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TENDER DOCUMENT

(Volume II: Specifications)

PART 1

MARINA SQUARE

PROPOSED MIXED DEVELOPMENT

AT

NO. 250, SRIMATH RAMANATHAN MAWATHA,

COLOMBO 15

August 2018
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

CONTENTS

 
VOLUME II

SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 3

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................. 4

PARTICULAR SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................ 5

SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL WORKS ................................................................... 6

SPECIFICATION FOR ARCHITECTURAL WORKS ............................................................. 7

SPECIFICATION FOR PLUMBING WORKS ........................................................................ 8

SPECIFICATION FOR MECHANICAL WORKS ................................................................... 9

SPECIFICATION FOR ELECTRICAL WORKS ................................................................... 10 

NOTE: SOME SECTIONS IN THE SPECIFICATION FOR ARCHITECTURAL WORK


HAVE BEEN REPLACED WITH THAT INCLUDED AS ANNEXURES

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 1
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

VOLUME II

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 2
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

SPECIFICATIONS

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 3
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

Generally the Work shall conform to the following publications by the Construction Industry
Development Authority (CIDA), “Savsiripaya”, Wijerama Mawatha, Colombo 07.

1. Specification for Building Works - Sri Lanka (Volume I) – [3rd Edition (Revised) - July 2004].
CIDA Publication No. SCA/4/I

2. Specifications for Building works - Sri Lanka (Volume II) - Sanitary Installation – [2nd Edition
(Revised) – October 2001]. CIDA Publication No. SCA/4/II

3. Specifications for Water Supply Sewerage and storm Water Drainage Works – [2nd Edition
(Revised) – April 2002]. CIDA Publication No. SCA/3/2

4 Specifications for Electrical and Mechanical Works Associated with Building and Civil
engineering – [2nd Edition (Revised) – August 2000]. CIDA Publication No. SCA/8

Tenderers are expected to be fully acquainted with the above documents and hence these will not
be issued to the bidders with this document. Tenderers may purchase same if necessary from CIDA.

As these are Standard Specifications, it is likely that a number of specifications expressed will not
apply to this project. The requirements of the above Standard Specifications apply only in respect
of work described in Employer’s Requirements.

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 4
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

PARTICULAR SPECIFICATIONS

Particular Specifications shall be read in conjunction with the General Specification where
applicable. Where the Particular Specifications are in conflict with the General Specification, the
Particular Specifications shall always prevail.

Where a particular proprietary product or system has been specified, the Contractor may offer
same or other equivalent proprietary product or system together with all technical information and
performance data for the consideration of the Engineer. The Engineer will consider such
alternative offers if the requirements of the Engineer are met with such offers.

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 5
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL WORKS

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 6
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

CONTENTS

 
VOLUME II

SPECIFICATIONS ........................................................................................................................ 3

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS .................................................................................................. 4

PARTICULAR SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................ 5

SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL WORKS ................................................................... 6

SPECIFICATION FOR ARCHITECTURAL WORKS ............................................................. 7

SPECIFICATION FOR PLUMBING WORKS ........................................................................ 8

SPECIFICATION FOR MECHANICAL WORKS ................................................................... 9

SPECIFICATION FOR ELECTRICAL WORKS ................................................................... 10 

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 1
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

VOLUME II

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 2
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

SPECIFICATIONS

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 3
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

GENERAL SPECIFICATIONS

Generally the Work shall conform to the following publications by the Construction Industry
Development Authority (CIDA), “Savsiripaya”, Wijerama Mawatha, Colombo 07.

1. Specification for Building Works - Sri Lanka (Volume I) – [3rd Edition (Revised) - July 2004].
CIDA Publication No. SCA/4/I

2. Specifications for Building works - Sri Lanka (Volume II) - Sanitary Installation – [2nd Edition
(Revised) – October 2001]. CIDA Publication No. SCA/4/II

3. Specifications for Water Supply Sewerage and storm Water Drainage Works – [2nd Edition
(Revised) – April 2002]. CIDA Publication No. SCA/3/2

4 Specifications for Electrical and Mechanical Works Associated with Building and Civil
engineering – [2nd Edition (Revised) – August 2000]. CIDA Publication No. SCA/8

Tenderers are expected to be fully acquainted with the above documents and hence these will not
be issued to the bidders with this document. Tenderers may purchase same if necessary from CIDA.

As these are Standard Specifications, it is likely that a number of specifications expressed will not
apply to this project. The requirements of the above Standard Specifications apply only in respect
of work described in Employer’s Requirements.

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 4
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

PARTICULAR SPECIFICATIONS

Particular Specifications shall be read in conjunction with the General Specification where
applicable. Where the Particular Specifications are in conflict with the General Specification, the
Particular Specifications shall always prevail.

Where a particular proprietary product or system has been specified, the Contractor may offer
same or other equivalent proprietary product or system together with all technical information and
performance data for the consideration of the Engineer. The Engineer will consider such
alternative offers if the requirements of the Engineer are met with such offers.

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 5
Marina Square - Proposed Mixed Development at Colombo 15 Tender Document

SPECIFICATION FOR STRUCTURAL WORKS

DG5I/SBD/FIDIC 6
PROPOSED HARBOUR VILLAGE MIXED DEVELOPMENT
AT COLOMBO 15
Project No: 170918
Project No: 121055

Particular specification
Specification for Structural Works

DOCUMENT NO: REVISION: DATE: STATUS: CHECKED: APPROVED:


CSEC-DG5-HV-SP-004 00 28-11-2017 TENDER SH PM

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CONTENTS

1. SITE PREPARATION AND EXCAVATION ........................................................................ 1

1.1. GENERAL ........................................................................................................................ 1

1.1.1. SCOPE ..................................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1.2. RELATED WORK ...................................................................................................................................... 1

1.1.3. QUALITY ASSURANCE ............................................................................................................................. 1

1.1.4. REFERENCES ........................................................................................................................................... 2

1.1.5. USE OF EXPLOSIVES ................................................................................................................................ 2

1.1.6. SITE INVESTIGATION ............................................................................................................................... 2

1.1.7. RECORDS OF MEASUREMENT ................................................................................................................ 2

1.1.8. TERMITE TREATMENT ............................................................................................................................ 3

1.2. MATERIALS..................................................................................................................... 3

1.2.1. TERMITE CONTROL ................................................................................................................................. 3

1.2.2. FILLING ................................................................................................................................................... 4

1.2.3. FILTER FABRIC ......................................................................................................................................... 4

1.2.4. UNDER FLOOR VAPOUR BARRIER ........................................................................................................... 4

1.2.5. PROTECTION TO MEMBRANES ............................................................................................................... 4

1.2.6. WATER PROOF MEMBRANE ................................................................................................................... 4

1.3. EXECUTION .................................................................................................................... 5

1.3.1. SITE CLEARING ........................................................................................................................................ 5

1.3.2. SHORING ................................................................................................................................................ 5

1.3.3. UNDERPINNING, STRUTTING ADJACENT STRUCTURES .......................................................................... 6

1.3.4. BULK EXCAVATION ................................................................................................................................. 7

1.3.5. SOIL......................................................................................................................................................... 8

1.3.6. SITE RESTORATION ................................................................................................................................. 9

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1.3.7. BAD GROUND ......................................................................................................................................... 9

1.3.8. EXISTING SERVICES ................................................................................................................................. 9

1.3.9. DEWATERING ......................................................................................................................................... 9

1.3.10. EROSION CONTROL ............................................................................................................................ 10

1.3.11. FILLING ............................................................................................................................................... 10

1.3.12. CLEAN UP............................................................................................................................................ 12

2. STRUCTURAL CONCRETE WORKS ................................................................................ 13

2.1. GENERAL ...................................................................................................................... 13

2.1.1. EXTENT OF WORKS ............................................................................................................................... 13

2.1.2. RESPONSIBILITY .................................................................................................................................... 13

2.1.3. STANDARDS .......................................................................................................................................... 13

2.1.4. INSPECTIONS ........................................................................................................................................ 13

2.1.5. SAMPLES AND TEST .............................................................................................................................. 14

2.1.6. ACCEPTANCE & REJECTION .................................................................................................................. 14

2.1.7. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES ............................................................................................................. 14

2.2. FORMWORK ................................................................................................................. 14

2.2.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 14

2.2.2. FORMWORK DESIGN ............................................................................................................................ 15

2.2.3. TYPES OF FORMWORK ......................................................................................................................... 15

2.2.4. TREATMENT.......................................................................................................................................... 16

2.2.5. FINISHES TO SHUTTERED SURFACES .................................................................................................... 16

2.2.6. FINISHES TO UNFORMED CONCRETE ................................................................................................... 17

2.2.7. DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES ................................................................................................................ 19

2.2.8. FORMWORK OPENINGS ....................................................................................................................... 21

2.2.9. STRIPPING & REMOVAL OF FORMWORK ............................................................................................. 21

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2.3. REINFORCEMENT .......................................................................................................... 22

2.3.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 22

2.3.2. BENDING, SPLICING & WELDING .......................................................................................................... 23

2.3.3. SURFACE CONDITIONS OF REINFORCEMENT ....................................................................................... 24

2.3.4. FABRICATION TOLERANCE.................................................................................................................... 24

2.3.5. IDENTIFICATION, TEST CERTIFICATES AND TESTS ................................................................................ 24

2.4. REINFORCEMENT FIXING .............................................................................................. 25

2.4.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 25

2.4.2. PLACING AND FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT ......................................................................................... 25

2.4.3. PROTECTION IN HOT WEATHER ........................................................................................................... 26

2.5. CORE HOLES, EMBEDDED SERVICES, INSERTS AND ANCHOR BOLTS ................................ 26

2.5.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 26

2.5.2. INTEGRITY OF CONCRETE & REINFORCEMENT .................................................................................... 27

2.5.3. SIZE, SPACING AND COVER OF EMBEDMENT ....................................................................................... 27

2.5.4. PROTECTION ......................................................................................................................................... 27

2.6. CONCRETE SUPPLY........................................................................................................ 27

2.6.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 27

2.6.2. MATERIALS ........................................................................................................................................... 29

2.6.3. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS .......................................................................................................... 30

2.6.4. QUALITY CONTROL ............................................................................................................................... 31

2.6.5. READY MIXED CONCRETE ..................................................................................................................... 31

2.6.6. SITE MIXED CONCRETE ......................................................................................................................... 32

2.6.7. PUMPED CONCRETE ............................................................................................................................. 32

2.6.8. MIXING IN HOT WEATHER.................................................................................................................... 33

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2.7. CONCRETE PLACING ...................................................................................................... 33

2.7.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 33

2.7.2. TRANSPORTING .................................................................................................................................... 33

2.7.3. PLACING ............................................................................................................................................... 33

2.7.4. COMPACTION ....................................................................................................................................... 35

2.7.5. CONCRETING UNDER WATER ............................................................................................................... 35

2.8. CONCRETE SAMPLING AND TESTING ............................................................................. 35

2.8.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 35

2.8.2. SAMPLING ............................................................................................................................................ 36

2.8.3. TEST SPECIMENS .................................................................................................................................. 37

2.8.4. TEST RESULTS ....................................................................................................................................... 38

2.9. ACCEPTANCE OF CONCRETE .......................................................................................... 38

2.9.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 38

2.9.2. CONCRETE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA ...................................................................................................... 39

2.9.3. CONCRETE REJECTION CRITERIA .......................................................................................................... 40

2.10. CONCRETE CURING AND PROTECTION........................................................................... 41

2.10.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................. 41

2.10.2. CURING ............................................................................................................................................... 41

2.10.3. HOT WEATHER CURING ...................................................................................................................... 42

2.10.4. CURING THICK CONCRETE MEMBERS ................................................................................................ 42

2.10.5. CURING COMPOUNDS ........................................................................................................................ 42

2.10.6. PROTECTION AGAINST DAMAGE ........................................................................................................ 42

2.10.7. CURING PERIOD .................................................................................................................................. 43

2.11. SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE ...................................................................................... 43

2.11.1. STANDARDS ........................................................................................................................................ 43

2.11.2. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................. 43

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2.11.3. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................. 44

2.11.4. DEFINITIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 44

2.11.5. REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTITUENT MATERIALS ............................................................................... 45

2.11.6. REQUIREMENTS FOR SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE ........................................................................ 47

2.11.7. TEST METHODS .................................................................................................................................. 47

2.11.8. WORKABILITY CRITERIA FOR THE FRESH SCC ..................................................................................... 48

2.11.9. MIX COMPOSITION............................................................................................................................. 49

2.11.10. PRODUCTION AND PLACING ............................................................................................................ 50

2.11.11. PRODUCTION CONTROL ................................................................................................................... 51

2.11.12. PLACING ........................................................................................................................................... 52

2.11.13. QUALITY CONTROL ........................................................................................................................... 53

3. STRUCTURAL STEEL WORK ......................................................................................... 54

3.1. STANDARDS AND GENERAL........................................................................................... 54

3.1.1. STANDARDS .......................................................................................................................................... 54

3.1.2. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 55

3.2. DRAWINGS AND CALCULATIONS ................................................................................... 55

3.2.1. CONTRACTOR'S OBLIGATIONS, ETC. .................................................................................................... 55

3.3. SCOPE OF WORK........................................................................................................... 56

3.3.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 56

3.4. WELDING ..................................................................................................................... 56

3.4.1. MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP, ETC. ................................................................................................. 56

3.5. BOLTED FIXINGS ........................................................................................................... 57

3.5.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 57

3.6. PREPARATION OF STEELWORK FOR GALVANIZING......................................................... 58

3.6.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 58

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3.7. GALVANIZING ............................................................................................................... 58

3.7.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................... 58

3.8. PAINTING ..................................................................................................................... 59

3.8.1. STANDARDS .......................................................................................................................................... 59

3.8.2. PREPARATION OF STEELWORK FOR PAINTING .................................................................................... 59

3.8.3. PAINTING SYSTEM AND MATERIALS .................................................................................................... 59

3.8.4. ERECTION ............................................................................................................................................. 60

4. WATER PROFFING ...................................................................................................... 62

4.1. GENERAL ...................................................................................................................... 62

4.1.1. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 62

4.1.2. RELATED WORK .................................................................................................................................... 62

4.1.3. QUALITY ASSURANCE ........................................................................................................................... 62

4.1.4. REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 62

4.1.5. DATA SUBMISSIONS ............................................................................................................................. 64

4.1.6. DELIVERY, HANDLING AND STORAGE................................................................................................... 65

4.1.7. WARRANTIES ........................................................................................................................................ 65

4.2. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM AND MATERIALS ................................................................. 66

4.2.1. WATERPROOFING AND INSULATION SYSTEM TO ROOF SLABS AND TERRACES .................................. 66

4.2.2. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO WATER TANKS, SUMPS AND TOILET FLOORS, BALCONY, MANHOLES
ETC. 67

4.2.3. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO BASEMENT SLAB ................................................................................. 68

4.2.4. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO BASEMENT WALLS .............................................................................. 69

4.2.5. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO EXPOSED DRIVEWAY AND RAMPS SLABS............................................ 69

4.3. APPROVED PRODUCTS AND LOCAL AGENTS .................................................................. 70

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5. BLOCKWORK .............................................................................................................. 71

5.1. GENERAL ...................................................................................................................... 71

5.1.1. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 71

5.1.2. RELATED WORK .................................................................................................................................... 71

5.1.3. QUALITY ASSUARANCE ......................................................................................................................... 71

5.1.4. REFERENCES ......................................................................................................................................... 72

5.1.5. SUBMISSIONS ....................................................................................................................................... 72

5.1.6. DELIVARY, HANDELING AND STORAGE ................................................................................................ 73

5.2. MATERIALS................................................................................................................... 73

5.2.1. SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL ................................................................................................................. 73

5.2.2. REINFORCED BLOCKWORK ................................................................................................................... 73

5.2.3. CONTROL JOINTS .................................................................................................................................. 74

5.3. EXECUTION .................................................................................................................. 74

5.3.1. INSPECTION .......................................................................................................................................... 74

5.3.2. PREPERATION ....................................................................................................................................... 75

5.3.3. WORKMANSHIP GENERALLY ................................................................................................................ 75

5.3.4. MORTAR ............................................................................................................................................... 75

5.3.5. LAYING .................................................................................................................................................. 76

5.3.6. CURING AND PROTECTION ................................................................................................................... 77

5.3.7. FIXTURES, ETC. ..................................................................................................................................... 77

5.3.8. LINTEL, CONCRETE MASONRY .............................................................................................................. 78

5.3.9. METAL DOOR FRAMES ......................................................................................................................... 78

5.3.10. FIELD QUALITY CONTROL ................................................................................................................... 78

5.3.11. CLEANING OF FACEWORK .................................................................................................................. 79

5.3.12. MISCELLANEOUS ................................................................................................................................ 79

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6. PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION ......................................................................................... 80

6.1. GENERAL ...................................................................................................................... 80

6.1.1. DEFINITION ........................................................................................................................................... 80

6.1.2. DESCRIPTION OF WORK ....................................................................................................................... 80

6.1.3. EXTENT OF WORK ................................................................................................................................. 80

6.1.4. RELATED WORK .................................................................................................................................... 81

6.1.5. RELEVANT STANDARDS ........................................................................................................................ 81

6.2. FIRE STOP SYSTEMS ...................................................................................................... 81

6.2.1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................... 81

6.2.2. SUBMITTALS ......................................................................................................................................... 84

6.2.3. QUALITY ASSUARANCE ......................................................................................................................... 86

6.2.4. PRODUCT DELIVARY STORAGE AND HANDLING .................................................................................. 87

6.3. EXECUTION .................................................................................................................. 87

6.3.1. SITE CONDITION ................................................................................................................................... 87

6.3.2. CO-ORDINATION AND SCHEDULING .................................................................................................... 87

6.3.3. PREPERATION ....................................................................................................................................... 88

6.3.4. INSTALLATION ...................................................................................................................................... 88

6.3.5. CLEANING ............................................................................................................................................. 88

6.3.6. PROTECTION ......................................................................................................................................... 88

6.3.7. WARRANTY ........................................................................................................................................... 88

6.3.8. SPECIFIED PRODUCTS ........................................................................................................................... 89

7. RECTIFICATION OF DEFECTS ....................................................................................... 90

7.1. GENERAL ...................................................................................................................... 90

7.1.1. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................... 90

7.1.2. DESCRIPTION OF WORK ....................................................................................................................... 90

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7.1.3. EXTENT OF WORK ................................................................................................................................. 90

7.2. RECTIFICATION METHODS............................................................................................. 91

7.2.1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION .......................................................................................................................... 91

7.2.2. SUBMITTALS ......................................................................................................................................... 92

7.2.3. QUALITY ASSUARANCE ......................................................................................................................... 93

7.3. EXECUTION .................................................................................................................. 94

7.3.1. REPAIRING CRACKS IN CONCRETE ........................................................................................................ 94

7.3.2. REPAIRING LARGE CRACKS IN MASONRY WALLS ............................................................................... 100

7.3.3. REPAIRING PLASTER CRACKS IN MASONRY WALLS ............................................................................ 100

7.3.4. CLEANING ........................................................................................................................................... 101

7.3.5. RECOMMENDED MATERIALS ............................................................................................................. 101

8. SITE SAFETY ............................................................................................................. 103

8.1. DUTIES OF EMPLOYER, EMPLOYEES, AND SAFETY PERSONNEL ..................................... 103

8.1.1. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................. 103

8.1.2. CONTRACTOR ..................................................................................................................................... 103

8.1.3. EMPLOYEES ........................................................................................................................................ 103

8.1.4. SAFETY OFFICER.................................................................................................................................. 104

8.1.5. SAFETY SUPERVISOR ........................................................................................................................... 105

8.1.6. SAFETY REPRESENTATIVE ................................................................................................................... 106

8.1.7. CONSULTANT’S REPRESENTATIVE AND SITE SUPERVISORY STAFF .................................................... 106

8.2. SAFETY AND HEALTH OF WORK PLACE ........................................................................ 107

8.2.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................. 107

8.2.2. SCAFFOLDING AND WORKING PLATFORMS ....................................................................................... 119

8.2.3. WORK IN CONFINED SPACES .............................................................................................................. 137

8.2.4. EXCAVATIONS ..................................................................................................................................... 141

8.2.5. WORK OVER OR NEAR WATER ........................................................................................................... 143

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8.2.6. WORK ON SLOPES .............................................................................................................................. 144

8.2.7. ROAD WORKS ..................................................................................................................................... 147

8.2.8. WORK ON DEMOLITION SITES ............................................................................................................ 149

8.2.9. WORK IN TUNNELS ............................................................................................................................. 151

8.3. GAS RISK AREAS ......................................................................................................... 155

8.3.1. WORK IN THE VICINITY OF GAS PIPE .................................................................................................. 156

8.4. SAFE USE OF PLANT .................................................................................................... 156

8.4.1. SCOPE ................................................................................................................................................. 156

8.4.2. CRANES ............................................................................................................................................... 156

8.4.3. EXCAVATORS ...................................................................................................................................... 159

8.4.4. TRUCKS AND DUMPERS ...................................................................................................................... 161

8.4.5. FORKLIFT TRUCKS ............................................................................................................................... 162

8.4.6. COMPACTING MACHINES AND ROLLERS ........................................................................................... 163

8.4.7. PILING MACHINE ................................................................................................................................ 164

8.4.8. AIR COMPRESSORS AND AIR RECEIVERS ............................................................................................ 165

8.4.9. HAND-HELD PNEUMATIC BREAKER .................................................................................................... 167

8.4.10. ELECTRIC ARC WELDING ................................................................................................................... 168

8.4.11. GAS WELDING, GAS CYLINDERS ....................................................................................................... 170

8.4.12. WOODWORKING MACHINE ............................................................................................................. 172

8.4.13. MATERIAL HOISTS ............................................................................................................................ 174

8.4.14. CARTRIDGE OPERATED TOOLS ......................................................................................................... 175

8.4.15. ABRASIVE WHEELS ........................................................................................................................... 178

8.4.16. STEEL BENDING MACHINE................................................................................................................ 179

8.4.17. ELECTRIC TOOLS ............................................................................................................................... 181

8.4.18. HAND-HELD TOOLS........................................................................................................................... 184

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8.5. SAFE USE, HANDELLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS............................ 185

8.5.1. MANUAL HANDLING AND LIFTING ..................................................................................................... 185

8.5.2. SLINGS AND SLINGING........................................................................................................................ 187

8.6. ASBESTOS................................................................................................................... 190

8.7. FIRE AND EXPLOSIONS ................................................................................................ 192

8.7.1. FIRE PREVENTION ............................................................................................................................... 192

8.7.2. FIRE ESCAPE ........................................................................................................................................ 193

8.7.3. FIRE FIGHTING AND EQUIPMENT ....................................................................................................... 193

8.8. FIRST AID.................................................................................................................... 195

8.8.1. PERSON TRAINED IN FIRST-AID .......................................................................................................... 195

8.8.2. FIRST AID FACILITIES ........................................................................................................................... 195

8.8.3. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION .................................................................................................................... 197

8.9. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT........................................................................... 198

8.9.1. GENERAL............................................................................................................................................. 198

8.9.2. EYE PROTECTION ................................................................................................................................ 199

8.9.3. HEAD PROTECTION ............................................................................................................................. 201

8.9.4. HEARING PROTECTION ....................................................................................................................... 203

8.9.5. FALL PROTECTION .............................................................................................................................. 205

8.9.6. RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT ............................................................................................ 207

8.9.7. BREATHING APPARATUS .................................................................................................................... 210

8.9.8. SAFETY FOOTWEAR ............................................................................................................................ 212

8.9.9. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING ...................................................................................................................... 213

8.9.10. HAND PROTECTION .......................................................................................................................... 213

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8.10. SAFE USE OF ELECTRICITY............................................................................................ 214

8.10.1. GENERATORS .................................................................................................................................... 214

8.10.2. SWITCHBOARD ................................................................................................................................. 216

8.10.3. WIRING AND CONNECTIONS ............................................................................................................ 218

8.11. ACCIDENT REPORTING ................................................................................................ 219

8.11.1. ACCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURE................................................................................................. 219

8.11.2. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION ............................................................................................................... 221

9. OTHER CIVIL WORKS ................................................................................................ 223

9.1. STANDARDS AND GENERAL......................................................................................... 223

9.1.1. STANDARDS AND GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 223

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1. SITE PREPARATION AND EXCAVATION
1.1. GENERAL
1.1.1. SCOPE

Specified in this section: Ground works generally, site clearing, top soil removal, bulk
excavation, trench excavation including service trenches, erosion control, disposal of surplus
spoil, site restoration, placing and compacting filling, placing topsoil, provision of termite
barriers, vapour barriers and filter fabric, site retaining walls and dewatering.

1.1.2. RELATED WORK

Coordinate and cooperate with the following works.

 Electrical and Mechanical services


 Storm water drainage and road works
 Water proofing works

1.1.3. QUALITY ASSURANCE

Samples
Requirement: Provide samples of the following:
 Each type of imported filling to be used in the works.(If required)
 Each type of membrane to be used in the works.
 Each type of filter fabric to be used in the works.

Construction Proposals

Requirement: Submit for approval the methods and equipment proposed for the ground works,
including the following:

 Excavation methods, stages, clearances, batters, temporary supports, deflection and


vibration monitoring system.
 Dewatering and ground water control and disposal of surface water.
 Control of erosion, contamination and sedimentation of the site, surrounding areas and
drainage systems.
 Dust, noise and vibration control.
 Placing and compaction methods and stages.
 Tyre washing bay

Calculations: Submit calculations to show that proposed excavations and temporary supports,
including where applicable supports for adjacent structures, will be stable and safe.

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1.1.4. REFERENCES

Comply with applicable portions of the following standards:

BS 1377-2:1990 - Methods of testing soils for engineering purposes.

AS 1348.1-1986 - Road and traffic Engineering

BS 5930:1999 - Code of practice for site investigations

AS 3660:1995 - Protection of buildings from subterranean termites.

AS 3705:1990 - Geotextiles

AS/NZS 4200:1994 - Pliable building membranes and underlay.

BS 8000-1:1989 - Code of Practice for excavation and filling.

Comply with particular specifications in Building Regulations and/or Local Council


publications.

1.1.5. USE OF EXPLOSIVES

Only approved chemical explosives may be used.

1.1.6. SITE INVESTIGATION

A site investigation was made and a copy of the report is included in the Contract Documents.
The site investigation information given in the report, or shown in the drawings, or both, is
information on the nature of the ground at each tested part. It is not a complete description of
conditions existing below the surface. The accuracy of the information is not guaranteed and
will not be a basis for cost variation.

1.1.7. RECORDS OF MEASUREMENT

Requirements: If a schedule of rates applies to the work, or provisional quantities are specified,
or there have been variations to the contract levels or dimensions or excavations, do not
commence backfilling or place any permanent work in excavations until agreement has been
reached and recorded on the following.

Note: Prior to the commencement of any work, carryout a levelling survey.

 Depths of excavations related to the datum.


 Final plan dimensions of excavations.
 Quantities of fill and/or top soil, imports being recorded separately.

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Certified Records: Provide a copy of the agreed records of measurement certified by the
Contractor and the Engineer.

Measurement and Payment:

For the purpose of payment, only one class of excavated materials shall be used, which shall
cover all clays, sands, silts, boulders, and old foundations. All measurements shall be based on
the Engineer’s drawings, and no payment shall be made for over-breaks or material bulking. No
claims will be entertained for additional work due to unexpected ground water, unstable ground
or any other conditions, which may be encountered.

1.1.8. TERMITE TREATMENT

Provide certificate in accordance with AS 3660 stating method of application and certificate of
completion. Termite treatment is applicable for perimeter of the building/buildings, to a depth
down to the permanent water table.

1.2. MATERIALS
1.2.1. TERMITE CONTROL

Supply approved mechanical termite shields or approved chemical substances (Fipronil) in


accordance with supplier’s recommendations.

Extent

Form a complete and continuous barrier of chemically treated ground under the whole of the
building under the final ground level, sides of the basement walls down to permanent water table
and ground cover up to the site boundary to AS 3660: 2000.

Approved Specialist: Perform the work using an approved specialist sub-contractor.

Warranty: Provide a warranty of at least 10 years from the approved specialist.

Rectification: Provide additional treatment at the following stages.

 Around the building perimeter immediately prior to laying paving against the building.
 Around the building or paving perimeter on completion of landscaping.
 Wherever subsequent ground works such as service trenches or the like disturb
previous treatments.
 Filling materials of flower trough

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1.2.2. FILLING
 Being filling on the site unless it can be provided soil recovered from the site. Filling is
to be free of perishable material, or material that will form stable fill, but subject always
to Engineer’s approval.
 The filling types are as follows:
- Approved Excavated Material: The best of the clean inorganic excavated material.
- Porous Filling: Hardcore graded from 40 mm to 15 mm.
- Sand: Salt free, loam free, packing quality.
- Fine crushed rock: 15 to 5 mm clean crushed rock.
- Hardcore: Graded hard material capable of being compacted to an even, stable surface,
with more than 75% by mass exceeding a particle size of 50 mm, and a maximum
particle size of 120 mm.
1.2.3. FILTER FABRIC

Material: Polymeric fabric formed from a plastic yarn composed of at least 85% by weight of
propylene, ethylene, amide or vinyledene-chloride and containing stabilizers or inhibitors to
make the filaments resistant to deterioration due to ultraviolet light.

1.2.4. UNDER FLOOR VAPOUR BARRIER

Extent: On completion of termite control treatment under floors, cover the ground surface with
a vapour barrier.

Vapour Barrier: gauge 1000 polythene film lap 150 mm. Turn up 100 mm against abutments
and penetrations. Joint and seal laps, Abutments and penetrations with adhesive tape not
inferior to double sided butyl adhesive tape.

1.2.5. PROTECTION TO MEMBRANES

Generally: Protect water-proofing, vapour barrier or tanking membranes from damage by


subsequent operations including backfilling.

Protective Covering: Do not disturb or damage the protective covering of membranes during
backfilling.

1.2.6. WATER PROOF MEMBRANE

Styrene Butadiene Styrene (SBS), 4 mm thick membrane. Deliver under-lays to the site in
suitable protective packaging, bearing the name of the approved manufacturer. Handle and store
the under lay so that it is not punctured, torn or otherwise damaged. Comply with AS/NZS
4200.2:1994 or relevant ASTM standards.

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1.3. EXECUTION
1.3.1. SITE CLEARING

Requirement: Clear the site areas to be occupied or affected unless otherwise specified by the
Engineer.

Clearing Operations

General Clearing: Remove everything on or above the site surface, including rubbish,
vegetable matter and organic debris, scrub, timber, stumps, boulders and rubble.

Old works: Remove old slabs, foundations, paving, drains, manholes and the like within the
foundation limits.

1.3.2. SHORING

Temporary Works to Retain Foundation Construction

The contractor shall be totally responsible for designing the temporary works in such a manner
as to enable the permanent works to be carried out according to the Specifications and Drawings.

In designing and constructing the temporary works the Contractor shall ensure that no
damage is caused to adjacent buildings, boundary walls, roads, pavement and/or any
other existing services either by any vibration caused or by any settlement of the ground
adjacent to the temporary shoring (due to lateral movement of the shoring) or due to
ground heave or sand boiling of the bottom of the excavation or due to any other
cause. Special precautionary measures shall be adopted when excavation is performed
adjacent to the buildings to avoid damage of whatsoever nature to these buildings.

In designing and construction of temporary work the Contractor shall ensure that no
weakening or loosing is caused to the subsoil of the site which will eventually carry the
permanent works (building structure) due to ground heave or sand boiling or due to
other activities of the Contractor.

The tenderer shall submit with his tender the proposed method of construction of
temporary works to retain basement excavation including calculations to show the lateral
movement and settlements of the adjoining building or any other structure before, during
and after completion of the construction work.

The contractor shall make arrangements to measure any lateral movements to be monitored and
corrected if necessary. These measurements should be taken on a regular basis as directed by
the Engineer.

The temporary shoring shall be designed and constructed in such a way that the excavation will
remain dry and safe during the entire construction period of the related levels.

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The design and construction of temporary shoring / cut-off wall system shall be done in such a
way that the ground water table behind the shoring / cut-off wall system shall not be lowered
down more than 1.0m from the original level of water table due to the dewatering of the
excavation.

The tenderer shall submit the relevant calculations, based on available data, for the depth
required (below the excavation level) for the cut-off wall to control the ground water level inside
and outside of the shoring / cut-off wall system to satisfy the specification.

The contractor will be held totally liable for any damage caused to adjoining buildings services
and/or any other works, either during construction of the temporary or due to any lateral
movement of this shoring that may occur subsequently.

For the purpose of monitoring any movement of adjoining buildings and/or other works
the Contractor shall establish fixed levels, on buildings or other points, that are outside the
range of any disturbance that could occur due to the excavations and other work, all to
the satisfaction of the Engineer.

All the calculations which are to be submitted with tender for shoring / cut-off wall and
dewatering systems shall be carried out by Geotechnical Engineer with relevant experience
according to the accepted principals of soil mechanics.

Removal of Temporary Works

The Contractor in accordance with his calculations, and with the approval of the Engineer, shall
remove the temporary works (if accessible) as work progresses, and the strength of the structure
allows.

No part of any protective measures against damage or settlement may be taken down or removed
until all risk of damage or settlement is negligible.

Remove temporary supports progressively as back filling proceeds.

1.3.3. UNDERPINNING, STRUTTING ADJACENT STRUCTURES

General Requirements

Where foundations of the new structure are below the level of foundations of walls of adjoining
premises, or of boundary walls, retaining walls or basements, excavate as necessary for, and
underpin from the level of bottom of, new foundations up to underside of existing foundations in
a manner to be approved by the Engineer.

Underpinning shall be executed in lengths not exceeding 1.5 m at a time or as directed.

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The necessary planking, strutting, carting away of surplus soil, wedging and pinning up,
timbering and shoring to ensure safety, and at completion clearing, carting away and making
good to be carried out as and when required.

Where feasible and if shown on the drawings, the strutting and shoring to be carried out with
timber or steel sheet piling, in such case the Contractor shall provide calculations to the
Engineer showing the type and extent of piling proposed.

The consent of the Engineer does not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for the
underpinning works in total. Provide shoring, planking and strutting necessary to retain the sides
of the excavations and to ensure safe working. Provide safety covers over holes. If in the opinion
of the Engineer support provided is insufficient he may order the provision of additional support.

No instruction relieves the Contractor of sole responsibility for the insufficient support of the
excavation.

Guard against the formation of voids outside sheeting or sheet piling if use and should voids
form, fill and consolidate them to approval.

Permanent Supports: Where permanent supports for adjacent structures are necessary and are
not shown on the drawings or specified, notify the Engineer and obtain his instructions.

1.3.4. BULK EXCAVATION

The Contractor shall include in his tender for excavating of foundations and structures in any
type of soil or ground to be encountered; to this end, the Contractor shall acquaint himself with
the nature of the subsoil, as no claim arising from lack of knowledge of the subsoil will be
entertained.

Excavation shall be carried out by any method found suitable by the contractor, if not in
contradiction with any stipulation made elsewhere in this Specification. Before particular
excavations are started, the contractor shall obtain the agreement of the Engineer.

Prior to any excavation the levels of the original surface shall be agreed by the Engineer and the
Contractor; this agreement to be recorded in the drawings (the drawing should be prepared by
the Contractor) to be signed by both parties.

All excavation for foundations and structures shall be carried out to the widths, lengths and
depths shown on the drawings or to such other dimensions as directed by the Engineer.

Where excavations are made to a greater depth or width than required by the Contract, the
intervening space shall be filled up to the required level with lean concrete or such surplus
material as the Engineer may direct, all at the expense of the Contractor.

The cost of excavation shall include all getting-out hauling, tipping, storing, keeping excavations
free of water and all necessary shoring, strutting etc., to prevent caving in and movement, and to

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ensure the safety of all persons and property etc. The Contractor shall be held responsible for the
above and for making good any damage caused.

Any soil encountered in the excavation which, in the opinion of the Engineer is not sufficiently
good to carry the loads that will be imposed on it, shall be excavated and replaced by such
material as the Engineer may direct. Shoring, strutting and any other materials, not removed
from excavations when proceeding with the works, shall not be reimbursable. Final profiles of
all excavations shall be trimmed and shaped to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Excavated material approved by the Engineer for filling, to be stored or spread, levelled and
compacted as directed. Excavated material not approved for filling shall be tipped or dumped as
directed by the Engineer or removed from Site to an approved tip provided by the Contractor.

In excavation for foundation trenches, the Contractor shall leave the bottom layer, 150 thick,
undisturbed when so directed by the Engineer, and remove this layer only prior to placing the
blinding concrete or other method of protection from deterioration of softening as may be
agreed.

Excavation for services

In addition to what is specified above the following paragraphs shall apply:

Trenches shall have a minimum workable width to be approved by Engineer, and a minimum
depth of 800.

Trenches shall keep free from water under any circumstances by means of sumps, pumping,
ditches etc.

Sides and bottoms of trenches shall be free from protruding of free stones.

The bottom of the trenches shall be graded carefully and shall be smooth; where rock, soft spots
and/or sharp edged material is encountered, the bottom shall be excavated for an additional
depth of min. 75 or deeper as required, filled and tampered level with the original bottom, with
sand or other material free from particles that would be retained on a 12mm sieve.

Trenches shall be excavated along the roads in straight lines; before pipes or cables are laid,
adjustments to be made to the trench elevation and/ or run as required avoiding unforeseen
obstruction that may have been found during trenching.

1.3.5. SOIL

Offsite disposal: Remove the following surplus excavated materials from the site.

 Excavated materials not re-usable as topsoil, filling or the like.


 Debris resulting from site clearing.
 Adhere to the conditions given by Local Council building application.

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1.3.6. SITE RESTORATION

Requirement: Where existing ground surfaces are not required to be varied as part of the works,
restore them to the condition existing at the commencement of the work under the contract.

1.3.7. BAD GROUND

Should unsuitable material be encountered at the prescribed depths of excavation, or soft, wet
and unstable areas develop during excavation, obtain instructions before carrying out additional
excavations. Back fill and compact to the correct levels as directed.

1.3.8. EXISTING SERVICES

Remove existing services and relocate beyond the site boundaries.

Before demolishing and removing parts of building having electrical wiring, gas and water
pipes, conduit or similar items embedded in them, notify the Engineer, authorities having
jurisdiction, and make sure that these items are out of service so that they can be removed
without danger.

