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BENDING MEMBERS

General

- The usual requirement for a beam design is to provide

sufficient resistance to bending moment

- However in some cases it is also necessary to consider

other criteria such as shear or lateral-torsional buckling

- In general, to design such members, the structure should

be checked for the following at critical sections;

1. Combination of bending and shear force

2. Deflection

3. Lateral restraint

4. Local buckling

5. Web bearing and buckling

Types of restraining

condition of beam

1. Restrained beam

A beam where the compression flange is

restrained against lateral deflection and rotation.

Only vertical deflection exists.

2. Unrestrained beam

The compression flange is not

restrained from deflect laterally

and rotate about the plan of the

section which is called lateral

torsional buckling.

Three component of

displacement i.e. vertical,

horizontal and torsional

displacement

Laterally restrained beam

Cases where beams can be designed as fully restrained

along the spans:

1. Beams carrying in-situ reinforced concrete slabs.

The friction of concrete floor to the compression flange of

the beam can be assumed to provide full lateral restraint

(Figure 3.1).

2. Beams with steel decking flooring system, with or without

shear studs or by sufficient bracing member added.

The shear studs function as a simple concrete anchor and

can be employed to provide a permanent bond between

steel and concrete; enabling the two materials to act

compositely (i.e steel beam and concrete slab can act as

one component) Figure 3.2.

As a result of full lateral restraint along the

compression flange of the beam, bending will

only take place about y-x plane.

moving sideways. Hence, the beam deforms in

the vertical plane only.

Beam

Load Distribution

One-way Spanning Slab

Ly/Lx 2.0

Ly

Beam

Baem

Beam

Lx

Slab

Beam

One-way Spanning Slab

Two-way Spanning Slab

Ly/Lx 2.0

Ly

Beam

Beam

Baem

Lx

Slab

Beam

Two-way Spanning Slab

Precast Concrete Slab

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

Precast concrete

Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

hollow-core

SLAB

Ly

Ly

Lx

Lx

one-way slab one-way slab

Precast Concrete Slab

One way

direction

One way

direction

Cast In-situ Slab

Cast-insitu slab Ly/Lx 2.0, one-way slab

Ly/Lx 2.0, two-way slab

Ly Ly

Lx Lx

Ly/Lx 2.0,

Ly/Lx 2.0,

one-way slab

two-way slab

Beam-to-column

connection

SECONDARY

BEAM

FLOOR PLAN

MAIN BEAM

Main

beam Secondary

Column beam

Main

beam

Main beam Secondary

beam

Example 3.1: Load distribution

Figure below shows a portion of plan view of a building. The slab

system is precast slab with loading as below:

Permanent action, Gk

- self weight of precast slab, brick wall and furnishing = 5.0kN/m2

Variable action, Qk = 4.0kN/m2

Determine the shear force and moment maximum for beam 1/A-B.

I I 1

Pre-cast

4.0m

panel

I 5.0m

I 2

A B

Design checks for laterally restrained beam

• Shear resistance, Clause 6.2.6

• Bending moment resistance, Clause 6.2.5

• Deflection

Shear resistance, Clause 6.2.6

The design shear resistance of a cross-section,

(Clause 6.2.6 EC3) , is denoted by Vc,Rd,

VEd

Shear check 1 .0

Vc ,Rd

In the absence of torsion, the shear resistance may be taken as

the design plastic shear resistance, V pl, Rd

strength in shear multiplied by a shear area Av (Clause 6.2.6(3).

A Main beam

Av ( f y / 3 )

V pl , Rd

M0 A

Column

≈ 0.6 fy

The yield strength in shear is taken as fy/√3 and this is used in a

plastic shear resistance formulation.

Shear buckling

The resistance of the web to shear buckling should

also be checked, though this is unlikely to affect cross-

sections of standard hot-rolled proportions.

hw

72 for unstiffene d webs

tw

235

where ; 1.0 ( from UK NA)

fy

Example 3.2: Shear resistance

Assignment 2

Bending moment resistance,

Clause 6.2.5

Bending and shear

(Clause 6.2.8)

• Bending moment and shear force acting in

combination on structural members is

commonplace.

