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REDEVELOPMENT OF MUTHURWA MARKET

BY:

MAINA ERIC WANJOHI

REG. NO: B65/0609/2010

A PLANNING DEVELOPMENT PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT

OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF BARCHELOR OF ARTS DEGREE


IN URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

UNIVERSITY OF NAIROBI

COLLEGE OF ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING

SCHOOL OF THE BUILT ENVIRONMENT

DEPARTMENT OF URBAN AND REGIONAL PLANNING

JUNE 2014

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DECLARATION
This Planning Development Project is my original work and has not been presented for a degree
in any other university

Signed…………………………… Date…………………………………

Maina Eric Wanjohi

B65/0609/2010

(Candidate)

This Planning Development Project has been submitted for examination with our approval as the
University Supervisors

Signed………………………………… Date………………………………..

Mrs Margaret Ng’ayu

(Supervisor)

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DEDICATION
To my beloved mother; Lydia Muthoni Maina, this I dedicate.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
My first acknowledgement goes to the Almighty God who constantly showered me with insight,
strength and peace throughout this project, He remained a constant friend.

I would also like to extend my honest gratitude to Mrs M. Ng’ayu (my Supervisors) for the
guidance she has given me while seeing me through the whole work. God bless her.

Great gratitude also goes to the project coordinators, Mr. Zacharia Maleche and Mr. Charles
Karisa for the insightful guidance that they offered. The whole fraternity of the Department of
Urban and Regional Planning and the City Council of Nairobi are some of the entities that
cannot be forgotten for the continuous support they gave during the project.

I also thank my family and friends. They were important pillars in various ways and definitely
without them, the project wouldn’t be effectively undertaken.

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ABSTRACT
Effective space use in urban markets is a key element in their success as it directly or indirectly
influences the cost of operation therein. Muthurwa market has continued to experience space use
conflict with incidences of people operating in areas not specified for trade, especially on market
paths. This development project wishes to address the problem of space use to ensure effective
functionality of the market, it intends to devise a model of solving conflict in space use by
exploring design, circulation and management interventions.

Well-designed spaces accrue many benefits such as security, higher economic returns, better
legibility and reduced congestion hence better market functionality.

The project made use of both primary and secondary data. It employed use of questionnaires,
interviews, mapping, photography, observation and conduction of literature review as methods of
data collection. The data was analyzed by use of SPSS, AutoCAD, GIS and MS Excel softwares
after which it was present in different forms including tables, maps, photos and descriptions.

The development project outlines possible courses of action that can be taken to address the
space use problem, from this, the best alternative is chosen depending on the pros and cons of
each alternative as weighed against the desired goals, proposals detailing the best alternative are
eventually made. The project concludes with an implementation framework of the proposed
market improvement programmes.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................ ii
DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................... iv
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... v
LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... xi
LIST OF MAPS ............................................................................................................................ xii
LIST OF PLATES ........................................................................................................................ xii
LIST OF GRAPHS ....................................................................................................................... xii
LIST OF TABLES ........................................................................................................................ xii
ACRONYMS AND BBREVIATIONS ....................................................................................... xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 1
1.1 Overview ................................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Statement of the development project title: Redevelopment of muthurwa market .................. 1
1.3 Summary of the main findings .................................................................................................. 1
1.4 Summary of the planning recommendations ............................................................................ 2
1.41 Design recommendations .................................................................................................... 3
1.411Re-designing of the market Stalls ................................................................................... 3
1.42 Infrastructural and circulation recommendations ................................................................ 3
1.421Functional separation of different market blocks........................................................... 3
1.422 Improved market infrastructure..................................................................................... 3
1.43 Market management recommendations .............................................................................. 4
1.5 Development project title: Redevelopment of muthurwa market ............................................. 4
1.51 Facilitation ........................................................................................................................... 5
1.511Market blocks redesigning–............................................................................................ 5
1.512 Market stalls redesigning and classification – .............................................................. 5
1.52 Restriction ........................................................................................................................... 6
1.6 Justification of the development project ................................................................................... 6
1.7 Location and area of coverage of the development project ...................................................... 7
1.8 Objectives of the development project ..................................................................................... 7
1.9 Assumptions of the development project .................................................................................. 7

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1.10 Scope of the development project ........................................................................................... 7
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE AND POLICY REVIEW.................................................. 9
2.0 OVERVIEW ............................................................................................................................. 9
2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF MARKETS ........................................................................................ 9
2.11 By physical and spatial characteristics. ............................................................................... 9
2.12 By time of operation (and services that are offered) ........................................................... 9
2.2 FUNCTIONS OF MARKETS ................................................................................................ 10
2.3 POLICY FRAMEWORK ....................................................................................................... 10
2.31Millennium Development Goals ........................................................................................ 10
2.32 Agenda 21 ......................................................................................................................... 11
2.33 Kenya vision 2030 ............................................................................................................. 11
2.34 National land policy 2007 ................................................................................................. 11
2.35 Kenya National Trade policy ............................................................................................ 12
2.4 LEGAL FRAMEWORK ........................................................................................................ 12
2.41The constitution of Kenya 2010 ......................................................................................... 12
2.42 The county government Act 2012 ..................................................................................... 13
2.43 The Physical planning Act 1996 ....................................................................................... 13
2.44 The Urban Areas and Cities Act 2011 .............................................................................. 14
2.45 The National Land Commission Act ................................................................................. 14
2.46 Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999 ................................ 15
2.5 REGULATORY GUIDELINES, PLANNING AND DESIGN STANDARDS .................... 16
2.51 The physical planning Handbook Market construction standards .................................... 16
2.511 Infrastructure design and space standards ................................................................... 16
2.512 Roads and parking space standards ............................................................................. 17
2.513 Public health space standards ...................................................................................... 18
2.52 Standards for Public Utilities Provision ............................................................................ 18
2.521 Water supply ................................................................................................................ 18
2.522 Garbage Collection and Disposal ................................................................................ 19
2.523 Storm water Drainage .................................................................................................. 19
2.524 Electricity Cables ......................................................................................................... 19
2.53 Planning standards for Hawking ....................................................................................... 20

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2.531Commercial developments along highways ................................................................. 20
2.54 The building code standards .............................................................................................. 20
2.541Design requirements ..................................................................................................... 20
2.542 Building materials........................................................................................................ 21
2.6 THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES.............................................................................................. 21
2.61City improvement districts/ retail improvement districts ................................................... 21
2.62Abstract versus social spaces ............................................................................................. 22
2.63 Elements of an urban center, objectives of urban design and Gentrification .................... 23
2.7 Case studies ............................................................................................................................. 25
2.71 Case study 1: Brook Street Durban ................................................................................... 25
2.711 Location ....................................................................................................................... 25
2.712 Concept ........................................................................................................................ 25
2.713 Features ........................................................................................................................ 27
The following features came out really strong in the brook street case; ............................... 27
2.714 Challenges ................................................................................................................... 28
2.715 Inferences..................................................................................................................... 28
2.72 Case study 2: Kerk Street .................................................................................................. 29
2.721 Location ....................................................................................................................... 29
2.722 Concept............................................................................................................................ 29
2.723 Features ........................................................................................................................ 30
2.724 Inferences..................................................................................................................... 30
2.725 Challenge ..................................................................................................................... 31
2.8 Development framework ........................................................................................................ 31
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY ................................................................................ 33
3.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................... 33
3.2 Data Needs and Requirements ................................................................................................ 33
3.3 Data Sources ........................................................................................................................... 33
3.4Methods of Data Collection ..................................................................................................... 34
3.41 Methods of primary data collection .................................................................................. 34
3.411 Interviews .................................................................................................................... 34
3.412 Photography ................................................................................................................. 34