1.3.9. DEWATERING

The Contractor shall install 100 % excess pumping capacity including an alternative source of
power for the pumps to ensure that dewatering is carried out in such a manner as to ensure that
the weight of the structure at any stage of construction is at least one and a half times the up
thrust at all times. The Contractor will be held liable of any damage caused, directly and/or
consequential, to the works due to neglect of this condition.

In order to calculate the up-thrust, the Contractor shall install and approved system, to
continuously monitor the ground water pressure below basement slab.

The Contractor shall also install piezometer tubes at a minimum of 4 locations, one on each side
of the site to enable the ground water level to be monitored, and he shall ensure that a supervisor
is available at all times to carry out this task.

The stand by system of dewatering shall be alternated every fortnightly with the primary system
to ensure that both systems are in working order at all times.

The filtration system under the blinding concrete below the basement shall be connected to the
dewatering system.

The results of the ground water monitoring data shall be handed over daily to the Engineer.

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To ensure that the up thrust does not exceed permissible levels even during unforeseen
circumstances, an agreed number of safety valves shall be installed through the Basement slab.

All these parts of the works required to be carried out in the dry, whether within any part
specified to be enclosed or not, shall be kept free from water, from whatever source it may
come, at all times to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer.

Works below Ground Water Table

Where work has to be executed below the ground water table, the Contractor shall ensure that
the local water level is lowered sufficiently (i.e. minimum 1.0 m) to enable the work to be
executed in the dry. The water level shall remain so lowered continuously till the construction
work is not affected.

The methods Contractor proposes using to ensure this shall be submitted to the Engineer at least
2 weeks prior to commencement of work.

Water pumped out of the excavation shall be discharged well away from the works, and the
Engineer shall be responsible for obtaining the approval from relevant Authorities for the
discharge. Any cost regarding in this connection shall be borne by the Contractor.

Where work has to be executed below the ground water level (Original), the contractor shall
ensure that local water level is at-least 0.5m from the level of the working area.

1.3.10. EROSION CONTROL

Requirement: Plan and carry out the work to avoid erosion, contamination, and sedimentation
of the site, surrounding areas, and drainage systems.

 Drains : Temporary drains and catch drains


 Disposal: Diversion and disposal of concentrated flows to points where the water can
pass through the site without damage.
 Silt Traps: Construction and maintenance of silt traps to prevent discharge of scoured
materials to downstream areas.
1.3.11. FILLING

Filling for foundations/structures

All fill material shall be approved, excavated or imported material of a granular nature and shall be
free from timber, rubbish or other deleterious material.

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The approved fill material shall be deposited in layers with 300mm of maximum or less, as can
be thoroughly compacted with rolling, vibrating or other means. No layer shall be deposited
until the previous layer has been compacted to the satisfaction of the Engineer

The Contractor shall make good at his own expense all settlements of filling that may occur up
to the end of the period of maintenance.

The Contractor shall provide and maintain all necessary ramps, haul roads, drainage systems and
ancillary works necessary for the efficient and workmanlike completion of the fill to the
approval of the Engineer.

Filling for Service trenches

Trench bottoms shall be trimmed directly prior to laying operations, to provide a solid, smooth
bed. When trenches are in rock, a layer of fine granular material 75 thick shall be placed, graded
and rammed to provide a smooth bed. The bottoms to be checked by means of a straight-edge
minimum 500 long, to be moved along at 2500 long intervals. Whenever dips are revealed, they
are to be filled up with approved material.

Filling of pipe/cable trenches shall be carried out in a careful manner with approved excavated
or imported material of a granular cohesion less nature, free from timber, rubbish, deleterious
material and rocks or stones.

Backfill of trenches shall proceed with a 150mm layer of consolidated sand above the top of
pipes and electric cables. To complete the work, the trench shall be completely backfilled to
original grade with material free of stones larger than 50mm in any direction.

Fill around pipes shall be rammed well around the barrel of the pipe before filling up the trench.
Backfill shall be in loose layers not exceeding 150mm thick and well rammed with appropriate
hand tools. Joints of pipes shall be kept exposed all around until testing is satisfactorily
completed.

Pipes under buildings are to be encased in concrete with the soffit of the slab above. Pipes shall
be tied to the floor slab by means of Toe steel rods or other appropriate method. Temporary
supports are to be provided to secure the position of pipes until casting-in. The width of
encasements shall not be less than three times the external diameter of the pipe. The thickness of
the encasement shall not be less than 150mm.

No pipe/cable backfilling shall be carried out unless approved by the Engineer.

Filling under pavements

All filling is to be placed in position as early as possible to a sufficient height at least 75mm
above final level in order that it may become thoroughly consolidated before the work of laying

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the pavement is commenced, and it shall be deposited in layers not exceeding 200 in thickness,
each layer being well watered and rammed. After thoroughly consolidation, appropriate quantity
of filling shall be removed to make room for the pavement slabs

Tolerances

Variation from designed level ± 5mm

1.3.12. CLEAN UP

On completion of work specified above, remove surplus materials imported to the site, level off
surplus excavated material on the site as directed by the Engineer.

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2. STRUCTURAL CONCRETE WORKS
2.1. GENERAL
2.1.1. EXTENT OF WORKS

The extent of the concrete work shall include but not be limited to the following.

 Providing and removing of all formwork


 Supply and fixing of all reinforcement
 Supplying and fixing of all inserts, anchor bolts, embedded fixings, water stops and bars.
 Providing for all core holes and embedded services.
 Supplying and placing of all concrete.
 Sampling and testing of concrete and its components.
 Finishing of all concrete surfaces.
 Curing and protecting of all concrete.

2.1.2. RESPONSIBILITY

The Contractor shall be wholly responsible for carrying out all concrete works in accordance
with the requirements of this specification and the associated contract documents.

2.1.3. STANDARDS

All concrete work shall conform to the material and construction of the current codes and
standards listed in this specification, except where modified by this specification. Unless
otherwise specified all concrete work shall be executed in accordance with the requirements and
recommendations of the British Standards Code of Practice BS 8110:1997 “Structural Use of
Concrete” Part I, II & III and BS 5328:1990 Part 1 to 4.

Where reference is made to the Australian Standard AS 3600:2009 “Concrete Structures” and/or
other Australian Standards, the concrete work shall conform to the relevant code. In case of any
conflict between the British and the Australian Codes the most stringent requirements extracted
from these codes will govern.

2.1.4. INSPECTIONS

The Contractor shall allow for and give sufficient notice of all inspections required by the
Engineer as stipulated in the various sections of this specification The Contractor shall permit
and arrange for access to all areas of the works on suppliers’ plants to enable the Engineer to
carry out all necessary inspection.

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2.1.5. SAMPLES AND TEST

The Contractor shall allow in his price for the taking and testing of all samples and tests
specified in this specification.

2.1.6. ACCEPTANCE & REJECTION

The concrete work shall be accepted or rejected in accordance with the requirements of Section
2.9 of this specification.

2.1.7. CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES

The Contractor is responsible for his construction procedure and must ensure that, no part of the
structure is overstressed as a result of this procedure or as a result of the construction loads that
are applied. The Contractor shall provide calculation for examination by the Engineer if
requested to justify the adequacy of the structure to sustain any loads and/or procedures which
he may intend to impose.

2.2. FORMWORK
2.2.1. GENERAL

Scope

This section of the specification for concrete sets out the requirements for the design, supply,
fabrication, treatment, testing and stripping of the formwork for all the concrete members.

Requirements

Formwork shall be designed and constructed to produce concrete members which will conform
within the specified tolerances to shapes, lines, levels and dimensions and the quality of surface
finishes required by the construction drawings and specifications.

Responsibility

The responsibility for the sufficiency of the formwork shall rest entirely with the Contractor.

Definitions

In this section “Formwork” shall mean boarding or sheeting designed and erected to contain
plastic concrete, form it to required shapes and dimensions in the required location, support it
until sufficiently hard to be self-supporting and carry superimposed loads. “Forms” shall mean
that part of the formwork, which consists of the sheeting and its immediate supporting or
stiffening members. “False work” shall mean that part of formwork, which consists of a
temporary structure necessary to keep the forms in their correct position.

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Codes & Standards

Formwork shall conform to the current requirements of the following Codes and standards
except where modified by this specification.

 BS 8110 : 1997 - Structural use of concrete


 BS 5975 : 2008 - False work
 AS 3610: 1995 - Australian Standard for Formwork

Where applicable technical terms in this specification shall have the meanings assigned to them
in BS 8110, BS 5975 & AS 3610.

2.2.2. FORMWORK DESIGN

General

The formwork shall be designed in accordance with BS 5975:1986 and particulars with the
relevant sections of this specification. The Contactor shall forward all calculations, shop
drawings and the method statement for installation for the Engineer’s approval, four weeks prior
to installation. The total design responsibility of the formwork shall be vested on the Contractor.
The cost for all the design work and preparation of the drawings shall be included in the
corresponding unit rates for formwork listed in the Bill of Quantities.

Stability

Formwork shall be constructed from sound material properly supported and braces or tied to
maintain the position and shape during and after the placing of concrete.

Defective Formwork

If any formwork be displaced during concreting or within the period specified for retention of
the formwork, so that tolerances on finished concrete will be exceeded, concrete shall be
removed between such limits as directed by the Engineer. Construction joints shall be formed
and the section of work shall be reconstructed after the work has been strengthened and adjusted.

2.2.3. TYPES OF FORMWORK

General

Types of formwork required throughout the project shall be determined by the Contractor to
achieve the surface finishes and the shapes, lines, levels and dimensions for the concrete work
required by the construction drawings and this specification. All Columns in parking floors,

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shall be chamfered for re-entrant angles and filleted for corners. The face of the bevel in each
case shall be 25 mm. The materials to be used in the formwork shall comply with the
appropriate British standards or in their absence the appropriate Australian or Sri Lankan
standards may be applied.

2.2.4. TREATMENT

Forms Lining and Facing

The Contractor shall select the form lining or facing necessary to produce the required quality of
finished concrete surface. He shall provide sufficient evidence to ensure that no reaction will
adversely affect the concrete surface will occur between the form lining, form concrete material,
admixture, sealant or curing compound. The section of a suitable lining or facing shall also take
into account any effect it may have on subsequent finishes to the concrete such as paint,
adhesives and the like.

Release Agents

Form of lining and facings shall be coated prior to placing of concrete with a suitable release
agent. The Contractor shall ensure that the release agent does not “Puddle” due to excessive
application and so cause staining or retardation of the concrete surface. No part of the
reinforcement or construction joints shall be coated with the release agent.

Form Finishes

Form of finishes is described in section 2.2.5 and 2.2.6. Refer to the architectural drawings and
“Schedule of Finishes” for categories of different finishes and location of finishes.

Cleaning of Forms

Forms shall be thoroughly cleaned and dust, debris, rust or other stains shall be removed.

Free water shall also be removed from the forms. Vacuum cleaning, compressed air or the
equivalent shall remove minor debris, dust etc.

Re-use of Forms

The number of re-uses and the conditions of faces and edges of forms shall be consistent with
the concrete surface finish specified.

2.2.5. FINISHES TO SHUTTERED SURFACES

Classification of Form Finishes

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The forms to be prepared and used for concrete works shall be made by the Contractor in
accordance with the specifications described here to achieve the desired finishes. The locations
for which the different classes of formwork to be used have been outline here or shall be as
directed by the Engineer.

Following types of forms may apply:

(a) Sawn (Class Sl)

This finish is generally intended for concrete surfaces against which backfill, concrete or grout
will be placed. Formwork of this class shall consist of sawn timber, metal or suitable and
approved material.

(b) Wrought (Class S2)

This finish is required for structural Surfaces permanently exposed to view. Formwork of this
class shall be faced with wrought & boards, with squares edges, uniformly arranged, and with
nail and not holes filled flush with putty or another approved substance. Joints are to be
horizontal and vertical unless otherwise specified.

(c) Pre-cast Quality (Class S3)

This finish is required for prominent or important architectural features, or for pre-cast concrete
units. It shall be free from board marks or surface pitting and the formwork shall be faced with
plywood, steel or equivalent material in large sheets arranged in an approved uniform pattern.

Surfaces shall also be capable of resisting the effects of fast flowing water, usually achieved by
use of appropriate steel panel forms.

(d) Rigid Accurate (Class S4)

This finish is required for forms of concrete surfaces where accurate alignment and evenness of
the surface (curved or plain) is essential for preventing the destructive effects of water when
exposed to water flow of high velocity.

(e) Rough-Faced (Class S5)

This finish is required for structural surfaces where plaster or stucco is to be applied. Rough-
faced from boards shall be used. Form oil, steel lining or steel sheathing shall not be permitted.

2.2.6. FINISHES TO UNFORMED CONCRETE

Scope

This section of the specification sets out the requirements for the finishes to the un-formed
surfaces of all concrete members.

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Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for the provision of the finishes in accordance with the
specification and the associated contract.

Classification of Form Finishes

The un-formed surfaces of each concrete member shall be finished in accordance with the
schedule of finishes and the relevant construction drawings.

(a) Screened Finish

The concrete shall be placed, struck off, consolidated and levelled to Class U1.

(b) Scratched Finish

After the concrete has been placed, struck off, consolidated and levelled to Class U1 Tolerance,
the surface shall be roughened with stiff brushes or rakes before the final set.

(c) Floated Finish

After the concrete has been placed, struck off, consolidated and levelled, the concrete shall not
be worked further until ready for floating. Floating shall begin when the water sheen has
disappeared and/or when the mix has stiffened sufficiently to permit the proper operation of a
power driven float. The surface shall then be consolidated with power driven floats. Hand
floating with wooden or corked faced floats shall be used in locations inaccessible to the power
driven machine. Trueness of surface shall be re-checked at this stage with a 3 m straight edge
applied at not less than two different angles. All high spots shall be cut down and all low spots
filled during this procedure to Class U4 tolerance. The slab shall then be re-floated immediately
to a uniform smooth, granular texture.

(d) Steel Trowelled Finish

Where a trowelled finish is specified, the surface shall be finished first with power floats, as
specified above, where applicable, then with power trowels and finally with hand trowels. The
first trowel ling after power floating shall be done by a power trowel and shall produce a smooth
surface, which is relatively free from defects, but which may still contain some trowel marks.
Additional trowel ling shall be done by hand, after the surface has hardened sufficiently. The
final trowelling shall be done when a ringing sound is projected as the trowel is moved over the
surface.

The surface shall be thoroughly consolidated by the hand trowel ling operations. The finished
surface shall be free from any trowel marks, uniform in texture and appearance and shall be

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planned to a Class U3 tolerance. On surfaces intended to support floor coverings and defects of
sufficient magnitude to show through the floor covering shall be removed by grinding.

(e) Broomed Finish

Pavement slabs and in other location so specified shall be given a coarse transverse scored
texture by drawing a broom or hessian belt cross the surface. This operation shall follow
immediately after floating and shall be performed to Class U1 tolerance.

2.2.7. DIMENSIONAL TOLERANCES

The formwork dimensions indicated in the Drawings shall be observed, with their accuracy
relative to the importance of the structure.

Forms shall be constructed, placed and adequately be supported so that irregularities of the
concrete surface after dismantling of the forms do not exceed the tolerances listed in Table 2.1
or misplaced shuttering or defects in the shutter surface. Where required all abrupt irregularities
in excess of those given in the above table shall be removed by grinding to achieve a transition
of 1 in 50 between adjacent surfaces.

Table 2.1: Dimension Tolerances

Gradual irregularities, being irregularities other than abrupt irregularities, shall be tested by
measurement at the centre of a long straight or appropriately curved template. No point on the
surface shall deviate from the template, when laid in the appropriate position on the surface of
the concrete, more than the tolerances given in the table 2.1.

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The surface finishes specified shall be achieved without any after treatment of surfaces, other
than treatment of irregularities as specified. Plastering of defective concrete as a means of
making good will not be permitted. In the case of minor surface blemished, such as air bubbles,
the Engineer may approve a surface treatment by rubbing down with cement and sand mortar of
the same richness as in the concrete. This treatment shall be made immediately after removal of
the formwork. All unsightly stains and encrustations on the forms and on exposed concrete
surfaces shall be removed by the Contractor using an approved method, to the satisfaction of the
Engineer.

With regard to the formwork and the finishes meeting the requirements of the Classes S4 and U4
finishes are specified, the Contractor shall carry out trials of the method he proposes to use until

Class of Surface Gradual Irregularities Abrupt Irregularities

Shuttered Surfaces of in-situ concrete mm mm

Class S 1 25 10

Class S 2 15 6

Class S 3 6 0

Class S 4 6 0

Un-shuttered Surfaces of in-situ concrete mm mm

Class U 1 25 10

Class U 2 10 0

Class U 3 6 0

Class U 4 4 0
the surface produced is to the satisfaction of the Engineer.

Un-shuttered concrete surfaces shall, unless otherwise directed, be levelled to produce an even
and uniform surface by use of surplus concrete, removed by striking off with a template. All
screed marks shall be parallel and of even appearance. Surfaces which will be, exposed to the
weather and which would normally be level shall be sloped 2 percent for drainage, unless other-
wise directed by the Engineer.

Form Bolts

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Form bolts shall be designed so that they may be extracted without damaging the surrounding
concrete. The embedded part of all form ties shall be located no closer than 25 mm to the surface
of the finished concrete. All form tie holes will be filled with approved non-shrink grout.

2.2.8. FORMWORK OPENINGS

Inspection openings

The cleaning of forms and final inspection shall be achieved through form openings at the base
of columns and walls.

Openings in Tall Members for Pouring Concrete

Access hatches rather than enclosed chutes shall be used for placing concrete in thin wall or
columns.

2.2.9. STRIPPING & REMOVAL OF FORMWORK

General

Removal of formwork and false work shall be in accordance with BS 8110: 1997 except where
varied by this specification or otherwise approved by the Engineer.

The forms shall not be disturbed until the concrete in contact with them has hardened sufficiently
to withstand such action without damage. Formwork shall not be removed until the concrete has
acquired sufficient strength to support safely its own mass and any superimposed load without
exceeding acceptable deflection.No masonry wall or similar permanent loading shall be erected
on any part of the structure while the part is still supported by formwork.

Stripping times – Single Storey Suspended Work

For concrete using normal Portland Cement to BS 12: 1996 without admixtures stripping stages
shall conform to the minimum stripping times for the appropriate effective spans given in Table
2.2.

Table 2.1: Recommended minimum Formwork stripping times

Minimum stripping time (days)


Effective for average air temperature
Member Type Member
Span (m) during period prior to stripping
30o C & Over

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Wall, Column, Beam 1
Vertical & Unloaded -
side

Wall Column or load


Vertical and loaded - 3
bearing structure

Under 3 7

Horizontal Slab 3-6 10

Over 6 14

Under 3 7

Horizontal Beam 3-6 10

Over 6 14

* Effective span is the maximum distance between supports (either temporary or


permanent)

Note: This table is based on superimposed construction loads not exceeding 1.0 kPa.

Stripping Times – Multi-Storey Suspended Work

In the case of multi storey work the removal of forms between undisturbed shores shall be as
required in Table 2.2, except where the shores supporting an upper floor do not correspond with
shores still persisting on a lower floor. In that case the construction load shall include the load
from the upper shores.

In the case of the removal of shores in multi storey work evidence shall be furnished to the
Engineer that the member has attained sufficient strength to support all superimposed loads
without excessive stress or deflection. A proper elastic analysis shall be undertaken and proper
account shall be taken of the appropriate tensile and compressive strength and modules of
elasticity of the concrete at the proposed time of stripping.

2.3. REINFORCEMENT
2.3.1. GENERAL

Scope

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This section of the specification for concrete sets out the requirements for the supply of the
reinforcement for all reinforced concrete members of the structure.

Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for the supply of the reinforcement together with all the
wire, support chairs etc., necessary for the fixing of the reinforcement for all reinforced concrete
members of the structure.

Codes & Standards

The reinforcement shall conform to the current requirements of the following British Codes
except where modified by this specification.

 BS 8110 : 1997 Structural use of concrete


 BS 4449 : 1997 Hot rolled steel bars for concrete
 BS 4461 : 1984 Cold worked steel bars for concrete
 BS 4483 : 2005 Steel reinforcing fabric for concrete

Supports and reinforcement

Chairs, spacers, stool, hangers, and ties may be used as supports for reinforcement and shall be
made of metal; concrete or plastic but pieces of wood, aggregate, brick or the like shall not be
used. Unprotected ferrous metal shall not be used in such supports where they extend to the
surface of the concrete or where they are used on conjunction with galvanized or zinc coated
reinforcement.

The supports shall be adequate to withstand construction traffic and shall be sufficient in number
and spacing to maintain the reinforcement in its correct position.

2.3.2. BENDING, SPLICING & WELDING

Bending

Cutting and bending of reinforcement shall conform to BS 4483 (2005). Bending schedules
should be prepared by the Contractor and submitted to the Engineer for approval.

Reinforcement shall not be bent or straightened on a manner, which will damage it. Where
bending of reinforcement is required by the construction drawings the diameter of such bends
shall be restricted to the requirements of BS 4483 (2005).

Reinforcement shall be bent cold, bars greater than 16mm diameter shall not be re-bending.

Splicing

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When splices in reinforcement are not shown on the construction drawings and are required by
the Contractor he shall submit details of the proposed splices and obtain approval from the
Engineer.

Welding

Reinforcement shall not be welded except where shown on the construction drawings or as
requested by the Contractor and approved by the Engineer. Such welding shall comply with the
requirements of BS 4449 & CIRIA Report 92, except where modified by this specification.
Welding shall not be carried out within 75 mm of a bend having an internal diameter less than
12 mm bar diameter or at any point in a bar, which has been re-bent.

2.3.3. SURFACE CONDITIONS OF REINFORCEMENT

Reinforcement shall be supplied free from loose mill scale, loose rust, mud, oil, grease and other
non-metallic coatings, which would reduce the bond between the concrete and the
reinforcement.

2.3.4. FABRICATION TOLERANCE

Unless shown otherwise on the construction drawings, the reinforcement shall be cut and bent or
otherwise fabricated to BS 4483 (2005).

2.3.5. IDENTIFICATION, TEST CERTIFICATES AND TESTS

Identification

Reinforcement shall be readily identifiable as to grade and origin.

Test Certificates and Tests

The Contractor shall provide copies of the Manufacturer’s test certificates required by the
relevant British Standards for the steel reinforcing material. Alternatively the Contractor shall
carryout tests to check the mechanical properties of steel as directed by the Engineer at a
laboratory approved by the Engineer. The standard proving tests for steel reinforcing bars and
wire as set out in the applicable specifications. Copies of the test results shall be available to the
Engineer for approval.

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2.4. REINFORCEMENT FIXING
2.4.1. GENERAL

Scope

This section of the specification for concrete sets out the requirements for the fixing of the
reinforcement for all reinforced concrete members of the structure.

Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for the fixing of the reinforcement in accordance with the
specification and the associated contract documents.

Codes & Standards

The reinforcement shall be fixed and maintained in position in accordance with the requirements
of BS 4483 (2005) except where modified by this specification.

Inspection

The Contractor shall give sufficient notice and in any case not less than 24 hours to the Engineer
of the completion of fixing of the requirement and shall allow a further sufficient time and not
less than 2 working hours for the carrying out of the inspection.

2.4.2. PLACING AND FIXING OF REINFORCEMENT

General

Reinforcement shall be as shown on the contract drawings and shall be securely held in its
correct position within the tolerances specified herein until the concrete has hardened.

Supports for Reinforcement

Chairs, spacers, stools, hangers, and ties may be used as supports for reinforcement and shall be
made of metal, concrete or plastic, but pieces of wood, aggregate, brick or the like shall not be
used. Unprotected ferrous metal shall be not used in such supports where they extend to the
subsurface of the concrete of where they are used in conjunction with galvanized or zinc coat
reinforcement.

The supports shall be adequate to withstand construction traffic and shall be sufficient in number
and spacing to maintain the reinforcement in its correct position. Particular care shall be given
to the support of light gauge reinforcement and of reinforcement in general where the concrete is
to be cast against the ground. Care shall be taken that no damage occurs to any water proofing
membrane or vapour barrier and a metal or plastic plate or equivalent shall be placed under each
chair.

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Tolerances on Reinforcement

The following tolerances shall be allowable in the fixing of reinforcement:

 Main Bars +/- 10 mm


 Secondary reinforcement
(Links, spacers, etc.,) +/- 15 mm

Integrity of Reinforcement

Reinforcement shall not be cut to provide space for core holes or embodiments. Any
repositioning of reinforcement to provide for them shall be with the approval of the Engineer.

2.4.3. PROTECTION IN HOT WEATHER

Where there is the likelihood of an ambient air temperature greater than 30o C during the
placement of the concrete then the reinforcement shall be adequately shaded or sprayed with
water so as to prevent its temperature rising to 30o C.

2.5. CORE HOLES, EMBEDDED SERVICES, INSERTS AND ANCHOR BOLTS


2.5.1. GENERAL

Scope

This section of the specification for concrete sets out the requirements for the provision of core
holes and the embedment of service pipes, conduits, inserts and anchor bolts etc., in the concrete
members of the structure.

Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for co-ordinating the core and embedment requirements of
all trades and for the provision of them in accordance with the requirements of the Contract
documents.

Location & details

Where the location and details of the core holes and embodiments are shown on the structural
drawings of the Contract documents then such shall be followed, and such information is not
shown then the Contractor shall submit the requirements of the trades in this respect to the
Engineer for approval.

Inspection

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The Contractor shall give sufficient notice and in any case not less than 24 hours the Engineer of
the completion of the provision and fixing of all cores and embodiments and shall allow a
further sufficient time and not less than 2 hours for the carrying out of the inspection.

Codes & Standards

The provision of core holes and embodiments shall be in accordance with the requirements of
BS 8110: 1997 Structural Use of Concrete except where notified by this Specification.

2.5.2. INTEGRITY OF CONCRETE & REINFORCEMENT

Reinforcement shall not be cut to provide space for core holes or embodiments nor shall the
hardened concrete be cut or cored without the approval of the Engineer.

2.5.3. SIZE, SPACING AND COVER OF EMBEDMENT

Pipes and conduits embedded in concrete shall comply with BS 8110: 1997.

2.5.4. PROTECTION

Inserts, anchor bolts and embedded fixing shall be galvanized unless otherwise indicated on the
contract drawings or specified under their particular trade. Threads shall be greased and all
embedded items shall be covered and protected against damage.

2.6. CONCRETE SUPPLY


2.6.1. GENERAL

Scope

This section of the specification sets out the requirements for the supply of concrete for all
concrete members.

Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for the supply of the concrete in accordance with this
specification and the associated contract documents.

Codes & Standards

Concrete and it constituent materials shall comply with the current requirements of the following
codes and standards except where modified by this specification.

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 BS 882:1992 Methods for Sampling and Testing Aggregates
 SLS 107:2008 Ordinary Portland Cement
 BS 8110:1997 Structural use Concrete
 BS 5328:1990 Dense Natural Aggregates for Concrete (Part 1-4)
 BS 5075:1982 Chemical Admixtures for use in Concrete
 BS 8007:1999 CP for concrete structure for retaining aqueous liquid
 BS 8102:2009 CP for concrete – protection from ground
 AS 3600:2009 Concrete Structures Codes
 AS 3582-1:1996 Fly Ash used in concrete
 ASTM C1240 (95) Silica fume
 DIN 1048 Water permeability test
 ASTM C1202 Chloride penetration test

Certificates

Prior to the supply of concrete to the Project, the Contractor shall, upon the request of the
Engineer supply copies of test certificates covering the relevant tests from Table 2.3.

The test results shall relate either to materials already stock piled for the project or to the most
recent production of materials from the source and of the quality intended to be supplied to the
Project. During the course of the project additional test certificates shall be supplied at the
frequency listed in Table 2.3.

Table 2.2: Material Test Certificate

Description of Tests for which Test Frequency of


Material
Certificates are required Tests

Cement As in SLS 107:2008 for each type of Every 100 Tons


cement used.

As in BS 5075:1982 for each type of


Admixtures
admixture.

Coarse Aggregate Sieve analysis as in BS 882:1992 Bulk Each 1,000 Cubic


density and water absorption 6 Particle

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Shape, the LA Abrasion Test, the Metres
Soundness Test BS 882:1992

Fine Aggregate The Potential Reactivity BS 882:1992. Each 1,000 Cubic


Metres
Sieve Analysis, Friable Particles, and
Organic impurities.

2.6.2. MATERIALS

General
Concrete shall be made with Portland cement, Coarse aggregate, water and any admixtures that
may be specified or approved.

The Concrete for the various concrete elements of the structure shall contain the specific types
of materials to satisfy the performance requirements and these shall satisfy the materials of the
codes mentioned in section 2.6.1 above.

If requested, submit details of all concrete and obtain approval from the Engineer before
commencing of work.

Cement

All cement shall comply with SLS 107:2008 or latest revisions.

Unless noted the contrary all cement shall be Ordinary Portland Cement in accordance with
SLS107:2008 with the following additional characteristics.

 The Tri-Calcium Aluminate shall be less than 10%.


 The surface area shall be not less than 280, nor greater than 350 m2/kg.
 The Autoclave expansion, as determined by ASTM methods C 151-64, shall be less than
0.8%.
 There shall be a gain in compressive strength of not less than 50% between three days
and seven days and not less than 75% between seven and twenty eight days.

Other cements may be used, if approved by the Engineer and if the resulting concrete has
strength, durability and other characteristic not inferior to those required by the specification for
Portland Cement Concrete.

Aggregate

Dense aggregate shall comply with BS 882:1992, under no circumstances query dust shall be
permitted in the concrete mix as a partial or full replacement of sand (Fine aggregates).

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Water

Water shall be free from matter, which in kind and quality is harmful to concrete, or
reinforcement.

Concrete Admixtures

An admixture, if approved for use, shall comply with BS 5075:1982 and its use in concrete shall
be in accordance with BS 5075:1982. No admixture shall be used except with the permission of
the Engineer.

Silica Fumes

Silica Fumes if approved for use, shall comply with ASTM C – 1240 (95).

Fly Ash

Fly Ash, if approved for use, shall comply with AS 3583:1998 and its use in concrete shall be in
accordance with AS 3582.1:1998.

Storage

Cement shall be stored in weather-tight buildings, bins or silos which provide protection from
dampness and contamination. Bags shall be stacked so as to permit access for tallying,
inspection and identification of each consignment. The stores materials shall be used in
chronological order.

Aggregate stockpiles shall be arranged and used in a manner, which prevent segregation or any
contamination with other sizes of aggregate. Stockpiles shall be free draining.

Admixtures shall be stored in such a way as to ensure that there is no detrimental effect on their
properties. The Contractor shall comply with any special requirement of the manufacturer of the
product.

2.6.3. PERFORMANCE REQUIREMENTS

General

The concrete for the various parts of the work shall be so designed and produced that the
performance requirements of this specification shall be met.

Proportioning and mixing of the concrete materials shall be such as to produce a mix, which
works readily into corners and angels of the forms and around reinforcement with the method of
placement employed on the work, but without permitting the materials to segregate or excess
free water to collect on the surface. The resulting concrete shall be sound and have the other
qualities specified.

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Strength

The characteristic strength of the concrete as defined in BS 8110:1997 that is required for the
various parts of the work shall be shown on the drawings.

Slump

The slump required for the various parts of the work shall determine by the Contractor based on
the workability requirements. The required value for each grade shall be agreed on the trial
mixes / type of construction. The slump for any batch of concrete shall be within +/- 25 mm.

Drying Shrinkage

The drying shrinkage limits for the concrete in any part of the works shall be as specified and
shall be measured by submitting samples to during shrinkage tests as defined in Section 8 of this
specification. The measure of drying shrinkage shall be the percentage change in dimension of
the sample after a period of 8 weeks.

Unless otherwise specified the maximum permissible drying shrinkage shall be as follows.

Strain = 600 microstrain up to grade 30

Strain = 650 microstrain up to grade 40

Strain = 750 microstrain above grade 40

Maximum Aggregate Size

The maximum size of aggregate which shall be used in any particular part of the structure shall
be as specified in drawings.

2.6.4. QUALITY CONTROL

The Contractor shall implement Quality Control testing throughout the supply of concrete to the
works so that as to establish that the performance requirements of this specification are being
met. This testing shall be Project Control Testing as defined in BS 8110:1997.

2.6.5. READY MIXED CONCRETE

Unless otherwise approved by the Engineer, the concrete for every part of the works shall be
supplied as ready mix concrete.

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Ready mixed concrete shall be supplied in accordance with BS 5328:1990 & BS 8110:1997,
except where modified by this specification.

Contractor shall demonstrate that his mix design, method of concrete production , transportation,
placing and curing will satisfy the requirements, by carrying out a sample tests (40 samples from
each grade above 50Mpa and 10 samples from each grade below 50Mpa ) and submit a report to
the Engineer, six weeks prior to the placing of concrete.

Note: Maximum cement content allowed for any grade of concrete mentioned in this
specification shall be 500kg/m3.

The Engineer shall approve the supplier of the Ready mixed concrete prior to the
commencement of the works. The Ready Mixed concrete shall not be delivered in non-agitating
truck.

The Contractor shall ensure that the supplier of ready mixed concrete will permit inspection of
the plant and material and if so required, will permit the taking of samples for testing purposes.

The Contractor shall advise the ready mixed concrete supplier of all requirements of this
specification and shall enquire that each truck of ready mixed concrete be accompanied by a
docket bearing the following information.

 The Specific part of the works, which the concrete was ordered.

 The quantity of concrete contained.

 The time of dispatch.

 The type of concrete supplied either by reference number or by listing of the


performance requirements and specified material content.

 The type and quantity of admixtures and fly ash if permitted.

 The Contractor shall retain these dockets as a record of the ready mixed concrete
delivered and this information shall be available to the Engineer on request.

2.6.6. SITE MIXED CONCRETE

Site mixed concrete shall be produced in accordance with the ICTAD Specifications (Institute
for Construction Training & Development of Sri Lanka) if approved by the Engineer.

2.6.7. PUMPED CONCRETE

The Contractor shall take full responsibility for the adequacy of the concrete mix so that the
Concrete can be pumped to its appropriate location and shall achieve the performance
requirements specified.

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2.6.8. MIXING IN HOT WEATHER

When the air temperature exceeds 30oC, the concrete shall be supplied at a temperature not
exceeding 30oC to the location of placing the concrete, unless otherwise approved by the
Engineer.

2.7. CONCRETE PLACING


2.7.1. GENERAL

Scope

This section of the specification for concrete sets out the requirements for the placing of
concrete in all concrete members.

Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for the placing of the concrete in accordance with this
specification and the associated Contract documents and in such a manner that the performance
requirements of this specification are met.

Inspection

The Contractor shall give sufficient notice and in any case not less than 24 hours to the Engineer
of the placing of any concrete.

2.7.2. TRANSPORTING

The concrete shall be transported from the ready mix truck or site mixing plant to its final
position as rapidly as possible, by means, which will prevent segregation or loss of materials and
contamination and in such a way that the proper placing and compaction of the concrete will not
be adversely affected.

Pumping shall be used for placing concrete only with the approval of the Engineer.The
Contractor shall ensure that the equipment to be used will permit the concrete being placed with
the properties specified under the performance requirements of this specification.

2.7.3. PLACING

The Contractor shall not place any concrete until forms or excavations and reinforcing steel and
embedded items have been checked, approved and a written permit has been issued by the
Engineer.

The concrete shall not be placed if the slump as measured in accordance with this specification
is not within the required limits.

Concrete shall be placed before the initial set.

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All concrete, shall be placed in the dry areas. Areas on which concrete is to be deposited shall
be made and kept free from standing water during concreting operations and running water
crossing or entering such areas shall be brought under control for at least 24 hours after
concreting is completed.

To meet such circumstances, the Contractor shall always have in readiness on site with approved
sheeting etc., for the protection of newly placed concrete.

Concrete shall be placed in continuous horizontal layers, the thickness of which shall not exceed
300 unless otherwise approved by the Engineer. When less than a complete layer is placed in
one operation, it shall be terminated in a vertical bulkhead.

Each layer shall be placed and compacted before the preceding batch has taken initial set to
prevent injury to the green concrete and to avoid surfaces of separation between the batches.

Each layer shall be compacted so as to avoid the formation of a cold joint with the preceding
layer which has not taken initial set.

When the placing of concrete is temporarily discontinued, the concrete, after becoming firm
enough to retain its form, shall be cleaned of laitance and other unsound material to a sufficient
depth to expose sound concrete. Immediately following an approved discontinuance of placing
concrete all accumulations of mortar splashed upon the reinforcing bars and the surfaces of
forms shall be removed.

Care shall be taken in all cases to ensure that the reinforcement is thoroughly surrounded by
concrete and that no voids or cavities are left in the concrete. Concrete shall not be dropped
through reinforcing steel, so as to cause segregation of the aggregates; in such cases, spouts,
flexible trunking, or other approved means shall be used.

Casting Chutes

Where chutes are used to convey the concrete, their slopes shall not be such as to cause
segregation, and suitable spouts or baffles shall be provided to obviate segregation during
discharge. The use of chutes with slopes greater than 1:1 will not be permitted without the
approval of the Engineer. Concrete shall not be allowed to fall freely more than 1500 mm. In if
the lift height is greater than 1500mm Tremie pipe or similar arrangement shall be used. Under
any circumstances, casting of columns, walls together with slabs and beams will not be
allowed unless self-compacting concrete is used (refer section 2.11) .

Concrete Temperature Control Measures

Concrete when deposited shall have a temperature of not more than 30 ºC. The maximum
temperature of the concrete during hardening shall not exceed 70 ºC. The method of concrete
placement and curing shall minimise temperature gradient and differences within the concrete
pour and the concrete adjacent to it, and across construction joints. No temperature

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difference between two parts of the same pour shall be allowed to exceed 20 ºC. Portland
cement with fly-ash or low-heat Portland cement may be us to achieve the above requirements
(Note: The temperature control shall be necessary for Pile-caps, Basement Slab, Basement
Walls, Large columns and members which poses a dimension grater than 1m ).

Detail method of concrete placement, protection, curing and temperature control shall be
accompanied by supporting calculations of estimating maximum temperatures, temperature
gradients and resulting stresses. These calculations shall be based upon temperatures measured
during tests and/or elsewhere in the works.

2.7.4. COMPACTION

Concrete shall be compacted by means of approved high frequency mechanical vibrators of the
immersion type. Vibrators shall be used in sufficient number to keep pace with the rate of
placing of the concrete and shall be handled by trained operators to ensure that the pattern of
inserting the vibrators produces even and regular compaction. Vibrators shall be sized to suit
the available spacing in respect of formwork, reinforcing steel and all other details.

