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JSW STEEL PLANT

Summer Training at JSW

AN OVERVIEW OF HOT METAL


DESULPHURIZATION PROCESS IN MOVABLE
KANBARA REACTOR
SMS-II (BOF)
JSW STEEL LIMITED
VIJAYANAGAR

Overview Report by
ROHIT PAL – USN:01FE15BME147
Under the guidance of Mr. Ravi Kiran

BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
KLE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
VIDYANAGAR, HUBLI-, KARNATAKA, INDIA

Duration Period: 11-June-2018 to 4-July-2018


TABLE OF CONTENT

SNo. Topic Page no


1 Certificate 1
2 Acknowledgement 2
3 Abstract 3
4 JSW Steel Limited- Overview 4
• Introduction
• History
• Milestones
• Input
• Flow chart of plant
5 Departments of JSW Steel Limited 10
6 Finished Products and its applications 17
7 Steel Melting Shop -2 :Overview 19
• Introduction
• Process
• Flow Chart of SMS-II
8 Hot Metal Pretreatment 22
9 MOVABLE CANBARA REACTOR 24
• Literature Survey
• Basic Data for KR Plant
• KR Process In JSW Steel
• Basic operation flow and time of KR-2
10 KR Plant Major Equipment Process 36
11 Critical parameters in KR process 48
12 Comparison Between KR And Injection Process 50
13 Major Problems Faced in KR Reactor 51
• Overheating of hydraulic power bank
• SRM Bellow leakage
• Material discharging problem
14 Conclusion 53
15 References 54
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

KLE TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY


HUBLI (KARNATAKA)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the Report entitled “AN OVERVIEW OF HOT METAL DESULPHURIZATION

SYSTEM IN KANBARA REACTOR PROCESS-2” and submitted by ROHIT PAL having USN no

01FE15BME147 for the partial fulfilment of the requirements of B.Tech. (Mechanical Engineering)

degree of KLE Tech University, embodies the bonafide work done by him under my supervision

Signature of the Supervisor

Place: Toranagallu
Date: 02/07/2018

Mr Ravi kiran
Jr Manager (SMS-II)
JSW steel limited, Toranagallu

Mr Shant Kumar
Manger (SMS-II)
JSW steel limited, Toranagallu

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 1
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The successful completion of any task would be but in complete without


the mention of the people who made it possible, whose constant guidance and
encouragement crown all the efforts with success.

On the occasion of submission of project report, I take this opportunity


to express my profound gratitude to KLE Technological University to have
been kind enough to accept my proposal to carry out this work.

I wish to express my sincere thanks to management of JSW steel


limited for giving this opportunity to do the project in their esteemed
organization.

I am grateful to Mr Pratik Mishra ,G.M (HRD Dept) for his continuous


guidance.

I am grateful to Mr Shant Kumar, Manager(SMS-2) for his continuous


guidance.

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Ravikiran, Jr Manager (SMS-2) for


supervising and guidance me throughout the work.

I express my gratitude to our H.O.D Dr. B Kotturshettar, (Mech dept)


KLE Tech University, for providing us an opportunity to do the project work
with his valuable support.

ROHIT PAL

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Abstract

Sulphur is normally regarded as an impurity and has an adverse impact


properties when a steel is high Sulphur. Sulphur improves the machinability but
lower transverse ductility and notched impact thoroughness and has little effect on
the longitudinal mechanical effect. One of the most unwanted element in this respect
is Sulphur as it forms sulphide inclusion and hot shortness in finished product.

To achieve high productivity of hot metal desulphurization and also to meet the
increasing demands for lower Sulphur steel grades the mechanical stirring KR
process was introduced. But excess reagent consumption in De-S it affects the cost of
production. This project evaluates different factor responsible for reagent
consumption and analyses these factors for finding root causes.

Sulphur is normally regarded as an impurity and has an adverse impact


properties when a steel is high Sulphur. Sulphur improves the machinability but
lower transverse ductility and notched impact thoroughness and has little effect on
the longitudinal mechanical effect. One of the most unwanted element in this respect
is Sulphur as it forms sulphide inclusion and hot shortness in finished product.

Huge demand for automobile grades, interstitial free and electrical grade of
steel, these grades of steel consisting low percentage of Sulphur (20–50ppm). A large
number of techniques have been developed world wide over the year for
desulphurization of hot metal. Hot metal desulphurization was found to be most
economic in most of the process routes. In JSW steel limited adapted the two
different technologies. i.e. pneumatic (injection process) and mechanical stirring
(Kanbara reactor) process.