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3.413 Field Sketching ............................................................................................................ 34
3.414 Observation .................................................................................................................. 34
3.41 Methods of secondary data collection ............................................................................ 34
3.5 Methods of Data Analysis ....................................................................................................... 35
3.6 Methods of Data Presentation ................................................................................................. 35
3.7 Methodology Limitations........................................................................................................ 35
3.8 Data Needs Matrix .................................................................................................................. 36
CHAPTER FOUR: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECT AREA ................... 38
4.21 Regional Context ............................................................................................................... 38
4.22 Local Context .................................................................................................................... 38
4.3HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROJECT AREA............................................... 40
4.31 Historical Development of Nairobi ................................................................................... 40
4.32 Historic development of muthurwa Area .......................................................................... 40
4.4 SITE ANALYSIS ................................................................................................................... 42
4.41 Topography and slope characteristics ............................................................................... 42
4.42 Geology and soils .............................................................................................................. 42
4.43 Hydrology.......................................................................................................................... 42
4.44 Climatic conditions ........................................................................................................... 43
4.45 Rainfall .............................................................................................................................. 43
4.46 Temperature ...................................................................................................................... 43
4.461 Effect of afternoon sun on market buildings ................................................................ 44
4.47 Winds ................................................................................................................................ 45
4.5 POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS .......................................... 45
4.51 Population.......................................................................................................................... 45
4.52 Demographic characteristics of the project area ............................................................... 46
4.6 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS ........................................................................ 46
4.61 Land use Analysis of project area ..................................................................................... 47
4.62 Environment and Pollution................................................................................................ 48
4.7 CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................... 48
CHAPTER FIVE: PROJECT PLANNING DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION ............ 49
5.1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................................... 49

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5.2 Planning and Design of the Project ......................................................................................... 49
5.2.1 Expected Outputs and Outcomes of the Development Projects ....................................... 49
5.22 Development of a spatial plan and design alternatives ..................................................... 50
5.221 Site Planning and Design Process Stages .................................................................... 50
5.23 Planning design alternatives .............................................................................................. 52
5.231 Minimal intervention ................................................................................................... 52
5.232 Replacement ................................................................................................................ 53
5.232 Redevelopment ............................................................................................................ 55
5.3 Site plan and market blocks classification .............................................................................. 57
5.31 Site plan ............................................................................................................................. 57
5.32 Market block classification ............................................................................................... 58
5.4 Sales space design and classifications .................................................................................... 58
5.42 Traders selling from the aisle ............................................................................................ 59
5.5 Stall layouts ............................................................................................................................. 60
5.51Alternative Stall layout plans ............................................................................................. 61
5.511 Free Flow Design......................................................................................................... 61
5.512 Grid Layouts ................................................................................................................ 61
5.513 Circular spine layout .................................................................................................... 63
5.52 Proposed stall layout plan for fixed stalls ......................................................................... 64
5.53 Building materials ............................................................................................................. 66
5.6 Perimeter Walls ....................................................................................................................... 67
5.62 Proposed action plans ........................................................................................................ 67
5.7 Market bridges ........................................................................................................................ 68
5.72 Proposed action plans;....................................................................................................... 68
5.8 Implementation strategies ....................................................................................................... 69
5.81 Indicative Project Implementation Matrix ........................................................................ 70
5.82 implementation schedule ................................................................................................... 71
CHAPTER SIX: MONITORING AND EVALUATION ........................................................ 73
6.0 Overview ................................................................................................................................. 73
6.1 Monitoring and evaluation stages in the implementation of project....................................... 73
6.2 Guidelines for the Implementation Process ............................................................................ 73

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6.3 Site/ Environmental management plan ................................................................................... 74
6.4 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 76
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................ 77

LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: schematic layout of proposed stalls, ................................................................................ 5
Figure 2: Development framework, .............................................................................................. 32
Above shows Figure 3: The case of skewed customer distribution in the market, ....................... 53
Figure 4: Section through the proposed alternative high rise market model, ............................... 54
Figure 5: Conceptual diagram illustrating the redevelopment alternative in muthurwa market, . 56
Figure 6: A cross-sectional view of the market block showing proposed trestle tables, .............. 58
Figure 7: showing the Part plan, end elevation, and front views of proposed trestle tables to be
put under the trees in the market, .................................................................................................. 59
Figure 8: caption of proposed trestle tables in the market, ........................................................... 59
Figure 9: Proposed look and dimensions of new fixed stall in the market, .................................. 60
Figure 10: Flee flow design model of space allocation in markets and retail outlets, .................. 61
Figure 11: Show the grid layout design model ............................................................................. 62
Figure 12: Show an illustration of the circular spine layout design model of space allocationnin
markets and retail outlets , source; Piggly wiggly, retail design layouts; 2001 ............................ 63
Figure 13:Show Circular spine layout design model of space allocation in markets and retail
outletss, source; piggly wiggly, retail design layout; 2001 ........................................................... 63
Figure 14: proposed stall layout plan for fixed stalls................................................................ 64
Figure 15: A three dimension perspective view of the proposed market stall in market block
along the breath source; Author 2014 ........................................................................................... 65
Figure 16: A three dimension perspective view of the proposed market stalls in the market blocks
along the horizontal,...................................................................................................................... 65
Figure 17: Show an aerial view of the proposed market stall layouts in the market block, ......... 66
Figure 18: Showing A cross sectional layout of the proposed wall for repair of the broken
parts of the perimeter wall, ........................................................................................................... 67

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Figure 19: Show renovated market bridge proposed in muthurwa market, illustrating street light
provisions with removal of opaque advertising billboards that cause inadequate lighting, ......... 69

LIST OF MAPS
Map 1: Locational context of muthurwa in relation to Nairobi, ................................................... 39

LIST OF PLATES
Plate 1: An aerial view of Durban street market showing a section of the cemetery, .................. 26
Plate 2; a section of brook street market showing the covered and uncovered market activities, 26
Plate 3: street level activities and circulation in brook street market, .......................................... 27
Plate 4: Space organization in kerk street market, ........................................................................ 29
Plate 5: selling spaces in kerk street market, ................................................................................ 30

LIST OF GRAPHS
Graph 1: Temperature variance in the study area, ........................................................................ 44

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Building and stall standards, ........................................................................................... 17
Table 2: Road and parking standards, ........................................................................................... 18
Table 3; Market Public health standard, ....................................................................................... 18
Table 4; storm water drainage provisions, .................................................................................... 19
Table 5; way leaves for electricity provision standards, ............................................................... 20
Table 6: Data needs matrix, .......................................................................................................... 37
Table 7: Demographic characteristics of the study area, .............................................................. 46
Table 8: Land uses in the project area, ......................................................................................... 47
Table 9: Expected outputs and outcomes of the development project,......................................... 50
Table 10: Project design programme, ........................................................................................... 51

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Table 11: Showing building material for the proposed market stalls, .......................................... 66
Table 12: Show an indicative project implementation matrix, ..................................................... 70
Table 13: Show projects implementation schedule, ..................................................................... 72
Table 14: Environmental management plan, ................................................................................ 75

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ACRONYMS AND BBREVIATIONS

CBD Central Business District

CCN City Council of Nairobi

EMCA Environmental Management Authority

GIS Geographic Information System

GPS Geographic Position System

MDGs Millennium Development Goals

NEMA National Environmental Management Authority

NCBD Nairobi Central Business District

PPA Physical Planning Act

UN United Nations

KAM Kenya Association of Manufacturers

GoK Government of Kenya

KEPSA Kenya Private Sector Alliance

KNCCI Kenya National Chamber of Commerce and Industry

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CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview
This chapter gives a summary of the panning research project and the recommendations. It also
justifies a planning development project from the recommendations and outlines the locations
and assumptions of the project.

1.2 Statement of the development project title: Redevelopment of muthurwa market


Planning research project title: An examination into the Space use conflicts among informal
sector operators: A case of muthurwa market.