Vibrators shall not be used to displace the newly poured concrete over a horizontal distance and
care shall be taken that partially set concrete is not disturbed.

During placing, the concrete may be compacted by vibrating with approved tools and shall be
worked around the reinforcement and embedded fixtures and into corners and angles of the
forms.

Immersion type vibrators, low amplitudes and high frequencies shall be used. The amount of
vibration shall be decided on the basis of experience with the thickness of section being cast, but
as a general guide it should be arranged for an immersion vibrator to be inserted a 1 m intervals
for period of approximately 30 seconds. Vibration shall be continued until air bubbles cease to
rise and shall be discontinued immediately after water or mortar appears on the surface.

2.7.5. CONCRETING UNDER WATER

Concrete shall not be allowed to place under water for super-structure construction.

2.8. CONCRETE SAMPLING AND TESTING


2.8.1. GENERAL

The sampling and testing of concrete shall be in accordance with BS 5328:1990 & BS
8110:1997, except where modified by this specification.

All aspects of sampling, site treatment and testing of concrete specimens shall be carried out by
the approved laboratory and personnel. On sites where this is not practicable, the Engineer may
approve of suitable experienced personnel proposed by the Contractor. The Contractor shall
allow for the whole of the costs involved in this section.

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Where concrete is liable to rejection, the costs of any further checking or testing that may be
permitted by the Engineer shall be borne by the Contractor.

Project control testing, as described in BS 5328:1990 & BS 8110:1997 shall apply and samples
and specimens shall be taken at the site.

Cement

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer for each batch of cement delivered to Site the
manufacturer's test certificates of testing in accordance with BS 4550 : Method of testing
cement.

Notwithstanding the production of the manufacturer's certificates, the Engineer is empowered to


require such further tests to be made as he may consider necessary in accordance with the
requirement of BS 12:1996.

Aggregates

The Contractor shall submit test certificates of aggregates for each class of aggregate and from
each source of supply to the Engineer for approval. These certificates shall be submitted with the
general submissions required by Clause 3.2 Sampling and testing shall be in accordance with BS
812:1995 and shall be carried out in the site laboratory.

Water

Water that is not obtained from an approved source or that is unsuitable for drinking shall not be
used until tested in accordance with BS EN 1008:2002 and its use has been approved by the
Engineer.

Reinforcement

The Contractor shall submit to the Engineer, the manufacturer's test certificates for all
reinforcements delivered to Site.

The Engineer is empowered to require such further tests to be made as he may consider
necessary. The cost of such tests shall be borne by the Contractor.

2.8.2. SAMPLING

Sample

A sample for reinforcement bars shall define as three bars from each diameter.

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A sample for concrete shall define as seven numbers of concrete cubes (150 mm x 150mm x
150mm). All concrete samples shall be taken at the site near to the location of placing the
concrete.

Method of sampling

Sampling and identification shall be carried out in accordance with BS 5328:1990.

No of 5m3 concrete trucks supplied to the No. of samples to be taken


project per day

1 to 5 1

6 to 10 2

11 to 20 3

Frequency of Sampling

Every 500 tons of steel one sample of each bar to be tested for mechanical properties according
to BS 4449:2009.

2.8.3. TEST SPECIMENS

General

Generally at least three specimens shall be taken from the samples to represent a particular
property and they shall be prepared and cured in accordance with the relevant section of BS
5328:1990.

Records shall be kept and submitted to the Engineer of all aspects of the Project Control Testing.
The records shall provide the full history of sampling and testing of all specimens and shall
accord with BS 5328:1990.

Characteristic Compressive Strength

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Six specimens of each sample obtained, shall be tested for compressive strength assessment at 7
days and 28 days (three specimens at 7 days and three specimens at 28 days) in accordance with
BS 5328:1990. The remaining specimen of each Sample shall be kept as a reference to be used
by the engineer if required for future use.

The test sample shall comply with the following limits, unless otherwise approved by the
Engineer.

 Chloride penetration Test – Charges passed shall be less than 1000 coulombs when
tested in accordance to the ASTM C-1202.
 Water Penetrability – shall be less than 15mm over 28 days when tested in accordance to
the DIN -1048.

Slump

The slump of the concrete shall be determined in accordance with BS 5328:1990. The criterion
for compliance shall be as specified in Section 9 of this specification.

Drying Shrinkage

Three specimens shall be taken in accordance with BS 5328:1990, from the concrete samples.
The assessment of drying shrinkage shall be on the basis of the average of the three test results.
The concrete of the same type shall be tested every three months during the course of the
project. The criterion of compliance shall be as specified in Section 6 of this specification.

2.8.4. TEST RESULTS

Test Certificates

Test Certificates, or facsimile copies of these, shall be forwarded to the Engineer immediately
they are available. The results of these tests shall also be kept in tabulated from at site.

2.9. ACCEPTANCE OF CONCRETE


2.9.1. GENERAL

Concrete which has been specified to satisfy certain performance requirements and which has
been tested for such performance in accordance with Section 8 shall be deemed to comply if the
criteria specified in 2.9.2 of this section are satisfied. When the concrete fails to satisfy these
criteria it will be liable to rejection.

The Engineer may permit concrete, which is liable to rejection to be retained on the following
basis.

i. An appraisal of the statistical information related to the concrete strength.

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ii. A structural investigation

iii. Approved remedial work.

The Cost of this further checking, testing or remedial work shall be borne by the Contractor.

Where the concrete work has been finally rejected it shall be removed to the extent determined
by the Engineer.

2.9.2. CONCRETE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

Characteristic Compressive Strength of Concrete

The Concrete shall be deemed to comply with the strength requirements of this specification if
characteristic strength is not less than specified here in table 2.4.

Target mean strength for trial mixes shall be as follows;

- Cube Strength < 50N/mm2, – Characteristic cube strength (fcu) + 8N/mm2


- 50N/mm2 < Cube Strength < 80N/mm2, – Characteristic cube strength (fcu) + 10N/mm2

Trial mixes for C50/40 or above concrete shall be performed with a minimum of 40 test cubes.

Slump

The slump shall be deemed to comply with the specified requirements if:

a. When the specified slump is 80 mm or less, the measured slump shall be within 15 mm
of the specified slump.

b. When the specified slump exceeds 80 mm, the measured slump shall be within 25 mm of
the specified slump.

Drying Shrinkage

The criterion for compliance with the drying shrinkage requirements of the specification shall be
that the average test for drying shrinkage of the three specimens shall not exceed the specified
value.

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Table 2.3: Minimum Concrete Strength Criteria

28 days compressive cube strength


(N/mm²)

-------------------------------------------------
Grade Specified Average of any Individual
Characteristic
Designation
group of 3 test result
Cube Strength
(Cube/
(N/mm²) consecutive test should be
Cylinder)
results shall be greater than

greater than

C15/12 15 17 12
C25/20 25 27 21
C30/25 30 32 27
C35/28 35 37 32
C40/32 40 42 37
C45/36 45 47 42
C50/40 50 52 47
C55/44 55 57 52
C60/48 60 62 57
C65/52 65 67 62
C70/56 70 72 67

2.9.3. CONCRETE REJECTION CRITERIA

Hardened concrete shall also be liable to rejection if any of the following defects occur.

a) It is porous, segregated or honeycombed.

b) A construction joint has been made at a location or in a manner not in accordance with
this specification.

c) The construction tolerances have not been met.

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d) The reinforcing steel has been displaced from its correct location.

e) Water stops, insets and other items embedded in concrete have been displaced from their
correct position.

f) The required surface finish has not been achieved.

g) The concrete work can be shown to be otherwise defective.

2.10. CONCRETE CURING AND PROTECTION


2.10.1. GENERAL

This section sets out the requirements for the curing and protection of all concrete members.

Responsibility

The Contractor shall be responsible for the provision of the curing and protection
requirements of this section of the specification.

Codes & Standards

The requirement of BS 8110:1997 shall apply except where modified by this specification.

2.10.2. CURING

General

Freshly cast concrete shall be protected from premature drying and excessively hot or cold
temperature. In windy conditions breaks shall be erected to shield the concrete surfaces during
and after placement. The concrete shall be maintained at a reasonable constant temperature with
minimum moisture loss for the curing period. Curing methods, which do not conform to the
requirements of this specification, shall not be used without the period approval of the Engineer.

Curing Methods

During the curing period one of the following methods shall be adopted by the Contractor for
the curing of the uniformed surfaces of such concrete member. Where formed surfaces are
exposed during the curing period then these also shall be cured by one of these methods for the
reminder of the curing period.

a. Ponding or continuous sprinkling with water.

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b. The use of an absorptive cover kept continuously wet.

c. The use of curing compounds to be approved by the Engineer.

d. The used of an impermeable sheet membrane over a moistened surface so fixed and
lapped that circulation can occur at the concrete surface.

2.10.3. HOT WEATHER CURING

When the temperature of the surrounding air during curing is higher than 30oC the concrete
shall be cured only by means of method (a) and (b) of section 2.10.2.

If the temperature of the surrounding air is higher than 30oC, suitable barriers shall be
erected to protect the freshly placed plastic concrete form wind and sun until the concrete has
hardened sufficiently to allow covering.

2.10.4. CURING THICK CONCRETE MEMBERS

Thick concrete members like Pile Caps, Columns etc. are likely to gain surface temperatures
close to 70º C. Such members shall not be cured by ponding water for the first four days after
curing. The Contractor shall protect the surface so that sudden temperature drop (Thermal
Shock) shall not occur during the initial period. Method to be adopted for this purpose shall be
forwarded to the Engineer for approval.

2.10.5. CURING COMPOUNDS

Where curing compounds permitted by the specification are used they shall be applied in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and shall not be used on any surface until the
successful completion of the following tests.

a. Test for curing efficiency

b. Test to show that the adhesion of any supplied concrete finish will not be adversely
affected by the compound. PVA resin based compounds will only be permitted with the
approval of the Engineer.

2.10.6. PROTECTION AGAINST DAMAGE

The concrete shall be protected from damage due to load over-stresses, heavy shocks and
excessive vibrations, particularly during the curing period. Construction loads shall not be
placed on self-supporting structures which will over-stress them.

All finished concrete surfaces shall be protected from damage due to any cause, such as
construction activities, rain and running water.

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2.10.7. CURING PERIOD

Curing shall commence immediately after initial set of the concrete and shall continue for a
minimum period of 7 days or faction thereof, for concrete made with high early strength cement,
the curing shall continue for a minimum period of three days. Rapid drying out at the end of the
curing period shall be prevented.

2.11. SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE


2.11.1. STANDARDS
 EN 197-1 : Cement ; Composition, specifications and conformity criteria
 EN 206-1 : Concrete – Specification, performance, production, and conformity
 EN 450 : Fly ash for concrete – Definitions, requirements and quality control
 EN 934-2 : Admixtures for concrete – Definitions and requirements
 EN 1008 : Mixing water for concrete
 EN 12350-1 : Testing fresh concrete: Part 1: Sampling
 EN 12350-2 : Testing fresh concrete: Part 2: Slump test
 EN 12620 : Aggregates for concrete
 EN 12878 : Pigments for colouring of building materials based on cement
 EN 13263 : Silica fume for concrete – Definitions, requirements and conformity
control
 EN ISO 9001 : Quality management systems – Requirements
 BS 639 : Specification for covered Carbon and Carbon, Manganese steel
vvvvvvvvvvvvelectrodes for manual metal

2.11.2. GENERAL

Self-compacting concrete (SCC) has been described as "the most revolutionary development in
concrete construction for several decades". Originally developed to offset a growing shortage of
skilled labour, it has proved beneficial economically because of a number of factors, including:

 faster construction
 reduction in site manpower
 better surface finishes
 easier placing
 improved durability

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 greater freedom in design
 thinner concrete sections
 reduced noise levels, absence of vibration
 safer working environment

Originally developed in Japan, SCC technology was made possible by the much earlier
development of super plasticisers for concrete. SCC has now been taken up with enthusiasm
across Europe, for both site and precast concrete work. Practical application has been
accompanied by much research into the physical and mechanical characteristics of SCC and the
wide range of knowledge generated has been sifted and combined in this guideline document.

2.11.3. SCOPE

The EFNARC (Experts for Specialized Construction and Concrete Systems) Specification
defines specific requirements for the SCC material, its composition and its application. The
Annexes also include a wealth of useful advice to designers, concrete manufacturers,
contractors, specifying authorities and testing organisations.

2.11.4. DEFINITIONS

For the purposes of this specification, the following definitions apply:

 Addition - Finely-divided inorganic material used in concrete in order to improve certain


properties or to achieve special properties. This specification refers to two types of
inorganic additions:
- nearly inert additions (Type l)
- pozzolanic or latent hydraulic additions (Type ll)
 Admixture - Material added during the mixing process of concrete in small quantities
related to the mass of cement to modify the properties of fresh or hardened concrete.
 Binder - The combined cement and hydraulic addition in a self-compacting concrete.
 Confined flowability – see 4.9 passing ability.
 Filling ability (unconfined flowability) - The ability of SCC to flow into and fill
completely all spaces within the formwork, under its own weight.
 Mortar - The fraction of the concrete comprising Paste plus those aggregates less than 4
mm.
 Paste - The fraction of the concrete comprising Powder plus water and air.
 Passing ability (confined flowability) - The ability of SCC to flow through tight
openings such as spaces between steel reinforcing bars without segregation or blocking.
 Powder (Fines) - Material of particle size smaller than 0,125 mm. It will also include
this size fraction of the sand.
 Self-compacting concrete (SCC) - Concrete that is able to flow under its own weight
and completely fill the formwork, even in the presence of dense reinforcement, without
the need of any vibration, whilst maintaining homogeneity.

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 Segregation resistance (stability) - The ability of SCC to remain homogeneous in
composition during transport and placing.
 Workability - A measure of the ease by which fresh concrete can be placed and
compacted: it is a complex combination of aspects of fluidity, cohesiveness,
transportability, compactability and stickiness.
 Segregation resistance (stability) - The ability of SCC to remain homogeneous in
composition during transport and placing.

2.11.5. REQUIREMENTS FOR CONSTITUENT MATERIALS

General

The constituent materials, used for the production of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) shall
generally comply with the requirements of EN 206.

The materials shall be suitable for the intended use in concrete and not contain harmful
ingredients in such quantities that may be detrimental to the quality or the durability of the
concrete, or cause corrosion of the reinforcement.

Cement

General suitability is established for cement conforming to EN 197-1.

Aggregate

Aggregates shall conform to EN 12620. The maximum size of the aggregates depends on the
particular application and is usually limited to 15 mm.

Particles smaller than 0.125 mm contribute to the powder content.

The moisture content should be closely monitored and must be taken into account in order to
produce SCC of constant quality (see section 3.10).

Mixing Water

Suitability is established for mixing water and for recycled water from concrete production
conforming to EN 1008.

Admixtures

Admixtures used shall comply with EN 934-2: 2000, where appropriate.

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Superplasticizers are an essential component of SCC to provide the necessary workability.
Other types may be incorporated as necessary, such as Viscosity Modifying Agents (VMA) for
stability, air entraining admixtures (AEA) to improve freeze-thaw resistance, retarders for
control of setting, etc.

VMA admixtures are not specifically covered in EN 934, but should conform to the general
requirements in Table 1 of that standard. In addition evidence of performance should be
provided by the supplier.

Additions

General suitability as Type I (semi-inert) addition is established for:

 filler aggregate conforming to EN 12620


 pigments conforming to EN 12878

General suitability as Type II (pozzolanic or latent hydraulic) addition is established for:

 fly ash conforming to EN 450


 silica fume conforming to EN 13263
 ground granulated blastfurnace slag conforming to BS 6699

Due to the special rheological requirements of SCC, both inert and reactive additions are
commonly used to improve and maintain the workability, as well as to regulate the cement
content and so reduce the heat of hydration. Type II additions can significantly improve the
long term performance of the concrete.

Typical additions are:

Stone powder. Finely crushed limestone, dolomite or granite may be used to increase the
amount of powder: the fraction less than 0.125 mm will be of most benefit. Note: dolomite
may present a durability risk due to alkali-carbonate reaction.

Fly Ash. Fly ash is a fine inorganic material with pozzolanic properties, which can be added
to SCC to improve its properties. However the dimensional stability may be affected and
should be checked.

Silica Fume. Silica fume gives very good improvement of the rheological as well as the
mechanical and chemical properties. Improves also the durability of the concrete.

Ground (Granulated) Blast Furnace Slag. GGBS is a fine granular mostly latent hydraulic
binding material, which can also be added to SCC to improve the rheological properties.

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Ground Glass Filler. This filler is usually obtained by finely grinding recycled glass. The
particle size should be less than 0.1 mm and the specific surface area should be 2500 cm2/g.
Larger particle sizes may cause Alkali-Silica reaction.

Pigments. The suitability of pigments used in SCC is established in EN 12878.

2.11.6. REQUIREMENTS FOR SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE

Application Area

SCC may be used in pre-cast applications or for concrete placed on site. It can be manufactured
in a site batching plant or in a ready mix concrete plant and delivered to site by truck. It can
then be placed either by pumping or pouring into horizontal or vertical structures. In designing
the mix, the size and the form of the structure, the dimension and density of reinforcement and
cover should be taken in consideration. These aspects will all influence the specific requirements
for the SCC.

Due to the flowing characteristics of SCC it may be difficult to cast to a fall unless contained in
a form. SCC has made it possible to cast concrete structures of a quality that was not possible
with the existing concrete technology.

Requirements

SCC can be designed to fulfil the requirements of EN 206 regarding density, strength
development, final strength and durability.

Due to the high content of powder, SCC may show more plastic shrinkage or creep than
ordinary concrete mixes. These aspects should therefore be considered during designing and
specifying SCC. Current knowledge of these aspects is limited and this is an area requiring
further research. Special care should also be taken to begin curing the concrete as early as
possible. The workability of SCC is higher than the highest class of consistence described within
EN 206 and can be characterised by the following properties:

 Filling ability
 Passing ability
 Segregation resistance

A concrete mix can only be classified as Self-compacting Concrete if the requirements for
all three characteristics are fulfilled.

2.11.7. TEST METHODS

Many different test methods have been developed in attempts to characterise the properties of
SCC. So far no single method or combination of methods has achieved universal approval and
most of them have their adherents. Similarly no single method has been found which

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characterises all the relevant workability aspects so each mix design should be tested by more
than one test method for the different workability parameters.

Alternative test methods for the different parameters are listed in Tables 2.5 and 2.6.

Table 2.5: List of test methods for workability properties of SCC

Method Property
1 Slump-flow by Abrams cone Filling ability
2 T50cmslumpflow Filling ability
3 J-ring Passing ability
4 V-funnel Filling ability
5 V-funnel at T5minutes Segregation resistance
6 L-box Passing ability
7 U-box Passing ability
8 Fill-box Passing ability
9 GTM screen stability test Segregation resistance
10 Orimet Filling ability

For the initial mix design of SCC all three workability parameters need to be assessed to
ensure that all aspects are fulfilled. A full-scale test should be used to verify the self-
compacting characteristics of the chosen design for a particular application. For site quality
control, two test methods are generally sufficient to monitor production quality. Typical
combinations are Slump-flow and V-funnel or Slump-flow and J-ring. With consistent raw
material quality, a single test method operated by a trained and experienced technician may be
sufficient.

Table 2.6: Workability properties of SCC and alternative test methods

Property Test methods


Lab Field Modification of test
(mix design) (QC) According to max.
aggregate size
Filling ability 1 Slumpflow 1 Slum pflow none
2 T50cmslumpflow 2 T50cmslumpflow
4 V-funnel 4 V-funnel max 20 mm
10 Orimet 10 Orimet
Passing ability 6 L-box 3 J-ring Different openings in L -box,
7 U-box U-box and J-ring
8 Fill-box
Segregation 9 GTM test 9 GTM test None
resistance 5 V-funnel at T5minutes 5 V-funnel at T5minutes

2.11.8. WORKABILITY CRITERIA FOR THE FRESH SCC

These requirements are to be fulfilled at the time of placing. Likely changes in workability
during transport should be taken into account in production.

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Typical acceptance criteria for Self-compacting Concrete with a maximum aggregate size up to
20 mm are shown in Table 2.7.

Table 2.7: Workability properties of SCC and alternative test methods

Typical range of values


Method Unit
Minimum Maximum
1 Slumpflow by Abrams cone mm 650 800
2 T50cmslumpflow sec 2 5
3 J-ring mm 0 10
4 V-funnel sec 6 12
5 Time increase, V-funnel at T5minutes sec 0 +3
6 L-box (h2/h 1) 0,8 1,0
7 U-box (h2-h 1) mm 0 30
8 Fill-box % 90 100
9 GTM Screen stability test % 0 15
10 Orimet sec 0 5

These typical requirements shown against each test method are based on current knowledge and
practice. However future developments may lead to different requirements being adopted.
Values outside these ranges may be acceptable if the producer can demonstrate satisfactory
performance in the specific conditions, eg, large spaces between reinforcement, layer thickness
less than 500 mm, short distance of flow from point of discharge, very few obstructions to pass
in the formwork, very simple design of formwork, etc.

Special care should always be taken to ensure no segregation of the mix is likely as, at present,
there is not a simple and reliable test that gives information about segregation resistance of SCC
in all practical situations.

2.11.9. MIX COMPOSITION

General

The mix composition shall satisfy all performance criteria for the concrete in both the fresh and
hardened states. For the fresh concrete, the requirements are set out in section 2.11.9. In the
hardened state, the requirements of EN 206 shall be fulfilled.

Initial Mix Composition

In designing the mix it is most useful to consider the relative proportions of the key
components by volume rather than by mass.

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Indicative typical ranges of proportions and quantities in order to obtain self-
compatibility are given below. Further modifications will be necessary to meet strength and
other performance requirements.

 Water/powder ratio by volume of 0.80 to 1.10


 Total powder content - 160 to 240 litres (400-600 kg) per cubic meter.
 Coarse aggregate content normally 28 to 35 per cent by volume of the mix.
 Water: cement ratio is selected based on requirements in EN 206. Typically water
content does not exceed 200 litre/m3.
 The sand content balances the volume of the other constituents

Generally, it is advisable to design conservatively to ensure that the concrete is capable of


maintaining its specified fresh properties despite anticipated variations in raw material quality.
Some variation in aggregate moisture content should also be expected and allowed for at mix
design stage. Normally, viscosity-modifying admixtures are a useful tool for compensating for
the fluctuations due to any variations of the sand grading and the moisture content of the
aggregates.

Adjustment of the Mix

Laboratory trials should be used to verify properties of the initial mix composition. If necessary,
adjustments to the mix composition should then be made. Once all requirements are fulfilled,
the mix should be tested at full scale at the concrete plant or at site.

In the event that satisfactory performance cannot be obtained, then consideration should be
given to fundamental redesign of the mix. Depending on the apparent problem, the following
courses of action might be appropriate:

 Using additional or different types of filler, (if available);


 Modifying the proportions of the sand or the coarse aggregate;
 Using a viscosity modifying agent, if not already included in the mix;
 Adjusting the dosage of the superplasticizer and/or the viscosity modifying agent;
 Using alternative types of superplasticizer (and/or VMA), more compatible with local
materials;
 Adjusting the dosage of admixture to modify the water content, and hence the
water/powder ratio.

2.11.10. PRODUCTION AND PLACING

General

The production of self-compacting concrete needs to be carried out in plants where the
equipment, operation and materials are suitably controlled. Production should therefore be

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carried out at ISO 9000 accredited plants or plants with a quality systems that conforms to ISO
9000 or similar. It is recommended that production staff involved in the production of self-
compacting concrete have been trained and also have experience in self-compacting concrete.

Production

Storage of Constituent Materials

If possible, aggregates should be covered to minimise the fluctuation of surface moisture


content. It is also necessary to have good storage capacity for aggregates and additions (if used).

Storage of concrete admixtures can be done in the same way as for normal concrete. The
supplier's recommendations should be followed.

Mixing

There is no requirement for any specific mixer type. Forced action mixers, including paddle
mixers, free fall mixers, including truck mixers, and other types can all be used. The mixing
time necessary should be determined by practical trials. Generally, mixing times need to be
longer than for conventional mixes.

Time of addition of admixture is important, and procedures should be agreed with the supplier
after plant trials. If the consistence has to be adjusted after initial mixing, then it should
generally be done with the admixtures. If the requirements of EN 206 for the water/cement ratio
can be maintained, then the water content can be varied to make the necessary modification.

2.11.11. PRODUCTION CONTROL

Aggregates

During production of SCC, tests of aggregate grading and moisture content should be carried out
more frequently than usual, since SCC is more sensitive than normal concrete to variations.

Mixing Process

At the start of a contract and in the absence of previous experience with the particular mix
design, additional resources may be needed for supervision of all aspects of initial production of
SCC.

Since the quality of freshly mixed concrete may fluctuate at the beginning of production, it is
recommended that workability tests should be conducted by the producer on every load, until
consistent and compliant results are obtained. Subsequently, every delivered batch should be
visually checked before transportation to site, and routine testing carried out to the frequency
specified in EN206.

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More frequent adjustment of mix proportions, particularly water content, may need to be made,
depending on the results from monitoring aggregate moisture content.

Depending on the size of the concrete structure to be produced in SCC, production capacity,
journey time and placing capability need to be balanced. Unexpected production stops can
result in consistence variations that adversely affect the end result.

SCC should be designed so that workability is maintained to meet the requirements of the
contract. Placing is faster, especially if a pump is used, but it is still essential to make sure that
delivery and placing can be completed within the workability-retention (self-compactability)
time of the concrete.

2.11.12. PLACING

General

Before placing SCC, It should be confirmed that reinforcement and formwork are arranged as
planned. The formwork must be in good condition but no special measures are necessary to
prevent grout loss. Contractors may wish to consider possible advantages of pumping from the
bottom of formwork. If concrete is placed by skip, attention should be paid to the closure of the
gate.

For forms in excess of 3 m in depth, the full hydrostatic head should be taken into consideration.
This may require modification of the formwork design and/or the SCC.

Placing Distance

Though it is easier to place SCC than ordinary concrete, the following rules are advised to
minimise the risk of segregation:

Limit the vertical free fall distance to 5 m

Limit the permissible distance of horizontal flow from point of discharge to10 m.

Note: this advice is conservative, and it may be that in favourable circumstances a contractor can
demonstrate that the suggested limits can be extended. See 2.11.9 for procedures.

Cold Joints

Although SCC bonds well with previously placed concrete, the likelihood of damage resulting
from a cold joint cannot be mitigated by vibration, as with normal concrete.

Surface Finishing

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Surfaces of SCC should be roughly levelled to the specified dimensions, and the finishing
should then be applied at an appropriate time before the concrete stiffens. Difficulty may be
encountered with the conventional process of final surface hardening of horizontal areas of
concrete by repeated steel trowelling. Alternative procedures or different tools may be required.

Curing

SCC tends to dry faster than conventional concrete because there is little or no bleed water at the
surface. Initial curing should therefore be commenced as soon as practicable after placing in
order to minimise the risk of shrinkage cracking.

2.11.13. QUALITY CONTROL

Production Control

All SCC shall be subject to production control under the responsibility of the producer, and this
shall be in accordance with the requirements of EN 206-1, clause 9.

Site Acceptance

In the case of SCC it is particularly important that receiving control be standardised. Producer
and purchaser should therefore agree a procedure for acceptance/compliance at the start of a
contract. This should include a procedure for action to be taken in the event of non-compliance.

Beside the normal check of delivery ticket, a visual check of the concrete should be made. Site
quality control should follow the recommendations of 2.11.9.

The purchaser should ensure that all site acceptance testing is carried out by competent, trained
personnel, in a suitable environment – this includes an area protected against the weather,
suitably maintained and calibrated equipment, and level, stable ground for performing the test.

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3. STRUCTURAL STEEL WORK
3.1. STANDARDS AND GENERAL
3.1.1. STANDARDS

For the structural steelwork the following codes and standards will be applicable:

BS 639 :1995 : Specification for covered Carbon and Carbon, Manganese


steel electrodes for manual metal.

BS EN ISO 1461: 1999: Hot dip galvanized coating on fabricated iron and steel articles

– Specifications and test methods

BS 2989: 1992 : Specification for continuously hot-dip zinc coated and


iron-zinc alloy coated steel: wide strip, and sheet/plate and
slit wide strip

BS 3083:1988 : Hot dip coated corrugated sheet for general purposes other
than Zn coating Standards.

BS 4190: 2001 : Specification for ISO metric black hexagon bolts, screws
and nuts

BS 4232: 1967 : Specification for surface finish of blast-cleaned steel for


painting

BS 4360: 1990 : Specification for weldable structural steels.

BS 4395:1969 : Specification for high strength friction grip bolts and


associated nuts and washers for structural engineering

BS 4848: 1991 : Specifications for hot-rolled structural steel sections.

BS 4870: Part 1: 1981 : Specification for approval testing of welders working to


Approved welding procedures – Fusion welding of steel

BS 4871: Part 1: 1982 : Specification for approval testing of welders when welding
Procedure approval is not required – Fusion welding of
steel

BS 5135: 1984 : Specification for arc welding or carbon and carbon manganese
steels

BS 5950- 2: 2001 : Specifications for materials, fabrication and erection: hot


rolled sections

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Unless otherwise specified the structural steel to be used shall be S275 according to BS
5950:2000.

All weld metal shall be suitable steel relative to the parent metal of the structure and all
electrodes used for manual welding shall conform to BS 639:1995. Continuous electrodes for
machine welding shall be to the approval of the Consultant. All welding must conform to BS
5135:1984.

Site bolted joints will normally be made using general grade high strength friction grip
(H.S.F.G.) bolts conform with BS 4395:1969 and conform with BS 4190:2001.

3.1.2. GENERAL

In general, shop joints shall be made by welding and site joints by bolting. Site welding will not
be permitted without the express approval of the Consultant.

Contact between galvanized steel members and aluminium surfaces are to be prevented by
means of a layer of p.v.c. self-adhesive plastic tape, dense chrome tape or similar approved
material.

Steel members for purlins, side and sheeting rails shall be of hot rolled steel sections. The use of
cold-formed steel sections for structural purposes is not allowed.

3.2. DRAWINGS AND CALCULATIONS


3.2.1. CONTRACTOR'S OBLIGATIONS, ETC.

The contractor shall check dimensions on all shop drawings with the dimensions on the Contract
drawings before start of manufacturing of the relevant items.

Should any discrepancies occur between the Contracts drawings and the Specification, the
matter is to be referred immediately to the Consultant for a decision.

All steel members shown on the contract drawings are based on British Standards, and British
Catalogues. In case the specified sizes are not available, the Contractor shall submit alternatives,
which shall be to the approval of the Consultant in all respects.

The Contractor shall prepare and submit for the Consultant's approval detailed working
drawings for the structural steelwork if an alternative is to be offered to the Consultant's design.
At such situations, detailed design calculations, fabrication, erection etc., shall comply with all
requirements of BS 5950:2000 including amendments.

The Contractor shall prepare and submit for the Consultant's approval before manufacturing, all
calculations and shop drawings, for all parts of the steel structures and all detail drawings of all
connections in welded, bolted or riveted constructions. The Consultant's approval does not

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release the Contractor from his responsibilities for the structure and the dimensions on such shop
drawings.

At the Contractor's request the Consultant will supply design calculations for information only.

The Contractor shall prepare assembly drawings showing the location, position and reference
numbers of all components including fixing materials and sequences of erection and installation
to the approval of the Consultant.

Any damage to materials on the site or other storage areas due to inadequate
precautions being taken during the erection of steelwork shall be made good as
required by the Consultant at the Contractor's expense.

3.3. SCOPE OF WORK


3.3.1. GENERAL

The steel works to be supplied and delivered according to drawings and Specifications
comprising all structural steel works including the necessary anchors, base plates, head plates,
connecting plates, stiffening plates, bolts, nuts, washers, temporary bracing's and any additional
rails required for the fixing of the roofing and cladding etc.

The Contractor shall supply and fix all mild steel profiles such as mild steel angles to be welded
to various structural steel frame members to receive brickwork, mild steel plates at columns at
corners etc., all according to the structural (S) and Architectural (AR) drawings.

All structural steel to be hot dip galvanized. Damages to the layer need to be touched-up
immediately upon discovery or infliction. All excess to be removed carefully. The finished
surfaces shall be clean.

To be included in the supply and delivery are the holding-down bolts as indicated on the
drawings.

The Contractor shall supply the Consultant with test certificates obtained from the rolling mills
with each delivery of structural steel and reinforcement steel. The consultant may order
additional test to be carried out, as may be required, the cost of which shall be borne by the
contractor.

3.4. WELDING
3.4.1. MATERIAL AND WORKMANSHIP, ETC.

Machine welding shall be carried out in approved machines sufficiently supervised by qualified
operators and hand welding shall be executed in an efficient manner by fully qualified workmen
equipped with plant suitable for the purpose. All welding shall comply with BS 4870: 1981 and
4871:1982 so far as applicable and except as modified in this Specification.

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The manipulators and the sequence of welding shall be suitable for the work, and shall be
subject to the Consultant's approval before welding is commenced.

Welding procedure shall be such that distortion is reduced to a minimum and local distortion is
rendered negligible in the final structure.

Surfaces to be welded shall be properly prepared in accordance with accepted standards and
during welding shall be kept clean and free from all extraneous matter.

All welds shall be finished full and made with the proper number of runs, the welds being kept
free of slag intrusions and all adhering slag being carefully removed from the exposed surfaces
immediately after each run.

Approval of any welding procedure shall not relieve the Contractor of his responsibility for
correct welding and for the minimising of distortion in the finished structure.

Only skilled welding operators who satisfy the appropriate welding tests specified in the relevant
standards shall be employed on welding.

Notwithstanding any routine testing of operators by the Contractor, the Consultant reserves the
right to have any welding operator re-tested at any time.

In addition to the Contractor's normal supervision and testing procedure, radiographic and other
non-destructive examination shall be carried out, as and when required by the Consultant, on
butt or fillet welded joints and/or on test specimens. Prepared etched sections of welds may be
required for examination. The Contractor shall, at his own cost, shall cut out and remove any
portion of the steelwork, which the Consultant shall decide is defective.

The acceptance of the welded work shall depend upon correct dimensions and alignment,
absence of distortion in the structure, satisfactory results from the examination and testing of the
joints and the test specimens, soundness of the wheels, and upon general good workmanship.

Welding other than in properly equipped fabricating shops will normally be limited to non-
structural members except where specifically permitted by the Consultant and designated beam
seatings and cleats to be welded to the structural steelwork for receiving the small steelwork.

3.5. BOLTED FIXINGS


3.5.1. GENERAL

All bolts and nuts shall be completed with washers and shall be galvanized where specified. (See
Section 7 also). If washers are not shown on the Drawings, they shall be provided in accordance
with best current practice to the approval of the Consultant.

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Where H.S.F.G. bolts are used, the holes shall be drilled full size to a diameter not more than
2mm greater than the shank diameter of the bolt and all burrs shall be removed. Any type of
H.S.F.G. bolts which the Contractor may wish to supply and use shall be submitted to the
Engineer for approval and must comply with BS 4395:1969.

3.6. PREPARATION OF STEELWORK FOR GALVANIZING


3.6.1. GENERAL

Unless otherwise specified all steelwork shall be grit blasted by skilled operators, and mode
absolutely clean and free from all rust, grease, oil, mill scale, dust or other deleterious
substances before painting or application of any protective system. Before blasting, all surfaces
shall be free from grease, oil and dirt.

Any surface defects liable to have an adverse effect on the painting system, such as pitting,
cracks or surface laminations shall be removed. Where any saw cuts, grinding or similar action
has been necessary leaving fins, burrs or sharp edges, the dressed areas shall be reblasted to
remove all dust and provide an adequate paint key. The treatment of the surface shall be to the
minimum standard of 'Second Quality" in BS 4232:1967. (Surface finish of blast- cleaned steel
for painting). The maximum Profile height (top of peak to bottom of trough) shall not exceed
100 microns.

3.7. GALVANIZING
3.7.1. GENERAL

All steel and iron items, profiles or fabricated assemblies of whatever kind described to be
galvanized shall be finished smooth, free from contamination and prepared by acid pickling in
dilute hydrochloric acid or as otherwise approved to remove all rust and mill scale and then
washed, fluxed and stoved, and coated with zinc by immersion in the bath only for a time
sufficient for them to attain the temperature of the bath. They are to be withdrawn at such a
speed that a coating of 90 micron thickness on each face is achieved, or such other practicable
maximum thickness for the article as defined in BS EN ISO 1461. (Hot-dip Galvanized Coatings
on Iron and Steel Articles). The galvanizing is to be done in all cases after fabrication of
steelwork, including any drilling, chipping, trimming, filing, fitting or bending and when all
welding operations have been carried out. Every article is to be covered evenly on all sides.

Galvanizing shall conform to the requirements of BS EN ISO 1461 unless otherwise specified.

All light gauge metal work is to be galvanized by the hot dip process as specified in BS 3083
(Hot-dip Galvanized Corrugated Steel Sheets for General Purposes) or BS 2989:1992 (Hot-dip
Zinc coated steel sheet and Coil).

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Unless otherwise specified, all bolts including friction grip bolts, nuts and washers shall be hot-
dip spun galvanized and the threads of nuts only shall be re-run as necessary after galvanizing in
accordance with the relevant requirements of BS EN ISO 1461. High strength friction grip bolts
shall not be pickled without prior consultation and approval of the Consultant.

3.8. PAINTING
3.8.1. STANDARDS

For the painting work, the following codes and standards will be applicable:

BS 4232: 1967 : Specification for surface finish of blast-cleaned steel for painting

3.8.2. PREPARATION OF STEELWORK FOR PAINTING

GENERAL

All steelwork shall be abrasive blast clean to Sa 2 ½ (ISO 8501), by skilled operators, and mode
absolutely clean and free from all rust, grease, oil, mill scale, dust or other deleterious
substances before painting or application of any protective system. Before blasting, all surfaces
shall be free from grease, oil and dirt.

Any surface defects which are revealed by the blast cleaning process, liable to have an adverse
effect on the painting system, such as pitting, cracks or surface laminations shall be removed by
grounding, filling or treating in the appropriate manner. Where any saw cuts, grinding or similar
action has been necessary leaving fins, burrs or sharp edges, the dressed areas shall be reblasted
to remove all dust and provide an adequate paint key. The treatment of the surface shall be to the
minimum standard of 'Second Quality" in BS 4232:1967. (Surface finish of blast- cleaned steel
for painting). The maximum Profile height (top of peak to bottom of trough) shall not exceed
100 microns.

If the recommended painting products require any special type of a surface preparation, attention
should be paid for such requirements.