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

JSW STEEL LIMITED – AN OVERVIEW

Introduction :
A multi-billion-dollar conglomerate, JSW Group is a part of O.P. Jindal Group
and played a key role in India's growth story. Ranked among India's top
business houses, JSW innovative and sustainable forays into the core sectors
of Steel, Energy, Cement and Infrastructure are helping build a new nation.
The Group continues to strive for excellence with its strengths, differentiated
product mix, state of the art technology, excellence in execution and focus on
sustainability.

The flagship company of JSW Group - JSW Steel, is India’s leading primary
and integrated steel producer. It has a production capacity of 18 MTPA with
plant located across six locations in South and West India, namely,
Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Maharashtra.

• Specification…
• Boasts of a capacity of a whopping 18 million tonnes per annum
(MTPA).
• Houses India’s widest hot strip mill and one of India’s largest blast
furnaces.
• Produces 800+ tonnes per person per annum, making it the most
productive steel plant in India.
• Recognised for its ‘zero-effluent discharge’ status; reuses more than 95
per cent of process waste.
• Has a low carbon footprint, with 96% of coke oven gas for power
generation being recycled.
• Uses Corex technology for hot metal production.
• Employs a large-scale, low-grade iron ore beneficiation process
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KLE Technological University
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• Uses pelletisation based on dry and wet process.


• Is the only plant with a combination of both non-recovery and recovery
type of coke ovens.
• Is the only plant in India with pair-cross technology and twin-stand
reversible cold-rolling mill.
• Uses sophisticated ambient air control infrastructure beyond and has
reduced gas flaring.

History :
In 1994, Jindal Vijayanagar Steel (JVSL) was set up with its plant located at
Toranagallu in the Bellary - Hospet area in the State of Karnataka, the heart
of the high-grade iron ore belt and spread over 10,000 acres (40 km2) of
land. Over a decade. It also set up a plant at Salem with an annual capacity of
1 million tonne. It is on the threshold of a major expansion plan of adding 3.2
million tons per annum to its at Vijayanagar Plant to achieve 11 MTPA by
2011.
It has established a strong presence in the global value-added steel segment
with the acquisition of a steel mill in US and a Service Center in United
Kingdom. JSW Steel has also formed a joint venture for setting up a steel
plant in Georgia. The Company has further acquired iron ore mines in Chile
and coal mines in USA & Mozambique.
The current manufacturing capacity of company is 18 MTPA. In Aug 2014, it
acquired Welspun Maxsteel Ltd in a deal valued at around 1,000 Crores. JSW
has already acquired 3 MTPA Hot Rolling Plant in Dolvi Maharashtra (earlier
named Ispat Industries Ltd).

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 5
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Milestones :

• 4.8 MTPA 2008 • 7.8 MTPA 2010


• Iron ore mines • JSW-JFE stretegic
acquired in partnership 2.5
Chile MTPA
2007 2009 • 3.5 MTPA of HSM2
• Coal minning
consession in US

• 1.6 MTPA 2004 •2.5 MTPA 2006


•Colour Coated Line
•Acquired
Southern Iron
•Acquired EURO • 3.8 MTPA
IKON
2002 and Steel
2005

• Acquasition of
49.3% stake in
2012 • 4.3 MTPA
• Post Ispat merger
2014
Ispat • New CRM phase-1
• HSM capacity • 4 MTPA pallet plant
expansion to 5 • 1 MTPA coke oven
MTPA plant
• Acquired 50% stake in
2011 2013 Vallabh Tinplate
• Acquired Welpsun
Maxsteel

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

• New CRM2- Phase 2 • 74% stake in Paraxair's


• 0.2 MTPA Electrical 2016 the industrial gases joint
venture
steel mill
• Won 5 iron ore mines in
• 18 MTPA Karnataka (111 millon
• Won Moitra coal mine in tonnes estimated
Jharkhand resource
2015
2017

Input :

Raw Material
1. Iron Ore, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 5.Manganese ore
2. Limestone 6.Coal
3. Dolomite 7. Water
4. Quartzite

Energy
1. Electricity 4. BF Gas
2. Corex Gas 5.Mixed Gas
3. LD Gas

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Flow Chart of Plant :

Raw Material Handling System

Ore Benificiation Plant

Iron Ore Lumps Iron Ore Fines Coal Lumps Coal Fines

Sinter Plant Pellet Plant Coke Oven Pulverised Coal

Sinter Pellet Coke Send in BF For Ignition

Flux
Blast Furnace Slag
Air

Hot Metal Slag Granulation Plant

Steel Melting Shop

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Continuos Casting Machine

Slab Billet

Hot Strip Mill Bar Rod Mill Wire Rod Mill

Cold Rolling Mill

Annealed Sheet Galvanised Sheet TMT Bar Wire

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

DEPARTMENTS OF JSW STEEL LIMITED

Raw Material Handling System :

In the RMHS the all raw material is hold for some time as per its requirement.
All the raw material like Iron ore lump and fines, Pellet, Limestone,
Dolomite, Quartzite, Manganese ore, Coal, etc. is bring by means of
transport (Vehicles, Trains) and directly dumped in RMHS.
Major units: 2 wagon tippler, 3 stacker cum reclaimer, 1 barrel reclaimer.
Salient technical feature: Approximately 17 km long Conveyor System.

