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CRE Questions

1) A pulse input to a vessel gives the results shown in

(a) Check the material balance with the tracer curve to see whether the results are
consistent. (b) If the result is consistent, determine t, V and sketch the E curve.

2) A pulse input to a vessel gives the results shown in figure

(a) Are the results consistent? (Check the material balance with the experimental
tracer curve.) (b) If the results are consistent, determine the amount of tracer
introduced M, and the E curve.

3) A step experiment is made on a reactor. The results are shown in Fig.

(a) Is the material balance consistent with the tracer curve? (b) If so, determine the
vessel volume V, 7, the F curve, and the E curve.

4) A batch of radioactive material is dumped into the Columbia River at Hanford,


Washington. At Bonneville Dam, about 400 km downstream the flowing
waters (6000 m3/s) are monitored for a particular radioisotope (t,,,> 10 yr) and
the data of Fig. are obtained. (a) How many units of this tracer were
introduced into the river? (b) What is the volume of Columbia River waters
between Bonneville Dam and the point of introduction of tracer?
5) A liquid macrofluid reacts according to A → R as it flows through a vessel.
Find the conversion of A for the flow patterns of Fig and kinetics as shown.
CAo = 1 mol/liter -rA = kCA0.5 k = 2 mol0.5/liter0.5.min

6) A liquid macrofluid reacts according to A → R as it flows through a vessel.


Find the conversion of A for the flow patterns of Fig and kinetics as shown.
CAo = 2 mol/liter -rA = kCA2 k = 2 litre/mol.min

7) A liquid macrofluid reacts according to A → R as it flows through a vessel.


Find the conversion of A for the flow patterns of Fig and kinetics as shown.
CAo = 6 mol/liter, -rA = k, k = 3 litre/mol.min
8) A liquid macrofluid reacts according to A → R as it flows through a vessel.
Find the conversion of A for the flow patterns of Fig P11.11and kinetics as
shown.
CAo = 0.1 mol/liter, -rA = k, k =0.3 litre/mol.min

9) Reactant A (CA0 = 64 mol/m3) flows through a plug flow reactor (r = 50 s),


and reacts away as follows:
A→R, -rA=0.005 CA1.5
Determine the conversion of A if the stream is: a) microfluid, (b) macrofluid.

10) A 12-m length of pipe is packed with 1 m of 2-mm material, 9 m of 1-cm


material, and 2 m of 4-mm material. Estimate the variance in the output C
curve for a pulse input into this packed bed if the fluid takes 2 min to flow
through the bed. Assume a constant bed voidage and a constant intensity of
dispersion given by D/UL = 2.

11) Aqueous A (CAO = 1 mol/liter) with physical properties close to water (p =


1000 kg/m3, CB = m2/s) reacts by a first-order homogeneous reaction (A → R,
k = 0.2 s-I) as it flows at 100 mm/s through a tubular reactor (d, = 50 mm, L =
5 m). Find the conversion of A in the fluid leaving this reactor.

12) Aqueous A (CAO = 50 mol/m3) with physical properties close to water (p =


1000 kg/m3,D = 10-9 m2/s) reacts by a second-order reaction (k = m3/mol. s) as
it flows at 10 mm/s through a tubular reactor (d = 10 mm, L = 20 m). Find the
conversion of reactant A from this reactor.
13) The degree of backmixing in a tall slurry reactor was analyzed by injecting a pulse of methy1
orange into the column. For a superficial gas velocity of 10 cm/s and a liquid velocity of 3cm/s
Tracer Conc. 0 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.85 1 1 0.95

t (min) 0.3 0.6 0.9 1.2 1.5 1.8 2.1 2.4

Tracer Conc. 0.85 0.8 0.65 0.5 0.35 0.25 0.125 0.0

t (min) 2.7 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.5 10.0


Note that no units are specified in the tracer concentration values.
What is the mean residence time of a liquid molecule in the reactor?
Develop a model that is consistent with the experimental data. Evaluate all model parameters.

14. On the basis of dispersion model, prove that the fractional conversion in a plug flow reactor depends
on dimensionless dispersion group?
15. The following data were obtained from a step tracer input to a reactor:
t (min) 0 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

C(mg/dm3) 0 0 1 4 7 8 8.5 8.9 9.2 9.5 10 11

t (min) 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

C(mg/dm3) 15 20 22 23 23.5 24 24.3 24.5 24.5 24.5


Develop a model that is consistent with the experimental data.
16. Define micro fluids and macro fluid? What is their effect on the final product outcome in a
mixed flow reactor?
17. What is the effect of segregation and mixing on the reactor design of plug flow and mixed
flow reactors?
18. Consider a PFR

Evaluate the first moment about the mean for PFR, 𝑚1 = ∫0 (𝑡 − 𝜏)𝐸(𝑡)

