write your answers in boxes 11-13 on your answer sheet. A Technical facilities are hardly

A Technical facilities are hardly obtained.

B Presenting multimedia over the Internet is restricted due to the bandwidth limit.

C It is ineffective imparting a unique corporate value to fresh employees.

D Employees need block a long time leaving their position attending training.

block a long time leaving their position attending training. E More preparation time is needed to

E More preparation time is needed to keep the course at the suitable level.

Mammoth kill

A mammoth is any species of the extinct genus Mammuthus, proboscideans commonly equipped with

long, curved tusks and, in northern species, a covering of long hair. They lived from the Pliocene epoch (from around 5 million years ago) into the Holocene at about 4,500 years ago, and were

members of the family Elephantidae, which contains, along with mammoths, the two genera of modern elephants and their ancestors.

A Like their modern relatives, mammoths were quite large. The largest known species reached heights

in the region of 4 m at the shoulder and weights of up to 8 tonnes, while exceptionally large males may

have exceeded 12 tonnes. However, most species of mammoth were only about as large as a modern Asian elephant. Both sexes bore tusks. A first, small set appeared at about the age of six months, and these were replaced at about 18 months by the permanent set. Growth of the permanent set was at a rate of about 2.5 to 15.2 cm per year. Based on studies of their close relatives, the modern elephants,

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mammoths probably had a gestation period of 22 months, resulting in a single calf being born. Their social structure was probably the same as that of African and Asian elephants, with females living in herds headed by a matriarch, whilst bulls lived solitary lives or formed loose groups after sexual maturity.

B MEXICO CITY – Although it’s hard to imagine in this age of urban sprawl and automobiles, North

America once belonged to mammoths, camels, ground sloths as large as cows, bear-size beavers and other formidable beasts. Some 11,000 years ago, however, these large-bodied mammals and others about 70 species in all disappeared. Their demise coincided roughly with the arrival of humans in the New World and dramatic climatic change factors that have inspired several theories about the die- off. Yet despite decades of scientific investigation, the exact cause remains a mystery. Now new findings offer support to one of these controversial hypotheses: that human hunting drove this megafauna’s menagerie to extinction. The overkill model emerged in the 1960s, when it was put forth by Paul S. Martin of the University of Arizona. Since then, critics have charged that no evidence exists to support the idea that the first Americans hunted to the extent necessary to cause these extinctions. But at the annual meeting of the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology in Mexico City last October, paleoecologist John Alroy of the University of California at Santa Barbara argued that, in fact, hunting-driven extinction is not only plausible, it was unavoidable. He has determined, using a computer simulation, that even a very modest amount of hunting would have wiped these animals out.

modest amount of hunting would have wiped these animals out. C Assuming an initial human population

C

Assuming an initial human population of 100 people that grew no more than 2 percent annually,

Alroy determined that if each band of, say, 50 people killed 15 to 20 large mammals a year, humans could have eliminated the animal populations within 1,000 years. Large mammals in particular would have been vulnerable to the pressure because they have longer gestation periods than smaller mammals and their young require extended care.

D

smaller mammals and their young require extended care. D Not everyone agrees with Alroy’s assessmen t.

Not everyone agrees with Alroy’s assessment. For one, the results depend in part on population-size

estimates for the extinct animals figures that are not necessarily reliable. But a more specific criticism comes from mammalogist Ross D. E. MacPhee of the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, who points out that the relevant archaeological record contains barely a dozen examples of stone points embedded in mammoth bones (and none, it should be noted, are known from other megafaunal remains) hardly what one might expect if hunting drove these animals to extinction. Furthermore, some of these species had huge ranges – the giant Jefferson’s ground sloth, for example, lived as far north as the Yukon and as far south as Mexico which would have made slaughtering them in numbers sufficient to cause their extinction rather implausible, he says.

E MacPhee agrees that humans most likely brought about these extinctions (as well as others around

the world that coincided with human arrival), but not directly. Rather he suggests that people may have introduced hyperlethal disease, perhaps through their dogs or hitchhiking vermin, which then spread wildly among the immunologically naive species of the New World. As in the overkill model, populations of large mammals would have a harder time recovering. Repeated outbreaks of a hyperdisease could thus quickly drive them to the point of no return. So far MacPhee does not have empirical evidence for the hyperdisease hypothesis, and it won’t be easy to come by: hyperlethal disease would kill far too quickly to leave its signature on the bones themselves. But he hopes that analyses of tissue and DNA from the last mammoths to perish will eventually reveal murderous microbes.