Ore Beneficiation Plant :


In OBP the concentrate making of raw material is taking place. By Crushing,
Grinding method the Fe content in Iron ore is increases, C content in Coal is
Increases. And also lumps and Fines are separated.
Iron ore lumps are send in sintering plant for making the sinter which is
required in blast furnace. Iron ore fines are send in pellet plant for making the
pellet.
Coal lumps is send in coke oven for making the coke and coal fines is known
as pulverised coal which is send in blast furnace for ignition at the tuyers.

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KLE Technological University
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Sinter Plant :
▪ Sintering is an agglomeration process which produces strong and porous
lumps from a powdered uncompacted mass of iron ore with the application
of heat to the stage of incipient fusion.
▪ Necessary heat is supplied by the combustion of coke breeze.
▪ The process is performed on a travelling grate on which 500-600 mm thick
sinter mix consisting of iron ore, flux, coke breeze and industrial wastesn
along with moisture are fed continuously. The complete combustion of coke
breeze, initiated in the top layer produces a temperature of 1200-1300°C and
is maintained continuously by sucking air through the bed.
▪ The suction of air makes the combustion zone travel through the bed
raising its temperature layer by layer to sintering temperature.
▪ Process completes when combustion zone reaches to the lowest layer of
the bed.
▪ Sinter cake is tipped from the grate in hot condition, broken, screened and
cooled to produce desired fraction.

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Pellet Plant :
Palletisation is the technological process designed to transform fines into
8 to 16 mm size balls with the help of balling disc or balling drum.
Three stages of palletisation process :-
1. Raw material preparation.
2. Formation of green balls.
3. Induration of green balls.

Coke Oven :
The coke making process involves carbonization of coal to high temperatures
(1300°C) in an oxygen deficient atmosphere in order to concentrate the
carbon. The commercial coke making process can be broken down into two
categories: a) Recovery Coke making and b) Non-Recovery Coke making.

Blast Furnace :
The purpose of a blast furnace is to chemically reduce and physically
convert iron oxides into liquid iron called "hot metal". The blast furnace is a
huge, steel stack lined with refractory brick, where iron ore, coke and
limestone are dumped into the top and preheated air is blown into the
bottom. The raw materials require 6 to 8 hours to descend to the bottom of

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

the furnace where they become the final product of liquid slag and liquid
iron. These liquid products are drained from the furnace at regular
intervals. The hot air that was blown into the bottom of the furnace ascends
to the top in 6 to 8 seconds after going through numerous chemical
reactions. Once a blast furnace is started it will continuously run for four to
ten years with only short stops to perform planned maintenance.

Steel Melting Shop :


In SMS input is the Output of blast furnace i.e hot metal. First hot is came by
torpedo ladle and poured in hot metal ladle. Then this first operated in hot
metal desulphurisation plant and in kanbara reactor. Here removal of
sulphur is taking place and then it send in LD Converter for removal of
another impurity like Carbon, Silicon, Manganese, Phosphorous. Here
oxidation process is taking place and hot metal fully converted in steel. Upto
here the primary steel making process is taking place. After this liquid steel
send in ladle heating furnace where alloy addition is taking place and
improving temperature. Then it send in RH department where interstitial
free steel is produced by vacuum degassing method. Then after this liquid
steel is send in continuous casting plant.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 13
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Continuous Casting Plant :


In CCM the liquid steel after RH and LHF process is bring by steel ladle and
put on turret. After this liquid steel is poured in tundish which is act as a
small reservoir and from tundish it is poured in mould.
Mould shape is two type firs slab shape and second billet shape. Mould is
water cooled and after this solidification is taking place. The semi solid
product is passed through rollers and finally cut by torch cutting machine.
The products is slab and billet.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 14
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Hot Strip Mill :

In HSM the slab is first heated in reheating furnace above recrystallisation


temperature of slab. And this passes through high power reducing roller and
water is spraying for cooling. Then after this rolled sheet is successively
reduced by different roller into thin thickness and make a coil and stored in
yard. After this is directly send to CRM or to customer it depend upon
requirement.