1.3 Summary of the main findings


In view of the objectives and research purpose of the study, the following issues manifested
themselves from the research findings.

Space use conflict exist in the market with a majority of the traders extending their businesses
into paths - this encroachment cause congestion whilst some parts of the various blocks remain
unused since customers hardly reach these points.

Uneven customer flow/ distribution in the market – There is an uneven customer flow in the
market with some market blocks hardly having any customers e.g. some parts of block 5, while
other have very many customers especially block1 and those close to the gate.

The space allocated to the various traders is not enough – Majority of the traders experience
space constrains in their businesses, this pushes them to extend their businesses to the paths to
get utility of their monies.

Encroachment into the market paths causes congestion and immobility within the market as it
takes longer to sail from one corner of the market to the other due to the many obstacles on the
way.

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Some parts of the market are more viable for conducting business compared to others – The main
preference for traders to locate their businesses in the main market path that runs straight from
gate one to the bus terminus. Other areas remain less favored depending on their accessibility by
customers or the human traffic that pass by them.

Presence of alterations from the main design in the market – There are various issues that has
changed since the initial design of the market, the initial operational flyover bridges in the
market are no longer operational due to their deplorable condition. The perimeter walls have
been interfered; many entrances are being created than was initially intended, this is partly due to
the non-operational bridges or the inaccessibility of stall that are in these areas prompting traders
to break their own gates to make their businesses accessible by customers through landhies road.

There is a mix up in roles and functions of the various blocks and stalls, with no defined use
allocated to a particular market block – this causes lack of clarity in the shopping points as
traders lack exact points to locate their preferred merchandise.

A majority of the facility users attribute the poor space use to the poor design of the market
blocks and stalls. They also partially blame the market management for not invoking proper
space management practices.

There is a disconnect between customers and traders owing to the whole market and stalls design
– this is the main reason causing an encroachment into the market paths as Traders seek to reach
the customers.

1.4 Summary of the planning recommendations


The research found out that indeed space use conflict exist in the market, below discuses some of
the recommendations which once implemented will reduced space use conflict in muthurwa
market. They are majorly categorized into three;

o Design recommendations,
o Infrastructural and circulation recommendations and
o Market Managerial recommendations

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1.41 Design recommendations
1.411Re-designing of the market Stalls
The situation in muthurwa market is that there is less activity inside the market blocks especially
in blocks 4 and 5. Activities intensify at the edge of the blocks and on the paths causing user
conflict and so congestion. To make the whole of the block usable, it is recommended that the
stalls are designed to facilitate access, this can be done by developing fixed stalls for traders in
the market blocks ,with a passage path inside every block where buyers flow interacting with
goods on sale.

1.42 Infrastructural and circulation recommendations


1.421Functional separation of different market blocks
There a mix up in the various roles being carried out in the different blocks within the market
with no defined spaces allocated to them, for instance you find clothes, grains, fruits etc. being
sold in a single block or really close to each other and not in an organized way. It is
recommended that different market blocks be dedicated to specific uses. For instance block 1
may be food crops such as grains, block 2 clothing etc., this functional separation makes it easier
for customers to easily shop without crisscrossing the market causing unnecessary traffic and so
congestion, buyers can also easily compare the prices charged by the various traders.
Competition among the various traders will also be controlled since licensing and controlling
businesses becomes easy as all traders in a market dealing in a certain line of sale can be traced
to a certain point. This is important in controlling unauthorized sales in an areas not meant for
sale of goods such as paths, hence reducing space use conflict.

1.422 Improved market infrastructure


Under this program, there are two main infrastructural components in muthurwa that the research
revealed had an effect in the space use and utilization. These are;

1.4221Renovation of the market flyover bridges - The three fly over bridges in the market were
strategically put at market gate one, another at gate two to connect with the retail market and the
third at the far edge corner of the market to ferry customers to and from the country bus station.
They were put in these places to allow exchange of customer/traders traffic in retail market -
muthurwa market and the country bus station - muthurwa market exchanges. Customer

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circulation in the market would also be facilitated by the bridges as they would deliver customers
in blocks 1and 2, bridge 2 to blocks 3 and upper block 4 and finally bridge 3 would circulate
customers to lower block 4,block 5 and 6 hence serving the whole market. The current state of
the bridges is deplorable, with security lights absent, human wastes and street urchins all over the
bridges making security of the people who use them unguaranteed. Customers and traders no
longer use them, hence don’t serve the purpose they were intended. This cause uneven
distribution of customers in the market place. It is recommended that the bridges be renovated
and cleaned to enable effective usage by traders and customers.

1.4222Repair of broken perimeter walls – Due to nonfunctional fly over bridges, some traders
broke the perimeter walls along landhies road to facilitate easy crossing of customers from the
retail market, and the country bus station to muthurwa market. This was to make their businesses
located near the walls more viable by putting them close to the newly made market gates. This
cause uneven customer flow in the various market blocks as customers tend to buy from
businesses close to the gates or market paths leaving parts of blocks 4 and 5 that are far from
customer reach not viable for trade. Spaces in these blocks are hence not well utilized. It is
proposed that the broken parts of the perimeter wall be repaired.

1.43 Market management recommendations

This is informed by the research findings that the market management has in a big way
compromised its roles in the execution of its mandate, allowing space use conflicts to ensure,
hence yielding congestion. This could be remedied by a proper market management structure
that ensures order in the market. A good management structure has to be conscious of the
resultant effect of their action by making deliberate efforts to plan. There is need for a rethought
management system, one with properly defined roles to avoid duplication especially with
functional overlaps. It is proposed that there should be a sub management unit dealing with space
use and management in the market

1.5 Development project title: Redevelopment of muthurwa market


To effectively solve the challenges facing the market, an all directional look into the various
problems facing the market is needed. Redevelopment is chosen because it will cover the stalls

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redesigning, appropriate infrastructure rehabilitation and propose an effective management
structure to solve circulation problems in the market. The main theme of the development project
is to yield a market model that bring order and arbitrate the different space use conflict in the
market. Two main mechanisms are explored; A Facilitative mechanism and a restrictive
mechanism.

1.51 Facilitation

This is intended to look into the causes of space use conflict as identified by the traders in the
research process and try to find remedy solutions for these. For instance, facilitating customer’s
access into the market blocks with hardly any customers reaching these points of sale hence
making them unviable for trade. This will include the following actions:

1.511Market blocks redesigning– The development project wishes to redesign the market blocks
to make them more user friendly by facilitating customers access and to facilitate the effective
space use of the whole of the market blocks by opening it up for access by customers. An
illustration of the desired action on the market blocks is shown below, this will be backed by a
stall redesigning exercise to make them fixed and more spacious

Stalls Stalls Stalls Stalls

Customers flow Customers flow

Stalls Stalls Stalls Stalls

Figure 1: schematic layout of proposed stalls,

source ;Author 2010

1.512 Market stalls redesigning and classification –The development project intends to redesign
the market stalls to make them more spacious and fixed. The idea of making the stalls spacious
works on the assumption that well-spaced stalls for traders to accommodate their merchandise
accompanied by customers’ ability to access their sales points, i.e. the stalls, will prevent the

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traders from encroaching into market paths and unauthorized sale spaces. Fixed stalls on the
other hand serve the purpose of physical restriction of the traders into the area defined for them,
i.e. the stall, this reduces their chance of overflowing into the market paths as compared to the
current situation where no physical restrictions exist. Market blocks reclassification as discussed
above will help reduce customer trips in and around the market as customers will be able to get
all the shopping they need of a particular genre in one market block and so reduced trips in the
market and so reduced congestion caused by such.