Coatings must be applied very quickly after the surface preparation to avoid rust reforming and
the requirement for re-blasting.

3.8.3. PAINTING SYSTEM AND MATERIALS

Painting system shall be consists of three coats with following properties.

Painting coat 1 - First coat shall be a 75 μm thick, a two-component metallic Zinc rich
epoxy primer. This primer gives maximum protection as part of any anti – corrosive coating
system for aggressive environments.

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Painting coat 2 - Second coat shall be a 50 μm thick, a quick drying holding primer, which
can be applied on galvanised surfaces.

Painting coat 3 - Third coat shall be a 10.59 mm thick, a high performance, high build,
solvent free, two pack modified epoxy intumescent fire proofing coat designed to be used on
steel work requiring protection form cellulosic fire.

Painting coat 4 - Fourth coat shall be a 50 μm thick, a two component acrylic polyurethane
finish giving excellent durability and long term recoatability.

Table 3.1: Approved Products and Local Agents

Section Description Product Name Local Distributors

Coat 1 Interzinc 52 Akzo Nobel Coatings IPL

Coat 2 Intergard 269 Akzo Nobel Coatings IPL


3.8.3

Coat 3 Interchar 212 Akzo Nobel Coatings IPL

Coat 4 Interthane 990* Akzo Nobel Coatings IPL

* - Applicable only if exposed

3.8.4. ERECTION

GENERAL

The Contractor shall ensure all component parts of the structures will fit correctly and that the
holes of adjoining members correctly register with one another. The Contractor shall temporarily
erect at his works such proportion of the component parts as is necessary to verify to the
satisfaction of the Consultant the accuracy of fabrication. The verification will not however
relieve the Contractor of his responsibility in ensuring correct fit etc.

The Contractor shall include in his rates all costs in respect of temporarily erecting components,
the provision of all necessary flooring, staging, bolts and everything else necessary for erection.

The steel work shall be lined, levelled and plumbed as the erection proceeds and no cladding or
doors shall be fixed to the framework until the bolting up, lining, levelling and plumbing is
complete and to the satisfaction of the Consultant.

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After steel work has been plumbed, lined and levelled, all bases shall be grouted with neat non-
shrink ground of as dry as consistency as possible, compatible with the requirement as regards
pouring, raking and ramming of the grout under and through the steel bases. The grout shall be
from an approved manufacturer and shall be applied in strict accordance with his instructions.

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4. WATER PROFFING
4.1. GENERAL
4.1.1. SCOPE

Supply and install Membranes and Screeds including but not limited to:

 Preparation of surfaces to receive membranes.


 Membranes either over or under screeds.
 Protective screeds to fall and be laid over membranes.
 Granolithic screeds.
 Flashings, sealants, etc. to above items.
4.1.2. RELATED WORK

Co-ordinate and co-operate with tradesmen performing:

 Penetrations through membranes.


 Connections to drain outlets.
 Interface with other materials.
4.1.3. QUALITY ASSURANCE

 Suppliers and installers are required to be widely experienced in the class of work
required by this Specification.
 Provide to the Engineer, evidence of current approval by manufacturer or installers of
material be installed.
 Provide evidence of similar work on major projects. Provide names and addresses of
work to facilitate inspection and approval of qualifications.
4.1.4. REFERENCES

Standards and Codes

Comply with applicable portions of the following Standards.

Unless otherwise specified, materials shall conform to current Australian Standards. Materials
and workmanship shall also comply with the Building Code of Australia. Where not available,
the relevant British or U.S.A. Standards shall be used:

 AS 1145 - Determination of plastic properties of plastic materials

 AS 1321 - Methods for sampling and testing adhesives

 AS 1526 - One-part polysulphide-based sealing compounds for the building


industry

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 AS 1527 - Two-part polysulphide-based sealing compounds for the building
industry

 AS 1884 (Appendix A) - Dryness tests for concrete surfaces

 AS/NZS 2179 - Specifications for rainwater goods, accessories and


fasteners.

 AS2180 - Metal rainwater goods – selection and installation.

 AS2433 - Plastics – method for exposure to ultraviolet lamps

 AS2341 - Methods of testing bitumen and related road making products

 AS2700 - Colour standards for general purposes.

 AS3715 - Metal finishing thermoset powder coatings for Architectural


applications

 AS/NZS4200.1&2 - Pliable building membranes and underlays. Materials


and Installation

 AS4201 - Pliable building membranes and under-lays Test Methods

 AS CA55 - Code for the design and installation of bituminous fabric roofing

 AS A99 - Bituminous felt roofing

 BS 6229(1982) - Code of practice for flat roofs with continuously Supported


coverings.

 BS 8217 (2005) - Code of Practice for built-up-felt roofing.

 BS 3712 (1991) - Building and construction sealants

 BS 4254 (1983) - Specification for two-part polysulphide-based sealants

 BS 5215 (1986) - Specification for one-part gun grade poly sulphide-Based


sealants

 BS 5889 (1989) - Specification for one part gun grade silicone Based sealants

 BS 6213 (1982) - Guide to selection of constructional sealants

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4.1.5. DATA SUBMISSIONS

Prior to the commencement of the installation of the waterproofing membranes, the Contractor
shall provide the Engineer with:

- Certification from both Contractor and the Waterproof Membrane Manufacturer that
the waterproofing systems together with the details and fitments are fit for purpose
for the waterproofing works shown on the Drawings and specified and that they
conform to the requirements of this Specification.

- Manufacturer’s data: The manufacturer’s published product data including technical


specifications, recommendations for installation and type test or factory test data.

- Approval of Specialist Supplier & Specialist Applicator: The manufacturer’s written


approval of the Specialist Supplier & Specialist Applicator.

- The proposed method for controlling the correct application rate of liquid applied
membranes.

- The proposed method for check – testing the thickness of completed liquid applied
membranes.

Contractor’s Documents

The waterproofing details shown on the Drawings are indicative only.

Shop drawings: The Contractor shall, in conjunction with the manufacturer Submit shop
drawings, fully detailing the work and its installation. Shop Drawings shall include the various
details for penetrations conditions including, but not limited to:

 Margins
 Flashings
 Movement Joints
 Capping
 Penetrations
 Outlets

Samples

Prior to the commencement of work, samples of each system shall be provided, for approval of
the Engineer. The samples shall be of the same materials and details as proposed for the work,
including, but not limited to:

 Membranes
 Lapped joints

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 Mitre joints
 Typical finishing and sealing to the extremities of the membrane.
 Movement joints
 Over-flashings
 Protective Layers
 Insulation
 Typical finishing and sealing to wastes and other outlets
 Sheet drains

Sample installation on Site

Install in positions in the works where directed by the Engineer sample areas of each type of
waterproofing system, 10m2 minimum, complete with jointing, sealing, flashing and ancillary
work to demonstrate the finished works. Approved sample installations shall be permitted to be
incorporated into the works, otherwise remove on completion.

Maintenance Manual

Submit to the Engineer a manual of recommendations from the manufacturers and/or installers,
for the maintenance of the waterproofing systems including but not limited to frequency of
inspection, cleaning and repair.

4.1.6. DELIVERY, HANDLING AND STORAGE

Delivery and Storage: Materials are to be properly packaged according to the manufacture’s
specifications and brought to the site in original, unopened containers with grade, type and
quality indicated on the labels.

4.1.7. WARRANTIES

The Contractor shall provide, warranties (including warranties from its Specialist Supplier &
Specialist Applicator), for the supply, manufacture and installation of the waterproof
membranes, their associated elements and the waterproofness of the installation.

The Contractor shall carry out the work in a manner, which ensures that the warranties of its
subcontractors are not restricted or voided.

The warranty provided by this Clause shall commence on the Date of Practical Completion of
the Project and shall continue for a period of TEN (10) years.

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4.2. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM AND MATERIALS
4.2.1. WATERPROOFING AND INSULATION SYSTEM TO ROOF SLABS AND
TERRACES

Levelling Screed

Before laying the levelling screed the concrete surface shall be cleaned by removal of loose
materials to the entire satisfaction of the Consultant. Concrete which is contaminated by oil or
grease shall be chiselled away and refilled to the satisfaction of the Consultant.

Concrete slab shall be grouted with a cement / water slurry before the laying of levelling screed.

1:3 (cement: sand) levelling screed shall be mechanically/manually batch mixed and laid with a
minimum thickness of 25mm. The falls to be achieved are not less than 1:200 or as shown on the
drawings. Screeds shall be laid with even slopes and internal and external corners shall have
cover fillets with a radius of at least 70mm. The screed shall be finished with a wooden float.

The screed shall be covered with wet saw dust, sand or equal method and kept damp for 5 days,
or as ordered by the Consultant. Screed shall be protected from rainfall. Waterproofing
membrane shall not be applied until the surface is thoroughly dried out (Check the dryness of
the screed using a moisture meter before laying the membrane).

Waterproofing Membrane (Type 1)

The following specification is for a built-up Waterproofing system of non-metallic roofing


compound of laminar bituminized construction, intended for this project. The contractor may
submit alternative reputable constructions together with the relevant specification and method
statement to the approval of the Consultant; such constructions should in any case conform to
the requirement specified under "Warranty" requirement.

Waterproofing membrane shall be U.V. resistant mineralized Atactic Polypropylene (APP),


reinforced with a robust, isotopic spun bonded, non-woven polyester mat, with approximate
weight 4.0 kg/m2 and 4.0mm thick suitable for Torched-on application over the substrate after
application of the approved primer.

At interruption of work, the edges of the sheets have to be finished in such a manner that rain
water and dust cannot penetrate underneath.

Concrete covering screed

50mm thick, grade 25 concrete covering screed shall be laid over the gauge 1000 polythene
sheet as shown on the drawing. 50 x 50mm (3mm dia.) galvanized steel wire mesh shall be
incorporated in the concrete screed layer. 10mm thick expansion joints shall be provided in
covering screed to limit the concrete screed panel size approximately to 4.0 Sq.m. Expansion
joints shall be coincided with the joints of the tile layer above and later filled by the approved

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joint sealant (Approved Polysulphide or Polyurethane sealant. The service temperature of the
sealant shall be greater than 80 °C and the sealant shall be UV stable. ).

Floor tiles with approved colour and quality shall be laid over the screed as the finishing layer.

4.2.2. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO WATER TANKS, SUMPS AND TOILET


FLOORS, BALCONY, MANHOLES ETC.

General
This section describes the water proofing of interior as well as exterior concrete slabs before
receiving the ultimate finish such as screed, screed with tiling, screed with masonry slabs,
asphaltic concrete etc.

This specified water proofing shall be applied in the following areas:

 Waterproofing internal faces of the water tanks, sumps, reservoirs, planter boxes etc.
before tilling or surface finishing.
 Waterproofing balconies, kitchen & toilet floors etc.

Surface Preparation

Concrete or block work, whether plastered or not, shall be well cleaned and free from damp,
laitance, dust and dirt; if contaminated by oil or grease of whatever nature, the patches shall be
chiselled away.

Uneven areas, rough areas and chiselled patches to be treated with an approved epoxy-resin
based un-pigmented primer, and to be levelled with a homogeneously mixed approved 2-
component epoxy-mortar, applied while the primer is not fully hardened (wet-in-wet-method).

The smoothness and evenness of the surfaces of concrete or brick work to which the water
proofing system is to be applied shall be to the entire satisfaction of the Engineer.

The primer shall be a cement paste (cement + water + resin dispersion) applied as a grouting for
key of the mortar. The mortar shall consist of cement + sand + resin dispersion. The
compressive strength of the fully hardened mortar shall not be less than 60 N/mm².

Both primer and mortar shall be of an approved make and be mixed and applied in strict
accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

The mortar to be finished smooth and straight using steel floats in a rotating movement and
under even pressure, with rounded or covered fillets/edges as the position or purpose dictates.

Waterproofing Membrane - Acrylic-modified cementitious membrane – (Type 2)

Water proofing material shall be flexible two part acrylic-modified cementations waterproofing
system and should have the following properties:

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a) Non –toxic.

b) Anti- carbonation protection capabilities.

c) Foot trafficable when cured.

d) Shall not attack steel reinforcement.

Mixing and application shall be carried-out as per the manufacturer’s


specifications. The minimum membrane thickness should be 1.5mm.

The Membrane should have the following mechanical properties.


 Minimum tensile strength 1.5 N/mm2.
 Minimum elongation at break 200%.
4.2.3. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO BASEMENT SLAB

Concrete Screed
Concrete screed shall be mechanically batch mixed and laid over the well compacted and
approved formation of the sub base or otherwise directed by the Consultant. The concrete grade
15 shall be laid to produce a concrete screed of 75mm thick. The screed shall be covered with
wet gunny bags, sand or equal method and kept damp for at least 5 days, or as instructed by the
Engineer.

Waterproofing Membrane - Sodium bentonite based membrane (Type 3)

The following specification is for waterproofing system for the basement tanking. The proposed
membrane shall be sodium bentonite based material sandwich between a non-woven geotextile
fabrics. The Contractor may submit alternative reputable constructions together with the relevant
specification and method statement to the approval of the Consultant; such constructions should
in any case conform to the requirement specified under "Warranty" requirement.

Application of the Waterproofing membrane shall strictly be in accordance with the


manufacturer's instruction maintaining sufficient over lap at joints.

At interruption of work, the edges of the sheets have to be finished in such a manner that rain
water or dust shall not penetrate underneath.

The Contractor shall ensure timely submission to the Engineer of details, type, make and
composition of the Waterproofing systems together with certified proof from the manufacturer
of the proposed system.

Waterproofing membrane should be laid 6m beyond the construction joints of the basement slab
and should be covered with the protective screed.

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4.2.4. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO BASEMENT WALLS

Surface Preparation

Hollow/ Solid block wall shall be well cleaned and free from damp, laitance, dust and dirt. If
contaminated by oil or grease, of whatever nature, the patches shall be chiselled away and made
good.

Waterproofing Membrane - Sodium bentonite based membrane (Type 3)

The following specification is for waterproofing system for the basement tanking. The proposed
membrane shall be sodium bentonite based material sandwich between a non-woven geotextile
fabrics. The Contractor may submit alternative reputable constructions together with the relevant
specification and method statement to the approval of the Consultant; such constructions should
in any case conform to the requirement specified under "Warranty" requirement.

Application of the Waterproofing membrane shall strictly be in accordance with the


manufacturer's instruction maintaining sufficient over lap at joints.

At interruption of work the edges of the sheets have to be finished in such a manner that rain
water or duct shall not penetrate underneath.

The Contractor shall ensure timely submission to the Consultant of details, type, make and
composition of the Waterproofing systems together with certified proof from the manufacturer
of the proposed system.

Waterproofing membrane should be laid 6m beyond the vertical construction joints of the
basement wall and should be covered with the protective screed. The membrane shall be laid
beyond 3m horizontal construction joints of the basement wall. An Aluminium (gauge 18)
clamp shall be employed to clamp the membrane at horizontal termination points of the
membrane.

4.2.5. WATERPROOFING SYSTEM TO EXPOSED DRIVEWAY AND RAMPS SLABS

Surface preparation

Driveway slab surface should be sloped as shown in the drawing with the structural concrete.
The surface should be clean, dry, dust free concrete surface, at least 28 days old.

All curing compound must be removed prior to application.

Any material that retards penetration must be removed.

Good concrete practice should be followed such as adequate curing, compaction and vibration.

Waterproofing Membrane – Spray applied polyurethane membrane (Type 4)

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The following specification is for a 3mm thick spray applied seamless polyurethane membrane
with an aliphatic coating on top to protect from UV radiation. In addition to the above
requirements the top coat shall possess with skid resistance properties. The Contractor may
submit alternative reputable material together with the relevant specification and method
statement to the approval of the Engineer; such material shall in any case conform to the
requirement specified under "Warranty" requirement.

Waterproofing membrane shall be installed according to manufactures specifications and the


instruction manuals. At interruption of work, the edges of the membrane have to be finished in
such a manner that rain water and dust cannot be penetrated underneath.

4.3. APPROVED PRODUCTS AND LOCAL AGENTS

Table 5.1: Approved Products and Local Agents

Country of
Section Description Location Manufacturer Product Name
Origin
1.Saudi
Roof Slabs Bitumat Company Ltd. Polyflex Arabia
4.2.1 Type 1
& Terraces Polybit Industries Ltd. Bituplus 2.United
Arab
Water Emirates
Tanks 1. BASF, Construction chemicals
1. Barra Lastic 1.Singapore
4.2.2 Type 2 Sumps 2.Deepseal Products, SDN BHD
2. Deepseal 201 2.Malaysia
Toilet Malaysia
Floors
Basement
1.CETCO, Building Material group
4.2.3, Slabs 1. Voltex 1.China
Type 3 2. DiaSen, Quality and Innovation in
4.2.4 Basement 2. BentoTelo 2. Italy
Building
Walls

Exposed
Tuff Stuff/ 1.Australia
4.2.5 Type 4 Driveways 1.Rhino Linings
ArmaFloor
and Ramps

Insulation 1. AMPERO (FAR EAST) (Pte) Ltd. 1. GOLDFOAM 1.Singapore


4.2.1 Roof Slabs
Board 2. USA 2. FORMULA350 2. USA

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5. BLOCKWORK
5.1. GENERAL
5.1.1. SCOPE

Blockwork described in this chapter applies to all block work shown in all Engineering and
Architectural drawings.

General: Supply and build the block work shown on the drawings or needed to complete the
block work including, but not limited to the following.

 Labour and materials


 Building of Miscellaneous items provided by others
 Staging and scaffolding
 Cleaning

5.1.2. RELATED WORK

The Contractor shall co-ordinate and operate with the following trades:

 Concrete
 Structural Steel
 Carpentry & Joinery
 Aluminium doorframes and fire doors

5.1.3. QUALITY ASSUARANCE

Provide manufacturer’s certification that blocks supplied are of the specified type and strength.

Approved samples: At the start of block layering, Contractor shall obtain approval for each
type of block work not less than 6 courses high x 1200 long as the control sample/s.

Hollow Blocks shall comply with SLS 855: 1989 and shall have a characteristic compressive
strength not less than 1.2 N/mm2. Solid Blocks shall have a characteristic compressive strength
of 2.5 N/mm2.

Nominal Hollow block sizes and Solid block sizes shall be 400 long, 100 wide and 200 thick or
400 long, 150 wide and 200 thick or 400 long, 200 wide and 200 thick.

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5.1.4. REFERENCES

Comply with applicable portions of the following Standards:


 SLS 855 : 1989 Sri Lankan Standard for Block Masonry
 BS 5628 : 1992 Use of Masonry
 BS 4550 : Part 3 Physical tests
 BS 5224 : 1995 Specification for masonry cement
 BS 6073-1 : 1981 Specification for pre-cast conc. masonry units
 BS 6431:1983 Ceramic floor and wall tiles

5.1.5. SUBMISSIONS

Before installation commences, obtain and submit the following data:

Manufacturer’s data: The manufacturer’s published product data, including

- Technical Specifications

- Recommendations for installation

- Type test or factory test data

Testing Authority’s reports: Test reports should be certified by an independent testing


authority showing compliance with the criteria of specified tests.

Product Warranties: The manufacturer’s written statement certifying that the product complies
with the specification and is suitable for the intended use.

Samples

Submit samples of the following:

Masonry Units: Not less than 6 units of each type of block work, representing the total range of
variation of colour, texture, surface irregularities (including defective arises), and regularity of
shape.

Sample Panels

Prepare in a suitable position, or where directed, as a sample panel of each type of block work.
An approved panel, if suitably located, may be permitted to be incorporated into the works.
Otherwise remove all traces on completion.

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5.1.6. DELIVARY, HANDELING AND STORAGE

Co - ordination: Reach agreement with the Engineer about site provisions for storage of sand,
cement and other materials and for the mixing of mortar. Deliver, handle and store products in
accordance with manufacturer’s recommendations and prevent damage, deterioration or loss.

5.2. MATERIALS
5.2.1. SOURCE QUALITY CONTROL

Tests and Approvals

When called following tests shall perform in an approved laboratory. Supply copies of the
resulting test certificates.

 Transverse strength
 Compressive strength
 Other

The Contractor shall deliver loads of not less than 500 blocks at a time to the site, from which
the Engineer shall pick samples for testing and for reference-keeping.

The cost of testing of samples should be borne by the Contractor. Testing of mortars, if required
by the Engineer, shall be according to BS 4551: 1998.

5.2.2. REINFORCED BLOCKWORK

General

Block walls, when greater than approx. 9m2 in one area and when unsupported latterly by block
walls, concrete walls or columns, be provided with a reinforcing system of R.C. columns and tie
beams of a section of 200 mm by a thickness, depending on the relevant wall thickness.

Where used, expanded metal reinforcement shall be totally embedded in the mortar joints and
kept back 10mm from both faces.

Stiffener Columns and beams

RC stiffener columns/beams shall be formed flush with the faces of the block work and
reinforced with vertical reinforcement bars dia.10mm lapping with starter bars / anchors, tied
into the concrete structure as shown in typical structural drawings.

The surface of the joints between concrete and block work shall be sealed with flexible approved
weather sealant (Dow Corning 790 Silicone Building Sealant) of appropriate colour as approved
by the Engineer.

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If block walls are longer than 9000mm, then, regardless of height, expansion joints shall be
introduced, composed of polystyrene packing, 10mm thick and sealed as illustrated in typical
structural detail drawings. The plasterwork at expansion joints should be filled with an approved
flexible sealant. The sealant should be of a matching colour approved by the Engineer.

5.2.3. CONTROL JOINTS

Requirement: Provide control joints where indicated and specified by this section of the
specification and drawings.

Joint filler: Sealant and bond breaking back up material, recommended by the material
manufacturers for the location and service conditions, compatible when used together, and non-
staining to masonry. Do not use bituminous materials on absorbent masonry units.

Priming: Unless priming is not recommended by the jointing material manufacturer, apply the
appropriate primer to masonry surfaces in contact with jointing materials.

Foamed materials (compressible filler, backing rods and the like): Closed-cell or
impregnated types which do not absorb water.

Bond breaking: Back-up materials for sealants, including backing rods, shall not adhere to the
sealant, or shall be faced with a non-adhering material.

Sealant proportions: The depth shall be not greater than the joint width, nor less than two-
thirds the joint width.

Fire rated control joints

Requirement: Where a control joint occurs in an element of construction required to have a fire
resistance rating, construct the control joint, using suitable fire stopping materials such as
intumescent sealants, so that the fire resistance rating of the element is not reduced.

5.3. EXECUTION
5.3.1. INSPECTION

Notice: Give sufficient notice so that the following may be inspected:

 Items to be built in: Located in their correct positions, including damp-proof course,
flashings, bolts and structural steelwork.
 Lintels: Lintels in position.
 Bottoms of cavities: After cleaning out.
 Bottoms of core holes: Before grouting.
 Control joints: Joints ready for insertion of joint filler.

Minimum notice required: 2 days

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5.3.2. PREPERATION

Review the project with other trades in relation to ducts, piping, conduits, thimbles, sleeves, etc.
or other item penetrating or to be built into block work and co-ordinate their installation.

Obtain built-in items from their suppliers prior to starting block work.

Clean the surface of concrete before laying blocks thereon.

Set up pressed metal door frames plumb and level and brace as required.

Maintain bracing until walls are at least 1000mm high and frame grouting has set.

5.3.3. WORKMANSHIP GENERALLY

Blocks shall not be handled in baskets, thrown from a height or in other manner that would
destroy the sharpness of the edges. In no case shall blocks of different dimensions be used in the
same work except when specially permitted by the Engineer.

In exposed block work, selected blocks of the specified class shall be used for the face work.

The blocks shall be wetted with water before use on works. Blocks required for masonry with
mud or fat lime need not be wetted. The tops of walls left off shall be wetted before the work is
recommenced.

5.3.4. MORTAR

Mix in a suitable mixing machine until a uniform blending of the components is achieved.

Use no chemical to affect the plastic or other properties of mortar or as a substitute for lime
without the permission of Engineer.

Mortar for laying blocks shall consist of one part of ordinary Portland cement: five parts of sand
(1:5). Lintels, sills, frames, etc., shall be bedded with the same mortar.

Ordinary Portland cement for mortar shall comply in all respects with BS12:1978. Cement shall
be delivered in the original sealed bags of the manufacturer and shall be stored in a proper
manner to prevent deterioration.

Sand for mortar shall be naturally occurring sand or shall consist of crushed rock or gravel or a
combination there of with naturally occurring sand, hard, clean, free from adherent coatings. It
shall comply in all respects with BS 1200: 1976 and be well graded from 5mm down.

Water for mortar shall be clean and free from acids, vegetable or other deleterious matter and
comply with the requirements of BS 3148:1980.

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No admixtures to mortar will be allowed without prior approval of the Engineer, but if allowed
shall agree with the requirements of B.S 4887 part 1:1986.

All materials shall be obtained from approved sources of supply, or approved suppliers.

The ingredients for cement mortar shall be measured in proper separate gauge boxes on boarded
platform, the ingredients being turned over twice whilst water is added through a rose.
Alternatively, mixing may be by means of an approved mechanical batch mixer, which is the
preferred method for all but small quantities.

Cement mortar shall be used within two hours of mixing. Any mortar kept longer shall be
discarded. Re-tampering or re-mixing of mortars is not permitted.

All gauging, handling and mixing equipment shall be kept clean and free of deleterious
materials. Mortar boards and other absorbent surfaces shall be dampened with clean water, and
mortar not in use shall be covered in drying conditions.

Mortar Life

Re-tampering to replace water lost by evaporation is encouraged until initial set begins. Reject
mortar which has begun its initial set and do not re-tamper.

5.3.5. LAYING

Blocks shall be laid in English bond unless otherwise specified. Half or cut blocks shall not be
used except where necessary to complete the bond. Closers in such cases shall be cut to the
required size and used near the ends of walls.

A layer of mortar shall be spread on full width over a suitable length of the lower course. Each
block shall be properly bedded and set home (in position) by gentle tapping with the handle of a
trowel or wooden mallet. Inside faces of the set lock shall be buttered with mortar and the next
block to be laid shall be pressed against it. All the blocks in every course shall be grouted full
with mortar using the trowel. The thickness of mortar joint shall not exceed 10 mm.

Allow no part to rise more than 1000mm above adjacent unfinished work. Rake back advanced
work, build block work in bond and avoid toothing wherever possible. The work shall not be
built higher than 1.5 m in one day. The courses shall be kept perfectly horizontal and every
fourth course shall be checked for level and plumb. Courses shall be break joints. At the end of
the day's work and where it is not possible to raise the adjoining portionuniformly and in gable
walls, the work shall be raked back according to the bond, at an angle not steeper than 45. All
perpends, Quoins etc. shall be kept strictly true and square and the whole properly bonded
together and brought to final levels at each floor. Over hand laying shall not be used without
approval. Walls shall not butt against the concrete beams or slabs.

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The lateral stability of walls which are free standing during construction, shall be ensured by
adequate shoring and scaffolding until the roof or floor providing the necessary stability is
constructed.

Build in as necessary reinforcements, arch bars, lintels, frames, straps, bolts, lugs, wall ties,
metalwork, damp-proof courses and flashings, etc.

Keep mortar stains to a minimum and protect horizontal ledges, finished sills and the like from
mortar droppings as work proceeds.

Before mortar sets hard, remove excess mortar. Keep cavities clear of mortar droppings as the
work proceeds.

5.3.6. CURING AND PROTECTION

Block work shall be protected from rain by suitable covering when the mortar is green. Block
work in cement/composite/lime mortar (except fat lime mortar) shall be kept constantly moist on
all faces for a minimum period of seven days. In the case of masonry with fat lime mortar,
curing shall commence two days after laying and shall continue at least for seven days
thereafter.

5.3.7. FIXTURES, ETC.

All iron fixtures like hold fasts, pipes, etc., which are required to be built into the wall shall be
embedded in their correct positions in cement mortar or cement concrete as specified.

Raking of Joints for Plaster

When the face work is to be plastered or joints alone pointed upon, the joints shall be raked to a
minimum depth of 12 mm by a raking tool during the progress of work or when the mortar is
still green. When plastering or pointing is not required to be done, the joints shall be struck
flush and finished at the time of laying. The face and top of courses of the block work shall be
cleaned thoroughly of all mortar droppings on the same day.

Treatment at ends of Beams etc.

The ends of steel beams and roof trusses shall rest in recesses having 20 mm space for free
circulation of air and provided with perforated zinc sheeting.

Block on Edge Coping

The top course of all plinths, the top of walls below reinforced concrete parapets, steps etc. shall
be block on edge with extra fine vertical joints not exceeding 3 mm in thickness. Blocks
forming the corners of all such courses are to be properly radiated and keyed into position.

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Corbelling

Corbelling shall be effected by a one fourth block projection (in every course) for ordinary work
and a one eighth block projection where greater strength is required.

5.3.8. LINTEL, CONCRETE MASONRY

Build block lintels occurring to heads of openings in block walls. Form with standard bond
beam blocks of a thickness to suit the leaf and extend a minimum of one full block on either side
of jamb or further as required to suit bonding. Allow for cutting of blocks needed to suit height
of openings.

Where lintels abut RC walls or columns, approved HILTI HIT RE500 or equivalent adhesive to
anchor reinforcement bars to walls or columns

5.3.9. METAL DOOR FRAMES

Grout solid cavities behind frames.

Chasing

No horizontal chase may exceed 1200mm in length and no vertical chase may be closer than
600mm to an element providing lateral support. No chase may be more than 1/3 of the thickness
of the wall.

5.3.10. FIELD QUALITY CONTROL

Tests

Have the following tests performed in an approved laboratory, supply copies of the resulting test
certificates.

Test method: (to relevant Standard)

 For Mortar : Sampling method

Chemical Composition

 For Block work : Compressive strength

Bond strength

Characteristic strength

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5.3.11. CLEANING OF FACEWORK

Execute in accordance with Block Manufacturer’s instructions.

5.3.12. MISCELLANEOUS

Damp proof courses

Damp proof courses between block walls and concrete ground beam or slab shall be hessian
based bitumen strip to BS 743, Type 5A as specified in BS 6398 to the same width as the block
walls. The damp proof course shall be bedded in cement mortar (1:4) with 150 end laps and full
width at passing and angles.

Damp proof courses are required on all external boundary walls and where otherwise
specifically shown on the drawings.

Work to flexible d. p. c. s shall be as follows:

 Lay an even bed of mortar for d. p. c. and complete the bed to normal thickness and
finish smooth
 Ensure mortar is free from any aggregate that could puncture the d. p. c.
 In cavity walls provide a separate d. p. c. for each skin and ensure that the edges do not
project into the cavity (i.e. thus forming a potential mortar trap). Support cavity trays
wherever possible
 At base of cavity walls, slope d. p. c. s towards outer skin and weep holes
 Use un jointed lengths as much as possible; lap at least 100mm at passings; lap full width
at angles
 At vulnerable locations use un jointed lengths or seal the lap
 Form watertight joints with any adjacent damp-proof membranes

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6. PASSIVE FIRE PROTECTION
6.1. GENERAL
6.1.1. DEFINITION

Material or combination of materials used to retain integrity of fire-rated construction by


maintaining an effective barrier against the spread of flame, smoke, and hot gases through
penetrations in fire rated wall and floor assemblies.

6.1.2. DESCRIPTION OF WORK

Provide fire stopping in accordance with BS 476:1997 and this Specification.

Installation of all fire stopping work shall comply with BS 476:1997, in accordance with the
design fire ratings and this Specification.

Final selection of materials, sizes, thickness, types, locations of fixings and related accessories,
etc. should be in accordance with specified standards detailed herein. Samples should be
submitted to the Engineer for review, prior to manufacture.

The selected fire stopping system should be compliance with the requirements of the current
building regulations, building acts and the health and safety regulations. Submit all
information necessary to the Engineer and relevant authorities to obtain approval in timely
manner so as to comply with the construction programme.

Co-operate with the planning supervisor and check the compliance with the health and safety
plan of the project.

6.1.3. EXTENT OF WORK

Fire stopping installations shall carry out at following locations but shall not limited to
following.

 Openings in fire resisting walls, floors and roofs both empty and those containing
penetrations such as cables, conduits, cable trays, pipe, ducts and similar penetrating
items.
 Openings at each floor level in fire rated shafts or stairwells.
 Gaps between the tops of fire rated walls and structural deck or roof assemblies.
 Penetrations though smoke barriers and construction, enclosing compartmentalised areas
involving both empty openings and openings containing penetrating items.
 Fire stops for multi cable transit penetrations where no conduit is used for penetration
through fire rated partitions and floors.

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Suitable fire stopping arrangements should be adopted to avoid spreading fire from such areas
where fire can build. For example:

 From rooms where fire can build to other rooms


 From apartment to apartment
 From one tower to the other

6.1.4. RELATED WORK

Voids between fire rated floor slabs and exterior curtain walls should be provided with a suitable
flexible fire and smoke seal. A recognized subcontractor has to be selected by the Contractor for
carrying out such work.

6.1.5. RELEVANT STANDARDS

Following codes and standards shall be applicable.

BS 476 :1997 Fire tests on building materials

BS 6401 :1983 Method of measurement, in the agency, of the specific


optical density of smoke generated by materials.

BS 6399-1 : 1996 Loading for buildings – Code of practice for dead and
imposed loads

BS 6399-3 : 1996 Loading for buildings – Code of practice for imposed roof loads

6.2. FIRE STOP SYSTEMS


6.2.1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Performance

The selected material as appropriate for fire stopping should be a product, produced, tested and
installed to resist spread of fire and the passage of smoke and gases through openings in fire
rated assemblies. Design and install of the fire stopping system(s) so that penetrating items may
be removed or inserted after installation of the fire stopping system(s) while still maintaining the
required fire resistance of the system.

Tests

Select materials which have been tested and rated as systems applicable to each fire stop
condition in the work, as listed by qualified testing agency.

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Durability

Provide fire stop systems which have been tested and rated to withstand ageing in normal
service life between 25 and 30 years according to manufacturer’s certification with subsequent
fire testing, to ensure long term functionality.

Through Penetration Fire Stop Systems

Provide systems tested in accordance with BS 476 methods for type of penetration required.
Provide a seal completely filling all annular spaces to prevent the passage of flame, smoke and
toxic gases through the opening in the fire rated construction in which it is installed. The fire
stop systems shall be based upon elastomeric fire stop sealant so that when the penetrating items
are subject to movement, the penetrations shall not affect the adhesion or integrity of the fire
stop system.

Fire Stop Joint System

Provide systems tested in accordance with BS 476:1997 methods or type of joint system
required.

Void Filler

Provide to seal gaps in non-combustible type damming materials and to seal around penetrants
where the void filler is an integral part of the fire stop system.

Bundled and Touching Penetrants

Where penetrants are bundled together or contact each other in passing through the same
opening, sufficiently separate each penetrant and completely encapsulate with fire stopping to
make a smoke tight and airtight installation.

Leakage Rating

Provide fire stop systems and rated to function as an effective airtight seal preventing passage of
smoke and gases in normal service as well as under exposure to heat and fire conditions. Do not
use materials to function as air seals if such materials are known to shrink with curing or ageing.

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Water Resistance

Provide fire stop systems, resistant to degradation from moisture during normal service before
exposure to heat and fire. Fire stop systems used in the following locations shall also function as
a watertight seal preventing passage of water.

 Penetrations in exterior wall


 WC and lavatory areas
 Mechanical equipment rooms

Surface Burning Characteristics

Provide fire stop materials rated as required by laws, codes, ordinances and regulations, when
tested in accordance with BS 476 : Part 7 for flame spread and BS 6401 for smoke development.

Building Movement

Provide fire stop systems suitable to withstand building movements, including thermal
movements, loading deflection, shrinkage, creep and similar movements. Such fire stop systems
will not compromise the smoke and fire seal whilst allowing for such movements.

Compatibility

Provide only the fire stop systems that are explicitly recommended by the manufacturer for the
application, and which have been determined by tests to be totally compatible with the adjoining
construction and each other, as stated in the manufacturers published data certified by the
manufacturer for each application. Fire stop systems are not intended to support live loads or
traffic (unless specifically designed and tested to do so)

For fire stopping exposed to view, traffic, moisture, and physical damage provide products that
do not deteriorate when exposed to these conditions.

For piping penetrations for plumbing and wet pipe sprinkler systems, provide moisture resistant
through penetration fire stop systems.

Fire stopping use in floors of mechanical, electrical, janitor’s rooms, closets, toilets rooms,
kitchens, cafeterias, pantries and walls in such spaces where any portion of the fire stopping is
75 mm or less from the floor surface shall be watertight as well as fire resistant to degradation
from moisture during normal service before exposure to heat and fire.
For floor penetrations with annular spaces exceeding 100 mm or more in width and exposed to
possible loading and traffic, provide fire stop systems capable of supporting the floor loads
involved in accordance with the requirements of BS6399 Parts 1 and 3.

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Material Content

Provide fire stop materials which are non-toxic, non-hazardous, and do not contain asbestos
fibres or dust particles or other substance prohibited by law.

Co-ordination with Insulation Coverings

Provide fire stopping that does not require the removal of insulation coverings integral to the
penetrating item. Insulation coverings include thermal and acoustical insulation's and their
protective jackets and coverings and insulation coverings for electrified components.

Accessories

Provide components for each fire stopping system that are needed to install fill materials. Use
only components specified by the fire stopping manufacturer and approved by the qualified
testing and inspection agency for the designated fire resistance rated systems. Accessories
include but are not limited to the following items:
 Permanent forming / damming / backing materials
 Temporary forming materials
 Substrate primers
 Collars
 Steel sleeves

6.2.2. SUBMITTALS

Combined Submittals for fire stop systems

Combine the submittals required for every component part in the fire stop systems to be used in
the work. Check whether the submittals that the fire stop systems have received the prior
approval of the Engineer.

Design Drawing

Furnish design drawings for the fabrications and installation of the work. Include the following:
Indicate for each fire stopping condition the specific fire stop system and construction assembly,
including size and configuration of penetrations or voids, the thickness and attachment of
materials, and the surrounding construction. Indicate the material, size and function of the
penetrating item. List the tested performance ratings of the fire stop system for each specific
application as well as fire resistance rating of the surrounding construction.

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 Furnish a legend location of each fire stop system in the work.
 Identify each specific fire stop system with a type designation specific to the project and
include in location legend. Indicate corresponding testing agency and system
identification with year of test.
 Identify each condition for which there is no tested and rated fire stop system in
existence and furnish a certified design suitable for the condition as approved by the
manufacturer’s fire protection engineer.