Cold Roll Mill :


After the HSM coil rolled sheet is input of CRM. Here the coil rolled is
again rolled to decrease there thickness. First it passes through flattener
and after this shear cutter machine. Sheet is flattened; tail and head end
is cut properly. Then it passes through pickling line where HCl acid is
spraying on it to remove the entire oxide layer. Then after it passes
through tandem cold roll mill where decrease in thickness takes place.
Then this passes through annealing line where annealing takes place. In
which mechanical property is improved. Then after the galvanising was
required so it passed through galvanising line where molten zinc bath is
present. After this it packed and ready for dispatch.
AN OVERVIEW OF HOT METAL DESULPHURIZATION PROCESS
IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 15
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Bar Rod Mill :


Billet is the input of BRM. Here billet is rolled and converted into TMT
Bar. First billet is heated in the reheating furnace up to above its
recrystallization temperature and passed through horizontal oval shape
roller. After this it just passes through the vertical round roller. Again it
passes through successively decreasing set round roller. In last it passes
through final round roller which having negative impression inside it.
So, finally rough surface bar is formed.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 16
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Wire Rod Mill :


Billet is the also input of WRM. Here billet is rolled and converted into
wire. First billet is heated in the reheating furnace up to above its
recrystallization temperature and passed through horizontal oval shape
roller. After this it just passes through the vertical round roller. Again it
passes through successively decreasing set round roller. In last it passes
through final round roller which groove diameter is less than 5 mm. At
last wire is formed and made it in coil form. These all above products
sells as per customer requirement.

FINISHED PRODUCTS AND ITS APPLICATIONS


1. Annealed Sheet :
This type of steel sheet metal is mostly utilized in automobile and
manufacturing industries for body and panel applications. This steel
can be used in forming process and can also be utilized in a drawing
process which transforms the shape of quadrilateral sheet to a
beneficial 3D shape.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 17
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

2. Galvanized Sheet:
• To make the galvanized pipes and galvanized wire.
• The body parts of trucks, cars and buses.
• It is used in high tension electrical towers, protective gears, and
highway signs.
• Galvanized metal has found its way into several household
appliances, such as washing machines, air conditioning
• Uses at in corrosive environment like as sewage, pipelines, fuel
storage tank.

3. TMT Bar
• Bridges
• Dams
• High-Rise Apartments
• Industrial Structure
• Fly Overs

4. Wire
• Machine tools are made from wire rod
• To make the wire ropes
• To make the ball of bearing.
• Uses in the Cosmetics parts
• To make the rings and use in the building pillars

5. Semi Finished Product:


1. Slab
2. Billet
3. Hot Rolled Sheet
4. Cold rolled Sheet

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 18
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

STEEL MELTING SHOP - 2 – OVERVIEW


Introduction:
In steel making shop, molten iron from iron making unit i.e. blast furnace and
scrap and direct reduced iron (DRI) is refined to obtain the desired
chemistry of final product known as steel. The output of blast furnace is the
hot metal which is main input of SMS II. In this department the steel is
produced from hot metal by adding other material like flux, coolant, etc.
It consist several units inside it like Hot Metal Desulphurization plant
(HMDS), Kanbara Reactor(KR), Ladle preparation Bay(LP Bay), Refractory
Engineering Department Pit (RED Pit), LD Converter, Ladle heating
Furnace(LHF), Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) Deggaser, Continuous Casting Plant
(CCP).
In SMS II Basically all the impurity is removed by reduction and oxidation
process. R is removed by reduction process in HMDS. Carbon, Silicon,
Manganese, Phosphorous are removed in LD Converter by oxidation process.
After this steel is taken from LD Converter and send in LHF for alloy addition
and temperature maintenance. Here Aluminium, Niobium, Tungesten,
Chromium, Ferro alloy material is added for production of different grade
steel.
Steel making having two process
• Primary steel making: All the impurities are removed by primary steel
making process by the help of LD Converter. The oxidation process is
taken place in this process.

• Secondary steel making: In this process the high quality grades steel
are produced which is depending upon steel application. Here LHF and
RH Process is coming, means here some alloying addition and refining of
liquid steel takes place.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 19
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

After this liquid steel send to CCM unit where casting is takes place. Slab and
Billet is the output of steel melting shop.
Process :

HOT METAL PRETREATMENT

PRIMARY STEEL MAKING

SECONDARY STEEL MAKING

CONTINUOUS CASTING

Desulphurization

Desulphurization is a process to removing the Sulphur from hot


metal to desired level. Worldwide a whole range of methods for hot metal
desulfurization exists, however three methods are currently used on a
larger commercial scale. The Kanbara Reactor (KR) process, with lime as
a reagent, the Magnesium mono-injection process (MMI), with magnesium
as reagent and the co-injection process, using magnesium and lime or
calcium carbide (sometimes all three of them) as reagents.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 20
KLE Technological University
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Fig1. Kanbara reactor Fig2. Co-injection Fig3.Mono injection