1.52 Restriction

This aims at exploring possible physical or institutional restrictions e.g. through by-laws to bar
the use of unauthorized space in the markets. Institutional restrictions can come under the
management of the market to ensure that the laid down market by-laws are implemented in a
comprehensive manner. This development project wishes to explore the Physical restriction
mechanism via designing fixed stalls in the various market blocks depending on the nature of
business to be conducted in these stalls, the physical encroachment in these stalls will restrict
traders from overflowing into spaces not allocated to them compared to when there is no barrier
at all. Repair of the broken parts of the perimeter wall to regularize customers’ distribution in the
market is also another restrictive measure the development project wishes to undertake.

1.6 Justification of the development project


The above project is chosen based on the research findings that indeed space use conflict exists
in muthurwa market. Utilization of space is a big factor in determining the cost of operation of
various businesses and so their survival as it came out in the research phase of the project. There
is therefore need to invoke remedial measures to mend space use conflict to ensure there is free
flow of goods and people as well as salvage businesses operating in the market. This will be
done through provision of a space use friendly model that maximize space utility and at the same
time bridge the customer/trader by facilitating customer’s access to the sales point rather than
traders luring customers from market paths. Redevelopment is chosen since its relatively cheap
compared to an overhaul of the market, it incorporates three main components that will include
design, infrastructure and circulation and the facility management.

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1.7 Location and area of coverage of the development project
The project is located in muthurwa market, in the larger muthurwa area, Nairobi County. The
market sits on a 17 acre piece of land at the edge of the central business district to the east. Its
sandwiched between Haile Selassie Avenue, ladhies road, wakulima market and the muthurwa
bus terminus that ferry commuters to east lands. The development action area will be the entire
hawkers market.

1.8 Objectives of the development project


By undertaking the above development proposals on muthurwa, the project aims to achieve the
following:

o To review appropriate space use standards for the effective operation of the market
o To propose planning and design interventions for the effective use of available space in the
market.
o To propose an appropriate implementation framework for the proposed reorganization model
in the market

1.9 Assumptions of the development project


The main assumptions of this development project are;

 A redevelopment exercise of the market as above, will influence market trader’s use of space,
 That trader’s behavior can be controlled by redesigning the stalls to ensure maximum space
use and ensuring customer traffic circulation in the market.
 That the proposals made herein are separate from any inferences by parties with vested
interests and that the proposals are acceptable and owned by all stakeholders.
 That effective space use will improve the operating conditions in the market

1.10 Scope of the development project


This development project aims at developing alternative design models for the effective space
use in the market. This project will be organized as shown below;

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Chapter one - Contains a summary of the main findings, recommendations, statement of the
development project chosen for implementation, location, objectives, assumptions and scope.

Chapter two - contains a review of the relevant policies, plans and case studies, planning policy
and design guidelines, regulation and standards, official document, handbooks and manuals.

Chapter three - discuss the methodology of the development project.

Chapter four - contains a comprehensive site analysis and also highlights the inherent
opportunities and problems for the development project.

Chapter five – This entails the plan design formulation process, site planning and design of
preferred development project for implementation, development plans and implementation
schedule. Finally,

Chapter six – Entails the monitoring and evaluation of the implemented development project,
site/ environmental management plan and indicators for the successful implementation of the
development project.

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CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE AND POLICY REVIEW

2.0 OVERVIEW
This chapter discuss the conceptual, policy, and regulatory frameworks as well as
planning standards guiding markets planning and development in Kenya. These are of
great importance in guiding the processes and products of this project. Relevant case
studies are also reviewed.

2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF MARKETS

Types of market can be broadly defined according to a number of characteristics; by their


physical and spatial characteristics, operation time, etc. Below discuss these classifications.

2.11 By physical and spatial characteristics.

 undifferentiated open sales spaces, operated by an individual hawker or peddler


 street or roadside markets (common in both rural or urban areas);
 open-air markets (typically in a paved urban square);
 covered markets (common in urban areas);
 small-scale retail shops associated with urban market areas; and
 Markets sharing a number of the above characteristics, most commonly found in the center of
small rural towns.

2.12 By time of operation (and services that are offered)

 Markets offering a wider range of trading functions than retailing, combining retail and
wholesale markets. Usually found in small towns and cities.
 Buildings or areas specializing as markets on one day in the week or at a specific time of the
day, the whole or part of the site may be used for different purpose at other times such as a
car park, e.g. the weekend Maasai market near the judiciary that used as a car park on week
days.
 Weekly or seasonal markets , generally termed "periodic markets" and

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 Markets operating every day on a permanent site, whether from a fixed building or a mobile
stall (possibly with expanded activities at weekends or on specific days).

2.2 FUNCTIONS OF MARKETS

Markets provide low-cost retailing facilities based on small-scale operations and are typically
found in the low and middle-income, higher density areas of cities and small towns and in the
centers of villages in rural areas. (FAO 2008).

According to Tracy white, the main functions of markets include the following:

 To provide opportunities for the exchange of goods and services by producers and consumers
 To provide, at assembly markets, opportunities for the bulking-up and export of goods and
produce to outside areas;
 To provide easy access to a wide range of produce for consumers;
 To provide an important means of generating a diversity of retail outlets in towns and cities
by supplying low-cost space for street vendors who use stalls or carts and do not therefore
require buildings; and
 To provide an opportunity to achieve improvements in food hygiene standards and reductions
in post-harvest food losses.

2.3 POLICY FRAMEWORK


These sections discuss various policy legislation that govern market operations, space use and
micro enterprise development. The policies inform the development of markets and planning for
micro traders. They include;

2.31Millennium Development Goals


Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger is goal number one. The goal targets to reduce by
halve the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day and the proportion of
people who suffer from hunger. The timeline is the year 1990 to 2015. The MDGs strategy is to
increase employment rates which will consequently increase household incomes hence reducing
poverty. Muthurwa market is a key incubation point for micro enterprises that determine the

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cities micro economics to a considerable extent. Effective space use is a key ingredient in
ensuring effective operation of enterprises that operate therein. This development projects seeks
to find better space use models to ensure the effective operation of the market. This will not only
increase the markets functionality but also the survival rates of the businesses that operate here
and so the economic condition of their owner hence achievement of MDGs.

2.32 Agenda 21
The earth summit was so ambitious in its major theme of sustainable economic development.
The meeting produced an overall plan called agenda 21; large developing countries promised
protecting the environment. Environmental sustenance is a crucial ingredient in ensuring
economic take off. This development project aims at proposing a sustainable model of space use
in the informal economy that will sustain environmental ambience. This will be done
through use of environmental friendly materials, environmental impact assessments and
environmental audits in the development area.

2.33 Kenya vision 2030


The vision aims at transforming Kenya into a middle-income economy through provision of high
quality life to all its citizens by year 2030 based on three pillars: economic, social and political
pillars. Economic activities, one of the three pillars of the vision, are anchored on
macroeconomic stability; this was after considering its contribution in the country’s economy in
the year 2003. The vision therefore places a high premium on the stable macroeconomic
environment the country enjoys, it’s expected to continue into the future. The vision also plans to
enumerate informal sector operators, provide them with permanent serviced facilities, training,
access to credit and markets. The simplification of business registration and trade licensing will
continue in order to create a more enabling business environment for all trading activity.
Provision of an enabling environment for micro enterprises growth translating to the physical
attribute of markets will involve ensuring markets are located in the right places, have adequate
spaces and are appropriately monitored to control the businesses that operate therein.

2.34 National land policy 2007


The aim of the National Land Policy is to promote efficiency, sustainability and equity in the use
of land to achieve prosperity. The policy offers a framework of policies and laws that will
provide all citizens with the opportunity to beneficially occupy and use land in an economically,

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socially equitable and environmentally sustainable way. Markets occupy considerable amount of
land. Muthurwa lie in a 17 acre piece of land. Principles of sustainability and equity in land use
will be employed in the redevelopment exercise.