• However, in the majority of cases (particularly

when standard rolled section are adopted), the

effect of shear force on moment resistance is

negligible and may be ignored.

• Clause 6.2.8(2) states that if the applied shear

force is less than half the plastic shear resistance,

its effect on the moment resistance may be

neglected

For cases where the applied shear force is greater than

half the plastic shear resistance of the cross section, the

moment resistance should be calculated using a reduced

design strength for the shear area, given by the equation;

fyr = (1-ρ)fy

where ρ = [(2VEd/Vpl,Rd)-1)2

is present, it should be replaced by Vpl,T,Rd obtained from

Clause 6.2.7.

For I-cross section with equal flanges and bending

about major axis, the reduced design plastic

resistance moment allowing for the shear force

may be alternatively be obtained from;

where, Aw = hw tw

Example 3.3: Cross-section resistance

under combined bending and shear

A short-span (1.4m), simply supported, laterally

restrained beam is to be designed to carry a central

point load of 1050kN as shown in Fig.1. The

arrangement resulted in a maximum design shear

force VEd of 525kN and a maximum design bending

moment MEd of 367.5kNm. In this example a

406x178x74 UB in grade S275 steel is assessed for

its suitability for this application.

Deflection

Excessive deflections may impair the function of a

structure, for example, leading to cracking of

plaster, misalignments of crane rails, causing

difficulty in opening doors, etc.

deflection checks should be made under

unfactored variable actions Qk.

Table A1.4 (EN 1990): Design value of actions for use in

the combination of actions

Vertical deflection limits, NA.2.23

NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005

Design situation Deflection limit

Cantilevers Length/180

Beams carrying plaster or other brittle finish Span/360

Other beams (except purlins and sheeting rails) Span/200

Purlins and sheeting rails To suit cladding

Horizontal deflection limits NA.2.24

NA to BS EN 1993-1-1:2005

Design situation Deflection limit

Tops of columns in single storey buildings, except portal

Height/300

frames

Columns in portal frame buildings, not supporting crane

To suit cladding

runways

In each storey of a building with more than one storey Height of storey/300

building height H

ui is horizontal displacement over a storey

height Hi

Example 3.4 Deflection

subjected to the following (unfactored) loading:

- Dead load: 8.6kN/m

- Imposed roof load: 20.5kN/m

- Snow load: 1.8kN/m

Choose a suitable UB such that the vertical

deflection limits are not exceeded.

Example 3.5: Restrained Beam Design

steel shown below has a span of 6m. Check moment

resistance, shear and deflection of the beam.

Resistance of the web to

transverse force

-Refer to BS EN 1993-1-5 Clause 6

• Design calculations are required for concentrated

transverse forces applied to girders from supports,

cross beams, columns, etc.

• The concentrated loads are dispersed through

plates, angles and flanges to the web of the

supporting girder.

The deformation that occur to the supporting beam

due to transverse concentrated load: yielding of

flange and local buckling of the web

The design resistance is expressed as:

Example 3.6

The beam shown below is fully laterally restrained

along its length and has bearing length of 50mm at the

unstiffened supports and 75mm under the point load.

Design the beam in S275 steel for the loading shown

below.

Given:

Actions (loadings),

Permanent actions:

Uniformly distributed load (including self weight) g1 = 15kN/m

Concentrate load G1 = 40kN

Variable actions:

Uniformly distributed load q1 = 30kN/m

Concentrate load Q1 = 50kN

The variable actions are not due to storage and are not

independent of each other

STEP:

1)Load, MEd, VEd

2)Cross-section classification

3)Shear resistance (also shear buckling)

(6.2.6)

4)Bending moment resistance (6.2.5) and also

check bending & shear (6.2.8)

5)Resistance of the web to transverse forces

- only required when there is bearing on the

beam (refer to BS EN 1993-1-5 Clause 6 –

Resistance to transverse force)

6)Deflection

Laterally unrestrained beam

• Lateral torsional buckling is the member buckling

mode associated with slender beams loaded about

their major axis, without continuous lateral

restraint.