Flow Chart of SMS II :


HOT METAL

SCARP FLUX

ARGON COOLANTS

HMDS KR

OXYGEN LD CONVERTER NITROGEN

AL WIRE FERRO ALLOYS


STEEL
LADDLE

LHF

RH
CCP

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KLE Technological University
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HOT METAL PRETREATMENT

1. Hot Metal Desulphurization System (Injection System):


The Hot Metal is the input of HMDS. The hot metal containing the impurities
like carbon, silicon, manganese, phosphorous, sulphur. But only sulphur is
able to remove here because sulphur is removed by only reduction process.
So that condition for removal of sulphur is maintained in HMDS.
Condition for removal of sulphur :-
• High Temperature.
• Basicity.
• Reducing atmosphere required.
This condition is maintained in HMDS so that sulphur is removed and send
it to LD Converter for removal of other impurities.
Process
• The hot metal is first poured in ladle which has capacity upto 180 ton
and after this water cooled copper lance is inserted in bath and nitrogen
gas is passed through the lance. Also magnesium and calcium carbide
powder spraying with nitrogen gas.
• It spraying in powder form because in powder form better reaction is
taking place with great surface area contact. Magnesium is helping in
that way the magnesium melting point is low and temperature is high
upto 1350oC so it is melted and make bond between sulphur and
calcium in fusive state.
• So finally calcium sulphide is form and goes in top layer as a slag the
time taken by process is 18 min and after this slag raking is takes place
to remove the slag. Slag raking takes 10 –15 min time.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 22
KLE Technological University
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General Reaction are


FeS + CaC2= CaS (slag) + Fe
Input chemistry and temperature of Hot metal before HMDS is
C- 4.66%, Si- 0.58%, Mn – 0.35%, P – 0.12% , S –0.045% , Temp 1350oC
Output chemistry and temperature of Hot metal after HMDS is
C - 4.66%, Si - 0.58%, Mn – 0.35%, P – 0.12%, S – 0.002%, Temp 1320oC
When the output chemistry is achieved then the desulphurized hot metal is
send to LD Converter.

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KLE Technological University
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MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR

Literature survey
KR (Kanbara reactor) is hot metal pre-treatment system for
desulphurization process, it was developed in Japan by Nippon Steel in
1963.Learning from this Japanese technique as a cost-effective process
JSW steel took initiative and installed the first reactor of such kind in
India.KR process in which reaction takes place by addition of reagents
and mixing through mechanical stirring refractory impeller. In the KR
process, lime is used as the main reagent. Sometimes also calcium
fluoride (CaF2, about 10%) and/or aluminium oxide (Al2O3) are
mixed with the lime. The reagent is usually added from the top [1].
lime is used more efficiently in the KR process, lime is cheap and easily
available from lime plant. As compared to Injection system it is very
simple process, further the treatment time is very short.

The project lays emphasis on the desulphurization reagent


consumption and analysing KR equipment of the JSW Steel limited, in
order to propose a more comprehensive and reasonable optimization
measures for KR desulphurization.

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KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Since the final Sulphur achievement at KR is consistently. Very


less as compared to injection process, this process is very cheap as far
as reagent consumption is concerned. Apart from that it equipped
with less automation unlike injection equipment’s, valves, lance
handling and sophisticated logics. As far as safety is concern lime is
also non-hazardous and safe to keep, since calcium carbide requires
more stringent monitoring system for moisture control.

The effect of hot metal desulphurization factor in KR method it


consists of hot metal temperature, desulphurization agent unit
consumption, initial Sulphur content in hot metal, stirring time.
Desulphurization efficiency increases with hot metal temperature and
increase with desulphurization agent unit consumption and stirring
time.

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IN MOVABLE KANBARA REACTOR Page 25
KLE Technological University
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hubli

Basic Data For KR plant

 Type of Process : KR desulfurization process


 No. of units: 1 Unit
 Hot metal Capacity: 195 ton/heat
 Hot metal ladle free board: 900 mm (@120 rpm)
 Required annual treatment 9000 ton/day
amount:
 Actual annual treatment capacity: 2.9 million ton/day
 Annual time: 8,760 hours/year
 Maintenance time: 312 hours/ year
 Impeller exchange time: 4 hours /once
 Impeller exchange annual time: 352 hours /year
 Annual operation time: 8096 hours/ year
(8760-312-352)
 No. of annual heats:
17600 heats/ year
 No. of daily heats
48 heats/day( 17600/365)
 (annual average):

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KLE Technological University
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Hot Metal Composition at KR station

Treatment condition of Desulfurizing is Indicated below.