Supplementary Product Literature

Submit for Engineers’ information. Furnish manufacturers literature describing the general
properties of each product to be used in the work.

Certification

Submit the following.

Manufacturers Certification: Furnish certification signed by the primary manufacturer of the


fire stop materials, stipulating which fire stop systems are proposed for use in the work, and
stating that the installer is approved as an experienced applicator of said fire stop systems.

System Test Reports: Furnish certified test reports from the testing agency performing the fire
stop system tests, indicating identification of the corresponding system design number, a test
summary and a conclusion verifying compliance with specified requirements.

Engineered Deviations: Furnish certification from fire stop systems manufacturer, identifying
each condition for which there is no tested and rated fire stop system in existence, and
describing a suitable design for the condition as based on modification of a tested system and
approved by the manufacturer’s fire protection engineer.

Statement of Manufacturer’s Review

Submit statement signed by the subcontractor, stating that the architect’s drawings and
specifications, the shop drawings and product data, have been reviewed with qualified
representatives of the materials manufacturers. And that they are in agreement that the selected
materials and systems are proper and adequate for the application shown including compatibility
with adjacent systems and materials.

Statement of Application

Submit for employers’ documentation. Furnish statement in form stipulated by architect, signed
by trade contractor, stating that the work was provided in compliance with the contract
document and the installation proper for the conditions of application and use.

Record Documents

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Submit for employer’s documentation. Furnish record drawings annotated with the changes
made during installation of the work so as to be a complete set of “as installed” plans. Use
design drawings as basis to show changes. Accurately depict the entire fire stopping system and
surrounding construction.

6.2.3. QUALITY ASSUARANCE

Subcontractors Quality Assurance Responsibilities

Subcontractor is solely responsible for quality control of the work and undivided responsibility
of the fire stop systems for the entire work.

Qualified Installer

The fire stopping work shall be performed by a firm having a minimum of 3 years experience in
the installation of materials specified herein on projects comparable to this project. The installer
shall be trained and approved by the fire stop system manufacturer in the use of the materials
and equipment to be employed in the work. The installer shall belong to a recognised third party
approval system such as FIRAS or LPC(B).

Fire Stop Manufacturer

Provide materials for each fire stopping and each through penetration type as produced by one
manufacturer for the entire project. Do not use fire stop material produced by any manufacturer
who will not agree to send a qualified technical representative to the project site, when
requested, for the purpose of rendering advice concerning the proper installation of materials.

At the start of the installation, periodically as the work progresses, and after completion, furnish
the services of the fire stop material manufacturer’s technical representative at the job site as
necessary to advice on every phase of the work. As a minimum, furnish representatives’
attendance during the first day of installation for each major type of fire stop material and
furnish technical assistance to the installer as may be required.

Repairing

Make sure that the sub-contractor has repaired all damaged fire stopping or remove and replace
if damaged beyond successful repair. Ensure compliance with manufacturers’ recommendations
in repair and replacement work.

Field Samples

Prior, to the pre-construction conference, provide a field sample for each type, condition and
application of fire stopping in the building at final installation locations. Utilise the same
materials and installation methods in the sample as required for the final work. Schedule the
installation with allowance for sufficient time so that the sample may be examined and any
necessary adjustments made, at least 1 week prior to date scheduled for commencing installation

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of the work. When accepted, sample areas shall serve as the standard for materials,
workmanship, and appearance for such work throughout the project and shall remain a part of
the final work.

Regulatory Requirement

Comply with applicable requirements of the laws, codes, ordinances and regulations of all
authorised having jurisdictions. Obtain necessary approvals from all authorities including the
building control officer.

6.2.4. PRODUCT DELIVARY STORAGE AND HANDLING

Deliver and store materials in manufacturers original packaging labelled to show name, brand,
type and grade. Store materials should be in protected dry location off ground in accordance
with manufacturer’s instructions including any temperature limitations. Do not open packaging
nor remove labels until time for installation.

Coordinate delivery of materials with scheduled installation date to allow minimum storage time
at job-site.

Do not use damaged or expired materials.

6.3. EXECUTION
6.3.1. SITE CONDITION

Do not proceed with the work when environmental conditions are unfavourable, unless the work
will proceed in accordance with the manufacturer’s requirements and instructions and any
agreements or restrictions of the pre-construction conference. Maintain adequate temperature,
humidity and ventilation conditions to ensure proper application and curing of fire stopping. Do
not use materials that are beyond manufacturers recommendations for shelf life.

Do not use materials that contain flammable solvents.

6.3.2. CO-ORDINATION AND SCHEDULING

Do not install fire stopping system(s) until work within opening has been completed. Coordinate
with other applicable sections. Schedule the work of other trades so that fire stopping
applications can be inspected prior to being covered by subsequent construction.

Examine areas and conditions under which work is to be performed and identify conditions
detrimental to proper or timely completion. Do not proceed until unsatisfactory conditions have
been corrected.

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Perform cleaning and surface preparation immediately prior to installation of fire stopping.
Remove materials and substances from openings, which are not part of the tested fire stop
system, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

6.3.3. PREPERATION

Perform cleaning and surface preparation immediately prior to installation of fire stopping.
Remove materials and substances from openings, which are not part of the tested fire stop
system, unless otherwise recommended by the manufacturer.

6.3.4. INSTALLATION

Provide in accordance with the manufacturers’ instructions and the accepted design drawings.
Apply materials to obtain complete filling to the correct depth and dimensions without gaps or
voids. Provide fire stopping for applications including, but not limited to, the following
conditions.

 Cavity Barrier between access floor and structural slab


 Cavity barrier between suspended ceilings and structural slab at free -standing walls
 Penetrations by conduits, cables, wires, cable trays, pipes, ducts and similar penetrants
through cavity barriers.

6.3.5. CLEANING

During installation, provide masking and drop cloths to prevent fire stopping materials from
contaminating any adjacent surfaces.

Remove equipment, materials and debris, leaving area in undamaged, clean condition.

Clean all surfaces adjacent to sealed holes and joints to be free of excess fire stop materials and
soiling as work progresses.

6.3.6. PROTECTION

Protect the work during the construction period so that it will be without any indication of use
or damage at the time of acceptance.

6.3.7. WARRANTY

Submit for employers’ documentation. Furnish written warranty signed by the subcontractor,
agreeing to repair or replace work which has shown any evidence of deterioration, failed to
provide an airtight seal, failed to provide a watertight seal where required, failed in adhesion or
cohesion, or failed as a result of defects in materials or workmanship. Upon notification of such
defects, within the warranty period, make necessary repairs or replacement at the convenience of
the employer.

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6.3.8. SPECIFIED PRODUCTS

The ‘HILTY’ fire stop systems and products shall be applied in all fire stopping requirements.
Following shall be considered as a guide.

Product Application
Expansion and connection joints up to 150mm
CP 601S – Elastometric fire stop
sealant Metal pipes up to 200mm

Rigid or low movement joints up to 100mm


CP 606 – Joint filler fire stop
sealant Metal pipes up to 200mm

Plastic pipes up to 3” without additional collar

Single cables and cable bunches


FS-One – Pressure excreting
intumescent sealant HVAC penetrations

Metal pipes (insulated or non-insulated)

Multiple penetrations

CP 657 – Fire stop flexible brick Cables and cable trays

Plastic and metal pipes

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7. RECTIFICATION OF DEFECTS
7.1. GENERAL
7.1.1. SCOPE

This section specifies methods for rectification of defects such as cracks in masonry walls or
concrete, honeycombs, etc. in structural or non-structural elements.

7.1.2. DESCRIPTION OF WORK

The Contractor is entirely responsible for repairing all defects that may occur due to improper
practice of work adopted in the site or due to natural phenomenon, liner differential shrinkage,
solar radiation effect etc. The contractor shall handover a defect free building to the client.

Any defect shall be noticed to the Engineer prior to implementing repair work and rectification
methods shall obtain prior approval of the Engineer. The extent of repair work shall be to the
satisfactory limit of the Engineer. Final selection of material types, equipment, etc. to be used
for rectification works shall be in accordance with this Specification.

Tests may be carried out for checking the adequacy of the repair work after rectification of any
defect in structural members according to Engineers interest. Unsatisfactory work may need re-
rectification or re-construction. Any cost in repairing, reconstructing or testing shall be borne by
the Contractor.

7.1.3. EXTENT OF WORK

Repair work shall carry out at following locations but shall not limit to following.

 Cracks in reinforced concrete members due to segregation, crazing, excessive drying,


etc. as a result of insufficient or delay in curing.
 Cracks in non-structural members such as masonry walls due unforeseen effects.
 Cracks in concrete members due to early removal of formwork.
 Honeycombs in concrete due to poor compaction.
 Exposed reinforcement due to improper provision of cover blocks or any cover provision
method.
 Improper concreting due to bad arrangement of dense reinforcement.

The Contractor shall take all necessary precautions to avoid above and/or any other defects in
site by good quality control of work.

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7.2. RECTIFICATION METHODS
7.2.1. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION

Performance

The selected material as appropriate for defect rectification shall be a product, produced and
tested for the purpose and shall not disturb the structural integrity or non-structural appearance at
any location where applied. Design and apply the repairing system(s) so that the strength,
durability, etc. are not changed and the appearance of the original structure is not despoiled.

Tests

Select materials which have been tested and certified as applicable to each rectification
requirement and as listed by qualified testing agency.

Defect Rectifying Sealants

Provide systems tested in accordance with relevant standards for type of defect required. Provide
a seal according to manufacturer’s recommendations depending on the defect to be repaired. The
defect rectifying system shall be based on an adhesive material so that proper bond between
defective concrete and sealing material is ensured.

Surface Preparation

Make appropriate extent of area of surface to be treated structurally sound and free from
contaminants such as oil, grease, curing membranes, previous coatings, dust, etc. Vacuum clean
or use water to clean the surface as required by the manufacture’s application guide.

Primers

Provide systems tested in accordance with relevant standards certifying a proper bond between
new and old surfaces. Priming may not recommended if the mortar is to be applied by spraying.

Mixing

Mix required proportions of ingredients properly to the recommended limit. Use mechanical
mixing if required by the manufacturer. Do not add any extra ingredients to the mixture than
specified by the manufacturer.

Placing

Use correct tools and accessories recommended by the manufacturer to place the sealing or
filling material. Apply in required number of layers.

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Curing

Provide adequate curing to the repaired area for achieving optimum performance. Use a suitable
curing compound as per manufacturer’s instructions.

Compatibility

Provide rectifying systems only that are explicitly recommended by the manufacturer for the
application, and which have been determined by tests to be totally compatible with the adjoining
construction and each other, as stated in the manufacturers published data certified by the
manufacturer for each application. After completion of curing the corrected area shall be capable
of carrying all design dead and live loads of the original structure.

Material Content

Provide rectifying materials which are non-toxic, non-hazardous, and do not contain asbestos
fibres or dust particles or other substance prohibited by law.

Accessories

Provide components for each defect rectifying system that are needed to install repairing
materials. Use only components specified by the manufacturer for the designated rectifying
systems.

7.2.2. SUBMITTALS

Design Drawing

Furnish design drawings for the installation of the work including all important details. This
shall include the size of treatment area, arrangement of accessories (if applicable), size and
shape of defect, size and thickness of sealants and the surrounding construction to a sufficient
extent. Indicate the function of defective area.

Supplementary Product Literature

Submit for Engineers’ information. Furnish manufacturers literature describing the general
properties of each product to be used in the work.

Certification

Submit the following.

Manufacturers Certification: Furnish certification signed by the primary manufacturer of the


defect rectification materials, stipulating which systems are proposed for use in the particular
work.

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System Test Reports: Furnish certified test reports from the testing agency, indicating
identification of the corresponding system design number, a test summary and a conclusion
verifying compliance with specified requirements.

Statement of Manufacturer’s Review

Submit statement signed by the subcontractor, stating that the defect has been reviewed with
qualified representatives of the materials manufacturer and that they are in agreement that the
selected materials and systems are proper and adequate for the application shown including
compatibility with adjacent systems and materials.

7.2.3. QUALITY ASSUARANCE

Subcontractors Quality Assurance Responsibilities

Subcontractor is solely responsible for quality control of the work and undivided responsibility
of the defect rectification systems for the entire work.

Qualified Installer

Rectification work shall be performed by a firm having a minimum of 3 years’ experience in the
relevant field and on projects comparable to this project. The installer shall be trained and
approved by the manufacturer in the use of the materials and equipment to be employed in the
work, if skilled persons are to handle work.

Manufacturer

Provide materials for each type of rectification produced by one manufacturer for the entire
project. Do not use materials produced by any manufacturer who will not agree to send a
qualified technical representative to the project site, when requested, for the purpose of
rendering advice concerning the proper installation of materials. Furnish the service of a
technical representative as the work progress.

Field Samples

Provide a field sample for each type, condition and application of rectification in the building at
final locations. Utilise the same materials and installation methods in the sample as required for
the final work. When accepted, sample areas shall serve as the standard for materials,
workmanship, and appearance for such work throughout the project and shall remain a part of
the final work.

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7.3. EXECUTION
7.3.1. REPAIRING CRACKS IN CONCRETE

Rectification of larger cracks

Following procedure shall be adopted in rectifying all cracks that would appear in concrete as a
result of shrinkage, excessive drying, early removal of formwork, etc.

Rectifying Procedure

- Clean the concrete surface along the crack on the slab and soffit to remove dust, or any
other contaminants and vacuum clean the area. If the crack is contaminated with oil or
grease remove that area before vacuum cleaning.
- Install injection ports along the crack line on the top side of the slab at intervals not
exceeding 150mm (depending on the severity and extent of the crack) using a suitable
epoxy resin based bonding paste, which are using in general constructions
- If the concrete surface at the crack is not flat or not sufficiently clean to have a strong
enough bond between concrete and ports use injection nipples with drilled holes of
50mm deep and having a 5mm diameter.
- If the crack has propagated through the entire section and if the section thickness is
greater than 500mm drill holes on both sides of the member.
- Seal the surface of crack between injection ports with the same epoxy.
- Seal the surface of crack at soffit with the same epoxy.
- Allow the epoxy a sufficient time to cure.
- Inject a suitable solvent free epoxy resin based grouting mixture of low viscosity from
one end until there is an appearance of the epoxy at the next entry port above the lowest
port.
- Discontinue injection and transfer to the port above the port where the epoxy had
appeared.
- Continue injection at every other port returning on completion to the first entry port that
had not been injected.
- When the crack has been completely filled, allow sufficient time for epoxy adhesive to
cure.
- Remove the entry ports and surface seal materials.

After rectification of cracks load tests shall be carried out at selected locations as deemed by the
Engineer, if necessary.

Performance of the sealant can be checked by any leakage of water through the rectified crack
after ponding.

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Rectification of water leaking cracks in concrete

Following procedure shall be adopted in rectifying all water leaking cracks encountered in
basement walls, and other water retaining structures.

- Stop running water with MASTERSEAL 590 (WATER PLUG) / LAMPOSILEX

- Locate areas from which leaking water appears

- Drill holes to install the injection ports around the leaking spots

- Install 14 mm non-return steel injection packers

- Inject HA CUT CFL AF – Polyurethane injection resin in several stages until the leaks
stop

- Allow for chemical to cure

- Remove packers and seal off drillings with MASTERSEAL 590 (WATER PLUG) /
LAMPOSILEX

- Repair weak areas with shrinkage – compensated fiber-reinforced repair mortar


MAPEGROUT THIXOTROPIC / MASTEREMACO S 5400

- Apply two coats of XYPEX CONCENTRATE slurry coat over the repaired area
according to the manufacturer’s specification

Rectification of widespread finer cracks

An alternative procedure shall be adopted in repairing cracks which are short but has been
spread in larger areas on concrete surfaces.

Rectifying Procedure

Clean the concrete surface to be treated to remove any contaminant materials to ensure proper
adhesion.

Static Cracks

For static isolated cracks or cracks of less than 1.5mm, apply a primer followed by a base coat to
fill and overlap the crack 75mm either side.

Dynamic Cracks

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Dynamic isolated cracks and cracks over 1.5mm shall be routed to a minimum of 5.0mm x 5.0mm and
shall be filled with approved sealant. Install bond breaker tapes to prevent adhesion to the
sealants at the bottom and then apply the primer.

Allow the primer to dry tack free.

Fill the prepared area with a suitable base coat.

The method of sealing a crack is shown in Fig 8.1.

Fig. 8.1: Sealing of cracks in concrete

REPAIRING HONEYCOMBS

Small and Moderate Sizes

Honeycombs of small to moderate sizes in concrete members shall be repaired by following


method.

- Hack and remove the week concrete area to expose the sound surface.
- Saw cut the boundary of repair area perpendicular to the surface to at least 10mm depth
and remove concrete in the saw cut boundary to at least that depth.
- Wash and clean the hacked area using a water jet to make free from dust and loose
particles.
- Hack around steel bars to have at least a 25mm clearance for grout to grip the steel bar.
- Grit blasting shall be used in removing corrosion products in reinforcement.
- Replace the affected part of the reinforcement bars if the diameter is reduced more than
20% of the original. Prior approval of the Engineer shall be obtained to remove or
replace any reinforcement from any member.
- For protection of reinforcement from corrosion coat the bars with a zinc rich epoxy primer.

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- Prepare the final surface free from dust and debris and to a rough profile with at least
5mm level difference surface troughs and ridges.
- Saturate the prepared surface with water for at least 1 or 2 hours.
- Prepare a primer (a bonding slurry by mixing a suitable polymer emulsion based on
styrene butadiene with cement in recommended proportions by the manufacturer).
- Wet cementitious surface with water and apply the slurry. Application of primers shall
be avoided if the mortar is to be applied by spraying.
- Build up the area with a non- segregating, shrinkage compensated, thixotropic mortar
with high strength while the slurry is in wet condition. Manual placing of first layer may
give better results.
- Cure the repaired area with water for a minimum of 3 days.

The same procedure shall be adopted in repairing honeycombs deeper than 25mm, but shall
be filled up in multi layers to prevent from material sagging.

Fig. 8.2: Typical Detail of a Repaired Honeycomb

Any defect during and after rectification of honeycombs shall be avoided or minimised by
good quality control of work.

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Figures 8.3 and 8.4 show possible defects that can take place during and after building up the
honeycomb.

Fig. 8.3: Defects after Building up the Honeycomb

Fig. 8.4: Defects during Building up the Honeycomb

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Large Areas Following procedure shall adopt in rectifying larger honeycombs.

- Hack and remove the weak concrete to expose sound surface.


- Remove weak concrete around reinforcement to give a 12mm to 15mm clearance for
grout to grip the steel bar.
- Use a water jet to wash and clean the hacked area to free from dust and loose particles.
- Fabricate and install formwork with adequate inlet, level checking, sealing opening and a
drain out plug.
- Formwork and openings shall be adequately sealed.
- Prepare a platform on top side creating a head for easier grout flow required).
- Saturate the area using clean water for a minimum of 2 hours.
- Mix a non-shrinking high strength grout with a cementations grout and 12mm aggregates
according to manufacturer’s Specifications.
- Pour the mixture as shown in Fig 8.5.
- Cure the application for a minimum of 3 days.
-

Fig. 8.5: Rectification of Large Honeycombs

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7.3.2. REPAIRING LARGE CRACKS IN MASONRY WALLS

Following procedure shall be adopted in rectifying cracks in masonry walls.

- Set up scaffolding up to required height.


- Expose the crack and clean to free from contaminants.
- Install injection ports along the crack with a polymer modified lightweight cementitious
repair mortar
- Seal the crack between injection ports with the same material.
- Allow to cure for a sufficient time (about 2 days).
- Inject water through injection ports and saturate the voids thoroughly.
- Mix a polymer emulsion based on styrene butadiene (bonding agent) with cement and a
chloride free additive which can provide high fluidity to ordinary sand-cement grout
mixes at a low water cement ratio.
- Inject the above mixed slurry from the lowest end until it is appeared from the next entry
port above the lowest port.
- Discontinue injection and transfer to the port above the port where the slurry has
appeared.
- Continue to inject every other port returning on completion to the first entry port that has
not been injected.
- When the crack has been completely filled allow sufficient time to cure.
- Remove injection ports and seal it with the same emulsion.
7.3.3. REPAIRING PLASTER CRACKS IN MASONRY WALLS

Repair Method

Crack Width below 0.2mm

Apply only Elastometric Formlast (Acrylic Polymer) of the seal flex paint and apply the wall
paint match to colour.

Crack over 0.2mm

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- Cut a recess with 5mm grinding disk along the crack line up to brick level.
- While the recess remains dust free, fill with a mixture of Smart Seal PU 1 and filler
mixed with appropriate proportions and finish to the surface level.
- Leave for curing at least for two days.
- Paint with a flexible paint based on acrylic polymer.
7.3.4. CLEANING

During installation, provide masking and drop cloths to prevent repairing materials from
contaminating any adjacent surfaces.

Remove equipment, materials and debris, leaving area in undamaged, clean condition.

7.3.5. RECOMMENDED MATERIALS

Following materials that are producing by Master Builders Technology can be approved as
suitable for repairing wok.

Table 7.1: Recommended Materials for Rectification Work

Material Application
Concressive 1438 Sealing cracks in concrete and masonry
Seal water leaking cracks, voids or fractures in
HA CUT CFL AF Polyurethane injection resin
concrete
MBT Injection Resin Twin Line Grouting fine cracks, voids, honeycombs
Primer 770 Primer for concrete
Sonoguard Base coat for sealing cracks in concrete
Barra Mortar L As a no sagging easily workable mortar for sealing
cracks in masonry walls

As a bonding agent which bonds freshly placed


Barra Emulsion 57D
concrete, mortar, etc. to concrete or masonry surfaces

Additive which gives high fluidity to ordinary sand


Rheomac GF300
cement grout mixes at low water cement ratio

As a non-segregating, shrinkage compensated,


Emaco S188 thixotropic repair mortar with high strength for filling
honeycombs and voids

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Construction grout As a grout of high strength for filling larger
honeycombs

Masterflow 98 Mixing agent for construction grout to give extended


working time
Smart Seal PU 1 Sealant to seal cracks greater than 0.2mm
Elastometric Formalast Acrylic polymer to apply on cracks before painting

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8. SITE SAFETY
8.1. DUTIES OF EMPLOYER, EMPLOYEES, AND SAFETY PERSONNEL
8.1.1. SCOPE

In this section: Duties of Contractor to ensure the safety and health of working staff.

8.1.2. CONTRACTOR

The contractor is responsible to take following actions so that safety of employees is ensured in
the site.

 Formulate a policy with regard to the safety and health at work of all staff

 Provide a safe and healthy working environment to his employees and protect
others who may be affected by the work

 Provide adequate and appropriate information, instruction, training and


supervision to his employees

 Set out safety and health standards and procedures

 Appoint responsible personnel to ensure that the safety and health policy is fully
implemented and the safety and health standards, instructions and procedures are
strictly observed and followed

 Provide adequate and proper personal protective equipment for his employees

8.1.3. EMPLOYEES

The Contractor should ensure that his working staff is aware of the safety procedures adopted in
the site and that his working staff satisfies following conditions.

 Be conversant and co-operate with the Contractor in administering the Safety


Policy and following the safety and health requirements as stipulated under the
law and the works contract, such as the site safety manual, the site safety
handbook, and other safety and health standards, instructions and procedures,
which are related to their work to avoid accident.

 Work safely and take good care of themselves and others who may be affected
by them at all times, avoid being complacent and taking dangerous shortcuts,
avoid improvising dangerous tools, and always seeking assistance and advice if
in doubt.

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 Use the personal protective equipment as required and take reasonable care of
them when they are not used.

 Take immediate action to rectify any unsafe tools, equipment and plant or any
unhealthy conditions, or report them immediately to their supervisors or the
responsible person in control of the workplace.

 Report all accidents to the supervisors immediately after their occurrences.

8.1.4. SAFETY OFFICER

It is the duty of the Contractor to employ and get the assistance of a Safety Officer to assist
following work.

 Implementation of the Safety Policy and the safety and health requirements as
stipulated under the law and the works contract, such as the site safety manual,
the site safety handbook, and other safety and health standards and instructions.

 Assist in ensuring that all plant, machinery, equipment and tools are maintained
in safe working order. Ensure that the names of the persons designated by the
Contractor for the operation of particular plant and equipment are recorded in a
register and check that the plant and equipment are only operated by designated
competent persons.

 Assist in ensuring that all fire services installations and fire escapes are
maintained in good working order.

 Assist in ensuring the safe and health condition and good housekeeping in the
workplace.

 Conduct safety inspections to project sites, plants and workshops, and prepare
inspection reports.

 Ensure the observance of the safety rules and safe practices by the staff, and
assist in the supervision of safety supervisors.

 Report to the site management any unsafe practices and unsafe conditions in the
workplace. Prepare and submit statutory reports to the Contractor.

 Carry out risk assessment and prepare safety method statements, including
control measures for high and medium risk activities as necessary.

 Conduct accident investigation and prepare investigation reports; and recommend


preventive measures to avoid recurrence.

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 Organize/conduct safety training courses and seminars, and prepare training
records.

 Arrange and organize safety promotion activities.

 Liaise with Labour Department’s Occupational Safety Officers and


representatives of safety & health organizations.

The Contractor should provide necessary items to the Safety Officer to clearly identify himself
on site by wearing an armband or a safety helmet appropriately marked in Sinhala, Tamil and
English.

At least one full time Safety Officer should be employed by the Contractor for a working staff of
less than 200. The Contractor should employ more Safety Offices as appropriate for a larger
working staff.

8.1.5. SAFETY SUPERVISOR

The Contractor should employ a Safety Supervisor to perform following duties.

 Assist the Safety Officer and the Contractor in implementing the safety and
health requirements, standards and instructions.

 Be familiar with the statutory regulations applicable to the work on which their
gang is engaged; insist that the regulations are observed and followed, and all
accidents reported immediately.

 Keep all staff informed of the Safety Policy and take all reasonably practicable
steps for carrying it out.

 Incorporate safety instructions in routine orders and see that they are obeyed.

 Take all reasonable steps to prevent workers from taking risks.

 Assist the safety Officer in arranging new employees, particularly inexperienced


and apprentices or new recruits to receive site specific safety induction course
and to learn to take safety precautions. Conduct Tool Box Talks for workers.

 Ensure that protective clothing and equipment are used whenever appropriate.

 Discourage “horseplay” and reprimand those who fail to consider their own
safety and that of others.

 Report to the immediate supervisor on any defects and ensure that any unsafe
plant and equipment are not used.

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 Ensure that all plant and equipment are in a safe and secure state when left unattended.

 Remind the Contractor to replenish first aid boxes at regular intervals.

 Report to the Contractor and/or Safety Officer on matters relating to safety and health.

The Contractor should provide necessary items to the Safety Supervisor to clearly
identify himself on site by wearing an armband or a safety helmet appropriately marked
in Sinhala, Tamil and English.

The Contractor should employ at least one Safety Supervisor if the working staff is more
than 20. Additional Safety Supervisors should be employed for each additional 50
persons. Safety Supervisors should be employed for supervision of each Sub Contactors’
works at each location, if the number of workers at a place is more than 20.

8.1.6. SAFETY REPRESENTATIVE

The Contractor should employ a Safety Representative, full time in site for following
reasons.

 Assist the Safety Officer and the Contractor in enforcing the safety and health
requirements, standards and instructions.

 Incorporate safety instructions in routine orders and see that they are obeyed.

 Take all reasonable steps to prevent workers from taking risks. Discourage
“horseplay” and reprimand those who fail to consider their own safety and that of others.

 Ensure that protective clothing and equipment are used whenever appropriate.

 Report to the Contractor and/or Safety Officer on matters relating to safety and
health.

The Contractor should provide necessary items to the Safety Representative to clearly
identify himself on site by wearing an armband or a safety helmet appropriately marked
in Sinhala, Tamil and English.

8.1.7. CONSULTANT’S REPRESENTATIVE AND SITE SUPERVISORY STAFF

A Consultant’s representative will be employed by the Consultant to perform


following tasks

 Implement Safety Policy and the safety and health requirements as stipulated
under the Specification and the works contract, the Construction Site Safety

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Manual, the Construction Site Safety Handbook, Safety Plan (if any) and other
safety and health standards, instructions and procedures.

 Carry out site inspections to ensure that the safety and health standards, rules and
practices are being complied with and corrective actions are taken as necessary.

 Ensure maintenance records of all machinery, plant, equipment and tools are
kept, and all plant and equipment are operated by competent persons.

 Ensure that all identified defective machinery, plant, equipment and tools are
suspended/ withdrawn from service until they are satisfactorily repaired.

 Check that the personal protective equipment are properly maintained, readily
available and are correctly used.

 Report any inadequacy in safety and health measures and dangerous incidents for
follow up action.

 Closely monitor the Contractors’ works for any unsafe practices or unsafe
methods. Ask for their rectification as soon as possible by means of the power
delegated to him under the contract.

 Chair the Site Safety Management Committee Meetings, and attend the Site
Safety Committee Meetings.

 Closely liaise with the Labour Department and/or the on the construction site
safety matters.

 Conduct accident investigation and recommend corrective action for preventing


similar accidents.

 Compile site accident statistics and report on the Contractors’ safety performance.

 Assign and train site staff to administer safety provisions in the contract.

 Attend safety audits and ensure that follow-up actions on the recommendations
made by safety auditors in the safety audit reports are taken.

8.2. SAFETY AND HEALTH OF WORK PLACE


8.2.1. GENERAL

Site Layout

Prior to commencement of the works on a construction site, the Contractor should make and
record following provisions in a site layout plan as appropriate.

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 Arrange perimeter fencing or hoarding where appropriate.

 Ensure good visibility and safe access at site entrances.

 Provide adequate warning signs at the entrances and exits where necessary.

 Provide areas for loading and unloading, storage of materials, plant and
machinery.

 Post emergency procedure and statutory notices at conspicuous locations.

 Arrange suitable positioning of hoists and cranes.

 Consider welfare facilities to offices, compounds and workshops, arrange


ventilation, lighting and temporary connections to utility services.

 Provide mobile phones until fixed phones are installed.

 Arrange electrical supply requirements and incoming mains.

 Provide skips or dumping areas for rubbish and waste materials, and arrange for
their clearance on a regular basis.

 Arrange storage, transport and use of fuel, other flammable materials, and
explosive materials. Obtain the necessary licenses from appropriate authorities.

 Plan fire escape routes and locate firefighting equipment.

 Provide access roads and plant movement areas within the works area/site.

 Provide designated car parking areas.

 Provide wheel-washing basin for vehicles at the exits of the site.

 Provide first-aid facilities and post notices at the various works areas to show the
locations of those facilities.

 Provide adequate warning of overhead or underground utilities.

 Provide lighting on hoarding or external fencing for public safety.

 Provide and maintain proper drainage and means of sewage disposal.

A bad and good site layouts are shown in Fig 9.2.1-a & Fig 9.2.1-b

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Fig 9.2.1-a Poor Site Layout Fig 9.2.1-b Good Site Layout

Site Roads and Site Traffic

Following precautions should be taken by the Contractor to avoid traffic accidents on site due to
human errors caused as a result of bad driving, carelessness or ignorance during work with
special hazards (for instance near excavations or power lines), carrying unauthorized passengers,
poor maintenance of vehicles, overloading or improper stacking or securing of loads. (Fig 9.2.2)

 Site traffic routes should be clearly indicated and maintained as level and is
consistent with safe travel and should be carefully planned taking account of such
potential hazards as overhead lines, false work and steeply sloping ground as well
as the movement of workers to and from different working positions. Where
possible an one-way system should be implemented.

 Establish and display clearly speed limits on site and erect notice boards/
signages to draw the drivers' attention on areas of potential hazards.

 When vehicles have to cross public roads, drivers are responsible for seeing that
the wheels and tires are cleaned of mud so that the public roads will not be
contaminated and no skid ding hazard is created by mud deposited on the roads

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near the entrances to construction sites. They are also responsible for seeing that
their load is secure and does not present a risk to other road users.

 Protect workers from the risk of being struck by vehicles if they have to work on
haul roads. Display suitable warnings where drivers can see them in good time;
cone off the area; wear fluorescent or reflective clothing.

 Engage low gear, and wherever practicable drive the vehicle up or down a slope
rather than across.

 Provide passageways of suitable widths and steps or stairs of suitable


construction for the safe passage of persons and materials.

 Properly maintain all floors, passageways, doorways, steps and stairs to ensure
that they are free from any obstructions, protruding objects, slippery substances
and other materials that may constitute tripping and slipping hazards.

 Provide and maintain an rigid hand-rail or other suitable hand-hold with


intermediate barriers on every staircase to prevent people falling through the open
side.

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Fig 9.2.2 Access and Site Traffic

Ventilation, Temperature and Lighting

The Contractor is responsible for providing a healthy and clear working environment at all
work places within the site. Following steps may be taken for maintaining such an environment
at each work place in the site.

 Circulate fresh or artificially purified air at the rate of not less than 3 air changes
per hour for enclosed workplaces.

 Provide and maintain an efficient mechanical exhaust system at the point of


origin of the dust or fume or other impurities to prevent it from polluting the air
in the workroom.

 Maintain a reasonable temperature in every workplace.

 Provide and maintain suitable and sufficient lighting, either natural or artificial, in
every part of the premises in which persons work or pass.

 Ensure that windows and skylights used for lighting are kept clean and free from
obstruction.

 Install all lighting systems in such a way as to ensure even distribution and
absence of glare.

 The light contrast should not be more than 30% between the workplace and the
surrounding.

The following light intensities may be taken for reference:

Purpose Light intensity at the place of work

General work areas, site clearance 50 lux

Craft work: concreting, scaffolding 100 lux

Fine craft work: joinery, work with power tools, 300 lux
plastering, electrical, plumbing shop fitting

Workshop 600 lux

Site drawing office 750 lux

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Precision 1000 lux

Note: The above referenced light intensities are for both indoor and outdoor, and to be
adjusted according to district brightness.

 Emergency lighting shall be provided to escape route and workplaces where


needed.

 Low voltage should be used for temporary lighting, particularly in confined and
damp conditions.

Fire Prevention

See section 7 of this Specification.

Housekeeping

Facilities and locations should be provided by the Contractor for proper placement of tools,
materials, etc. so that the work place is maintained clean, tidy and unobstructed always. To
ensure safety against untidy environment, the Contractor should take following actions.

 Maintain lockers, mess rooms, canteens and washrooms in a clean and sanitary
condition at all times.

 Keep all passage ways, staircases, landings, and means of escape clear and
unobstructed at all time.

 Stack raw materials and finished products clear of passageways and means of
escape.

 Do not leave tools on the floor, or in any location where they can be easily
dislodged. Provide proper storage, such as tool boxes or containers for tools and
equipment.

 Do not obstruct lighting and ventilation, any electrical power point and
firefighting equipment.

 Keep windows and light fittings clean.

 The floors of workplaces should be kept dry and in a non-slippery condition.

 Provide and maintain proper drainage system to prevent water ponding.

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 Use metal bins for oily and greasy rags and store all highly flammable materials
in appropriate bins, racks or cabinets. The metal bins for storing oily and grease
rags should be covered with lids. (Fig 9.2.3)

Fig 9.2.3 Cleanup Oil or Grease

 Protruding nails in boards or walls should be removed or bent over so that they
do not constitute a hazard to people. (Fig 9.2.4)

Fig 9.2.4 No Protruding Nails

 Store dangerous chemicals in the dangerous goods stores of the appropriate


category. (Fig 9.2.5)

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Fig 9.2.5 Proper Storage of Dangerous Substances

 Post “No smoking" signs in areas with high fire risks e.g paint stores,
woodworking area, etc.

Noise Control

It is the responsibility of the Contractor to control sounds or to provide ear protection equipment
if there is any indication showing that the noise level at a workplace is high and may cause
damage to hearing. These are some of the indications showing high noise situations.

- You have to shout to be heard

- your hearing is dulled just after work

- You get head noises or ringing in the ears after work

- you have difficulty hearing people while others are talking

 Use sound level meters to measure weighted sound level, units expressed in
dB(A). Preventive measures should be taken where an employee is likely to be
exposed to a daily personal noise exposure of 70 dB(A). (Fig 9.2.6)

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Fig 9.2.6 Noise Assessment for Noisy Workplace and Plant

 Prolonged exposure to noise over 70 dB (A) can cause permanent hearing loss.
Excessive noise can cause a person to be irritable and tired. It also increases the
chance of accidents as it distracts and makes it harder to hear warnings of alarms
by persons.

 Personnel should be made aware of noisy areas by suitable warning signs and the
requirement of wearing suitable ear protectors. Where the daily personal noise
exposure may exceed 70 dB (A), the area shall be identified and demarcated as an
Ear Protection Zone.

 Whenever possible, reduce noise at source by improved maintenance, replacing


noisy machines by quieter ones, screening with noise absorbing material, making
changes to the process, controlling machine speeds, using cutting oils and
hydraulic breakers.

 Appoint a competent person to carry out a detailed noise assessment of the


workplace and designate ear protection zone. He/she shall give instructions on
the necessary precautionary measures to be observed by the site personnel,
including the use of suitable types of ear protections. (Fig 9.2.7)

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Fig 9.2.7 Ear Protection Zone/ Distance for Noisy Equipment

 Wear and maintain earmuffs and earplugs in accordance with the manufacturers’
instructions. Earmuffs and earplugs shall be of types approved by the Labour
Department.

 The following tables gives a general guide on noise levels and exposure time -

Permissible Noise Exposure

Sound level dB(A) Duration (hours/day)

90 8.0
92 (air compressor) 5.0
95 (air drill) 2.5
97 1.6
100 (machine shop) 0.8
102 0.5
105(circular saw) 0.25
115 (diesel engine) 0.025

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Note : Approved ear protectors shall be provided whenever the noise level exceeds 70
dB(A).

 In construction or repair work, noise should be kept to a low level bearing in


mind the disturbance to local residents.

 Keep doors of mechanical engineering plant closed.

Dust Control

The Contractor should take necessary precautions to control and minimize hazardous effects
which may be encountered on site due to dusts created by asbestos, silica, cadmium, lead, PFA,
gypsum, cement, stone-fines, saw dust, etc. Following procedures could be effectively used in
controlling such dust

 Control dust hazard by having materials precut off-site; by isolating dust work,
by removing the dust at source using local exhaust ventilation and/or vacuum
cleaners and by watering.

 All exposed persons must wear appropriate respiratory protection equipment (see
Part VII of this Specification). Nevertheless, respirators are not an effective
means of control for persons doing heavy manual work.

 Removal of asbestos materials shall be carried out by a specialist contractor


under the supervision of a competent asbestos supervisor.