2.35 Kenya National Trade policy


Kenya national trade policy indicates that retail trade in Kenya is serviced by inadequate and
poorly serviced business premises. The trade policy is of the view that policy direction of retail
trade is to facilitate the growth of a vibrant retail sub sector supported by a well-established and
functional infrastructure and social amenities including adequate space provisions. The informal
sector is faced by similar challenges where infrastructural development is not only proposed
using public private partnerships programmes through the built operate own(BOO) and built
operate transfer(BOT) but also encourages market development (ministry of trade 2010)

Market development entails increasing market for informal traders through enhanced, effective
public and private sector procurements programmes within the formal business with partnership
with businesses associations such as KAM, KNCCI, and KEPSA. The national trade policy also
acknowledges that the key pillar of trade and investment promotion include; continual progress
towards the establishment of market based economy and the rule of law, the elimination of
barriers to trade and investment, implementation of economic policies to reduce poverty
(Ministry of trade 2010). Elimination of trade barriers include provision of a facilitative physical
environment for conduct of trade. Space provision is key to effective physical functionality. This
development project intends to address this in muthurwa market.

2.4 LEGAL FRAMEWORK


These sections discuss the various legal stipulations that affect the redevelopment exercise in the
market as well as the operation of the market. This provision must be followed to ensure the
county government is satisfied for the projects approval.

2.41The constitution of Kenya 2010


Chapter Four of the constitution (Bill of Rights) in article 42, states that every person has the
right to a clean and healthy environment, to protect the environment for the benefit of present
and future generations through legislative and other measures, particularly those contemplated to
have obligations relating to the environment.
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Chapter Five of the constitution (land and environment) states that land should be used in a
manner that is equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable (article 60, 1). In addition, article
62 (1),(h) states that Public land shall include all roads and thoroughfares provided for by an Act
of Parliament; this land shall be held by the County government and administered by the
National Land Commission on behalf of the county.

From the above provisions of the constitution of Kenya(2010), in relation to the redevelopment
exercise in muthurwa market, the following come through really clear; that provision of a clean
and healthy environment for conducting trade, including adequate space provision is the a right
to be provided for every citizen, that the allocation of the spaces in the market; which is a land
use function should be done in an equitable, efficient, productive and sustainable way to ensure
maximum economy and justice for all stakeholders involved, and finally that the land that holds
the market is under the jurisdiction of the Nairobi county government, and as such development/
redevelopment approval has to be sought from the county government.

2.42 The county government Act 2012


This is an act of parliament that was enacted in 2012, to give effect to chapter 11 of the
constitution that provides for county planning; this includes all matters relating to planning
including facility provision such as markets. The Act authorizes county governments to guide,
harmonize and facilitate development within each county, the county governments should
prepare; county integrated development plans, county sectoral plans, county spatial plans and
cities and Urban areas plans. These plans form the basis of all budgeting and spending in a
county. County planning framework integrates economic, physical, social, environmental and
spatial planning. The functions of the county government in relation to facility provision and
management are stipulated in the above planning provisions. Market planning and management
is the role of the county government. Muthurwa market is in the jurisdiction of Nairobi county
government.

2.43 The Physical planning Act 1996


Section 24 (1) of the Act provides for the preparation with reference to any government land,
trust land or private land within the area of authority of a city, municipal, town or urban council
with reference to any trading or marketing center, a local physical development plan by the
director of physical planning. The plan involves securing suitable provision for commercial,

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transportation, public purposes, utilities and services, industrial, residential and recreational
areas, including parks, open spaces and reserves and also the making of suitable provision for the
use of land for building or other purposes. The commercial use provided in this Act include
shops, offices, hotels, restaurants, bars, kiosks, markets and similar business enterprises and trade
but does not include petroleum filling stations. The provisions include the effective physical
functionality of these commercial points, including adequate space provisions.

In Section 29, the Act states that each local authority shall have the power to prohibit or control
the use and development of land and buildings in the interests of proper and orderly development
of its area. However, this mandate is now vested to the County governments by the County
government Act, seeking market redevelopment permission from the Nairobi county government
is informed by this provision.

2.44 The Urban Areas and Cities Act 2011


This is an Act of parliament formulated to provide for the, classification, governance and
management of urban areas and cities; to provide for the criteria of establishing urban areas, to
provide for the principle of governance and participation of residents and for connected
purposes. All cities and municipalities should operate within the framework of integrated
development planning which shall give effect to the development of urban areas and cities as
required by the law. Markets are located in towns, their control and management must be guided
by provisions of this act; i.e., done by the respective county government. The act provides that
the residents of a city, municipality or town are given powers to deliberate and make proposals to
the relevant bodies or institutions on the proposed issues for inclusion in county policies and
county legislation and the proposed development plans of the county and of the national
government. This is an important avenue in stakeholder participation in any development to be
undertaken in the city.
2.45 The National Land Commission Act
Essentially, all development takes place on land, to understand the governance structure of such,
it’s important to articulate the mandate of the land commissions. The National Land Commission
Act is an Act of parliament enacted to make provision for the functions and powers of the
commission, qualifications and procedures for appointments to the commission; to give effect to
the objects and principles of devolved government in land management and administration, and

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for connected purposes. The Act provides for the establishment of county land management
boards for purposes of managing county land. Use of county land is therefore in the hands of the
county land management board. Application for development or redevelopment ought to be
sought from the county government land management board as the mandate of development
approval lies on their hands.

2.46 Environmental Management and Coordination Act (EMCA), 1999


This Act promotes environmental sustainability as one of its principles. The general principle is
that every person in Kenya is entitled to a clean and healthy environment .Every Kenyan also has
a duty to a safe, clean and guarded environment, the Act gives effect to the constitution of Kenya
2010 stipulation. For instance in the bill of rights, article 42 states that every person has the right
to a clean and healthy environment, which includes the right to have the environment protected
for the benefit of present and future generations through legislative and other measures.

The Act states that NEMA will be the sole controller of the environment and that for any
development likely to have adverse effects on the environment, an Environmental Impact
Assessment shall be carried out before its initial start. These in particular include activities out of
character with its surrounding, any structure of a scale not keeping with its surroundings and
major changes in land use. Development approval for the alteration in the market will have to be
sought from NEMA after an environmental impact assessment.

2.47 The public health Act

This act is concerned with the health of the public. Its objective is to ensure that members of the
public live in a clean and healthy environment. It mainly addresses matters of sanitation,
hygiene, and general environmental health and safety. Section 116 requires the local authorities
to take all lawful, necessary and reasonable measures to maintain their jurisdiction clean to
prevent occurrence of nuisance, condition liable to injuries or dangerous to human health.

Inappropriate use of space in the market results into congestion which causes unhealthy
operating environment. In the case of food joints in the market, inappropriate use of space and
hygiene standards is a likely cause of disease spread. The act informs the establishment of public
health offices in the local authorities from whom enquiries are made on the health effects that
may result from developments before they are approved after which a license of operation is

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issued. The public health officers should carry regular inspections in markets to ensure there is
hygiene and the required health standards are kept, the redevelopment exercise must be approved
by the public health offices in the county.