• The prime factors that influence the buckling

strength of beams are un-braced span, cross

sectional shape, type of end restraint and

distribution of moment.

Cross-sectional and member bending

resistance must be verified

Lateral Torsional Buckling (LTB)

(bending about y-y axis),

lateral displacement

(bending about z-z axis) and

rotation (about x-x axis).

resistance about z-z axis

and torsional resistance

about the x-x axis are low.

LTB is considered to be prevented if the

compression flange is prevented from moving

laterally.

from floor units can prevent lateral movement of the

compression flange.

generally in-plane bending (and/or shear).

Characteristics of LTB

– Initially the beam bends about the major axis.

– As the load increases the sideway displacement occurs.

– Twisting of cross section

– The sideway displacement bends about the minor axis.

– The way to prevent LTB is to have adequate lateral

bracing at the compression flange at adequate intervals

along the beam.

beams (between the points where lateral restraint exists).

Design Buckling Resistance, Mb,Rd

(Clause 6.3.2.1)

• The design buckling resistance of an

unrestrained beam (or unrestrained

segment of beam) should be taken as

3 Methods to Check LTB

1. The primary method adopts the lateral torsional

buckling curves given by equations 6.56 and 6.57

from Clause 6.3.2.2 (general case) and Clause

6.3.2.3 (for rolled sections and equivalent welded

sections).

2. A simplified assessment method for beams with

restraints in buildings, Clause 6.3.2.4

3. The third is a general method for lateral and lateral

torsional buckling of structural components, given

in Clause 6.3.4.

Method 1: Lateral torsional buckling

curves (6.3.2.2 &6.3.2.3)

For the general case (6.3.2.2)

(6.3.2.3)

(6.3.2.2)

(6.3.2.3)

Elastic critical moment for lateral

torsional buckling, Mcr

• EC3 offers no formulations and gives no guidance

on how Mcr should be calculated

should be based on gross cross sectional properties

and should take into account the loading conditions,

the real moment distribution and the lateral restraints

The Mcr of a beam of uniform symmetrical cross-section with

equal flanges, under standard conditions of restraint at each

end loaded through the shear centre and subject to uniform

moment is given by equation:

the shear centre at the level of the centroidal axis and with the

standard conditions of restraint, Mcr may be calculated by:

Standard condition of restraint at each end of the

beam: restrained against lateral movement,

restrained against rotation about the longitudinal axis

and free to rotate on plan.

account of the shape of bending moment diagram.

C1 factor for end moment may be

approximated by equation:

Table 6.11 and 6.12

Table 6.11: C1 values for end moment loading

Table 6.12: C1 values for transverse loading

Condition of restraints and

Effective length

Design procedure for LTB

check

1. Determine effective(buckling) length Lcr – depends on

boundary conditions and load level

2. Calculate Mcr

3. Non-dimensional slenderness, λLT

4. Determine imperfection factor, α LT

5. Calculate buckling reduction factor, χLT

6. Design buckling resistance, Mb,Rd

7. Check for each unrestrained portion

Example 3.7: Lateral torsional

buckling resistance

A simply supported beam is required to span 10.8m and to

support two secondary beams as shown in Figure 1. The

secondary beams are connected through fin plates to the web

of the primary beam and full lateral restraint may be assumed

at these points. Select a suitable member for the primary

beam assuming grade S275 steel.

Section properties for a 762 x 267 x 173 UB

CONCLUSION

Restrained beam

1. Design load, Design shear force, VEd, Design bending

moment, MEd

2. Cross-section classification

3. Bending moment resistance – Cl. 6.2.5

4. Shear resistance – Cl. 6.2.6

- check also shear buckling

5. Combined bending and shear – Cl. 6.2.8

6. Deflection – Actual deflection < Deflection limit

7. Resistance to transverse force – EC3-1-5 Cl. 6.

- only applied for beam with bearing

Unrestrained beam

1. Same as restrained beam

2. Same as restrained beam

3. Same as restrained beam

4. Same as restrained beam

5. Same as restrained beam

6. Same as restrained beam

7. Buckling resistance in bending – Cl. 6.3.2