 Screen or cover loose materials.

 Clean up mud and slurry spills before they dry up and become airborne.

 Use a vacuum instead of an airline to clean out formwork.

 Use water to damp down concrete when drilling for starter bars or scrabbling.

 Use a proper mixer for concrete, plaster and bentonite.

Welfare Facilities

The Contractor is responsible for providing welfare facilities to the working staff of his site.

 Provide suitable clothing for those who have to work in wet, dirty or under other
adverse conditions.

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 Provide facilities for showering, changing, drying and storing clothes, if the
situation warrants.

 Provide shelters and facilities for meal.

 Provide drinking water.

 Provide first aid box and adequate rescue equipment.

 Provide sufficient toilet and washing basins/facilities. (Fig 9.2.8)

Fig 9.2.8 Washing Facilities at Workplace

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Protection against Adverse Weather

The Contractor should educate his working staff to protect against adverse weather.

 Wear suitable protective clothing including a safety helmet with chinstraps,


rubber boots and overalls or coveralls.
 Be alert for falling and flying objects and take extreme care when working in rear
lanes.
 Be aware of possible hazardous locations including slopes, watercourses, nullahs,
culverts and flooded areas.
 Keep clear of trees, overhead power line poles, exposed open space or high level
areas in the event of lightning.
 Work in isolated locations in pairs of two persons as far as possible.
 Maintain communication with controllers and abide by the relevant Departmental
Instructions on Emergency Procedures and Organization.
 Provide and maintain proper drainage system, temporary surface channels and
sump pits.
 Provide precautionary measures against heavy rain, such as temporary surface
protection and temporary drains for soil slopes under construction.
 Prevent ingress of surface water into excavations, and trenches.
 Isolate all electrical circuits not in use.

8.2.2. SCAFFOLDING AND WORKING PLATFORMS

All scaffolds shall be inspected by a competent person employed by the Consultant prior to
their being put into use for the first time, after erection or alteration, at bi-weekly interval and
after exposure to adverse weather conditions. The competent person shall report on the
prescribed form to the Contractor that the scaffold, including its associated working platforms is
safe for use. Working platform shall be checked to ensure that the platform is of an appropriate
width (minimum 400 mm (for workers) or 650 mm (for workers and materials)) and closely
boarded with planks of adequate thickness. The boards shall be free from patent defects, and be
evenly supported to prevent tipping. Unsafe scaffolds, partially erected/dismantled or under
repair, shall be prevented from being use, and warning signs to such effect shall be posted at
conspicuous positions on the scaffolds. Mixing brands of modular scaffolding should be avoided
as mismatched combinations pose a significant threat to safety.

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Competent person for scaffolding work refers to a person who has substantial training and
practical experience. He should have satisfactorily completed a formal training in scaffolding
work and have 10 years or more experience in scaffolding work. (Inclusive of experience under
the formal training period)

Trained workman for scaffold work refers to a person who has satisfactorily completed a formal
training in scaffolding work equivalent to those for a competent person and possesses at least 3
years of experience in scaffolding work (inclusive of experience under the formal training
period). He should work under the immediate supervision of a competent person.

Irrespective to the type of scaffolding used in the site, the Contractor is liable for any hazardous
event that could take place due to failure of scaffolding. Common types of scaffoldings those
can be used in construction sites and the factors that should be considered by the Contractor to
avoid risk of failure are listed below.

Independent Tie Scaffolds

This type of scaffold is not completely independent of the building or structure. The scaffolds
itself carries its own weight and the full weight of all loads placed upon it down to the ground,
but it must be tied to the building to obtain stability and to prevent any possible movement of
the scaffold towards or away from the building (Fig 9.2.9). When independent scaffolds are to
be used in the site, the Contractor should ensure the safety of working staff against any
hazardous effect that could take place due to failure of such scaffolds.

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Fig 9.2.9 Independent Tie Scaffolds

 Bases and ground conditions shall be adequate for the loads. Avoid supporting on
pavement lightings, manhole covers and nearby excavation.

 Ensure that the scaffold and every part of it are of good condition, made of strong
and sound materials, free from patent defects and erected, maintained, altered and
dismantled by trained workmen under the immediate supervision of a competent
person.

 Check that the following are in order;

- Line of standards and ledgers


- Spacing of transoms
- Even support and line of boards
- Guardrails and toe boards
- Longitudinal and ledger bracing
- Security and correct use of all fittings (couplers)
- Number, positions and security of ties
- Security of stacked materials and means of access
- Maximum height of scaffold permitted

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 Do not overload the scaffold.

Birdcage Scaffolds

When “birdcage scaffolds”, which are normally used for interior work in larger buildings for
light work such as to provide access to ceilings, painting, plastering and decorating walls or
soffits (Fig 9.2.10), the Contractor should make sure that following conditions are met.

Fig 9.2.10 Birdcage Scaffolds

 Ensure that the scaffold and every part of it are of good conditions, made of
strong and sound materials, free from patent defects and erected, maintained,
altered and dismantled by trained workmen under the immediate supervision of a
competent person.

 Check that the following are in order

- Line of standards and ledgers


- Line and spacing of transoms
- Support and line of boards
- Guardrails and toe boards
- Diagonal bracing and Ties
- Security and correct use of all fittings (couplers)
- Adequate slenderness ratio and the maximum permitted height of scaffold
- Means of access
- Base supports and ground conditions

 Do not overload the scaffold.

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Putlog Scaffolds

Putlog scaffolding is mostly used where brick structures are being built. It is often called a brick-
layer’s scaffold or a single scaffold. It depends for its support on the wall of the building on its
inner side and a row of standards on its outer side (Fig 9.2.11). The Contractor should check the
following conditions of this type of scaffolds to avoid failures which can cause damage to
working persons.

 Ensure that the scaffold and every part of it are of good conditions, made of
strong and sound materials, free from patent defects and erected, maintained,
altered and dismantled by trained workmen under the immediate supervision of a
competent person.

 Check that the following are in order

- Line of standards and ledgers


- Line and spacing of transoms
- Support and line of boards
- Guardrails and toe boards
- Diagonal bracing
- Security and correct use of all fittings (couplers)
- Ties
- Means of access.

 Do not overload the scaffold.

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Fig 9.2.12 Putlog Scaffolds

Mobile Scaffolds

Mobile scaffolds arise from the needs of painters and others who do lightweight work for a
structure that can readily be moved from place to place. Mobile scaffolds take the form of
towers made of normal steel tube and fittings and mounted on wheels, with one working
platform, the dimensions of which are normally equal to, or less than the corresponding base
dimensions (Fig 9.2.12). The Contractor should check following factors of this type of
scaffoldings for the safety of work staff.

 Ensure that the scaffold and every part of it are of good conditions, made of
strong and sound materials, free from patent defects, and erected, maintained,
altered and dismantled by trained workmen under the immediate supervision of a
competent person.

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Fig 9.2.13 Mobile Scaffolds

 Every wheel of a mobile tower shall be fitted with a locking device that cannot be
accidentally released. Ensure that all wheels are securely locked before the
scaffold is used.

 The wheels shall be securely fixed to the uprights so that they cannot fall out
even they are not in contact with the ground.

 The scaffold shall not be moved when people or materials are on the working
platform.

 The scaffold shall only be moved at the base.

 The ratio of height to least base dimension should not exceed 3:1 for outdoor
work, or 3.5:1 for indoor work, unless tied to suitable fixed points.

 Minimum width of the scaffold at base shall be 1.2 m.

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 Ensure that the working platform is closely boarded and evenly supported,
provided with guardrails and toe boards, erected and used on firm and level
ground and securely anchored where necessary. (e.g. under windy condition)

 Ensure that the ladder access is properly secured and attached to the narrow side
of the mobile scaffold. Internal ladder access is preferred.

 Fence off the affected area and display a suitable warning notice to warn people
and nearby traffic.

 Do not overload the scaffolds.

 Outriggers if provided should be fully extended and properly fixed.

Truss-out Scaffolds

Truss-out scaffolds are generally used where it is impossible or inadvisable, to build up from
ground level as, for example, for repairs to a parapet wall, or for work on upper windows in a
tall building on a busy street. Truss-out scaffolds are supported by horizontal tubes protruding
through windows or similar openings, anchored within the building to vertical tubes securely
strutted between the ceiling and floors. Simple truss-outs are only intended for very light work
and should not be loaded with materials unless designed accordingly (Fig 9.2.14). Before using
this type of scaffolds, a competent person employed by the Contractor should check whether
following conditions are satisfied.

 Ensure that the scaffold and every part of it are of good conditions, made of
strong and sound materials, free from patent defects and erected, maintained,
altered and dismantled by trained workmen under the immediate supervision of a
competent person.

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Fig 9.2.14 Truss-out Scaffolds

 Check that the following are in order

- Security of supporting structural members


- Spacing and stability of back struts
- All connections between tubes made with right-angle couplers
- Angle of the inclined load bearing tube, the raker, do not exceed 30o
from vertical
- Correct position of check couplers
- Line of standards and ledgers
- Spacing of transoms
- Even support and line of boards
- Security of boards, guardrail and toe boards
- Diagonal and longitudinal bracing
- Ties

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- Security and correct use of couplers
- Standards to be raised within 300 mm of the rakers supporting the truss
or loading transmitted back to these points
- Outer standards and rakers fitted with check couplers.

 Do not overload the scaffold.

Ladders

The Contractor can allow using ladders for working staff only if the following conditions are
satisfied.

 Use ladders only for simple work of short duration. They should be use primarily
as a means of access and NOT as a working platform.

 Ladders shall be of good condition with no missing or defective rungs, made up


of sound material and of adequate strength for the purpose for which it is used
and is properly maintained.

 Only erect ladders on a firm and level base.

 Do not erect straight ladder at a base angle exceeding 75 degrees or a 4 (rise):1


(base) ratio.

Fig 9.2.15 Safe Use of Ladders

 For vertical access ladder, provide a landing point for rest purposes every 9 m.

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 Secure a straight ladder at the top. When it is impracticable to do so, firmly
secure the ladder at the base by some effective means or by any person.

 Rise ladders at least 1.05m for handhold above their landing place or above the
highest rung.

 The rungs shall be free from moisture, dirt and grease.

 The footwear of the user shall be in good condition and free from moisture, dirt
and grease.

 Securely lock the spreaders of a step ladder in position. Do not use a step ladder
as a straight ladder.

 Always spare one hand to hold the ladder firmly. Never lean over or stretch out to
reach the work.

 Always face a ladder when going up or down and use both hands to grasp the
rungs for support. Do not carry tools or materials in hand when climbing up or
down. If necessary, use a tool holster to carry hand tools to spare hands for
holding the ladder.

 Use wooden or fiber-glass ladders for electrical work or when working near
electrical conductors, etc.

 Do not use aluminum ladders or other ladders which are electrically conductive
for electrical work unless they have been fully insulated especially at footing of
the ladder.

 Wear safety harness with lanyard anchored properly when working on the ladder at
height of 2m or more if the provision of working platform is not reasonably practicable.

 Inspect the ladder for any defects before each use. Do not use wooden ladder that
has been painted as painting may cover up the defects. Display warning label to
the defective ladder.

 Avoid step on the top two rungs of an A-shape ladder.

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Contractor’s Lifts and Tower Working Platforms

These should be thoroughly checked by a competent person employed by the Contractor, for
good quality and performance, both at purchasing and during work.

General

 Only competent operators who have undergone training as stipulated in the


Contractor’s Lifts and Tower Working Platforms (Safety) Ordinance are allowed
to operate Contractor’s lifts and tower working platforms. The competent
operator shall carry out daily check of the equipment as specified in the Code of
Practice on the Design and Construction of Contractor’s Lifts/Tower Working
Platforms.

 Ensure that all platforms or Contractor’s lifts first purchased shall be tested with a
proof load of at least 125% of rated load (safe working load) and shall be
thoroughly examined by a competent examiner, employed by the Contractor, who
should then issue a certificate with the load test and examination results.

 All lift works including preventive maintenance as recommended by the


manufacturer shall be carried out by trained workmen employed by a registered
Contractor in accordance with the Ordinance.

 Ensure that the operator checks daily the tyre pressure, hydraulic oil level,
operation of the controls, and for any hydraulic oil leakage and visible damages
to the hoses and connections, chassis mountings, supports and linkages.

 Clearly show the following markings on the platform and Contractor’s lifts.

- The safe working load and the maximum number of persons it may carry

- The maximum wind speed exceeding which no operation shall be


permitted

- The maximum gradient exceeding which no operation shall be permitted

- The purpose and method of the operation of all the controls; and the
tyre pressure.

 Do not overload the Contractor’s lifts and tower working platforms.

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Contractor’s Lift

 Protect the Contractor’s lift by substantial enclosure.

 Routine maintenance shall be carried out by trained workmen at intervals not


more than 7 days and details of the maintenance works shall be recorded on
prescribed forms kept by the registered Contractor. The builder's lift shall also be
thoroughly examined and tested by a registered examiner at intervals not more
than 6 months.

 Fit the lift cage with an electrically and mechanically operated locking device. It
shall not be possible to start or run the lift cage unless all lift cage gates are
closed. If a lift cage has more than one lift cage gate, each lift cage gate shall
have its independent electrically and mechanically operated locking device.

 Protect the electrically and mechanically operated locking device of the lift cage
gate against operation by unauthorized persons.

 In the case of a lift cage gate with hinged joints at its lower edge, the lift cage
gate shall not be used as a gangway for loading and unloading of passengers
and/or materials.

 Provide the lift cage with an emergency opening either as a door in the lift cage
(width and height at least 400mm and 1,800mm respectively) or as a trapdoor in
the lift cage roof (width and length at 400mm and 600mm respectively). Provide
a ladder inside the lift cage giving access to the emergency trapdoor if an
emergency trapdoor is provided.

 Provide a safety switch to interrupt the control circuit and prevent the movement
of the lift cage if the emergency door or trapdoor is not properly closed and locked.

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Fig 9.2.16-a Contractor’s Lift

 The emergency trapdoors and emergency doors shall be provided with a means
for manual locking. They shall be opened from outside the lift cage without a key
and from inside the lift cage with a removable key. The key shall be kept by the
competent operator inside the lift cage at all times during operation of the
Contractor’s lift.

 The landing platform shall be closely boarded, planked or plated, or shall be of a


platform consisting of open metal work having interstices none of which exceeds
38 cm2 in area.

 Provide a landing gate for every access to the lift cage. Landing gates shall be
rigid and shall not open towards the lift way.

 Provide the lift cage and the landing platform with electric lighting that can
provide a light intensity of at least 50 lux at floor level and at the controls.

 Provide every landing with a call button for the passenger to activate an electric
bell located at a specified location (usually at the base enclosure or main access)
when requesting lift service.

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 The lift cage shall, during normal operation, be power driven upwards and
downwards at all times. Do not allow the lift cage to descend under gravitational
force by alternatively applying and releasing the driving machine brake or
alternatively opening and closing the restrictor valve during normal operation.

 Provide every Contractor’s lift with an overload sensing device to give clear
visual and audio warning signals in the lift cage in case of overloading and over-
movement.

 Equip every lift cage with an audible alarm device easily recognizable and
accessible to the competent operator.

 Refer Fig 9.2.8-a for Details.

Tower Working Platforms

 Tower working platforms of mobile type shall be equipped with a level indicator
at the chassis to check the leveling of the platform so as to warn the operator not
to operate the platform when the site is too steep.

 The controls for 'Up' and 'Down' (including 'Forward' and 'Backward' for mobile
type) shall be of dead man type. Routine maintenance shall be carried out by
trained workmen at intervals not more than 7 days and details of the maintenance
works shall be recorded on prescribed forms kept by the registered Contractor.
The tower working platform shall also be thoroughly examined and tested by a
registered examiner at intervals not more than 6 months.

 Provide an emergency stop on the control panel of a platform, which must stop
all motions of the platform when it is operated.

 Provide an emergency lowering device which shall be operated from a safe but
easily accessible location on the platform and the location of which shall allow
the best possible view of the travel area so as to bring the platform down at
controlled speed in the event of emergency operation.

 Provide an overload and over moment sensing device which should give out
audible and visible alarms to warn the operator if the load/moment exceeds
110%of the rated load/moment of the platform and that the device shall render
the machine inoperative when the device is activated.

 Ensure that, if pre-warning alarm is installed, it will not be activated at a setting


below 90%of the safe working load. The pre-warning audible alarm shall be
distinguishable from the audible alarm mentioned above and that it shall be
activated for not more than 5 seconds.

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 Means shall be provided to keep the platform in horizontal position (better than
2o) during operation.

 Do not operate a working platform on any gradient exceeding the limit permitted.

Fig 9.2.16-b Tower Working Platforms

 Select a working platform that can provide the reach required.

 Operate a working platform on a firm ground.

 Check the surrounding and take steps to avoid any possible collision with any
building or structures, particularly overhead electric power cables.

 Do not move the chassis unless the platform is at its lowest position for transfer motion.

 Fence off the work area and take steps to warn people or traffic passing by.

 The maximum extension of the auxiliary platform of fixed type shall not be more
than 1,800mm while that for mobile type it shall not be more than 1,000mm.

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 Workers on the platform shall not lean over the fence to reach out. If it is not
reasonably practicable to do so, the workers leaning over the fence shall wear a
safety belt or safety harness with its lanyard attached to a secure point.

 Display warning notices in Sinhala, Tamil and English conspicuously at areas


accessible to the platform from the building side to warn any person working on
the building floor adjacent to the lift way of the danger of being struck by the
moving platform on each floor.

 Equip every platform with an audible alarm device which can be easily
recognizable and accessible to the competent operator.

 Refer Fig 9.2.16-b for Details.

Suspended Working Platform

It is the responsibility of the Contractor to thoroughly check and maintain these platforms by a
competent person for good performance, both at purchasing and during work.

General

 It is the duty of the owner of suspended working platform to ensure that every
operation of the suspended working platform is safe and without risk to health to
the personnel working inside or nearby the working platform.

 A safe system of work should be established by the owner, with the advice of
safety professionals and relevant personnel for every operation. The safe system
of work should be monitored and supervised by a competent person.

 A competent person employed by the Contractor is responsible for on-site


inspection on the installation and use of the suspended working platform.

 The working personnel should possess the skill to operate the working platform
safely and have obtained a certificate of training issued by the person who
provided the training.

 Ensure that all platforms first purchased shall be tested with a proof load of at
least 150%of the safe working load. They shall be thoroughly examined by a
competent examiner, employed by the Contractor, who should then issue a
certificate with the load test and examination results.

 All parts of the suspended working platform should be properly maintained by a


competent person in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.

 Ensure that necessary licenses and way leaves are obtained before work commences.

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 Liaise with building occupants regarding the dangers of opening non-sash type
windows when suspended platforms are in use. Also inform the building
management or the responsible person that the power supply to the platforms
should not be disconnected when in use.

 Warn operatives of the danger of open windows or other projections from the
face of the building when operating suspended platforms.

 Ensure that supporting ropes are reeled correctly into winding drums and over all
pulleys and guides.

Fig 9.2.17 Suspended Working Platform

 Check suspended platform roof beams, counterweights and fixings and ensure
that these are as originally installed for the suspended working platform.
Thoroughly examine the working platform before use.

 Ensure that ropes are secured correctly at anchor ends.

 Ensure that safety ropes, when fixed, are similarly checked. Ensure that all safety
equipment - stops, override switches, brakes, communication device, etc. are
operational.

 Check power supply and all electrical cables and connections to ensure that they
are in good working order.

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 Ensure that supporting ropes are not kinked or damaged before using the
equipment.

 Check that control buttons and emergency buttons/switches function correctly.

 Take precautions to protect safety wires or suspension ropes from arc welding
operation or other hot work as intense heat causes damage to or fracture of the
wires or ropes.

 Secure hand tools to the platform wherever practicable.

 Report all breakdowns or malfunctions to the supplier, and stop using the equipment.

 Draw up an emergency procedure in case of accident.

 Refer Fig 9.2.18 for Details.

8.2.3. WORK IN CONFINED SPACES

 A confined space is any place in which, by virtue of its enclosed nature, there
arises a reasonably foreseeable "specified risk", and without limiting the
generality of the foregoing, includes any chamber, tank, vat, pit, well, sewer,
tunnel, pipe, flue, boiler, pressure receiver, hatch, caisson, shaft or silo in which
such risk arises. The Contractor is responsible for identifying and rescuing his
working staff against such risk by confirming of removal of risk at such locations.

 "Special Risk means a risk of

- Serious injury to any person at work arising from a fire or explosion

- The loss of consciousness of any person at work arising from an


increase in body temperature

- The loss of consciousness or asphyxiation of any person at work arising


from gas, fume, vapor or the lack of oxygen

- The drowning of any person at work arising from an increase in the level
of liquid

- The asphyxiation of any person at work arising from a free flowing solid
or the inability to reach a respirable environment due to entrapment by a
free flowing solid.

 A confined space may be;

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- A completely enclosed structure with limited access through a manhole,
e.g. a fuel tank, a water tank, a boiler, an air receiver and vessel, a
pressure filter, a hydraulic tank

- A structure or vessel of such a depth as to require special means of entry


or an emergency exit, with its top usually open, e.g. manhole, an inlet
float valve chamber, a washout chamber, a control or sectional valve
chamber, a meter chamber, a break pressure tank, a wash water tank

- A structure or ducting of sufficient length with inadequate cross


ventilation, e.g. tunnel, pipeline, flue duct, caisson shaft, silo and culvert

- A room or an enclosed area in which dangerous fumes such as toxic,


flammable, explosive or corrosive fumes are present, e.g. a digestion tank,
boiler, pressure receiver, flow regulating valve house, and enclosed
service reservoir, a self-closing valve house, a venturi house.

 No one shall enter a confined space (Fig 9.2.18)

- Until a competent person has carried out a risk assessment of the confined
space and appropriate safety measures have been taken

- Unless he is a certified worker

- Without instruction or permission from the person in charge of the work,


who is responsible to ensure that the space is safe to enter

- Until a permit has been issued by an Authorized Person under a Permit-


to-Work system

- Without one man to guard the opening and keep a close watch at the entrance

- Unless it has been ventilated and ensure that ventilation continues until
the work is finished

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Fig 9.2.18 Safety Precautions for Work in Confined Spaces

 Competent person is a person who has attained the age of 18 years, who is either
a Registered Safety Officer or a person who holds a certificate as being
competent to prepare risk assessment reports and who has at least 1 year's
relevant experience in assessing risk to workers working in confined spaces.

Certified worker is a person who has attained the age of 18 years, who holds a
certificate as being competent to work in a confined space.

 The Contractor should formulate and implement emergency procedures by


Providing and keeping readily available sufficient supply of breathing apparatus
of an approved type, at least two sets at one location, a safety lamp or torch for
each breathing apparatus, safety harnesses and lifelines for rescue operations, a
stretcher and reviving apparatus, audio and visual alarm for alerting others
outside confined space and vessels containing oxygen or air, in satisfactory
condition. Ensure sufficient numbers of persons who know how to use the safety
equipment are present when work is taking place in the confined space.
Following are some guidelines.

 Check the air within a confined space using a multi-gas detector suitable for
checking oxygen content and the presence of hazardous or combustible gases.

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Provide ventilation by mechanical means with clean air where there is likely to be
dangerous gases, vapors, mists, fumes, dusts, oxygen deficiency or extreme
temperature. Monitor and test the confined space at regular intervals to ensure the
continued safety of the workers.

 Wear an approved type of breathing apparatus, harness and lifeline when entering
a confined space where toxic gas has been suspected.

 Do not take matches or lighters into a confined space.

 Do not smoke or use a naked light in a confined space or near openings leading to it.

 Do not take cylinders of oxygen or other gases into confined spaces.

 Ensure adequate firefighting equipment is readily available.

 All electrical equipment used in confined spaces shall be either of explosion-


proof type or intrinsically safe type. Do not introduce a portable light or other
electrical equipment, except of an approved safety type, into a confined space
until it has been positively ascertained that it is safe to do so.

 Do not make an entry when there is a possibility of a cave-in of materials.

 Physically disconnect and block off all lines and systems that may introduce
hazardous materials into a confined space.

 Ensure that a confined space is secured against ingress of injurious substances.

 Raise the alarm at once in a gassing incident. Immediately send someone to


summon the rescue team and to inform the person- in-charge. Do not enter such a
space without wearing breathing apparatus.

 Always make sure that valves or gates are locked off and nobody can open them
by chance if it is necessary to work inside an isolated installation, such as a
sewage digestion tank.

 Ensure effective means of communication between the workers inside the


confined space and the standby person at the entrance.

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8.2.4. EXCAVATIONS

The Contractor should ensure safety of working persons involved in excavation work, others
who may affect by excavation and underlying services. For this;

 Ensure that the excavations are inspected daily and thoroughly examined by a
competent person on weekly basis. Report on the prescribed form for excavations
exceeding 1.2m deep.

 Ensure an adequate supply of suitable timber or other shoring material and that
they are installed in accordance with planned method/method statement. (Fig
9.2.19)

 Ensure that the working faces are secure or protected, and the workers working in
the trench are protected against falls of earth and material, etc.

 Provide suitable ladders for access/egress into and from the excavated trench and
gangway across the trench where necessary.

 Ensure that the means of access/egress is sufficient and secure and arrangement is
in place to deal with flooding.

 Provide an adequate supply of suitable barriers and traffic notices, and ensure
adequate protection and warning are provided for members of the public.

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Fig 9.2.19 Excavations

 Ensure that the loads, plants or materials are not placed near the edge.

 Ensure that the location of all underground services has been established and
marked. Ensure that they are securely supported and protected once they are
exposed.

 Erect adequate fencing and warnings at edges of excavations when the depth is
greater than 2m.

 Ensure that workers are not swinging picks, etc. in close proximity to one another
and are not working within the radius of an excavator jib.

 Provide stop block for vehicles near edge of excavations (Fig 9.2.19).

 Beware of the accumulation of gas when excavating in the vicinity to gas mains
and landfill areas.

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8.2.5. WORK OVER OR NEAR WATER

Following precautions should be taken by the Contractor to ensure safety of workers


over or near water.

 Select known swimmers whenever possible when choosing workers.

 Never inspect or work alone, always work in a team of at least two

Ensure that there are adequate signs to warn of deep water.

 Provide edge protection, including guard rails and toe boards.

 Provide suitable rescue equipment including life buoys with rescue lines at
intervals along water front, and training and instruction in their use (Fig 9.2.20)

Fig 9.2.20 Rescue Line

 Keep platforms and ladders clean and clear of debris, slime and tripping hazards.

 Provide safety nets to arrest falls where standard working platforms or harnesses
cannot be provided.

 Ensure that safety lines and harnesses are used in conjunction with temporary
ladder access over water.

 Never enter an installation where water is flowing, e.g. flow mixing chambers.

 Never overload a boat, act silly or rock the boat.

 Always wear life jacket. Self-inflatable type life jacket is preferable as the
workers may lose his consciousness after falling into water (Fig 9.2.21)

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 On tidal water or fast flowing rivers, a power-driven rescue boat should be
provided.

Fig 9.2.21 Combined Harness Life Jackets

8.2.6. WORK ON SLOPES

The common causes of accidents on slopes are due to fall of persons from height, sudden
landslide or earth movement and improper use of mechanical equipment. The Contractor is
responsible for identifying any hazardous effect that could cause to his working staff who
work on slopes and to take safety measures to eliminate such risks.

 A risk assessment with particular regard to the condition of the slope and nearby
work environment should be conducted by a professional engineer employed by
the Contractor with geotechnical engineering background and relevant experience
for the purpose of formulating an effective safety plan. The assessment should be
conducted before work commencement and reviewed during the course of work.

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 A competent person preferably with sound geotechnical engineering background
and experience should be appointed on site to assume overall supervision of the
implementation programme. Ensure that his instructions are strictly followed
byall site personnel.

 For any unstable slope with imminent risk of sudden collapse, adequate measures
should be taken to prevent any personnel from accessing dangerous areas on the
slope. If emergency work has to be carried out on the slope, an experienced
supervisor should be assigned to watch out for any possible sudden danger.
Suitable alarm system(s),such as high-power siren or hand-held gongs, should be
provided to alert all site personnel in case there is any sign of undue earth movement.

 Provide crest channels to divert storm water runoff and ground seepage because
they may adversely affect the stability of the slope. Protect all open cut slope face
with tarpaulin sheet or other impervious membrane against inclement weather
(Fig 9.2.22)

 Suitable temporary protection measures, e.g., barrier at the toe of slope, should be
considered for preventing workers from being endangered by falling or
displacement of earth or rock materials.

 The slope work, including any structure erected, should be examined by a


competent person as and when the site conditions warrant and in any case at least
once in every 7 days. Further examination shall be carried out where there is
indication that the slope may have been affected by weather conditions. No
further work should be allowed unless the competent person has considered that
the slope is safe. Do not carry out slope remedial work unless other precautionary
measures adequate for ensuring the safety of the persons engaged in such work
have been taken.

 Provide a suitable barrier at the edge from which a person is liable to fall more
than 2 meters.

 Do not place or stack material close to the edge of a slope.

 Do not place load or move plant near the edge of a slope to avoid inducing
excessive stress onto the slope.

 Provide suitable working platforms whenever workers are at risk of falling of


more 2 meters. If this is not practicable, suitable safety nets, and safety belts
(preferably safety harnesses) attached to suitable anchorage points should be
provided. Note that safety belts anchored to suitable anchorage points should
only be used as a last resort.

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 Where lifelines are used and where anchorage points are reliant on certain
projections or any parts of the slope or certain temporary fixtures of any structure
around, they should be checked regularly for damage or change in stability which
may have been induced as the work progresses.

 Ensure that workers are adequately trained in the proper use of all personal
protective equipment provided for their use.

Fig 9.2.22 Work Adjacent Slopes

 Ensure that safe access for the work is provided which should include, where
practicable, suitable stairway with handrails at different levels of the slope for the
purpose of maintenance and inspection.

 Ensure that the ground on which excavators or other mechanical equipment sit is
stable and that the ground is compacted and can withstand the weight.

 Ensure that lifting appliances are stationed on level ground.

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 Ensure that all plant and machines are well maintained and operated by operators
who have been properly trained and are competent to carry out works on slopes.

8.2.7. ROAD WORKS

The Contractor should take safety measures against any risk of road accidents that could
take place during work on roads.

 Always consider the safety and interest of the road users.

 Ensure that adequate number of traffic signs, cones, barriers, lighting and
publicity signs are provided. Cones shall be provided on carriageway to delineate
the boundaries of all road works while barriers shall be provided for the
protection of pedestrians/work zones (Fig 9.2.23)

Fig 9.2.23 Road Closure

 Wear high visibility/fluorescent jackets, and safety helmets. They are more
noticeable to drivers.

 Provide measures to divert traffic temporarily in accordance with the Code of


Practice for Lighting, Signing and Guarding of Road Works.

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 Whenever possible, the following safety clearance should be maintained between
the works area and the trafficked carriageway.

Clearance (m) Traffic approach speed

0.5 up to 85 km/h

1.2 over 85 km/h

Where it is impractical to provide such a safety clearance, consideration should


be given to devising alternative methods of working, providing work zone
protection barriers or methods of reducing traffic speed at the approach to the
road work section.

 Take care not to disturb residents and other persons with undue noise, i.e.
hammering, talking or vehicle engine noise while carrying out works at night.
Steel cover plates covering trench openings should be cushioned with rubber pads.

 Never leave any works area unattended without adequate signing, lighting and
guarding.

 Do not use barriers with detachable horizontal members made of hard objects on
high speed roads.

 Access must be planned to eliminate dangerous movements of site traffic and site
personnel.

 Vehicle must be fitted with amber flashing beacons, and/or multiple sequence
warning sign (MSWS)as required.

 Avoid spillage of water onto the carriageway.

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8.2.8. WORK ON DEMOLITION SITES

If any demolition work is to be carried out, the Contractor should convince himself that no
damage will be caused to adjacent structures or any other person or structure nearby, by
employing an Engineer for planning the demolishing work.

Fig 9.2.24 Demolition

 Ensure that a written method statement has been prepared and agreed with the
Consultant. All precautionary measures are in place before commencement of
demolition works. Pay special attention to the demolition of special structures,
cantilever, chimney, and pre-stressed structure (Fig 9.2.24)

 Ensure that a professional Engineer employed by the Consultant has inspected the
structure/adjacent structure and a competent person is in charge of the operation.

 Obtain information on the building structure, including its previous use.

 Pay attention to the presence of flammable or hazardous substances such as


asbestos in insulation, lead in paints and radioactive substances in laboratory
equipment. In buildings where carcinogenic chemicals may have been used or
stored such as factory and hospitals, associated hazards shall be identified by an
experienced competent person.

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 Consult the utility companies and disconnect or divert all services. Arrange
removal of any tramway attachment.

 Ensure that existing floors planned to be used are not overloaded. Otherwise,
shoring should be installed to support the floors.

 Provide sufficient shoring to prevent premature structural collapse or damage to


adjacent property.

 Ensure that the site is properly enclosed. Scaffold with screen and catch-fan, and
hoarding or covered walkway shall be erected.

 Erect warning notices.

 Ensure that all ladders, cranes, cables and other equipment are in good order.

 Ensure that suitable personal protective equipment is provided and used during
operation. Suitable anchorage points for safety belts and safety harnesses shall be
identified and assessed by competent persons or Professional Engineers.

 Ensure that adequate protection and safe access for the public and workers are
provided at all times, including protection from dust and noise hazards. Damp
down demolition sites and haul roads.

 Provide sedimentation/treatment system to prevent silty/dirty water discharging


into water sources or public drains.

 Properly plan the daily work. Complete the scheduled work and check the
stability condition of the structure under demolition prior to leaving the site at the
end of each working day.

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8.2.9. WORK IN TUNNELS

If people are involved in work inside tunnels, the Contractor should provide the safety for all
workers against impure environment and hazards that could take place due to machineries
or gases.

General Safety Provisions

 Carry out drills on the evacuation and rescue procedure at regular intervals.

 Set up a specially trained fire and rescue team for compressed-air tunnels.

 After a break in the work inside tunnel or operation of the ventilation system for
several hours, do not enter the tunnel unless it is declared safe to enter until the
atmosphere of the entire tunnel has been thoroughly checked.

 If explosives are used, the whole tunnel should be evacuated prior to blasting.
After blasting, in addition to checking the air quality, examination of the loose
rock on the roof and sides should be carried out before it is confirmed and
declared safe for entry by workers.

 Workers should be properly trained prior to working in compressed air


environment.

 In the case that the tunnel is accessed through a vertical shaft measures shall be
taken to protect and warn workers against falling objects.

 Apart from Contractors’ lift, provide ladder way with proper landings for
emergency ingress and egress.

 Evacuate the tunnel in the case of ventilation failure or the presence of imminent
danger, e.g. collapse of the roof and sides or presence of flammable gas being
detected.

 If laser is used, a person competent to supervise the safe use of laser shall be
appointed to take charge of all the safety issues related to the application of laser.

 Provide an effective communication system between all working points in the


tunnel and ground level.

 Place fire extinguishers of appropriate type, rescue equipment such as respiratory


protective equipment for escape (self- contained open-circuit type breathing
apparatus), stretcher, first-aid box, etc. at the entrance and strategic locations of
the tunnel.

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 Strictly prohibit smoking, naked fire and other sources of ignition. Do not allow
workers in the tunnel to bring matches or cigarette lighters into the tunnel.

 Do not allow welding inside the tunnel, unless it is absolutely essential. If it is


unavoidable, the safety officer should issue a hot-work permit to the workers
alerting them the hazards and the control measures to be taken prior to work.

 Do not store oxygen and acetylene gas cylinders or other dangerous substances,
whether they are empty or not, inside the tunnel except those necessary for
immediate use.

 Ensure that workers in the tunnel are provided with suitable personal protective
equipment, e.g. waterproof clothing with reflective strip, rubber boots with steel
cap and mid-sole, gloves, ear muff/plugs, mask or other suitable respiratory
protection equipment, emergency breathing apparatus (chemical type), helmet
fitted with cap light, flameproof torch etc. (Fig 9.2.25).

 In order to avoid ground failure, unsupported area during the course of work
should be minimized.

 If locomotives are used for transporting muck/wastes out of the tunnel, refuges
along the tunnel should be provided at 18 meters intervals to shelter workforce
safely while the train passes. The refuges could be cut into the side of the tunnel
or be prefabricated platforms fixed to the tunnel sides with guard rails and can be
accessed easily. A minimum clearance of about 500 mm between any part of the
transportation means and fixed equipment at the sides of the tunnel should be
maintained.

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Fig 9.2.25 Work in Tunnels

Working Environment

 Continuously monitor the air quality inside the tunnel for oxygen deficiency,
carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, hydrogen sulphide, nitrous fumes,
silica, radon etc.

 Provide adequate mechanical ventilation to all working points.

 All machines used inside tunnels should be of noise suppression type.

 Illuminate all working points including access inside tunnel.

 In case of compressed air working, one hundred percents standby capacity of the
air compressors should be allowed.

 Ensure adequate standby capacities of some essential services, such as water


pumps, mechanical ventilation, essential lighting, etc.

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Equipment and Plant

Horizontal Transportation

 If belt conveyors are used for muck disposal, all moving parts should be properly
guarded, and continuous trip-wire actuated emergency switches, which are easily
accessible should be installed at both sides, throughout the whole length of the
conveyors.

 If locomotive is used inside tunnel, it should be incorporated with the following


features.

- Adequate, effective and fail-safe braking system.

- Headlights at both ends to enable driver to be aware of obstacles and alert


other workers along the rail.

- An effective ‘dead man’ control to prevent it runaway.

- Constructed of non-combustible materials.

- The exhaust system incorporated with catalytic reactor to convert the


nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas into nitrogen and water.

Emergency Power Supply

 In case of supply mains failure, the following services for the tunnel should be
powered by emergency generator not more than 15 seconds after the supply
mains failure.

- Mechanical ventilation inside the tunnel

- Water pumps

- Illumination inside the tunnel

- Compressors for pressurized tunnels

- Signaling and communication system

 Provide visual and audible alarm system to detect and give out alarms should
there be any abnormalities and/or interruptions to these services, e.g. failure in
the electrical supply and control accessories, isolators for any one of the
equipment be switched off accidentally, etc.

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Electrical Equipment and Accessories

 All electrical equipment used inside the tunnel should be of explosion proof type
or of intrinsically safe type complying with BS EN 50018 and BS EN 50020
respectively.

 All hand-held portable tools should be double-insulated and operated at voltage


not exceeding 110 V. In confined and damp environment, the voltage of hand
held tools and temporary lighting should not exceed 25V.