2.5 REGULATORY GUIDELINES, PLANNING AND DESIGN STANDARDS


This section discuss the various guidelines that has been provided by various authorities
regarding market construction standards

2.51 The physical planning Handbook Market construction standards


2.511 Infrastructure design and space standards
This discuss the various the building and stall standards, road space standards and public health
space standards as provided in the physical planning hand book

i) Building and stalls space standards

The following are the main space standard provisions for market stalls and buildings;

Specification Standard

Main thoroughfare of market A 6meters aisle to allow for circulation

Aisle inside building Minimum of 3.5meters to allow a group of three


people walking together to pass one person standing
by a stall or two people walking to pass two other
people

Maximum distance between cross aisle inside 12 meters


buildings

Minimum stall depth( Trader standing behind) 2metes for standing and staking of boxes plus 1 meter
for the counter

Minimum stall depth(Trader sitting on stall) 1.2meters

Minimum stall height(trader sitting on stall) 0.7metres

Minimum stall height(Trader sitting in front of 0.7Meters

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the stall)

Minimum stall width 1.8 Meters

Small lock up stalls Between 2*2 and 3*4 meters with sales space taking
up to 30-50 percent of the area

Sales or table area per trader 0.8 and 1.2 square meters excluding standing space

Outdoor seating/low walls 400mm high, between 300 to 500mm deep

Central market space for trading in the open Max dimensions between 20 and 25 meters

Width of minor pedestrian routes Not to exceed the height of the surrounding buildings

Table 1: Building and stall standards,

Source; physical planning handbook 2007

2.512 Roads and parking space standards


Specification Standard

Single lane road width 3.5 Meters

One lane road width 7Meters

Two way road width 12Meters

Size of parking space for one car 1.8*2.4 meters

Visitor’s car parking 2 to 5 spaces per 100 meters of sales area

Visitor’s car parking Preferred maximum distance from market: 100 meters,
absolute maximum distance at peak periods:
200meters

Maximum parking area for pick- ups 8*3.6 meters

Size of parking areas for trucks 11*3.6 meter

Parking for traders and delivery vehicles 1 to 2 spaces per stall.

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Sidewalk widths 2.5 meters ( 5.2 meters if road side stall is to be
accommodated)

Lamp stands placed at intervals of 15 to 25 meter

Table 2: Road and parking standards,

Source; physical planning handbook 2007

2.513 Public health space standards


Water supply stand pipes or tube Maximum of 50Meters from user( 25 meters preferred)
wells

Meat and fish stalls immediate access to water (Adjacent)

Toilets( pit latrines and urinals) A maximum of 100 meters from users( 50 Meters preferred)

Latrine 2square meters per 1000 people during peak period market
users

Toilet provision for staff 2square meter per 25 market employees (male and female
separate). Minimum of 2square meters

Dustin bin or garbage pits Max distance of 50 meters from users, (25meters preferred)

Table 3; Market Public health standard,

Source; physical planning handbook 2007

2.52 Standards for Public Utilities Provision


Public utilities are those facilitate the effective operation of the market facility. Effective
provision of Public utilities is essential for the proper functioning of the market facility. There
should be proper space provision for the various utilities. Handling of businesses in areas
specified for these utilities should be avoided as this impairs operation of such, It also affects the
life of the utilities.

2.521 Water supply


Water lines should be laid at a depth sufficient to protect against frost damage. The minimum
pipe depth should be 0.5m below the ground level with the main water pipeline requiring a way
leave of 10 meters. The reticulation systems in form of pipeline should be designed in a

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hierarchical manner, from the main pipeline distributor to the minor in order to achieve equity in
distribution.

2.522 Garbage Collection and Disposal


Garbage collection sites must be environmental friendly. They should be located on the leeward
side and have a 100m-protection belt.

2.523 Storm water Drainage


Storm water drainage systems are necessary particularly in built up areas receiving more than
200mm of rainfall. It is therefore recommended that for a storm water drainage system a
minimum of 2m width strip of land should be provided.

Way leaves Facility Preferred Way leave

Drainage way leaves 3m – 4.5m

Anti-Malarial Way leaves 4m

Building clearance 1.5m, 2.5m and 7.5m

Septic Tank clearance 6m

Sewer line 3m

Table 4; storm water drainage provisions,

Source; physical planning handbook 2007

2.524 Electricity Cables


Capacity of line Way leave

11 KV 10m

33KV 20m

40KV 20m

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66KV 30m

132KV Single circuit towers 50m

132KV Double Circuit towers 60m

Table 5; way leaves for electricity provision standards,

Source; physical planning handbook 2007

2.53 Planning standards for Hawking


Kiosks and hawking activities are considered as special features in planning. Sites for hawking
and kiosks need to be planned and designated e.g. hawking grounds and streets. Kiosks should be
located adjacent to bus parks, open air markets and certain institutions. In addition, the following
locational factors determine their siting is recommended; accessibility, market demand and foot
loose character of hawking. The minimum size of a kiosk should be 3m by 3m.

2.531Commercial developments along highways


Building lines should be observed where roads are below 18 meters wide the building line shall
be 6 m.

2.54 The building code standards


The building code’s mandate is to ensure built structures are structurally sound and are compliant
with the law. It specifies certain design and material requirements that should be followed in the
construction of buildings.

2.541Design requirements
According to the building code 2009, any building, structural element or a component there of
shall be designed to provide strength, stability, serviceability and durability in accordance with
accepted structural design and so that it will not impair the integrity of any other building or
property.

The design of market stalls should be such that on the event of accidental over-loading the
structural system will not suffer disastrous or progressive collapse which is diaproportionate to
the original cause.This will be considerd in evaluating diffrent desings in the market that will
maximise use of space.

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2.542 Building materials
The building code provides that the structural system of any building should be carried out in
accordance with one or more of the following regulations relating to the materials used in such
building or in any element or component thereof; structural use of concrete, steelwork, masonry
work, stone masonry, timber, aluminum, steel fabric for reinforcement of concrete, size sawn and
processed softwood, code for design and installation of damp proof course in masonry
construction, composite construction in structural steel and concrete, reinforced and pre-stressed
concrete structure for storage of water and other aqueous liquid, protection of iron and steel
structures from corrosion, cement, aggregate and sand for concrete works, specification for
lightweight aggregate for masonry units and structural concrete, testing concrete and design of
concrete structure for retaining aqueous liquid.

The redevelopment exercise in muthurwa intends to design fixed stalls. The stall shall be made
of removable cardboard partitions. This will facilitate possible multiple letting by traders who
want more than one stall. The outside can however be made of other material such as steel. It
should be however capable for alteration when the market officials feel there is need to do so.

2.6 THEORETICAL PRINCIPLES


Theoretical principles are ideas that are rarely practiced but can be used as references to guide
actually happens, as case studies or reference points, below are three theoretical principles that
relate to markets.

2.61City improvement districts/ retail improvement districts


This is localized variation of Business improvement districts common in Canada and South
Africa. The definition of the CIDs comes from its goal where a CID's ultimate goal is seen to
be to maintain and manage the public environment at a superior level and thus enhance their
(the majority of the property owners) investments. CIDs are therefore geographic areas in which
the majority of property owners determine and agree to fund supplementary and complementary
services to those normally provided by the local authority. The local authority continues to
provide their normal services. Supplementary CID services might include public safety
ambassadorial services, pavement cleaning, litter collection, maintenance of public space,
removal of illegal posters etc. Additional CID services may include place marketing and web-

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based communication, small capital projects, landscaping and special events to ensure a
superior urban village lifestyle. Through legislation the cost of the provision of whatever
services a CID is to provide is then spread on a pre-agreed equitable basis across all property
owners within the geographic area. Funds contributed by the property owners may only be
spent in the area in which they are collected, unlike rates (Peyroux, 2008).
The CID model can be seen as one of the ways of tackling development that can be utilized in
Kenya to increase efficiency in implementation and maintenance. It shares common strength
points with the business improvement districts (BID) concept. However, the CID concept
differs from the BID concept in that it covers a larger scale and usually involves great
involvement of the authority in charge of a city. In the project site being an area that has a lot
of vibrancy then redevelopment is to be carried out using the BID/CID model to reduce
contestation of space and provide adequate spatial ordering of activities.
2.62Abstract versus social spaces
There have long been implicit dichotomies in the study of space and spatial conflicts. One side
of the dichotomies consists of the powerful force often equated with globalization, economies,
the material, and space, while the other side consists of the factors affected by this force, often
described as Locality, culture, the symbolic, and place. The former is portrayed as
abstract, structural, homogenizing, and dominating; the latter as concrete, accidental,
heterogeneous, and defensive (Jung, 2011).