KR Process In JSW Steel

JSW steel has started mechanical stirring desulphurization process


in hot metal ladle to reduce operation cost, to achieve high
productivity of hot metal desulphurization, and also to meet the
increasing demands for low S steel grades.

It is well known that desulfurization process depends on the


combination of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters.

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KLE Technological University
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Thermodynamic considerations include the type, composition and


relative amount of desulfurizing agent, initial temperature of
treatment, mass and composition of pig iron. Kinetic conditions
depend on the distribution of the particle size of the desulfurizing
agent, intensity of agitation of the bath as determined by rotational
speed of the reactor, physicochemical properties of the involved
phases such as viscosity, besides duration of the pretreatment.

In the pretreatment process in Kanbara Reactor (KR), besides the


initial temperature, mass and composition of pig iron, composition
and mass of the carry over slag from blast furnace composition also
influence the desulfurization process. Physicochemical properties of
slag and metal and relative amount of the desulfurizing agent and
design of the mechanical agitator, determine the energy consumption
and efficiency of the process. There are important factors such as
variation of velocity field radially and axially due to rotational speeds
of impeller which determine the particle metal interaction and
homogenization of circulating metal. The circulating metal promotes
shear force with refractory walls and this friction will determine the
refractory wear. The energy consumption depends on all these factors.
Operational parameters, such as: immersion depth of the impeller and
its positioning, level of liquid metal also affects the desulfurization
process. Hence any model that would be applicable to describe
desulfurization should consider these characteristics and specific
parameters of the industrial reactor.

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Two type of KR

1) Fixed type: One KR equipment for one KR treatment position.


2) Movable type: with recent KR desulphurization equipment, the
time of each operation cycle is greatly reduced, and hot metal up to
185tons can be desulphurised at one time .

KR process in JSW steel is shown in Figure .Before the KR operation,


slag raking is operated for the better efficiency of desulphurization. In
the KR process, burnt lime based reagent is added to hot metal with
high speed of impeller rotation to reduce [S] content down to the
target value. After KR operation, slag raking is operated again in order
to prevent [S] pick up in BOF process and hot metal is charged to BOF

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Figure2: KR process in JSW steel

Basic Operation Flow & Time of KR-2

1. Torpedo (380 ton) which comes from the blast furnace


pours the hot metal into ladle in pouring
Building

2. Lifting ladle from pouring building and transferring into


ladle lifting car

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3. Ladle(capacity 180ton)
transferring to KR
treatment position

4. Sampling and
temperature
measuring before
KR treatment

5. KR Treatment done for


12 min by rotating the
impeller at 120 rpm and
adding desulfurizing
agent ( CaO & CaF2)

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6. Ladle tilting to slag skimming


position and skimmer removes 7. Sampling and
the slag by tilting the ladle temperature
measuring after KR
treatment

8. Ladle transferring to ladle transfer car and transferring to BOF


building for further charging process

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Total time for KR process of each ladle =36.4 min

In KR treatment, due to a strong downward metal stream initiated by


rotating impeller with a high speed, desulphurization reagent particles
are engulfed and dispersed deeply and uniformly into hot metal bath.
During their stay in hot metal bath, hot metal [S] is reacted with CaO
component and removed from hot metal as CaS.

Cao + [S] = CaS + [O] (General Reaction)

One of the features of KR process is re-penetration of non-reacted


desulphurization reagent particles. Dispersed burnt lime particles are
forced to float up to metal surface due to their low specific gravity.
What have not reacted sufficiently with hot metal [S] can be trapped
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by a strong downstream and dispersed again and again into hot metal
bath. Such a cyclic behaviour of desulphurization reagent leads to high
efficiency of desulphurization reaction, resulting in less
desulphurization flux consumption than that in injection process. The
influence of hot metal temperature on S partition ratio (Ls), which is
defined as (%S) / [%S].

(%S) = [S] content in slag,

[%S] = [S] content in hot metal

The influence of hot metal temperature on S partition ratio is


very big, that is, the higher hot metal temperature at KR process, the
better desulphurization efficiency (higher S partition ratio) is
obtained.

Specification of De-S materials:

Characteristics CaO (Lime) CaF2 Al ash


(fluospar)
Grain Size 0-3 mm 0-3mm 0-3mm

Bulk Density 1.1 2.0 1.2


(ton/m2)
Water content(%) 0.0 0.0 0.0

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Fluorspar And Lime

lime is responsible for desulfurization. The amount of CaO that can be


dissolved in a slag is a function of slag composition and temperature.
Once the CaO-saturation point of a slag is reached, any further
addition of lime to the hot metal will only increase the viscosity of the
slag and will inhibit desulfurization.