 Protect all electrical circuits in the tunnel against earth leakage with appropriate
settings.

 The insulation of the cables used inside tunnel shall be of zero halogen low
smoke emission type, i.e. comply with BS 6724, BS 7211 or BS 7629. PVC
insulated cables are forbidden for use inside tunnels.

 If switchgear is used inside tunnel, it should be of vacuum or gas insulated type


switchgear.

 Silicone fluid conforms to IEC 836, instead of the flammable mineral oil should
be used as insulating liquid in electrical apparatus inside tunnel.

Hydraulic Powered Equipment

 The hydraulic oil for the hydraulic plant for use inside tunnel should be of fire
retardant type, i.e. comply with BS 7287.

8.3. GAS RISK AREAS

The Contractor should provide necessary precautions and equipment to identify and safe work in
gas risk areas.

 Test the area with fixed gas detectors in accordance with the relevant operation
and maintenance manuals at regular intervals.

 Do not work inside an enclosed gas risk area alone.

 Obtain a “Permit-to-Work” before working in a gas risk area.

 Ventilate an enclosed gas risk area and carry a gas leakage detector before entry.

 Use non-sparking hand tools and equipment only in any gas risk areas.

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8.3.1. WORK IN THE VICINITY OF GAS PIPE

The Contractor should educate his working staff about how to work in the vicinity of gas pipes.

 The Gas Safety (Gas Supply) Regulations require that

- Any persons who work in the vicinity of a gas pipe should take all
reasonable steps to identify the location and position of gas pipes before
commencement of work

- Any persons working in the vicinity of gas pipes should take all
reasonable measures to protect the gas pipe from damage when carrying
out the work.

 Follow the guidelines of 'Code of Practice - Avoiding danger from gas pipes' for
precautionary measures against damage to gas pipes.

8.4. SAFE USE OF PLANT


8.4.1. SCOPE

The duties of the Contractor for ensuring the safety while using different types of plants are
described in this section.

8.4.2. CRANES

Following precautions should be taken by the Contractor to eliminate the risk of any accident
that could be caused during the operation of a crane.

 Maintain at least 600mm clearance between cranes and obstructions to prevent


anyone from becoming trapped. Switch off the engine of the crane when it is left
unattended.

 Provide barriers to separate cranes from overhead power lines. The barriers shall
be at a horizontal distance of at least 6m plus jib length from the power lines (Fig
9.3.1-1 & Fig 9.3.1-2). Mark the danger area with permanent stakes or flags and
high visibility tape.

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Fig 9.3.1-1 Safe Operation of Cranes Fig 9.3.1-2 Lifting Adjacent to Power Lines

 When there are several cranes on site they shall be sited clear of each other.

 Site the crane away from excavations, slopes, underground services or soft
ground with outriggers fully extended. Use grillages to distribute the load where
appropriate.

 Except for the purpose of training in which case each trainee shall be under the
direct supervision of a qualified person, ensure that only trained and competent
operators over 18 years of age who hold a valid certificate recognized by Labour
Department operate the cranes.

 A crane shall not be used if the report on weekly inspection and the report of
result of thorough examination and the certificate of test and thorough
examination are not available. A notice to prohibit its use shall be prominently
displayed in the operator's cabin.

 Ensure that the crane operator has:

- Inspected the whole machine including ropes, tyres and tracks, lifting
gear, including chains

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- Checked that the automatic safe load indicator and load/radius indicators
are working

- Put the crane through all its movements to check brake and clutch
operation.

 Ensure that the loads are only lifted vertically and not pulled, dragged or swung,
sideways or in line with the jib of the crane.

 Ensure that the weight of any load to be lifted are accurately determined and
never guessed.

 Ensure that the platform provided in a crane for the use of the operator or for the
signaler is:

- Of sufficient area

- Either plated or closely planked

- Provided with a safe means of access

 Provide and affix a guardrail of adequate strength and of a height of not less than
900mm to the platform and any raised standing place of a crane.

 Provide and place toe boards of not less than 200mm in height above the level of
the platform of a crane and any raised standing place and in a position that will
prevent the fall of persons, materials, and tools, from the platform.

 Do not use the rails on which cranes are mounted or the sleepers supporting the
rails as anchorage for them.

 Affix a suitable diagram or notice to cranes indicating the position and amount of
weights to be used to secure their stability.

 Do not use cranes under adverse weather conditions likely to endanger their
stability.

 Clearly and legibly mark on cranes:

- The safe working load at various radii of jibs, trolleys or crabs

- The maximum radius at which the derrick jib may be operated.

 Fit an accurate indicator to a crane, clearly visible to the operator, which shows
the radius of jibs, trolleys or crabs and the safe working load applicable to that radius.

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 Ensure that the crane is equipped with an automatic safe load indicator and that
the outriggers for supporting the crane are fully extended and secure on sleepers
resting on firm ground before any lifting work. Outriggers shall not sit directly on
asphalt pavement or concrete footpath.

 Provide banksman if the view of the crane operator is restricted.

 Establish a safe system of work in case the operating spaces of two cranes
overlap with each other. Some check points are:

- Warning system in form of light or sound is considered as a minimum to


signify the operator the approach of overlapping area

- Appointment of Over-lapping Area Lifting Supervisor (OALS) is require


to ensure the co-ordination & control of the lifting operation in
overlapping area

- OALS is considered to be optional when an automatic control device will


be activated to prevent the overlapping situation occur

- Adequate buffer zone on both sides should be allowed to slow down the
slowing of the crane so as to prevent a sudden stop which might induce an
inertia to the moving load

- All detection / warning / control device should be checked to ensure its


functional before any work commence.

8.4.3. EXCAVATORS

The Contractor should consider following safety measures to get rid of the damages that could
take place due to improper operation of excavators.

 Ensure that excavators are operated by authorized persons who have been
adequately trained. Training should also include emergency and rescue
procedures.

 Unauthorized movement or use of the excavators should be prevented at all


times.

 Regularly check and thoroughly maintain the machine. These should be carried
out by a competent mechanic.

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 Ensure that all relevant information, including those related to instruction,
training, supervision and safe system of work is provided to the operators.

 Ensure that operation and maintenance manuals, manufacturer’s specifications,


inspection and maintenance log books are provided for the use of the mechanics,
service engineers or other safety personnel during the periodic maintenance,
inspection and examination.

 During tipping or running alongside the trenches, excavators must be provided


with stop blocks and scotches.

 Excavators must be rested on firm ground during operation.

 Avoid operating the machine too close to an overhang, deep ditch or hole and be
alert to potential carving edges, falling rocks and slides, rough terrain and
obstacles.

 Proper safety procedures and method statements shall be provided and followed
during excavations.

 Locate and identify underground services by checking with all utilities companies
before excavations. Stop and inspect work when services are exposed.

 Ensure that all excavations are supervised by an experienced and competent


person.

 When reversing or in case the operator's view is restricted, adequate supervision


and signaling by banksman shall be provided.

 Ensure that the type and capacity of the excavator to be used are properly chosen
for the intended purposes and site conditions. Never use a machine for any
purposes other than it is designed for (e.g. do not use it to carry passengers or use
as a crane).

 Ensure that rollover protection structure and seat belts are provided and used
when working on slope or traveling on inclined roads.

 Check and report for excessive wear and any breakage of the bucket, blade, edge,
tooth and other working tools of the excavator.

 Check that all linkages/hinges are properly lubricated and ensure that the linkage
pins are secured. Never use improper linkage pins such as those improvised from
bent steel reinforcement bars.

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 Never mount or dismount a machine that is moving. When operating a machine,
always stay in the operator’s station and ensure that the cabin door is securely
closed.

 Always work in an environment with adequate ventilation and lighting.

 Park the excavator on level and firm ground, with parking brake firmly applied
and blocking wedges used where appropriate. The bucket or other type of
working tools shall be lowered to ground surface when not in use.

 No passengers should be carried on the excavator except the operator.

 Erect height gauges of the goalpost type, the crossbar of which must be of rigid
material such as stout timber painted red and white to avoid striking against
structures or overhead power lines.

 Ensure that the protective front screen of the driving cabin is fixed in position
during excavations to avoid eye injury to the operator.

 Make sure to switch off the engine of an unattended vehicle.

8.4.4. TRUCKS AND DUMPERS

It is the duty of the Contractor to ensure following when trucks and dumpers are in work at sites.

 Ensure that only trained, authorized and licensed drivers operate the vehicles.

 Provide the help of another worker/banksman before reversing the vehicle. If no


one is available, walk around to the rear of the vehicle to see that all is clear and
give a sound signal before starting to reverse.

 Make sure to switch off the engine of an unattended vehicle.

 Make sure to lower the tipping bodies when the machine is unattended, but if it is
necessary to leave them in the raised position they should be blocked to prevent
their fall.

 Provide safety boots or shoes to avoid injuries during loading and unloading.

 Carry out periodic servicing to the manufacturers’ requirements. All records of


maintenance and repairs should be in writing and kept on site.

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 Keep the vehicle tidy and the cabin free from tools and material, which might
obstruct the controls.

 Keep to speed limits.

 Do not allow to carry passengers on a dumper except the driver.

 Never allow to drive the vehicle across a slope.

 Provide stop blocks when the vehicle is tipping into or running alongside
excavations.

 Do not overload the vehicle.

 Carry only well secured loads.

 Park only on level ground, in neutral with the parking brake applied.

 Ensure that the wheels and tyres are free from mud when vehicles have to cross
public roads.

 Erect height gauges of the goalpost type, the crossbar of which must be of rigid
material such as stout timber painted red and white to avoid striking against
structures or overhead power lines.

 Never allow mounting or dismounting from a moving vehicle.

8.4.5. FORKLIFT TRUCKS


The Contractor is liable to prevent any damage that could be caused to workers or objects due to
improper use of forklift trucks, by ensuring the following facts.
 Only trained and competent authorized operators should allow operating the
trucks.

 Ensure that the pallet construction is suitable for the intended use. Inspect the
pallets on each occasion before use.

 Do not allow using or modifying a forklift truck for other purposes, such as a
crane, i.e. fitted with a boom, hook, etc.

 Do not permit the use of a forklift truck as a working platform.

 Do not allow carrying passengers.

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 Lift with mast vertical or slightly tilted back.

 Ensure that no attendant laborer stand under an elevated load.

 Ensure that forks are correctly spaced to afford maximum support.

 Always check that weight to be lifted is within the safe capacity of the machine.

 Ensure that the load travels at the lowest possible level with the mast raked back.

 Ask to travel in reverse if the load obscures forward vision. Provide an attendant
if necessary.

 Check that tyres are at correct pressure.

 Avoid sudden stops by careful driving.

8.4.6. COMPACTING MACHINES AND ROLLERS

The Contractor shall make sure following to avoid damages that could be caused to workers,
objects or machine itself by ensuring following.

 Ensure that only trained, authorized and licensed drivers operate the vehicles.

 Provide a competent person to supervise the movement of the vehicle to ensure


that no one is getting close to the vehicle when it is moving or reversing.

 Ask to switch off the engine of an unattended vehicle.

 Protect the drivers against falling objects.

 Carry out periodic servicing to the manufacturers’ requirements. All records of


maintenance and repairs should be in writing and kept on site.

 Make sure to keep to speed limits.

 Do not allow carrying any passengers.

 Provide stop blocks when the vehicle is running alongside excavations.

 Allow to park only on level ground, in neutral with the parking brake applied.

 Never allow mounting or dismounting from a moving vehicle.

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8.4.7. PILING MACHINE

The Contractor should judge following before starting a pilling machine in site to avoid any
accident to worker and to avoid disturbing outsiders of the site.

 Regularly check and maintain the machine. These should be carried out by
competent persons. All records of maintenance and repairs should be kept on site.

 Visually check before commencing piling work the conditions of the machine,
including pipes, hoses, fittings, guards, pulleys, drums, wire ropes, winches,
brake systems etc. Do not start work if abnormal conditions are found.

 Check visibility of surroundings from driver/operator position to ensure no


danger will be caused to him or others during piling work.

 If necessary, fence off the danger zone and provide warning notices/signs to
prevent people from entering during piling operation.

 Do not check, maintain or service the piling equipment alone unless it is


completely shut down and the means of starting are isolated.

 Ensure that moving parts that transmit power are provided with guards of robust
construction to prevent risk of contacts. Ensure that they are secured.

 Make sure the operator has noted the location of the emergency stops/ safety
stops of the machine and ensure it is functioning before commencing work.

 Ensure that the piling equipment operator is well trained, competent and
conversant with its operation. Training shall include emergency and rescue
procedures.

 Ensure that the operator’s manual in appropriate language is available on the


machine in a place specially intended for.

 Ensure that the procedures for all conditions of use, e.g. transportation, rigging,
starting, working, finishing operations, dismantling and storage are followed.

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Ensure that there are at least two people present taking care the safety of each
other during work.

 Allow work only during approved/prescribed time period.

 Check whether the machine is positioned on leveled foundation /ground and/or


stable position.

 Piling equipment shall be fitted with means to avoid tipping over of the pile.

 Do not allow to go into an unsafe position to lock, open or release piling


connections when piles and other loads are being lifted.

 Check that the connecting piles are strongly and properly welded to prevent
snapping and collapse of piles during piling action.

 Provide suitable noise abatement enclosures at proper locations to reduce noise.

 Provide proper personal protective equipment, including approved earmuffs, to


machine operators and workers, and ensure their use.

 Prepare Noise Assessment Report and post warning notices in the areas affected.

 Ensure fire extinguishers of appropriate number and types are provided and
installed in the immediate vicinity of the operators.

 Cover/fill up pile holes for work that were completed or temporarily suspended.

 For safe removal, unloading and transportation, ensure that the piling equipment
are provided with slinging points, lugs, rings, eyebolts or other devices.

8.4.8. AIR COMPRESSORS AND AIR RECEIVERS

The Contractor should make sure that following are satisfied when air compressors or air
receivers are used in the site.

 Ensure that air compressors and air receivers are operated by authorized persons
who should be adequately trained, and be conversant with the control, start up
and shutdown procedures including emergency operation and shutdown
procedures.

 Check that the air receiver, pressure vessel or boiler functions according to the
manufacture’s specification.

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 Ensure that the pressure relief and/or safety valves are periodically checked by a
competent person to prevent operating above maximum permissible pressure and
that they are sealed against unauthorized pressure re-setting.

 If the seal is broken, do not allow to operate the compressor or the air receiver.
Report it to the plant manager or the responsible party.

 Ensure that all moving parts are guarded and covered by protective enclosures
and ensure that the latter are not removed during operation.

 When using air compressor in-door, ensure that good ventilation is provided.

 Do not allow carrying out inspection or repair when the air compressor or the air
receiver is in operation.

 Ensure that adequate warning notices/signs are provided and used.

 Ensure that the procedures for safe operation and maintenance are followed and
that the instruction and service manuals are readily available.

 Provide protective earmuffs if required during the operation of a compressor to


guard against excessive noise exposure.

 Set the air compressor on level ground with its wheels firmly locked and
chocked.

 Do not allow using compressed air for any other purposes than that for which it is
intended. Never direct compressed air at people or use to blow dust off clothes or
hair. Never use compressed air to clean down machines, work pieces or working
benches.

 Make sure that the compressed air tools, hoses and fittings are in proper working
conditions. Report any damage or failure to supervisor.

 When connecting a tool to the airline, keep a firm hold on the tool in case it
whips.

 Before changing tools, make sure that the supply airline is closed or that the
compressor has an automatic shut-off valve.

 Always ensure that connectors are fully “home” and safely hatched.

 Always close the hose by the valve. Never kink the hose.

 Horse playing with compressed air is dangerous and should be forbidden.

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 Do not leave hose lines lying around to avoid tripping over.

 Keep hoses clear of traffic to avoid damage.

8.4.9. HAND-HELD PNEUMATIC BREAKER

The Contractor shall practice following guideline to avoid damages from or to hand-held
pneumatic breakers, due to improper use and maintenance of those equipments.

 Check the conditions of the compressor, the connecting pipes, hoses, electric
cables, breaking blade and fittings before use. Report to supervisor immediately
in case of damages and defects.

 Regularly check and maintain the equipment. These should be carried out by
competent persons. All records should be kept in writing.

 Ensure that operators are trained and conversant with the equipment.

 Ensure that the operator is physically fit to operate the equipment.

 Ensure that suitable personal protective equipment including eye goggles, ear
mufflers, respirator, gloves and safety footwear etc. are used during work.

 Ensure that the area to be broken is clearly marked.

 Do not allow operating the equipment for any other purposes than that for which
it is intended.

 Keep the cables, hoses connecting the equipment clear of people and other traffic
to avoid tripping and/or damages.

 Do not use the breaker for prolonged periods as the vibration and noise generated
would cause discomfort and fatigue to the operators.

 Ensure that Noise Assessment Report, if appropriate, is prepared and post


warning notices in the areas affected.

 Fence the area off if appropriate to avoid trespassers and to protect workers from
vehicular traffic.

 Ensure that the breaker blades are secured properly before starting operation and
every time they are replaced.

 Allow work only during approved/prescribed time period.

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 Proper operating procedures should be provided and make sure that they are
followed during operation.

 Watch out for underground utilities during breaking.

 Provide a safety harness with an independent life line fixed to an anchorage point
when breaking up large outcrop or boulders on a slope. Fall arresting device
should also be provided for the equipment.

8.4.10. ELECTRIC ARC WELDING

The Contractor should make sure to carryout electric arc welding in proper order to prevent
injury to operators or passing bys.

 Provide the following personal protection when welding (Fig 9.4.1):

- Face or handheld shields shall be fitted with filters, to BS679 or


equivalent, for the operators

- Goggles to BS2092 or equivalent for use when chipping slag

- Gloves long enough to protect wrists and forearms against heat, sparks,
molten metal and radiation

- High-top boots to prevent sparks from entering footwear

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Fig 9.4.1 Welding

 Ensure that welding machines having a maximum current output exceeding 30A
single phase or half the maximum demand of an installation in any one phase is
directly connected to the mains on a 3-phase supply.

 Screen off the work area with sturdy opaque or translucent materials because
glare can cause eye injury up to 60 meters away and severe pain for 24 to 48 hours.

 Keep the workplace dry, secure, free from combustible materials and obstruction.

 Ventilate the workplace using air blowers and exhaust fans to remove poisonous
fumes and gases that are given off during welding.

 Make sure that a closed vessel, tank or cylinder, which may have contained petrol
oils, spirits, paint, or any inflammable or explosive material, contains no trace of
the substance or explosive vapour, or flammable vapour, and has been purged to
make it safe when welding it.

 Take precautions against flying sparks and hot slag where welding is being done
near flammable materials and check the area before leaving. Make available fire
extinguishers near the welding area.

 Do not allow welding material degreased with solvents until completely dry.

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 The work piece should be effectively earthed and all equipment should be earthed
and insulated.

 Always make sure to switch off the current to the electrode holder when put it
down or change electrodes.

 Never allow to change electrodes with bare hands or wet gloves, or when
standing on wet floors or grounded surfaces. Keep trailing welding cables clear of
ground, if possible.

 Check the integrity of the cable used in electric arc welding.

 Make sure to turn off the welding machine when left unattended.

 Train the drill of artificial respiration so that treating anyone who has suffered
from electric shock is possible.

 Provide welding machines of enclosed type, and ensure that terminals of the
welding machine are properly protected to avoid accidental contact.

 Insulate the exposed terminals connecting the electrode and return cable holders.

 Do not allow to carry out welding outdoor during rainy days.

 The welding machine shall be equipped with a voltage-reducing device to


automatically reduce the output voltage at no-load condition.

8.4.11. GAS WELDING, GAS CYLINDERS

The Contractor should ensure the safety of operators and others against the damages that could
cause due to inappropriate usage of gas welding plants. For this;

 Provide the following personal protection when welding.

- Face or handheld shields shall be fitted with filters, to BS679 or


equivalent, for the operators
- Goggles to BS2092 or equivalent for use when chipping slag
- Gloves long enough to protect wrists and forearms against heat, sparks,
molten metal and radiation
- High-top boots to prevent sparks from entering footwear

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 Screen off the work area with sturdy opaque or translucent materials because
glare can cause eye injury.
 Key for opening the acetylene cylinder valve must be kept on the valve stem
while the cylinder is in use so that the cylinder valve may be immediately shut off
in emergency.
 Ventilate the workplace using air blowers and exhaust fans to remove poisonous
fumes and gases that are given off during welding.
 Make sure that a closed vessel, tank or cylinder, which may have contained petrol
oils, spirits, paint, or any inflammable or explosive material, contains no trace of
the substance or explosive vapour, or flammable vapour, and has been purged to
make it safe when welding it.
 Take precautions against flying sparks and hot slag where welding is being done
near flammable materials and check the area before leaving.
 Do not allow welding material degreased with solvents until completely dry.
 Do not allow using gas cylinders for supporting work or as rollers.
 Do not allow using oil grease on oxygen cylinder fittings.

 Do not allow using cylinders with damaged valves.

 Do not allow using undue force if valves are stuck. Always open cylinder valves
slowly.
 Ensure that appropriate type of regulators and flash back arresters are installed
and maintained in sound condition (Fig 9.4.2).

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Fig 9.4.2 Gas Welding Plant

 Open the regulator screw on a welding torch before opening the cylinder valve.
Open cylinder valves slowly and shut all valves when the equipment is not in use.
 Make sure to replace valve caps after use.
 Ensure that hose lines are in sound condition and secure to avoid damage.
 Search for leaks in equipment by using a solution of soapy water.
 Shut the cylinder valve if acetylene from a cylinder catches fire at the valve or
regulator due to leakage at a connection.
 Treat all gas cylinders as “full” unless it is sure otherwise.
 Never allow transferring acetylene from one cylinder to another or attempt to
refill an acetylene cylinder.
 Place portable fire extinguishers near the welding area.
 Secure all cylinders against accidental displacement.
 Always ask to lift gas cylinders. Do not allow to slide them along the ground or
drop them from trucks.
 Keep gas cylinders in a vertical position both in storage and when in use.
 Keep the workplace dry, secure, free from combustible materials and obstruction.
 Store the acetylene and oxygen cylinders separately.
 Store gas cylinders in a properly constructed store.
 Keep the gas cylinders away from source of heat, flammable materials, corrosive
chemicals and fumes.

8.4.12. WOODWORKING MACHINE

The Contractor should make sure that following conditions are met when using a woodworking
machine (Fig 9.4.3) in the site.

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Fig 9.4.3 Woodworking Machine

 Keep the circular saw blades sharp at all times, and properly adjust the riving
knife and top guard. Use saw blade of suitable diameter and adjust it properly so
that the saw teeth cut vertically downward.

 Use a push stick to prevent the hand from coming into contact with the blade of a
circular saw, planing machine or vertical spindle moulder.

 Provide fire extinguishers adjacent to the work location. Remove sawdust


regularly to minimize fire hazard.

 Never allow to remove the sawdust from under a saw bench until the machine has
come to a standstill and the power supply has been switched off.

 Make sure to tighten all nuts and set screws on saws and cutters and ensure all
cutting tools are sharp.

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 Ensure that every woodworking machine is adequately guarded and is provided
with a readily accessible emergency stop button. Weatherproof on/off switch
shall be used if the machine is located outdoor.

 Never allow to use a woodworking machine until properly trained in its use.

 Ensure that the working space around a machine is unobstructed and the floor is
clean and not slippery.

 Provide a facemask and earmuff when operating woodworking machinery.

8.4.13. MATERIAL HOISTS

The Contractor should make sure that material hoists are not misused and are operated in
proper way and only by proper person to minimize the accidents that could be caused by
the hoist.

 Select a hoist, which is suitable for the site and capable of lifting the loads required.
 Ensure that the hoist can be operated from one position only.
 Protect the hoist way with a substantial enclosure to contain any falling objects
 Provide secure gates at all landings and at ground level and ensure that fail-safe
interlocking hoist way gates are installed.
 The enclosures and gates of a hoist way shall be at least 2 meters high.
 Keep the hoist gates closed when loading or unloading is not in progress.
 Provide an efficient automatic device to prevent the platform or cage of a hoist
from over-running the highest point of travel.
 Make effective signaling arrangements for a hoist operator if he has no "clear and
unrestricted" view of the platform or cage of the hoist throughout its travel.
 Construct the winch of a hoist such that the brake is applied when the control
lever, handle or switch is not held in the operating position.
 Take effective precautions to prevent goods or loose materials from falling from
the platform of a hoist.
 Enclose the platform of a hoist used to carry goods or loose materials (Fig
9.12.1).
 Do not allow to use the hoist for transportation of persons.
 Mark, or affix to the platform or cage of the hoist a clear and legible notice
stating the prohibition of the carriage of persons and the safe working load.

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 Ensure that the hoist is erected by trained and experienced people following the
manufacturer’s instructions and properly secured to the supporting structures.

Fig 9.3.4 Material Hoist

 Ensure that the hoist operator has been trained and is competent.

 Distribute loads evenly on the hoist platform and ensure that the hoist is not over-
loaded.

 Ensure that the loading/unloading platform leading to the hoist platform is not
over-loaded.

8.4.14. CARTRIDGE OPERATED TOOLS

Following safety measures can be followed by the Contractor to avoid any accident that could
be caused by cartridge operated tools.

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 Provide only tools approved by the Consultant as per the manufacture’s
recommendation. Every cartridge operated tool shall be clearly and permanently
marked, in English or Sinhala and Tamil, the manufacturer's name, type or model
of the tool and its serial number.

 Ensure that users of cartridge operated fixing tools are:

- At least 18 years of age

- Holding a certificate of competence on the particular tool to be used.

 Never allow to do more than what is detailed in the manufacturer’s instructions


because the built-in safety devices of some tools are complex and it requires
special tools and technical knowledge to do the job properly.

 Operators and others directly engaged in firing activities must be provided with
suitable high impact resistant goggles, safety helmets and ear protectors.

 Do not allow using cartridge operated tools in an atmosphere containing


flammable vapours, flammable gases, or explosive dusts.

 Never allow to point tools, whether loaded or otherwise, towards any person.
Make sure to always point them downwards (except when firing) and, as far as
possible, away from the body. This applies particularly when removing misfired
cartridges.

 Never allow walking around with loaded tools.

 Never allow to put hands over the end of the barrel of the tool.

 Never allow to lay down loaded tools.

 Make sure not to load any tool until immediately before it is required. If a tool is
loaded in error, unload it immediately.

 Do not allow to use force when loading a cartridge in the breech. Report any
difficulty to the immediate supervisors.

 Make sure that no one is at the immediate vicinity of the firing place other than
the operator or his assistant. Watch out when firing against soft or thin material
because the fixings may penetrate it and injure someone on the other side (Fig 10.4.4).

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Fig 9.4.4 Warn Other Side Before Firing

 Do not allow to use a tool without a protective shield or splinter guard. Provide
cut-away or adjustable guards only where the structure being fired into provides a
shield from possible flying fixings or splinters at least equivalent to a standard

100 mm diameter guard mounted concentrically to the tool muzzle. Immediately


refit the standard guard on completion of special work.

 Keep the tool as nearly as possible at right angles to the working surface and the
whole of the splinter guard flush with that surface.

 Do not allow to fire fixings into very hard or brittle materials (e.g. hardened steel,
cast iron, marble, glazed tiles, structures and structural materials) where there is
risk of the studs or pins passing through, unless precautions are taken.

 Do not allow to fire fixings into concrete or masonry at a distance less than
65mm from the edge, unless special precautions are taken. Where present, the
distance should be increased by the thickness of a plaster coat.

 Do not allow to fire fixings into existing holes or at a point where another pin or
stud has previously been fired in and subsequently broken off or failed to hold, or

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where the surrounding material has crumbled away. Locate the new fixing at least
50mm from that point.

 Reset the firing mechanism without removing the tool from its depressed position
in the event of a misfire and fire the tool again. If there is a further misfire, keep
the tool firmly in place, in the depressed position, for 15 seconds. Then remove
the cartridge according to the manufacturer’s instructions taking care to ensure
that the cartridge is not accidentally fired. Do not use misfires again but store
them in a metal box for eventual return to the manufacturers for destruction with
written warning on the box.

 Keep cartridges for immediate use in a suitable damp proof box that contains no
other objects.

 Keep tools unloaded in an approved lockable tool-box and stored in a safe place
to which only authorized persons have access when not in use. Every tool-box
shall contain a copy of the manufacturer's instruction manual.

 Do not allow to operate on a ladder because the recoil form firing can throw the
operator off the ladder.

8.4.15. ABRASIVE WHEELS

The Contractor should consider following facts when using an abrasive wheel in site.

 All abrasive wheels shall be mounted by competent persons who have been
appointed in writing by the Contractor .They should be well trained and have the
practical experience for the mounting job.

 Only trained persons shall be allowed to use abrasive wheels and cutting discs.

 Make sure to run a new or replacement abrasive wheel of at least 1 minute before use.

 Abrasive wheels shall be clearly marked in Sinhala, Tamil and English, the
maximum permissible speed in rounds per minutes (rpm) by the manufacturer. A
notice, in Sinhala, Tamil and English, stating the specified maximum permissible
speed of the abrasive wheel shall be permanently fixed in the room or area where
the abrasive wheel is used. For every power driven machine, the spindle on which
an abrasive wheel is mounted shall be marked with its maximum working speed
of the spindle. Where there are provided arrangements for operating the spindle at
an infinite number of working speeds within a specified range, the maximum and
minimum working speeds of the spindle shall be specified. Check that the
operating speed of the spindle of a machine does not exceed the maximum
permissible speed of the wheel as specified by the manufacturer.

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 Ensure that the guard is in position and properly adjusted.

 Adjust the work rest as close to the face of the wheel as possible, in any case not
exceeding 3.2 mm to the wheel.

 Never allow to use the side of an abrasive wheel for grinding.

 Check that the spindle does not become overheated through lack of lubrication.

 Do not allow to stop a wheel by the application of pressure to the wheel.

 Make sure that undue pressure is never used on the wheel when grinding.

 Provide high impact resistant goggles even when a protective screen is fitted to
the machine.

 Ensure that the correct grade of wheel for the work is in hand.

 Ensure that the floor in the vicinity of a grinding machine is in a good condition,
free from obstruction and not slippery.

 Examine a dropped abrasive wheel very carefully before using it. If you are
doubtful of its condition, destroy it and obtain a new wheel.

 Report any fault or unusual signs of the machine to the officer-in-charge


immediately.

8.4.16. STEEL BENDING MACHINE

 Operator of the bending machine should be properly trained.

 The machine should be properly maintained by competent persons according to


the recommendations of the manufacturers.

 Check that all the protective devices of the machine are in good working
conditions prior to use.

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 Locate steel bending machine on firm and level ground which is capable of
supporting the static load of the machine, the steel bars and the dynamic load
generated by the steel bending process.

 Provide appropriate machine guarding to protect personnel against direct contact


with the shears. The shears should only be exposed when the shears are in use
and the guarding should be reinstated afterwards.

 Make sure that only steel bending process carries out only in the steel bending
yard of the construction site.

 Adequate clearances, not less than 2 m measured from both ends of steel bars,
should be allowed for the movement of the steel bar when work is in progress.

 Do not allow to stand or work on the inner side of steel bar being bent to prevent
from being whipped by its moving tail.

 Avoid bending excessive number of steel bars at one time in order to prevent the
top bars from springing out of the rollers.

 The diameters of the steel bars should not be larger than the limit as
recommended by the machine manufacturer.

 The bending machine shall be equipped with an emergency stop push button/push
bar at prominent position which is easily accessible by the operator. Whenever
the emergency push-button/push bar is pressed, the complete set of machine shall
stop without any further motion.

 All metal parts of the machine should be provided with equipotential bonding.

 Protect the electric cable against mechanical damages. Do not use steel bender
during wet condition.

 Protect the motor and control accessories of the bending machine.

 Provide proper storage of steel reinforcement and keep clear of ground surface by
suitable timber battens.

 Proper PPE, gloves and safety footwear should be provided to the operators and
workers.

 Receptacles with full containment on four sides to prevent the falling out of
materials should be used for lifting and transportation of short pieces of
reinforcement such as links and splices. Do not exceed the safe working load
marked on the receptacle.

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8.4.17. ELECTRIC TOOLS

The Contractor should make sure that all possible safety precautions were taken against any
damage that could cause due to an electrical shock.

 Do not allow to attempt electrical repairs unless for a qualified electrician.

 Portable and hand-held tools and temporary site lighting shall be from a 220V or
less supply from isolation transformers with output windings center-tapped to
earth. Hand-held lamps less than 220V are preferable (Fig 10.4.5). In confined and
damp situations, e.g. inside metal vessels, sump pits and tunnels, the voltage of
hand-held tools and temporary lightings should not exceed 25V.

 Provide approved type weatherproof socket/adapter for extension of power cable.

 Provide armoured cable for fixed plant and flexible cables with protective braid
and abrasion resistant sheaths for mobile plant.

 Check for defective or damaged cables, plugs, sockets and damaged or worn tools.

 Report any defects at once and do not allow the tools to be used by affixing
warning labels and setting the tools aside until the repair has been made.

 Keep loose cables off the floor and out of the way of other people as much as
possible.

 Check that the correct equipment is being used for the job.

 Never permit equipment or circuit to become overloaded (Fig 10.4.6. Use the
correct fuse rating and cable size at all times.

 Switch off the electrical supply and, where possible, remove the fuses before
making repairs and adjustments. For works on low voltage installation where
supply is not switched off, reference should be made to the procedure in the Code
of Practice for the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations.

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9.4.5 Safe Use of Portable Electric Tools

 Ensure that electrical equipment is effectively earthed in accordance with Code of


Practice for the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations.

 Do not allow to withdraw a plug from a socket by pulling the cable.

 Ensure that all electrical equipment is dry and clean unless it is of special
construction and installed and protected to prevent electrical hazards for working
under the specified adverse environmental condition.

 Avoid standing on wet or damp ground when making adjustments.

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Fig 9.4.6 Overloaded Socket Outlet without earthning

 Install flame-proof or intrinsically safe electrical equipment in place where


flammable vapour may be present.

 Follow the procedures below when removing a person from a live wire without
yourself being electrocuted:

 Switch off the electricity supply if the switch is near to hand

 If the electricity supply cannot be switched off, DO NOT attempt to move


the victim with your bare hands

 If he is wearing a coat, pull him clear by grasping his coat tail, provided
that the cloth is dry

 Alternatively you can use your own coat to grasp his body, or you can slip
your belt around his leg or arm and pull him clear

 Use a dry piece of wood to knock or push aside the live conductor

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 You can protect yourself further by standing on a piece of insulating
material such as dry wood, dry folded paper, a dry coat, or rubber matting.

 Learn the drill of artificial respiration so that it is possible to treat anyone who
has suffered from an electric shock.

 Commence artificial respiration immediately if a person has become unconscious


following an electric shock. Send for a doctor or an ambulance but continue the
artificial respiration until their arrival.

8.4.18. HAND-HELD TOOLS

 Select the correct weight, size and tool for the job.

 Keep hand tools clean, in good condition and store in a safe place when not in
use.

 Ensure that handles have a smooth finish, should be easy to grasp and should
have no sharp edges or corners.

 Handle all sharp hand tools with care. Protect all sharp edges properly if not in
use.

 Keep tools off ladders or overhead locations.

 Provide spark resistant tools where highly flammable vapours may be present.

 Provide only properly insulated tools for work on or near electrical apparatus.

 Keep cutting edges sharp for accurate working and to avoid the need for
unnecessary pressure.

 Never allow to use chisels, punches or riveting dollies with mushroomed heads.

 Never allow to use files without a handle.

 Never allow to use a chopper as a hammer.

 Never allow to use a screwdriver that has a dull blade, bent shank, or split handle.

 Always provide the correct size spanner. Never provide packing pieces.

 Never permit to use a hammer or extension handles on a spanner for tightening


up nuts. Where a jammed nut must be loosened, a striking face spanner should be
used after applying penetrating oil to the end of the thread.

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 Make sure to hold the work securely in a vice and to use a proper tap wrench
(never an adjustable spanner) when taps and dies are used. Freshly cut threads
can be sharp and may cut hands and arms.

 Ensure that there is nobody around when swinging a hammer. Avoid static load
at the shoulder or arm due to continuous holding of a tool at a raised position or
the gripping of a heavy tool.

 Avoid awkward wrist angles while using tools such as snips and pliers.

8.5. SAFE USE, HANDELLING, STORAGE AND TRANSPORT OF MATERIALS


8.5.1. MANUAL HANDLING AND LIFTING

The Contractor should always consider following facts before using manpower for handling and
lifting of materials.

 Always use mechanical equipment in place of manual handling as far as possible.

 Carry out a risk assessment on the potential hazards that would be associated with
the operations, including health hazards.

 Assess the manpower required to handle or lift the load safely, and arrange the
manpower accordingly.

 In handling hazardous materials, the workers shall be informed of the hazards and
the safety precautions.

 All relevant persons shall be trained in the proper methods of lifting and carrying.

 Where team work is required, select the persons whose ages and physical builds
are compatible for teaming up. Co-ordinate the actions of the team members by
giving necessary instruction/signal. (Fig 9.5.1 & Fig 9.5.2)

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Fig 9.5.1 Safe Procedure for Manual Lifting Fig 9.5.2 Manual Handling – Coordination of
Movement

 Always lighten or suitably shape the load for manual handling as far as possible.
Keep a lookout for splinters, sharp edges, loose banding, and nails.

 Clear path of obstruction and tripping hazards.

 Stack and secure goods safely on trucks, otherwise they may fall off and injure
passers-by.

 Always instruct workers to use proper protective equipment such as gloves,


safety shoes, etc.

 Train to follow the following procedures whenever the workers lift a load:

- Stand close to the object. Have a firm footing with feet spread on either
side of the load

- Bend the knees and keep back as straight as possible

- Grasp object firmly. Be sure grip will not slip

- Breath-in and throw the shoulders backwards

- Straighten the legs, continuing to keep the back as straight as possible

- Hold object firmly close to the body

- Always lift smoothly. Avoid jerky motions. Turn with feet instead of
twisting back.

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 The following table lists a rough guideline on the loads for different sexes and
ages that can be taken as safe if they are handled properly. However, when the
handling is regular and frequent the loads should be reduced by at least 25%.

Sex and Age Weight of Load

Men
16 -18 years of age 20 kg
20 -35 years of age 25 kg
over 50 years of age 16 kg
Women
16 -18 years of age 11 kg
20 -35 years of age 15 kg
over 50 years of age 10 kg

(Source: The Trade Union Congress of United Kingdom.)