This space dichotomy is commonly known as the abstract-social space dichotomy. Abstract
space is seen to be space dominated and produced by global and capitalistic forces of
development where economic maximization is the ultimate goal whereas social spaces are
spaces designed to allow for maximum benefit to the society. Abstract spaces are natural
spaces brought about by human interaction. This tend to have th e highest level of
lifespan and cultural diversity, most of the historical cities under conservation can be
noted to have high level of social spaces thus culture cannot be preserved without due regard
to social spaces. However social spaces are seen to be highly defensive this is because as Jung
(2011) puts it social spaces tend to be dominated by the endowed (in resources) who have a
great tendency towards the abstract.
"If space is a social product, then, it is likely dominated and modified by the powerful. Since
the beginning of modem capitalism, the domination of space by the powerful has carried

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out the abstraction of space. Space was reduced to grids, separated into homogeneous and
isotropic pieces in which local difference, uneven development, and local histories were erased.
One of the major conditions of capitalist land development is the commodification of land, and
the appreciation of the exchange value of land as a legitimate signal to price land. An imagined
grid is imposed on land, and the price of land is estimated based on the location in the grid; the
estimated long-run price of each piece of land constitutes its exchange value. This
commodification of land regards only the objective conditions of the piece of land, while
ignoring the specificity of that particular place, including its history, the subjective meanings
attached to the place, and other subjective qualities such as human networks, neighborhood
spirit, and feelings toward place, all of which constitute the use and emotional value of
place. The increasing commodification of land in modem capitalism has marginalized
the use and emotional value of places, and has destroyed the subjective social relations created
in and through those places" (Jung, 2011).
The site for this area is dominated by a commercial market, a major social space for
individuals in the area. However there is a major threat from the abstract Euclidean spaces
being generated. It is hence seen that encroachment of abstract space being produced by
modem capitalism and bureaucratic states threatens social space which is the realm of
everyday life of ordinary people and the container upon which histories of human interaction
and culture are stored. The planning development project is seen as mediating between abstract
and social space. This is more so to protect the social space which brings a sense of
communalism within the capitalistic context an aspect to be treasured in bringing about
cohesive and safe markets.

2.63 Elements of an urban center, objectives of urban design and Gentrification


Urban centers are seen to be a culmination of five identifying elements, the paths, edges,
districts, nodes and land marks. The paths are the de facto planning units in Kenya where there
has been an overemphasis on roads as the definers of space. However the nodal and district
components which are of similar importance have been left out or inadequately handled. This
is the likes of the market places, bus parks and shopping districts especially pertaining the
informal shopping districts such as muthurwa.
This development project will therefore address this issues with the aim of coming up with an
all rounded, all inclusive project that balances all the urban design elements to ensure a

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cohesive and sustainable form of development and co-existence. The objectives that urban
design will address in the development project include: legibility, character, diversity,
continuity and enclosure, ease of movement, adaptability and quality public realm
These urban design objectives will be the critical key issues to observe during the design
process of the project. This is to ensure that the final products befits both its time in the 21"
century but also the users in a manner attractive rather than repulsive to the common observer.
Legibility, character, diversity, continuity and enclosure will be of special interest to the
development project. Legibility ascertains that for ease of movement within any urban space
the nature of development design and layout should be in such a manner that locals and
visitors are able to interpret and understand how an area is organized and be able to move
around. This type of development pattern is achieved through the grid system or a modified grid
network of streets (London City Ontario, 2010). The legibility of a city is very important to
help people orientate themselves both from within and outside the city. Streetscape treatments
that create memorable urban corridors and nodal spaces can help to reinforce the basic
legibility of the road system. The treatment of roads and their frontages could include, amongst
other devices, the theme of planting, hard scape, street furniture and signage (Ministry of
Nairobi Metropolitan Development, 2011).
Character is the identifiable image that can be seen to characterize indivi duals within the
given society. As such this is seen in form of open spaces, historical buildings and at
times business typologies. Successful cities are also seen to encourage diversity of individuals
and activities within the cities as such the development project aims at encouraging diversity
through preservation of character (London City Ontario, 2010).
Diversity on the other hand is seen as the capacity of given spaces to contain a myriad of land
uses and activities harmoniously such that an individual can go through most to all their
lifecycle activities without the need to move or source for items and services in another space
(London City Ontario, 2010). Continuity and enclosure are seen to be aspects mostly in street
form that are needed throughout the an area of an urban area to allow users to easily identify
and understand where they are, directions to where they need to go and the purpose of the street.
In doing this, development assists in creating the proper enclosure of space delineating private
and public realms (London City Ontario, 2010). As such therefore the urban design objectives
will therefore strive to minimize conflict and contestation through the design of an all-inclusive

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user friendly space. However, in redesign of informal space often gentrification sets in where
some individuals in the site during the pre-construction phase are either left out of the
development tor bought out. As such there is need to ensure that the pre -construction
users of muthurwa market end up as the beneficiaries of the same.

2.7 Case studies

The case studies chosen for purpose of inferential adaptation of the development project are
two; Brook Street in Durban and Kerk Street in Johannesburg. Brook Street was selected on the
basis of its high level of design detailing in approaching informal trade. Its location between
a railway terminus and a freeway is also a similarity with the muthurwa case. It is at the western
fringe of Durban CBD. Kerk Street was chosen because of its location at the heart of a highly
developed urban area and the effect that this market has on the urban fabric
2.71 Case study 1: Brook Street Durban
2.711 Location
Durban city is in eastern South Africa, in KwaZulu-Natal province, on the coast of the
Indian Ocean. The case is located in Brook Street Central, a street within Durban, Johannesburg
directly between the west street cemetery and the eastern edge of the Berea Station. The area is
to the Warwick junction cemetery and is the oldest in Durban. It was opened in 1850, it contains
Christian, Muslim and Jewish graves. The Muslim section is currently the most actively used
(Dobson & eTafuleni, 2012).

2.712 Concept
The case illustrates the phased development of an urban scale, roofed informal economy
trading "mall" that was initiated as a joint venture with the Local Authority, through
iTRUMP (inner Thekwini Regeneration and Urban Management Programme). The approach
was by the Badsha Peer Mazaar Society, who proposed the erection of a permanent roof structure
over the portion of Brook Street Central adjacent to their Saint's Mazaar (shrine) for the
dual use of their veneration ceremonies and the daily informal trade already existent in the
same space. (Dobson & eTafuleni, 2012). The Basha Peer Mazaar society is a society that was
formed by devotees of Harat Sheik Ahmed Badsha. After his death, devotees began
commemorating his life with an Ur, which became an annual event and is now the biggest of

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such functions held in the southern hemisphere. The Badsha Peer Mazaar Society was formed
and its members built the Mazaar (shrine) abounding the Brook Street Muslim section of West
Street Cemetery, where Peer is buried" (Dobson, 2012)

Plate 1: An aerial view of Durban street market showing a section of the cemetery,

Source; Dabson and eTafuleni 2012

Plate 2; a section of brook street market showing the covered and uncovered market activities,

Source; Dabson and eTafuleni 2012

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Plate 3: street level activities and circulation in brook street market,

Source; Dabson and eTafuleni, 2012

2.713 Features

The following features came out really strong in the


brook street case;

Multilevel markets and spaces were encouraged for the basis of increasing capacity for
current and future demand. As such the over-reliance on lateral expansion was reduced and
resultant conflicts are minimized.
Multilevel circulation approaches were seen to encourage diffusion of traffic more so the
pedestrian traffic. This approach can be used to separate traffic where types of commodities are
allocated levels and prohibited in the other levels. As such the traffic was split into manageable
sections that were then directed appropriately.
A strong vision in design as it takes such a vision to ensure that an audacious project as the
brook street one comes to life. This is especially considering the higher level pedestrian