The addition of fluorspar to along with lime will increase the solubility
of CaO and thus give the slags greater desulfurization potential. It is
this increased CaO solubility (if the lime is added) that increases the
sulfide capacity of the slag, which results in improved desulfurization.
The addition of CaF2 to a fully liquid slag, without adding lime will do
nothing for desulfurization but drastically increase refractory wear.

The component fluorspar by itself is not a good desulfurizing


component. This is demonstrated in the following table that shows the
optical basicity values for the most common desulphurizing
components (higher basicity values are better for desulfurization).

CaF2 added with lime in KR process because

1) To increase the solubility of basic components (CaO) in the slag

2) To maintain fluidity in the slag as the slag temperatures decreases

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KR Plant Major Equipment’s


1. Ladle Tilting and Ladle transferring Car

2. Reagent storage silos

3. Travelling car

➢Hoisting and stirring equipment

➢Impeller

➢ Clamping device

➢ Dedusting Hood

➢Ant falling device

➢Upper bearing and lower bearing

4. Slag racking machine

5. Impeller exchange car

6. Refractory Unit

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1. Ladle Tilting and Ladle Transferring Car:

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2. Reagent Storage Silos and Dispenser


• Total Number of silos: 7
➢ Trucks fill the silos in the pouring station .Each truck
has a capacity of 18 ton.
➢ For 1 heat=2 ton of lime and 200 kg of CaF2 is required

CaO silo
CaF2 silo
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CaO and Flurospar RAV Bag Filter

3. Travelling Car : (Mechanical Stirring system)

KR travelling car consist of the following devices:


1. Impeller hoisting and stirring device
2. Impeller
3. Dedusting hood

➢ Impeller hoisting and stirring


device
The stirring equipment stirs the hot
metal mechanically to let the hot metal
react with desulfurizing agent efficiently.
The hydraulic clamping has been
employed to hold the stirring equipment
against the hoisting mast rails so that
the vibrations get reduced and high
speed stirring to be conducted.
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The hoisting equipment


lowers the stirring
equipment using wire
ropes. It has vibration
meters and detectors to
monitor the vibration and
tension during the
treatment

Type Mechanical stirring Hoisting equipment


equipment

1) Quantity 1 units 1 units

2) Speed 100 rpm to 150 rpm Low:1.5m/min


with load High:approx
6.5m/min
3) Motor Power supply:690V Power supply
AC,50HZ :415V AC,50HZ
4) Gear reduction 1/6.3 1/71
ratio
5) Accessories Lubricator Wire ropes ,
circulation pump, Absocoders, wire
thermometer with tension, detectors
contact

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➢ Impeller
• The impeller is connected with
stirring shaft and bolts. The
impeller has four steel blades and
studs are placed into the blades
and shaft to be coated with
refractory castable material.
• The impeller shaft is hollow shaft
in the same way as the stirring
shaft and the inner shaft is
inserted in hollow shaft to let cool
air to flow up to the end.Exhaust
air is blown onto the impeller
moulting bolt ,playing a role of
protecting the bolts.

➢ Dedusting Hood
The KR dust collection Hood is
designed to control the Powder from
littering to the surroundings, which
occurs in operation . The Equipment
reduces the gap between the hood and
ladle and then decrease the littered
dust amounts by installing a lifting
type of skirt on the circumference of
the circular hood

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4. Slag skimming Machine

• The deslagging machine is located behind a slag bucket on a platform .


The ladles are placed into the tilting cradle in front of slag bucket by
means of crane . The deslagging machine is moved into working
composition and operator can start with deslagging process.
• The main components
➢ Boom
➢ Deslagging shield
➢ Turning gear
➢ Hydraulic Unit
➢ Cabin
➢ Supporting Frame

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5. Impeller exchange Car


• It is intended for exchanging
the impeller whose refractory
has been worn out in the KR
Desulfurization unit.
• The impeller exchange car can
travel with two impellers, new
and old ,loaded. Exchange
work is carried out in an area
under the KR travelling car
dusting hood; it is equipped
with a ground deck with
ceiling to provide protection
against falling skull etc.

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6. Refractory Unit

Refractory unit is where the


refractory material along with
slags from the old impellers are
removed and repaired into new
impeller. During the KR
treatment process the hot metal
slag gets still in the propellers of
the impeller

The refractory material is made up of silica based material called ASC.


Its is having high melting point than the hot molten metal , because of
these reasons it is used in the impeller for the stirring process at a speed of
120 rpm.