19. Consider a CSTR Evaluate the first moment about the mean for CSTR, 𝑚1 = ∫0 (𝑡 − 𝜏)𝐸(𝑡)
20. Calculate the conversion in PFR for a second order liquid phase reaction with Da=1.0(τ=2min and
kCAo =0.5min-1
21. Calculate the conversion in CSTR for a second order liquid phase reaction with Da=1.0 (τ=2min
and kCAo =0.5min-1
22. Explain how catalyst poisoning reduce the selectivity of the catalyst
23.A tracer study was conducted on a flow reactor, and it was found that the RTD was consistent with
the tanks-in-series model, with N = 5. The mean residence time in the system was 7.8 minutes. (a) For a
first-order reaction, A → products, with kA = 0.25 min-1, determine the exit fractional conversions
predicted by the segregated-flow.
24. For the dissociation reaction facilitated by catalyst, derive rate equation for Chemical reaction as
rate controlling step

A2 + S↔A2S
A2S + S↔ 2AS
AS↔ A + S

25. For the dissociation reaction facilitated by catalyst, derive rate equation for adsorption rate
controlling step

A2 + S↔A2S
A2S + S↔ 2AS
AS↔ A + S
26. Gaseous A absorbs and reacts with B in liquid according to
A(g) +B(l) → R, -Ra= KCACB
in a packed bed under conditions where
kAg a = 0.1 mol/hr . m2 of reactor. Pa fi = 0.01 m3 liquid/m3 reactor
kAla= 100 m3 l iquid/m3 r eactor. hr gAl= gB=l m2/hr
a = 100 m2/m3 reactor, k=10,HA= 105
At a point in the reactor where pA = 100 Pa and CB = 100 mol/m3 liquid
calculate the rate of reaction in mol/hr . m3 of reactor.
(b) describe the following characteristics of the kinetics:
location of the major resistance (gas film, liquid film, main body
of liquid)
behavior in the liquid film (pseudo first-order reaction, instantaneous,
second-order reaction, physical transport)

27. Gaseous A absorbs and reacts with B in liquid according to


A(g) +B(l) → R, -Ra= KCACB
in a packed bed under conditions where
kAg a = 0.1 mol/hr . m2 of reactor. Pa fi = 0.01 m3 liquid/m3 reactor
kAla= 100 m3 l iquid/m3 r eactor. hr gAl= gB=l m2/hr
a = 100 m2/m3 reactor, k=106,HA= 104
At a point in the reactor where pA = 100 Pa and CB = 100 mol/m3 liquid
(a) calculate the rate of reaction in mol/hr . m3 of reactor.
(b) describe the following characteristics of the kinetics:
location of the major resistance (gas film, liquid film, main body of liquid)
behavior in the liquid film (pseudo first-order reaction, instantaneous,
second-order reaction, physical transport)

28. Danckwerts and Gillham, in Trans. I. Chem. E., 44, 42, March 1966, studied the rate of CO 2
absorption into an alkaline buffered solution of K2CO3 and KHCO. The resulting reaction can be
represented as CO2(g -1) + OH-(1) =HCO3 with -r, = kCACB
In the experiment pure CO2 at 1 atm was bubbled into a packed column irrigated by rapidly
recirculating solution kept at 20°C and close to constant CB. Find the fraction of entering CO2 absorbed.
Data Column: Vr = 0.6041 m3 fl = 0.08, a = 120 m2/m3 Gas: P = 101 325 Pa, HA = 3500 Pa. m3/mol vO
= 0.0363 m3/s ,Liquid: CB = 300 mol/m3 DAl = DBl = 1.4 x10-9 m2/s, Rates: k = 0.433 m3/mol. S, kAla =
0.025 s-1
29. A batch of solids of uniform size is treated by gas in a uniform environment. Solid is converted to
give a non flaking product according to the shrinking-core model. Conversion is about 7/8 for a reaction
time of 1 h, conversion is complete in two hours. What mechanism is rate controlling?
Calculate the time needed to burn to completion particles of graphite (R, = 5 mm, p, = 2.2 gm/cm3, k" =
20 cmlsec) in an 8% oxygen stream.
For the high gas velocity used assume that film diffusion does not offer any resistance to transfer and
reaction. Reaction temperature = 900°C.
30. Air with gaseous A bubbles through a tank containing aqueous B. Reaction
occurs as follows: A(g) +B(l) → R, -Ra= KCACB
For this system
kAg a = 0.02 mol/hr m3. Pa fl= 0.98
kAl a = 10 hr-l HA = 105 Pa. mmol, very low solubility DAl=DBl=10 -6 m2/hr a = 20 m2/m3
For a point in the absorber-reactor where
pA = 5 X lo3 Pa and CB = 100 mol/m3
(a) locate the resistance to reaction (what % is in the gas film, in the liquid film, in the main body of
liquid)
(b) locate the reaction zone
(c) determine the behavior in the liquid film (whether pseudo first-order reaction, instantaneous,
physical transport,etc.)
(d) calculate the rate of reaction (mol/m3 hr)

31. For a particular reactor system, involving three tanks in series, develop a graph which shows the
change in CA as a function of time, where (-rA) = kACA, CA0 = 0.25 mol L-l, kA = 0.125 min-1, and for
the system is 7.5 min; CA(O) = 0.

