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Three Phase Induction Motors

Chapter · October 2017

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Mohammed Azher Therib


Al-Furat Al-Awsat Technical University
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Three Phase Induction Motors

Introduction:
The three phase induction motors are simple in construction, rugged,
low cost and easy to maintain. They run at a constant speed from no-load
to the full load. Therefore, these motors are frequently used in industry.

Parts of Induction Motor:

1- Stator ‫ العضو الساكن‬: consisting of a steel frame that supports a


hollow cylindrical core of stacked laminations. Slots are on the internal
circumference of the stator.

2- Air Gap ‫ الفجوة الهوائية‬: This air gap has a length from 1.25 mm to
2.5 mm.

3- Rotor ‫ العضو المتحرك‬: Also composed of punched laminations with


rotor slots for rotor winding.

Stator

Rotor

Figure 1: Induction Motor Parts.

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Types of Induction Motors:

1- Squirrel Cage winding, which produce a squirrel cage induction


motor (most common).
2- Conventional 3 phase windings made of industrial wire, which
produce a wound-rotor induction motor.

For squirrel cage rotor it consists of copper bars, slightly longer than
the rotor, which are pushed into slots. The ends are welded to copper and
rings so that all bars are short circuited.

Figure 2: Squirrel Cage Rotor.

A wound rotor, has a 3-phase winding similar to the stator winding.


The rotor terminals are connected to three slip rings which turn with the
rotor. The slip (and brushes) allow external resistors to be connected in
series with the winding.

The external resistors are mainly used during start up and under
normal running conditions, the windings are short circuited externally.

Mohammed Azher Therib


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Figure 3: Wound Rotor.

Operating Principle of Induction Motors:

The operation of a 3-phase I.M. is based upon the application of


Faraday's law and the Lorentz force on a conductor. Consider Figure 4
where a series of conductors (Length L) whose external ends are shorted
by bars.

Figure 4: Operating principle.

A permanent magnet moves at speed V, so that its magnetic field


sweeps the conductors. The following sequence of events takes place:

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1- A voltage ( E = B.L.V. ) is induced in each conductor while it's


being cut by the flux (Faraday's law).
2- The induced voltage produces currents which circulate in a loop
around the conductors (through the bars).
3- Since the current-carrying conductors lie in a magnetic field, they
experience a mechanical force (Lorentz force).
4- The force always acts in a direction to drag the conductor along
with the magnetic field.

Synchronous Speed and the Slip:

The synchronous speed (Nsyc.) of the magnetic field is given by:

𝟏𝟐𝟎 𝒇
Nsyc. = in rpm
𝒑

Where : f is the frequency of the supply (stator).

p is the number of poles.

If Nr is the speed of the rotor (in rpm) then the difference between
the synchronous speed and rotor speed is called the (slip) and is defined
in per unit as:

𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄. − 𝑵𝒓
S= unit less ( per unit )
𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄.

 For induction motors Nsyc. > Nr and the slip is always positive.
 At no-load the slip is nearly zero.

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The Operation of 3-Phase IM:

As the magnetic flux rotates, it cuts the rotor conductors. Hence,


a voltage is induced in the conductors. This voltage will circulate a
current in the rotor conductors (shorted by two rings). This current
interact with the air gap flux to produce torque.

The torque is maintained as long as the rotating flux and rotor


current is present. The rotor will always rotate in the direction of the
rotating field at the speed Nr ( Nr < Nsyc. ). The operation of an
induction motor is divided into two parts, stand still and running
periods. At stand still Nr = 0 and S = 1.

Due to relative speed between rotating flux and stationary


conductors, an e.m.f is induced in the latter (Faraday's law). The
frequency of this rotor e.m.f is the same as the stator frequency
(supply).

While the magnitude of this e.m.f is proportional to the relative


velocity between flux and rotor conductors, the direction is
determined by right hand rule (RHR). This e.m.f will set up current in
the rotor conductors , whose direction is determined by Lenz's law.

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Modes of Operation of 3-Phase IM:

1- At starting S = 1 , Nr = 0

fr = fs

2- Nr < Nsyc. , S positive ( 0 < S < 1 )


The machine is an induction motor
fr = S * fs

3- Nr = Nsyc. , S = 0 , Er = 0 , Ir = 0
fr = S * fs = 0

Where: Er : rotor induced e.m.f .


Ir : rotor induced current .

4- Nr > Nsyc. , S negative ( S < 0 )


The machine is an induction generator
fr = S * fs

5- Nr negative (opposite direction)


𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄. −(− 𝑵𝒓 ) 𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄. + 𝑵𝒓
S= =
𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄. 𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄.

The machine is in breaking mode (frequency multipliers).

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Example:
A three phase IM , six poles , 50 Hz is supplied by a three
phase source. The rotor is rotating at 800 rpm. Calculate :
1- The slip.
2- The rotor current frequency.

Solution:

𝟏𝟐𝟎∗𝒇 𝟏𝟐𝟎 ∗𝟓𝟎


1- Nsyc. = = = 1000 rpm
𝒑 𝟔

𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄. − 𝑵𝒓 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎 – 𝟖𝟎𝟎


S= = = 0.2
𝑵𝒔𝒚𝒄. 𝟏𝟎𝟎𝟎

2- fr = S * fs = 0.2 * 50 = 10 Hz

Mohammed Azher Therib

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