F The third explanation for what brought on this North American extinction does not involve human beings. Instead its proponents blame the loss on the weather. The Pleistocene epoch witnessed considerable climatic instability, explains paleontologist Russell W. Graham of the Denver Museum of Nature and Science. As a result, certain habitats disappeared, and species that had once formed communities split apart. For some animals, this change brought opportunity. For much of the megafauna, however, the increasingly homogeneous environment left them with shrinking geographical ranges a death sentence for large animals, which need large ranges. Although these creatures managed to maintain viable populations through most of the Pleistocene, the final major fluctuation the so-called Younger Dryas event pushed them over the edge, Graham says. For his part, Alroy is convinced that human hunters demolished the titans of the Ice Age. The overkill model explains everything the disease and climate scenarios explain, he asserts, and makes accurate predictions about which species would eventually go extinct. “Personally, I’m a vegetarian,” he remarks, “and I find all of this kind of gross – but believable.

Questions 1-7

Complete the following summary of the paragraphs of Reading Passage, using NO MORE THAN THREE WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer.

THAN THREE WORDS from the Reading Passage for each answer. Write your answers in boxes 1-7

Write your answers in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

The reason why had big size mammals become extinct 11,000 years ago is under hot debate. First

explanation is that 1

1960s suggested by an expert, who however received criticism of lack of further information. Another

of human made it happen. This so called 2

began from

assumption promoted by MacPhee is that deadly 3 However his hypothesis required more 4

hypothesis that 5

posed a dangerous signal to these giants, and 7

that 5 posed a dangerous signal to these giants, and 7 from human causes their demises.

from human causes their demises. to testify its validity. Graham proposed a third

in Pleistocene epoch drove some species disappear, reduced 6

finally wiped them out.

Questions 8-13

Use the information in the passage to match the people (listed A-C) with opinions or deeds below.

Write the appropriate letters A-C in boxes 8-13 on your answer sheet.

NB you may use any letter more than once.

A John Alroy

B Ross D.E. MacPhee

C Russell W. Graham

8 Human hunting well explained which species would finally disappear.

9 Further grounded proof needed to explain human’s indirect impact on mammals

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10 Over hunting situation has caused die-out of large mammals.

11 Illness rather than hunting caused extensive extinction.

12 Doubt raised through the study of several fossil records.

13 Climate shift is the main reason of extinction.

12 Doubt raised through the study of several fossil records. 13 Climate shift is the main

IELTS Actual Reading Test 7

Museum Blockbuster

A Since the 1980s, the term "blockbuster" has become the fashionable word for special spectacular

museum, art gallery or science centre exhibitions. These exhibitions have the ability to attract large

crowds and often large corporate sponsors. Here is one of some existing definitions of blockbuster: Put

by Elsen (1984), a blockbuster is a "

museums will stand in line for hours to see

has described a successful blockbuster exhibition as a "

skills

limited period, that attracts the general public, who are prepared to both stand in line and pay a fee in order to partake in the exhibition." What both Elsen and Rosenfield omit in their descriptions of blockbusters, is that people are prepared to pay a fee to see a blockbuster, and that the term blockbuster can just as easily apply to a movie or a museum exhibition.

B

Merely naming an exhibition or movie a blockbuster however, does not make it a blockbuster. The

large scale loan exhibition that people who normally don't go to

" James Rosenfield, writing in Direct Marketing in 1993,

triumph of both curatorial and marketing

" My own definition for blockbuster is "a popular, high profile exhibition on display for a

is "a popular, high profile exhibition on display for a term can only apply when the

term can only apply when the item in question has had an overwhelmingly successful response from

the public. However, in literature from both the UK and USA the other words that also start to appear

in

blockbusters are designed to appeal to the lowest common denominator, while others extol the virtues

of

selection of the community rather than an elite sector. C Maintaining and increasing visitor levels is

descriptions of blockbusters are "less scholarly", "non-elitist" and "popularist". Detractors argue that

encouraging scholars to cooperate on projects, and to provide exhibitions that cater for a broad

paramount in the new museology. This requires continued product development. Not only the creation

or

visiting publics have become customers rather than visitors, and the skills that are valued in museums, science centres and galleries to keep the new customers coming through the door have changed. High on the list of requirements are commercial, business, marketing and entrepreneurial skills. Curators are now administrators. Being a director of an art gallery no longer requires an Art Degree. As succinctly summarised in the Economist in 1994 "business nous and public relation skills" were essential requirements for a director, and the ability to compete with other museums to stage travelling exhibitions which draw huge crowds.

D The new museology has resulted in the convergence of museums, the heritage industry, and tourism,

profit-making and pleasure-giving. This has given rise to much debate about the appropriateness of adapting the activities of institutions so that they more closely reflect the priorities of the market place and whether it is appropriate to see museums primarily as tourist attractions. At many institutions you can now hold office functions in the display areas, or have dinner with the dinosaurs. Whatever commentators may think, managers of museums, art galleries and science centres worldwide are looking for artful ways to blend culture and commerce, and blockbuster exhibitions are at the top of the list. But while blockbusters are all part of the new museology, there is proof that you don't need a museum, science centre or art gallery to benefit from the drawing power of a blockbuster or to stage a blockbuster.

drawing power of a blockbuster or to stage a blockbuster. hiring of blockbuster exhibitions, but regular

hiring of blockbuster exhibitions, but regular exhibition changes and innovations. In addition, the