32. Spherical particles of zinc blende of size R = 1 mm are roasted in an 8% oxygen stream at 900°C
and 1 atm. The stoichiometry of the reaction is 2ZnS+3O2→2ZnO+2SO2
Assuming that reaction proceeds by the shrinking-core model calculate the time needed for complete
conversion of a particle and the relative resistance of ash layer diffusion during this operation.
Data: Density of solid, ρB = 4.13 gm/cm3 = 0.0425 mol/cm3 Reaction rate constant, k" = 2 cm/sec For
gases in the ZnO layer, De = 0.08 cm2/sec Note that film resistance can safely be neglected as long as a
growing ash layer is present.
33. On doubling the particle size from R to 2R the time for complete conversion triples. What is the
contribution of ash diffusion to the overall resistance for particles of size (a) R and (b) 2R
34. Spherical solid particles containing B are roasted isothermally in an oven with gas of constant
composition. Solids are converted to a firm nonflaking product according to the SCM as follows:
From the following conversion data (by chemical analysis) or core size data (by slicing and measuring)
determine the rate controlling mechanism for the transformation of solid.
dp, mm XB t, min
1 0.875 3
1.5 1 6

35. Uniform-sized spherical particles UO, are reduced to UO, in a uniform environment with the
following results:
T 0.18 0.35 0.45 0.57 0.73
XB 0.45 0.67 0.80 0.95 0.98
If reaction follows the SCM, find the controlling mechanism and a rate equation to represent this
reduction.
36. A large stockpile of coal is burning. Every part of its surface is in flames. In a 24-hr period the linear
size of the pile, as measured by its silhouette against the horizon, seems to decrease by about 5%. (a)
How should the burning mass decrease in size? (b) When should the fire burn itself out? (c) State the
assumptions on which your estimation is based.
37. A stream of particles of one size are 80% converted (SCM ash diffusion control, uniform gas
environment) on passing through a reactor. If the reactor is made twice the size but with the same gas
environment, same feed rate, and same flow pattern of solids, what would be the conversion of solids?
The solids are in plug flow
38. A stream of particles of one size are 80% converted (SCM ash diffusion control, uniform gas
environment) on passing through a reactor. If the reactor is made twice the size but with the same gas
environment, same feed rate, and same flow pattern of solids, what would be the conversion of solids?
The solids are mixed flow
39. A solid feed consisting of 20 wt% of 1-mm particles and smaller 30 wt% of 2-mm particles 50 wt%
of 4-mm particles passes through a rotating tubular reactor somewhat like a cement kiln where it reacts
with gas to give a hard nonfriable solid product (SCMI reaction control, T = 4 h for 4-mm particles).
Find the residence time needed for 100% conversion of solids.

40 . A solid feed consisting of 20 wt% of 1-mm particles and smaller 30 wt% of 2-mm particles 50 wt%
of 4-mm particles passes through a rotating tubular reactor somewhat like a cement kiln where it reacts
with gas to give a hard nonfriable solid product (SCMI reaction control, T = 4 h for 4-mm particles).
Find the mean conversion of the solids for a residence time of 15 min.
41. Particles of uniform size are 70% converted on the average (shrinking core model with diffusion
controlling) when flowing through a single fluidized bed. If the reactor is made twice as large but
contains the same amount of solids and with the same gas environment what would be the conversion of
solids?

42. Particles of uniform size are 60% converted on the average (shrinking core model with reaction
controlling) when flowing through a single fluidized bed. If the reactor is made twice as large but
contains the same amount of solids and with the same gas environment what would be the conversion of
solids?
43. Solids of unchanging size, R = 0.3 mm, are reacted with gas in a steady flow bench scale fluidized
reactor with the following result.
F = 10 gm/sec, W = 1000 gm, X = 0.75
Also, the conversion is strongly temperature-sensitive suggesting that the reaction step is rate-
controlling. Design a commercial sized fluidized bed reactor (find W) to treat 4 metric tons/hr of solid
feed of size R = 0.3 mm to 98% conversion.

44. Give the advantages and disadvantages of moving-particle reactors and fixed bed reactor.
45. Give the advantages and disadvantages of slurry reactors
46. Give the advantages and disadvantages of trickle bed reactors
47. Write a note on effectiveness factor
48. Give the physical significance of Thiele Modulus and Wheeler modulus.
49. The following kinetic data are obtained in an experimental Carberry type basket reactor using 100
gm of catalyst in the paddles and different flow rates from run to run:
Mixed flow CAo = 10 mol/m3 0.2 0.3 0.5 W = 4 gm, CAo = 10 mol/m3
A→R
FAo,mol/min 0.14 0.42 1.67 2.5 1.25
CA, mol/m3 8 6 4 2 1
Determine the amount of catalyst needed in a packed bed reactor for 75% conversion of 1000 mol
A/min of a CAo = 8 mol/m3 feed.
50. Find W for mixed flow, XA = 0.90, CAo = 10 mol/m3, FAo = 1000 mol/min.
How much catalyst is needed in a packed bed reactor for 80% conversion of 1000 m3/hr of pure gaseous
A (CAo = 100 mol/m3) if the stoichiometry and rate are given by A→R