STEPS:

• After the impeller is moved down the refractory material along with
the slag is removed by DE bricking machine.
• After removing the slag the anchor (made of steel material) is
checked if there is any damage or bending .

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• If the is any damage in the anchor then it is again welded in the


refractory casting station.
• After that the skeleton mould to be fixed with the anchor for casting
There are total 8 moulds for an impeller
- 4 moulds of shaft
- 4 moulds of propellers

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The impeller should be placed in straight position or else there will be


improper casting shape which will lead to vibrations while stirring

• Casting material is poured in the mixture machine with 8-7% of


water with about 1-1.5 hours of time.

• After that the mixture is poured into the mould and kept for 36 hours
for settling .
• Then again the impeller is set for natural drying for about 36
hours.
• Then it is sent for the impeller pre heat treatment at a temp of
200 degree Celcius for 40 hours

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• Then again natural drying is done for 12 hours because cracks


will develop after the heat treatment so in order to decrease the
crack thickness the natural drying is done.

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CRITICAL PARAMETERS OF KR PROCESS


1) Effective surface area ratio: An index of effective surface area
ratio is introduced to investigate the impeller shape design. The
calculation formula is as follows;

Effective surface area ratio = (2w+t) x n x h / (D x H)

Where w= Propeller length of impeller, t = Propeller thickness of


impeller, h = Propeller height of impeller, n = Number of propellers, D
= Diameter of hot metal ladle, H = Bath depth

Figure. Symbol of effective surface area ratio

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2) Impeller Design: The impeller is the critical parts and its


dimension must be carefully designed depending on the target plant
conditions.

a) Propeller height: This value usually ranges between 700mm and


900mm, but should be finalized aiming around 0.35 of the effective
surface area ratio

b) Propeller thickness and propeller width: Once propeller


thickness is decided, propeller width is automatically decided.
Propeller thickness is designed based on the structural strength of
propeller itself and castable refractory wearing rate. Usually propeller
thickness is around 500 mm for 200 heats

c) Angle: This angle (α)is critical to refractory wearing of lower part


of propeller which is mainly damaged in KR operation. Minimum cast
able thickness is the distance between low edge of core metal and the
outer surface of cast able. To be 200 heat life, this thickness is around
150 mm and the angle (α) can be calculated, for example, 40in No.2
steelmaking Shop of JSW steel limited [6]

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COMPASION BETWEEN KR AND INJECTION PROCESS

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MAJOR PROBLEMS FACED IN KR REACTOR


Overheating of hydraulic power bank
The KR reactor works for 24 hour of operation in very harsh condition
.The optimum temperature of the Hydraulic power bank should be
less than 65 degree celcius , due to continuous operation it sometime
reach above 70 degree celcius which results in leakage of oil from the
power bank. So there is a need for a cooling system in the power bank.

SRM Bellow leakage


During the Skimming process the flange of raking machine vibrates
which leads to leakage oil from the bellow

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Material discharging problem


Due to its size and nature of the reagents its tendency of choking in the
storage bunker, result of this for forcefully clearing or filling of hopper
by using external manual resources like hammering or poking of the
bunker the material slips and falls in the hopper in uncontrolled way
by this hopper was overfilled, which is going to be in the ladle while
material addition which is much more than the requirement, which is
reagent loss physically.

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CONCLUSION
KR process is the best process can be achieving the ultra-low Sulphur by
using local availability of cheap raw materials.
In this project excess addition of reagent is most favourable cause for
reagent consumption in KR process-2.The reagent consumption controlled
by small implementation.

• In KR process load cell fluctuation happens due to expansion


chute from RAV is touching the plate that has been provided
below, so in order to change that we increase the Diameter of
the plate from 130cm to 150cm to provide proper clearance
• In reagent line choke can be reduce by providing additional
aeration system to bottom of the silo
• over filling of weigh hopper can be avoided by implement a
logic interlock.
• Addition of reagent with respect input Sulphur and
desulphurization should be finished at one time, Avoid double
(twice) De-S
By above modifications, the reagent consumption from 12.083 kg of lime
and 1.211 kg of fluorspar per ton of hot metal is reduced to 11.038 kg of
lime and 1.072kg of fluorspar per ton of hot metal.

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REFERENCES
• www.jsw.in
• Technical training Manual for SMS II, JSW Steel LTD.
• Wikipedia
• www.ispatguru.com
• Modern Steel Making by Dr. R. H. Tupkary & V. R. Tupkary.
• ]M.K. Cho et al. Hot Metal Desulfurization by CaO-SiO2-CaF2-Na2O
Slag Saturated with MgO. ISIJ International. 2010. 50: 215-221.
• ISIJ International, Vol. 57 (2017), No. 2,217

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