8.5.2. SLINGS AND SLINGING

The Contractor is responsible for any damage or injury caused to workers due to improper
protection or use of slings. Therefore,

 Only use slings which had been tested and marked with a safe working load.
Inspect the condition of the slings before use. Ensure that the slings be examined
every 6 months by a competent examiner.

 Never allow to overload a sling. Before lifting, find out the weight of the load and
the safe working load of the sling.

 Use the correct type and length of sling for the job.

 Pad sharp corners of the load to prevent damage to the sling.

 Do not use a sling which is damaged or if there are broken strands. (Fig 9.5.2)

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Fig 10.5.2 Defective Wire Rope Slings

 Always use suitable guide ropes to prevent spinning or swinging of the load
being lifted.

 Place slings so that the tension is equaled throughout the sling immediately on
lifting.

 Give signals to the crane driver, which are definite and clearly understood by all
workers engaged in the lifting operation.

 Never stand under a suspended load, and warn others to keep away.

 Slings should be coiled or hung up after use and stored away from heat and damp
(Fig 9.5.3)

Fig 9.5.3 Correct Use of Wire Rope Slings

 All scrap slings must be removed from site as soon as possible.

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 Adopt a Colour Coding System for lifting gear

eg: Blue for Jan – Feb – Mar

Yellow for Apr – May – June

Green for Jul – Aug – Sep

Orange for Oct – Nov – Dec

- Red To be removed from site

- White Equipment under quarantine in Main Contractor’s central yard

 The Main Contractor’s safety officer shall be responsible for ensuring that the
appropriate colour codes are painted after checking with the updated register.
When using bandages as lifting gears, ensure that the safe working load as
marked therein are not exceeded. Bandages should be inspected before use on
each occasion by a competent person and be examined every 6 months by a
competent examiner.

4.2 HANDLING OF CHEMICALS AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES

The Contractor should always minimize the usage of hazardous chemicals or substances. If
there are no exceptions, proper handling, storing and protection should be exercised in the
site. For this,

 Always substitute hazardous chemicals with harmless or less hazardous ones.

 Enclose the process using chemicals, or provide other engineering controls such
as local exhaust ventilation, a fume cupboard or a safety cabinet.

 Exercise great care in the storage and use of chemicals at all times because they
may be explosive, poisonous, corrosive or combustible.

 Physically separate different chemicals.

 Store chemicals classified as dangerous goods in a properly constructed and


approved dangerous goods store. Keep proper records of all chemicals and
hazardous substances delivered, stored, and used on site.

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 Unknown substances and liquids should be regarded as dangerous unless known
to be otherwise.

 All containers should be clearly labeled to indicate contents. Never use a wrongly
labeled container for chemicals. Smoking shall be strictly prohibited when
handling dangerous chemicals.

 Check that you are wearing the correct personal protective equipment (PPE)
before you handle chemicals. Refer to the Material Safety Data Sheet for safety
precautions to be taken and the use of suitable PPE, such as gloves, rubber boots
or respirators. A proper file of Material Safety Data Sheets should be kept on site.

 When opening containers, hold a rag over the cap or lid as some volatile liquids
tend to spurt up when this is released.

 Wash before you eat and do not eat or smoke at your work location.

 If the skin is splashed with a chemical, rinse it immediately with plenty of clean
water. Eye should be flushed out thoroughly with water follow by immediate
medical attention.

 Eye fountain, emergency shower and breathing apparatus should be available in


the vicinity of the workplace.

 Safety instruction for handling emergency situations should be displayed


prominently in the chemical storage and workplace.

8.6. ASBESTOS

 The Contractor may find asbestos in the following situations:

- As asbestos insulation or coating used for,

* Thermal insulation of boilers

* Fire protection of structural steelworks

* Thermal and acoustic insulation of buildings

- As asbestos insulating board used in a wide variety of places such as,

* Fire protection on doors, protected exits, structural steelworks, etc.

* Cladding on walls, ceilings, etc.

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* Internal walls and partitions

* Ceiling tiles in a suspended ceiling

- As asbestos cement, which is found as,

* Corrugated sheets (roofing and cladding of buildings)

* Flat sheeting for partitioning, cladding and door facings

* Gutters and down pipes.

 In any of the above cases, if asbestos is to be used in the site, the Contractor
should follow following guidelines.

 Arrange a Registered Asbestos Consultant to conduct analysis and prepare an


asbestos investigation report if you are not sure whether the material and
boarding contain asbestos.

 As soon as asbestos is identified, the concerned area shall be closed off and any
work in this area shall only be carried out by approved specialist contractors
under continuous supervision by a Registered Asbestos Supervisor.

 Use working methods that keep asbestos dust levels as low as possible (e.g. use
hand tools and avoid breaking boards).

 Wear suitable protective clothing including respirators when working with


asbestos.

 Provide washing and changing facilities for workers, and arrange to allow the
separation of person from protective clothing. The cleaning of protective clothing
shall be carried out in a suitable equipped facility located on the premises where
work with asbestos is being done or in a suitable equipped laundry. Elsewhere,
and if protective clothing is to be removed from the person for cleaning or
disposal, it shall be packed in a suitable container and labeled.

 Do not eat, drink or smoke in area with suspected presence of asbestos dust.

 Pay attention to the waste collection and disposal to avoid increasing the
atmospheric concentration of asbestos fibers. Put the waste in impervious sack
and bury it in a controlled tipping site. Asbestos collection and disposal shall only
be carried out by approved specialist contractors.

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8.7. FIRE AND EXPLOSIONS
8.7.1. FIRE PREVENTION

The Contractor may take following precautions to minimize the risk of fire hazards that may
take place in site due to flammable materials, electric leakage, etc.

 Store flammable material in a temporary Dangerous Goods (D.G.)Store. Install


fire alarm and provide fire protection measures for the D.G. Store. Post
'Dangerous Goods' and 'No Smoking' warning notices in the vicinity of the D.G.
Store to enhance safety awareness.

 Display sufficient warning signs and 'No Smoking' signs.

 Electrical equipment that cannot be kept out of locations that might have
flammable or explosive atmospheres should be explosion-proof or intrinsically
safe.

 Provide all earthing devices for the particular site and install them to ensure
maximum protection. Doors of buildings, magazines, or rooms in which highly
flammable or explosive materials are located, should be provided with earthing
push bars or plates. Ensure that shoes and floors are non-conductive types.

 Avoid voltage and amperage high enough to cause arcing or sparking, which
could cause ignition of a flammable gas or combustible material.

 Do not leave any energized parts/equipment, such as motor brushes or open


circuit breakers, where arcing or sparking can occur close to any fuel.

 Do not leave or accumulate lint, grease, or other flammable material.

 Do not use water on electrical equipment fires. When possible de-energize


electrical equipment before firefighting.

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8.7.2. FIRE ESCAPE

Fig 9.7.1 Keep Fire Escape Roots Clear

 Make certain the workers know the escape route and assembly point.
 Keep fire doors, shutters and means of escape clear and unobstructed (Fig 9.7.1)
 Don’t obstruct access to fire extinguishers or other firefighting equipment
 Plan in advance because you won’ t have time when fire breaks out

8.7.3. FIRE FIGHTING AND EQUIPMENT

Before fire breaks out the Contractor should,

 Provide sufficient and appropriate fire extinguishers on site.


 Educate workers the use of fire extinguishers. (Fig 9.7.2)
 Inspect fire extinguishers regularly and replace as necessary (Fig 9.7.3)
 Fire escape route should be kept clear at all times and clearly indicated.
 Educate workers the escape route and assembly point.
 Post escape route maps prominently on each floor.
 Carry out fire drill regularly. Designate fire officers.
 Arrange fire patrol especially during lunch break and after work to ensure that no
potential fire hazards are left behind.
 Test the fire alarm system regularly.

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 Provide sufficient exit signs at prominent locations for directing people to the
escape staircases and routes.

Fig 9.7.2 Fire Extinguishers for Different Types of Fire Fig 9.7.3 Keep Fire Fighting Equipment in
Good Working Condition

The Contractor should teach the workers how to behave when fire breaks out.

 Alert all other persons.


 Put off the fire with appropriate fire extinguishers only when you are sure that
you are safe to do so.
 Dial "011-2691637 or 011-2686087 "at the same time as necessary (If you are not
sure that the fire can be put off.)
 Escape if you are in danger through the fire escape route to assembly point.
 Fire officers to carry out head count at the assembly point.

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8.8. FIRST AID
8.8.1. PERSON TRAINED IN FIRST-AID

The Contractor should employ sufficient number of trained first aid persons according to the
number of persons in the site.

 At least one person trained in first aid shall be included in the team of responsible
persons in charge of first aid boxes.

 Contractors shall provide a person trained in first aid to a construction site with
30 to 99 workmen. At least two persons trained in first aid are required for a
construction site with 100 or more workmen.

 A “Person Trained in First-Aid ” means a person who;

- Holds a current certificate of competency in first aid issued by the Red Cross
- Is a registered nurse within the meaning of the Nurses Registration,
National Health Department, Sri Lanka.
- Has otherwise completed a course of training in first aid approved by
the Consultant.

 In case a person trained in first aid is not available in a workroom, the name,
work location and telephone number of the person trained in first aid whose work
location is nearest to that room shall be prominently displayed in that room.

8.8.2. FIRST AID FACILITIES

The Contractor should provide sufficient amount of first aid facilities in the site depending on
the number of workers.

 A construction site with five or more workmen shall have a first aid box
(preferably a portable one). A separate first aid box shall be provided for every 50
workers on site.
 Every first aid box shall be marked plainly “FIRST AID” in English, Sinhala and
Tamil. If a first aid box is not provided in any workroom, the location of the
nearest first aid box and the name of the person in charge of the box shall be
displayed in that workroom.
 Adequate first aid equipment shall be provided according to the following table.
All material for dressings shall be of acceptable grade and quality.
 All first aid boxes shall be placed in the charge of a team of responsible persons
or first aiders. At least one member of the team shall be readily available during

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working hours. The names of the responsible team and the first aiders and how
they can be made available shall be posted on every first aid box.
 The required content of the first aid box shall be replenished as necessary by the
responsible person or first aider.
 A readily serviceable stretcher shall be provided to a construction site with 50 or
more workmen.
No. of persons employed
Requirement
<10 10 – 49 >49
A copy of the Hints on First Aid issued 1 1 1
by the Labour Department
Small sized sterilized unmedicated 6 12 24
dressings
Medium sized sterilized unmedicated 3 6 12
dressings
Assorted sized adhesive wound 12 24 36
dressings
Triangular bandages 1.3m x 0.9m x 2 4 8
0.9m
Adhesive plaster 25mm x 4.5mm 1 1 2
Cotton wool,300gm packet 3 6 12
Pressure bandage 1 1 1
Safety pins Sufficient supply
Assorted sized waterproof adhesive Sufficient supply
wound dressings
Assorted sized waterproof adhesive Sufficient supply
plaster
Eye bath Sufficient supply

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8.8.3. ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION

Artificial respirations should initiate as soon as possible when needed and the Contractor should
employ persons which are trained to do so in the site.

 If you have been taught on how to give artificial respiration, use the method with
which you are most familiar.

 Do not delay, start artificial respiration immediately and persevere with it, for
many hours if necessary. (Note :The brain begins to suffer irreparable damage if
left without oxygen for a few minutes)

 Send for, but never wait for a doctor.

 If the victim is removed to a hospital, artificial respiration must be continued


during the journey.

 Mouth to mouth method (not to be used for a gaseous incident):

 Loosen victim ’s collar or any tight clothing


 Roll the victim onto his back. Clear the mouth and throat and nostrils
of obstruction if possible, but do not delay inflation to do this. Lift his
neck to push the head back, and at the same time use the other hand to
pull the chin upwards, so that the windpipe is unobstructed.
 Take a deep breath and place your open mouth over the victim’s open
lips or nose, making sure that your lips make a tight seal on the
victim’s cheek. If you place your mouth over the victim’s mouth only,
then pinch his nostrils firmly with your fingers. Blow air into the
victim until you see his chest rise. Remember to keep the victim’s
chin pulled up and his head back.
 Remove your mouth. The air which you have blown into the victim’s
lung will be expanded automatically.
 Continue the inflation with your own breath 10 to 12 times a minute,
i.e. once every 5 to 6 seconds. There is no advantage to be gained
from making inflation more rapidly than this. Use a watch with a
second hand to time yourself.
 If air is retained in the victim’s stomach it will be indicated by
swelling of the abdomen. It can be expelled by gentle pressure applied
by the hand to the abdomen.

 Artificial respiration procedure posters should be displayed at prominent


locations of the construction site and locations with electrical installation.

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8.9. PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
8.9.1. GENERAL

The Contractor should provide sufficient number of personal protective equipment to the
workers, to use when it is necessary.

 Consider the provision of personal protective equipment only after all measures
for removing or controlling safety or health hazards have been proved reasonably
impracticable.

 Ensure that sufficient personal protective equipment are provided and that they
are readily available for every person who may need to use them.

 The personal protective equipment shall provide adequate protection and comfort
for continuous use and shall conform to the British Standard Specifications or
other appropriate standards or their equivalent.

 Consult the Safety Advisory Unit of your department if there is any doubt about
the requirements and selection of any personal protective equipment.

 The Contractor shall ensure that all persons make full and proper use of the
personal protective equipment provided.

 Provide instruction and training in the proper use and care of any specific
protective equipment where necessary.

 The Contractor shall provide proper storage for all personal protective equipment
issued to ensure their conditions are properly maintained and are hygienic.

 Where personal protective equipment is provided, do not allow willfully and


without reasonable cause to remove personal protective equipment to endanger
themselves or others.

 Do not allow willfully misusing, interfering with or ill-treating any protective


clothing and equipment provided.

 Ask all persons who have been issued personal protective equipment shall ensure
their good condition and report immediately any damage to the management for
replacement.

 Always keep the personal protective equipment as clean as possible since dirty
ones can lead to dermatitis or fire.

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8.9.2. EYE PROTECTION

The Contractor should provide sufficient number of clean eye protection equipment to his
workers and should educate them about proper use of those equipment.

 The smallest particle in the eye can lead to disaster. Therefore do not allow to
remove eye protection while in a dangerous area.

 Get a trained person, to remove any foreign body from your eye.

 Issue eye protection equipment to all where there is foreseeable risk of eye injury.

 Ensure an adequate supply of goggles/shields is available.

 Keep the goggles clean and make sure they are good fit.

 All safety spectacles, goggles and face shields shall conform to B.S. 2092 or its
equivalent.

 Welding shield and goggles shall conform to B.S. 679 (for filters) and B.S. 1542-
2 (for filter housings), or their equivalent.

 Take care in selecting suitable eye protection. The following table shows what
the markings on the lenses represent.

Marking Suitable for protection against


B.S. 2092 light impact

B.S. 2092-2 moderate impact

B.S. 2092-1 heavy impact

C chemicals

D dust

G gas and fumes

M molten metal

 Wear suitable eye or face protection (Fig 9.8.1) when engaged in;

- Grinding and cutting with an abrasive wheel, which is driven by


mechanical power

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- Dressing abrasive wheels

- Internal and external turning, other than precision turning, of non-ferrous


metal and cast iron

- Welding and cutting

- Loading and unloading a live cartridge into a cartridge operated tool,


operating and doing repairs or examinations to a cartridge operating tool
when it is loaded

- Handling sewage, molten metal, acids, alkalis, and other dangerous or


corrosive materials, whether liquid or solid, which are injurious to the eyes

- Cleaning sward, dust, etc. with steam

- Any process involving the use of Laser beams

- Cutting or breaking, chipping or scaling of rock, metal, clayware, cast


iron, concrete or glass product

- Cutting out or cutting off rivets or bolts from boilers, vessels or plants

- Chipping, scaling or scurfing of boilers or vessels

- Grit-blasting, and

- Any operation where there is a risk of injury to the eyes from flying
particles

 Do not watch welding operations unless your eyes are protected from the
damaging effect of flash.

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Fig 9.8.1 Eye Protection

8.9.3. HEAD PROTECTION

The Contractor should provide sufficient number of safety helmets to his workers who work in
the construction site. The helmets should be properly maintained, examined and replaced at
proper time.

 Allow no person to enter a construction site unless he is wearing a suitable safety


helmet Safety helmets are for protection against falling objects and heavy blows
and shall conform to EN 397 or equivalent. Bump caps are for protection against
light blows and shall conform to B.S.4033.

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 Instruct to wear a safety helmet:

- When there is the risk of being hit by falling objects

- While on or near a construction site

- During adverse weather conditions

- When in any area designated as a “hard hat” area.

 Provide bump caps or safety helmets when working in or passing any place
where the headroom is limited and there is the risk of bumping against hard and
protruding objects.

 Instruct to correctly adjust the head harness so that head protection will stay on
while bending over and yet will not be so tight that the harness makes a mark on
the forehead.

 Provide identification labels to all helmets in some way to prevent random


exchange among wearers, with one helmet exclusive to each person.

 Inspect helmets for cracks or sign of impact or rough treatment before each
usage. Destroy, remove and replace all worn, defective or damaged helmets.
Further, safety helmets of which the service life as recommended by the
manufacturer, usually 3 years, have expired shall not be used and shall be
replaced irrespective of the condition.

 Destroy any helmet that has received a severe blow. The blow may have
substantially reduced the protection offered by the helmet without apparent
defects.

 Prevent safety helmets from being dropped, thrown or used as supports (Fig10.9.1 )

 Always make certain that there is at least 30 mm clearance between the crown
straps and the inside shell.

 Maintain shells and harness in excellent condition, and replace any defective part
immediately.

 Remove tars, paints, oils and other adherent dirt with nonflammable and non-toxic
solvents. Consult the helmet manufacturer before choosing a solvent as some can
be harmful to dielectric helmets.

 Wipe dust or moisture from helmets before storing them.

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 Do not place helmets on the rear window shelf of a car as sunlight may adversely
affect their strength. Also, a helmet may become a hazardous missile in case of
emergency stops or accidents.

Fig 9.9.1 Safety Helmets

 Provide suitable storage racks or lockers for helmets at work sites.

 Service life of safety helmets is a function of several factors including materials


used, quality control, usage conditions, care and maintenance. The normal service
life of most helmets is about 2 to 3 years.

 Employ supervising officers to carry out periodic inspection of helmets.

8.9.4. HEARING PROTECTION

 Refer to section on “Noise Control”.

The Contractor is responsible for any damage caused to hearing of workers and therefore should
provide sufficient number of disposable or permanent earplugs or earmuffs (depending on the
requirement) to his working staff. These earplugs or earmuffs should be stored clean and
properly and should replace at proper tie intervals.

 Ensure that the attenuation of all ear protectors conform to B.S. 5108.

 Do not allow workers to use ordinary dry cotton wool for hearing protection
because it cannot provide any

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Earplugs

 Provide re-usable earplugs or disposable earplugs where the attenuation


demanded is not excessive. The attenuation of some soft plastic re-usable ear
plugs ranges from 18 to 25 dB(A) and that some disposable ear plugs made of
glass down or wax cotton wool ranges from 8 to 12 dB(A).

 Provide disposable earplugs for infrequent visitors and ensure that they are never
re-used (Fig 9.9.2).

Fig 9.9.2 Disposable Earplugs Fig 9.9.3 Reusable Earplugs

 Provide re-usable earplugs for those who need to work continuously for a long
period in a high noise area (Fig 9.9.3).

 Hygiene is important, particularly with re-usable earplugs. Wash them clean


every time after use and store them properly. Also, clean the box for holding the
earplugs at the same time.

 Re-usable earplugs are obtainable in different sizes to fit different sized ear
canals. Universal fitting re-usable plugs are also available. Take care in selecting
the correct size if the universal fitting type is not used. If they are too small for
the ear canals, the attenuation effect will be reduced or even lost. If they are over
sized, they may deform the ear canals and cause severe nerve problems in the
worst case.

 Note that disposable earplugs of compressible foam rubber, glass down or wax
cotton wool are all made for universal fitting.

 When a person is given earplugs for the first time, tell him how to put them in
and look after them after use. Before inserting an earplug, put one hand behind
the head and pull the back of the ear to open the ear canal. Compress the earplug
to a smaller size and slide it into the ear canal gently. Release the hand pulling the
ear. The earplug should sit tightly and comfortably.

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Earmuffs

 Use earmuffs (Fig 9.9.4) where a large attenuation of up to 40 dB(A) is


demanded. Ensure that the cushion can wrap around the whole ear and provide a
good seal.

Fig 9.9.4 Earmuffs

 Prefer earmuffs with replaceable ear cushions because they deteriorate with age
or may be damaged in use.

 Avoid wearing spectacles in order to get a good seal from the ear cushions.

 Earmuffs should be stored and maintained properly. Use only soap and water or
the solvent recommended by the manufacturer of the earmuffs for cleaning.

 Provide earmuffs for those who may need to get in and out of a high noise area
frequently.

8.9.5. FALL PROTECTION

The Contractor should take adequate steps (as stipulated in the Construction Site Safety
Regulations to prevent any person on a construction site from falling from a height of 2 meters
or more by the provision, use and maintenance of one or more of working platforms, guard-rails,
barriers, toe-boards and fences, coverings for openings and gangways and runs.

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 In all circumstances, safe working platforms shall be provided as far as is
practicable. Where the special circumstances of the work make it impractical to
provide working platforms, scaffolds and other means of fall prevention, suitable
and adequate safety nets and safety harnesses/belts (Fig 9.9.5) shall be provided.
Safety harnesses and belts should only be used as the last resort to prevent falls,
and they shall not be considered as suitable and adequate unless they are attached
continuously to a suitable and secure anchorage.

Fig 9.9.5 Safety Harness and Safety Belt

 Any person on a construction site liable to fall less than 2 m but the injuries so caused
may be serious, similar measures to prevent falls as described above shall be taken.

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 A safety harness shall be used for fall protection because it could reduce injuries
to the waist caused by the shock from a fall. In addition, use shock-absorbing
device as far as practicable. Safety belt shall only be used for positioning and
travel restraint.

 Provide safety harnesses or belts and attach them to suitable anchor points for:

- Rigger works

- Works performed from suspended working platforms or work cages

- Climbing permanent ladders that are provided with a fall arrest system.

 Properly maintain all safety nets, safety harnesses/belts and other equipment
provided for prevention of falls of person.

 Provide safety harness/belts and ask workers to keep it attached to a secure


anchorage whenever the use of a harness/belt is necessary for their or other
person’ s safety.

 The safety harness or belt anchor point should be directly above and the lanyard
shall be left with the minimum free length. All anchor points shall conform to
B.S. 5845. or equivalent.

 Provide safety belts and harnesses of the smaller drop. They are made to two drop
limits (i.e. lanyard lengths), one is 0.6 m for close work and the other is 2 m for
providing greater freedom of movement.

 All safety harnesses and belts shall conform to B.S. 1397 or equivalent.

 Register all safety harnesses and belts. Maintain a record of maintenance.

8.9.6. RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

The Contractor should provide sufficient number of respiratory protective equipment of suitable
type to prevent workers breathing toxic gases during work.
 Provide suitable respirators (Fig 9.9.6) for protection when:
- Sanding and rubbing down wood, filling materials and old paint

- Spray painting

- Steam cleaning

- Cleaning cooling coils and filters with high pressure jets

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- All processes involving asbestos or asbestos based products, lead, and
harmful or toxic chemicals in open vessels

- All processes that may give out silica dust or mercury vapour

- All works in a confined space

- The atmosphere contains a nuisance, harmful or toxic dusts or gases

- For rescue purposes

Fig 9.9.6 Respiratory Protective Equipment

 Ensure that suitable respirators can provide adequate protection. This is measured
by the degree of inward leakage that occurs when used. The maximum allowable
inward leakage for the various type of respirators are given in the appropriate
British Standards.

 The degree of inward leakage depends on:

- The quality of face seal (facial hair, wearing spectacles, etc. can seriously
affect the face seal)

- The degree of efficacy of the filter or canister if used

- The degree of efficacy of the exhalation valve if used

- The maintenance of the respirator and its accessories

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 Provide training to all persons using the respirators for their correct fitting, use,
limitations and symptoms of exposure.

 Make reference to Table 9.1a and 9.1b for selection suitable respirators and the
correct type for protection against specific hazards.

Table 9.1 a - Specifications for Respirators

Specifications Reference
The selection, use and maintenance of respiratory equipment BS4275:1974
Respirators for protection against harmful dusts and gases BS2091:1969
High efficiency dust respirators and Positive pressure BS4558:1970
powered dust respirators
Specification for filtering face piece dust respirators BS6016:1980
Positive pressure powered dust respirators BS4558:1970

Table 9.1 b - Types of Respirators to Use against Specific Hazards

Type Purpose
Facemask Nuisance dusts and non-toxic sprays
Cartridge Respirator Low concentration of certain relatively non-toxic gases
Canister Respirator Low concentration of certain toxic gases
Positive Pressure Against disease producing non-toxic dusts

NOTE : Cartridge respirator and canister respirator shall only be used

where the concentration of toxic gases is low and where there is no risk

of oxygen deficiency.

 Respirators for the use of asbestos works shall be those approved by the
Consultant. Some of them are listed in Table 9.1c.

 Note that all respirators, with the exception of disposable types, require cleaning
and inspection after use and before wearing by another person. Cartridges and
filters have a limited life which can vary depending upon the environment in
which they are used and manufacturer’s recommendations should be closely
followed.

 Store respirators properly when not in use.

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Table 9.1c - Respirators for the use of asbestos works

Manufacturer Model/Type Number


a. 9920 disposable respirator
3M b. 7200 half-mask with 7255 filter
c. 7300 half-mask with 7255 filter
a. Polimask 200 half-mask with type 200 filter cartridge
Sekur-Pirelli
spa b. Polimask 200/2 half-mask with 2 type 200 filter cartridges
c. C607 full facemask with 975P3 filter
a. Dustmaster DM1 ventilated visor 045-00-01P5 with 045-
00-01
b. Airstream AH4GB2 Respiratory Protective Helmet 060-
00-16 headpiece,
with AS23-4021-02-06 main 06-23-04
main filter filter and 500-02-05
and visor motor
assembly
Rascal 060-10-17
c. Breathe Easy & Positive Pressure Powered Respirator
Safety Ltd 055-00- 01P1 with 2 P3 canisters 009-01-00, full facemask
and 007-00- 05 battery part
d. Power flow Positive Pressure Powered Respirator 055-00-
01P6

with 1 PM3 canister 009-00-13P, full facemask 055-00-


8.9.7. BREATHING APPARATUS
01P and 007-00-03 battery part
It is the responsibility of the Contractor to train the workers for proper usage of breathing
equipment prior to use and check their medical adequacy before equipping with the
apparatus.

 Breathing apparatus offers the most effective protection against toxic gases and in
an oxygen deficient environment (Fig 9.9.7)

 Ensure that every person designated to wear breathing apparatus shall be certified
fit by a doctor.

 Adequately train every person designated to wear breathing apparatus and give
them adequate practice in its use.

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 Make reference to table 9.2.a for selection of suitable breathing apparatus.

Fig 9.9.7 Breathing Equipment

Table 9.2.a -Specifications for Breathing Apparatus

Specifications Reference (BS or equiv.)

BS4667:1974

a. Closed circuit type Part 1

b. Open circuit type Part 2

c. Fresh air hose and compressed air line Part 3

d. Escape type Part 4 (1982)

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 Note the pressure gauge readings when using breathing apparatus and make sure
that there is adequate gas in the cylinder before use.

 Service and check the breathing apparatus regularly by the manufacturer. Check
leakage of the gas hose and replace immediately if a defect is found.

 Store the breathing apparatus properly when not in use, and maintain proper
record.

8.9.8. SAFETY FOOTWEAR

The Contractor should consider following in providing safety shoes to his workers.

 Provide suitable footwear for work and ensure that all safety footwear conforms
to EN 344 and EN 345 or their equivalent.

 Provide safety footwear on site or in other dangerous areas. Foot injuries account
for a lot of industrial accidents and safety footwear would prevent most of them.

 Ask the workers to wear suitable safety shoes or ankle boots when working
anywhere where there is high risk of foot injuries from slippery or uneven
ground, sharp objects, falling objects, etc.

 All safety footwear, including safety shoes, ankle boots and rubber boots shall be
fitted with steel toecaps. Where there is a risk of treading on protruding nails or
sharp objects, the footwear shall be fitted with penetration resistant soles, and be
identified with a symbol "P" in accordance with EN 344. For electrical workers,
or where electrical hazard exists, safety footwear with electrical resistant soles
shall be fitted as appropriate.

 Avoid wearing flip flops, high heeled shoes, slippers, light sport shoes etc. in
situations where there is a risk of foot injury.

 Ask to keep shoe lace knots tight.

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8.9.9. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING

The Contractor should provide protective clothing for all workers who require those.

 Provide impermeable overalls, gloves and dust caps when working or handling
asbestos and asbestos based products, lead and lead based products including lead
paint, and other harmful chemicals, which may be absorbed through intact skin.

 Do not allow to wear overalls that are worn or saturated with oil. They should be
clean and close fitting clothing, changed before returning home and washed every day.

 Avoid loose sleeves or belts and keep loose clothing buttoned up.

 Provide impermeable protective overalls when entering a manhole where there is


possible contact with sewage or unlined tunnels with unknown drippings.

 Provide gaiters manufactured to B.S.4676:1971 or equivalent when engaged in


handling molten metal and knocking out hot materials.

8.9.10. HAND PROTECTION

The Contractor should provide clean gloves in good condition to workers when necessitates
by work.

 Provide suitable gloves and ask to clean after use when:

 Working or handling sheet metal and other objects, which have sharp
edges and corners

 Cutting with a knife or other cutting edge

 Operating a chainsaw

 Rolling film

 Welding and cutting

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 Avoiding electric shock

 Providing better grip while handling oily components

 Lifting manhole covers and engaged in manual handling of materials and


equipment, to provide better a grip

 Avoiding heat burn and direct contact with dye or other chemicals.

 Do not allow wearing gloves where there is a risk of them becoming entangled in
moving parts of machinery.

 Avoid direct contact with ratten rods, water jetting hoses and other drainage
equipment.

 Ask to wash hands properly with disinfectant soap and clean water before
drinking, eating or smoking and to wash hands immediately after each operation
on site when the situation warrants.

8.10. SAFE USE OF ELECTRICITY


8.10.1. GENERATORS

The Contractor should consider following if a generator is provided in the site.

 Ensure that generators are operated only by authorized persons who should be
adequately trained. Training should include emergency and shutdown procedures.

 Ensure that proper fire precautionary measures are observed. Suitable fire
extinguishers and fire fighting equipment should be provided near the generator.

 Regularly check and maintain the generator and its ancillary equipment. These
should be carried out by competent and trained persons employed by the Contractor.

 Ask the operator to visually check the conditions of the generator and its ancillary
equipment before operation, including the mechanical system, the electrical
system, the fuel oil system and the safety features. Do not start if abnormal
conditions are found.

 Ensure that the fuel oil supplies (in drums or tanks)are stored in a proper
dangerous goods store and that it does not exceed the prescribed quantities on
site.

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 Ask workers to handle the fuel oil with care to prevent spillage and fire and also
to prevent hazards to health of the operators. Provide suitable personal protective
clothing.

 Do not allow to drain the fuel oil to the road drain. Ask to use proper container
for disposal.

 Do not allow smoking in the vicinity of the generator and the fuel oil storage
area.

 The generator shall be located in a safe area to exclude access and handling by
unauthorized person. Fence off the area if necessary.

 Ensure that the generator, if portable, is anchored safely to the desired location to
avoid shifting away.

 All electrical connections should be securely fixed to the generator. The work
shall be carried out by Registered Electrical Workers.

 Avoid connecting too many electrical loads to the generator to cause overheating
and subsequent danger.

 Load connections must be carried out when the generator is under shutdown
conditions.

 Ensure that adequate ventilation is provided during operation of the generator.

 Ensure that the exhaust pipe of the generator is not directed to people and work
areas.

 Ensure that proper lagging and/or protective guards are provided for exhaust
pipe, radiator to avoid scalding.

 Ensure that all moving parts are properly guarded by enclosures which should be
secure.

 If it is necessary to move the generator from place to place, ensure that it is shut
down before moving. Take special care during transportation to avoid damage
which may result in subsequent unsafe operations. The generator shall be
checked by a Registered Electrical Worker after the relocation and prior to its
use.

 Ensure that the operating and inspection instructions are available and strictly
followed in the operation and maintenance of the generator.

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 Ensure that the generator is properly earthed and the impedance of the earthing
electrode and connection is periodically checked by a Registered Electrical
Worker.

8.10.2. SWITCHBOARD

The Contractor should make sure that all work involved with switch boards are handled by a
trained person employed by him.

 Ensure that switchboards are installed, repaired and maintained by authorized


persons who should be competent and adequately trained. Training should also
include emergency and rescue procedures.

 A permit-to-work system shall be established to include only authorized and


competent persons who are Qualified Electrical Workers to work on the
switchboards (Fig 9.10.1)

Fig 9.10.1 Safe Working Procedure for Electrical Installations

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 Ensure that all system operating procedures for the switchboard are established
and followed.

 Ensure that the switchboards are regularly checked and maintained by Qualified
Electrical Workers.

 Ensure that all connections of equipment and tools to the switchboard are carried
out by Qualified Electrical Workers.

 Prove that the system is made “dead” (i.e. at or about zero voltage and
disconnected from any live system) as far as possible before connections are
made to the switchboard. Otherwise authorization, adequate supervision and
precautionary measures must be provided.

 Ensure that all circuits under isolation or being worked on are either made “dead”
and/or locked off and that proper warning signs and notices are provided.

 The switchboards and distribution circuits shall be equipped with suitable


protection devices such as Miniature Circuit Breaker (MCB) and Residual
Current Device (RCD) to protect against over current and earth leakage
respectively.

 Ensure that temporary switch boxes, socket outlets, plugs and cable couplers are
of splash-proof type with a protection class of IP54 or above.

 Ensure that for work sites within occupied premises, the fixed electric equipment
should not be connected directly to the existing permanent switchboards but
through temporary switchboards with proper protective devices.

 All outgoing cables shall be protected and supported. Never leave them lying on
ground unprotected to avoid damage and tripping over.

 Ensure that all connections including cables, plugs, connectors are of proper
sizes/ratings, firmly wired up and the protective conductors are earthed.

 Ensure that no illegal connections/extensions, however temporary, are allowed.


Keep the doors of switchboard locked.

 Never use worn or damaged accessories.

 Ensure that adequate "Danger" notices/signs are provided to indicate that the
switchboard is alive. Warning signs and locks, as appropriate, shall be provided
on doors of switch rooms to guard against unauthorized entry.

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 Ensure that suitable type starters are provided for electrical machines, and that
earthing provided to all machines, including their enclosures.

 Ensure that insulating mat is provided for the switchboard stand on it while
operations are carried out. Take special care when the site conditions are damp.

 Ensure that all electrical connections, including temporary ones, are properly
installed and tested.

 Use electrical connections that are suitable for the type of environmental
conditions of the site.

 Ensure that the electrical wiring diagram for the switchboard is provided and
displayed prominently in its vicinity.

 Ensure that the Qualified Electrical Engineer to issue a work completion


certificate after satisfactory inspection and testing of the electrical installation as
required by the Code of Practice for the Electricity (Wiring) Regulations.

 Maintain a logbook to record results of regular inspection and testing on the


electrical installations by a Qualified Electrical Worker.

 Ensure that some personnel trained and familiar with first aid and cardio-
pulmonary resuscitation (CPR) are available to treat electric shock.

8.10.3. WIRING AND CONNECTIONS

 Ensure that wires and cables are protected against chafing, pinching, cutting, or
other hazards, which could damage the insulation of the metal conductor leading
to an electric shock.

 Ensure that the locations of underground cables are marked so that they will not
be damaged by excavating equipment.

 Ensure that wires, cables, and conduits are adequately secured to the structures
along which they pass or to the chassis of the equipment on which they are
installed.

 Ensure that wire and cables are kept off floors over that vehicles may pass. If
they must be on the floor, ensure that they are adequately protected against
damage.

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 Check for defective or damaged cables, plugs, sockets and damaged or worn
appliances.

 Keep loose cables off the floor and out of the way of other people as much as possible.

 Do not allow to withdraw a plug from a socket by pulling the cable.

 Electrical connections must be by proper plugs and sockets. Makeshift


connections and taped joints should not be permitted.

 Check cords to electric tools and other portable equipment before using, and
replace or repair if defective. All such tools, equipment and extension cords
should be earthed.

 Never allow to cut off, bend back the "earth pin" on three-prong plugs.

 Make sure that extension cords are the right gauge for the job to prevent
overheating, voltage drops, and tool burnout.

8.11. ACCIDENT REPORTING


8.11.1. ACCIDENT REPORTING PROCEDURE

 In case of accidents, if the injured is a civil servant, the departmental procedures


for accident reporting should be followed.

 If a "notifiable accident" happened in construction sites, the procedures as


stipulated in Section 9.11 of this Specification shall be adopted. A copy of the
Flow Chart for reporting accidents to the Consultant is attached in Page 209.

 An accident is classified as a "notifiable accident" if:

- it has led to fatality, or

- the victim is in critical condition, or

- the media have arrived on site or have telephoned to ask information


about the accident, or

- it will arouse public interest/concern in view of the damage/inconvenience


that has been caused or its potential harm to workers and/or the public or

- it has created a drawn-out situation which may lead to fatality or multiple injuries.

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 In addition, departmental procedures for reporting construction site accidents
shall be followed.

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8.11.2. ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION

The Contractor should make necessary arrangements to do the accident investigation as quickly
as possible.

 To conduct interviews with as many witnesses as necessary.

 Total reliance should not be placed on any one sole source of evidence.

 Bring along with you the following which may be useful for accident
investigation

- Checklist for obtaining basic and typical information for accidents

- Notebook

- Tape recorder

- Camera

- Measuring tape

- Special equipment for the particular investigation

 The main theme of the investigation is to find out answers to the following
questions:

- When did the accident occur?

- Where did it occur?

- Who was injured or what was damaged?

- What caused the accident (immediate and contributory)?

- Why did it occur?

- How could it have been prevented?

- How can a recurrence be prevented?

 Prepare an investigation report which should be as short as possible, but should


be detailed enough for its purpose. The report should contain the following:

- A summary of what had happened

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- A summary of events prior to the accident

- Information gathered during the investigation

- Details of witnesses

- Information on injury or loss sustained

- Conclusions and possible cause(s) of the accident

- Recommendations to prevent recurrence

- Supporting materials (photographs, diagrams, etc.)

 To review and revise the relevant method statements.

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