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channels and trading spaces which prove untenable if not carefully detailed.
Receptivity to stakeholders' ideas was seen to be a key cornerstone towards success of
implementation of such a project where the development took off at the request of the
stakeholders as such there was communal ownership of the project.
Concept evolution was also seen to be a necessary component where throughout the project
implementation milestones and targets were set as points of reference and check points to
ascertain the effectiveness and achievement of desired effect of the project. As such there
exist points at which the development can be redesigned according to its efficacy and
community response to it. This was mostly achieved through phased implementation.
Urban uniqueness- The case illustrates a level of uniqueness in design where the
practitioners identified with the unique characteristics of the site and adapted the project to
conform as opposed to contrast to the immediate environment.
2.714 Challenges
The case is not without challenges, the major one being the spillover effects being felt at adjacent
roads, the spillover effects were not just of traders but also of traffic both human and vehicular.
The question of increasing capacity for the market then becomes a necessity for the area.
However the projects reliance on vertical expansion has proved to alleviate the problem by
implementation of higher level trading spaces and articulation of a multilevel circulation system.
2.715 Inferences

This case indicates a classical example of the intricate interrelationship between informal trade
and transport terminals where traders take advantage of the traffic flow to sell their wares. The
case also indicates the result of coordinated player effort in an otherwise contested space for the
benefit of all. The issue of contestation and degenerating urban spaces is tackled through
coordinated effort and realization of collective interests of all players relating to the said space.
As such development is articulated in a manner to seamlessly bring together the interests of
all players and thus ensure optimum productivity for and of all the players.

However, there is an apparent need for due considerations of the effects that such a development
has on the existing social-economic factors. There is often a higher economic attraction to the
site which results in a higher number of traders and buyers meeting at the site hence congestion
since the facility carry more than its capacity. This often if not considered in design results into

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overflows of the market resulting in worsening of the site. There is therefore need for an
expansion scheme/ appraisal programmes for any market to ensure sustainability of the
development.
2.72 Case study 2: Kerk Street
2.721 Location
Kerk street market is situated in the inner city of Johannesburg, a 2km radius of Marshalltown,
Carlton Centre and Park Station. Initially traders were trading around this area so as to capture
the working class pedestrian traffic that was moving between Park Station and Gandhi Square
and the various offices in Marshalltown and Carlton Centre.
2.722 Concept
The concept of this street market was finding a way of dealing with informal street trading so as
to ensure the environment of the city improvement district (CID) was kept clean and well
managed. It was decided to pedestrianize five blocks of Kerk Street and accommodate
informal street traders in this space as a way of organizing the traders and contributing to the
aesthetic image and vitality of this area. The initial traders of this market were traders that sold
around surrounding areas in the streets when the market was started.

Plate 4: Space organization in kerk street market,

Source; Bantubouse 2008

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Plate 5: selling spaces in kerk street market,

Source; Bantubouse 2008


SS
s
s our ce

2.723 Features
Management – CJP (the street market manager) encourage a participatory approach to
handling the running of the market from the grassroots rather than a top-down approach where
things were forced onto the traders. So, each block has a block leader that represented the
traders in their block and assists in dealing with the day to day conflict resolution between
traders and CJP itself
Space allocation - Traders were given space at the market by being referred to CJP (the street
market manager) from the Metro Trading Company's (MTC) waiting lists. MTC was a
company contracted to receive bids from the various traders. This way, the space allocation
exercise was corrupt free and satisfactory to all the stakeholders.
A blurred design vision –lack of a proper market design results in it being of very low
capacity resulting in spill overs to adjacent streets. The allocation of space is not adequate for
provision of markets without proper design interventions.
Pedestrianisation –The development of the market would not have been possible at such
an area without converting the street into a street market. For this to be done there was need
to pedestrianize the street to reduce the amount of traffic especially the vehicular traffic.
2.724 Inferences
The main subjects to be learned from the case of Kerk Street are those of pedestrianisation,
market management and design needs. The concept of pedestrianisation is seen where the

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development of the market would not have been possible at such an area without
converting the street into a street market. For this to be done there was need to pedestrianize
the street to reduce the amount of traffic especially the vehicular traffic. The only traffic going
to the site was that going specifically to the market or adjacent buildings. There is however
very minimal through traffic which happens to be only human traffic. Design needs was a
concept well seen in the area not by its existence but rather by its deficit, the lack of proper
design of the market results in it being of very low capacity resulting in spill overs to
adjacent streets. As such it emphasizes that the allocation of space itself is not adequate for
provision of markets without proper design interventions.
2.725 Challenge
The main challenge however experienced in Kerk Street is the design of stalls, a standard one
lacks. This brings about underutilization of spaces which lowers the capacity of the market. This
then results in some informal traders taking back to some of the major streets close to the site, as
such the main purpose of pedestrianizing the street and making it a street market fails to some
degree. The issue of capacity is as such the most pressing issue of the site. The adjacent high
level buildings towering over the site are also seen to lack porosity in terms of pedestrian flow
which then results in congestion at the entrances of the market.

2.8 Development framework


Planning issues on site have been identified to fall broadly into lack of adequate space for
trading, poor infrastructure and circulation in the market, congestion, and the lack of a desirable
spatial design for the market. The project sets out to mitigate against this by borrowing
inferentially from the two case studies analyzed where the targets achieved in so doing
are redeveloping muthurwa market to ensure effective and efficient space use by
revisiting the stall designs and the human traffic circulation systems in the market.
This is summarized in the following conceptual diagram.

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Planning issues Case 1 Case 2
Poor circulation in the market Coordinated player efforts Need for design interventions
Inadequate space utilization in to effectively use space
Future expansion considerations
the market Need for continuous appraisal
Multiple level market spaces
Congestion of facilities over their use
Concept evolution to ensure effective
Poor market and stall design operation
Commodity separation

Targets
Managerial and Policy
environment Effective circulation in the market

Inadequate policies on market Well-designed stalls that maximize on space use


management
Stakeholders involvement
Poor space management in
the market Market blocks reclassification and specialization

Interventions
Development project
Design interventions

Policy interventions
A well functional market with an effective
Managerial practice interventions space use, human traffic circulation and micro
enterprise growth

Figure 2: Development framework,

Source: Author 2014

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CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY

3.1 OVERVIEW
This chapter describes, in detail, the types of data that were sought, sources of such data, the
subjects targeted for the study, methods of data collection and data analysis. All these will be
informed by the project objectives. A summary of the methodology is presented in the form of a
data needs matrix below. The methodology shows the stages followed while undertaking the
project.

3.2 Data Needs and Requirements


The information that was sought was on policy and legal guidelines which comprised of zoning
regulations and development control information; planning standards for various land uses;
lessons from relevant case studies; location and historical development of the project area;
physical and environmental characteristics of the area; population and demographic
characteristics of the area; and land use patterns of the project area.

3.3 Data Sources


The data above was got from both primary and secondary sources. The physical and
environmental characteristics of the area and the land use information were gathered through site
analysis. The major methods of collecting this data were observation, field sketching and
photography. The only information that was got through interviews of Key informants was that
on zoning regulations and development control and this was specifically from the City council of
Nairobi. The other data was sourced from various secondary materials. The major policies that
were of critical consideration included the Kenya Vision 2030, Draft land Policy (2012),
National Land Policy (2007), and the Kenya National Trade Policy

The legal information was found in the Kenya Constitution (2010) and the relevant Acts of
Parliament. The Acts included county Government Act 2012 (Cap 265), Physical Planning Act
(1996), Urban Areas and Cities Act (2011), public health act, Environmental Management and
Coordination Act (1999) and the National Land Commission Act (2012). Data on planning
standards was sourced from Physical Planning Handbook (2008), the A.J. Metric Handbook and
the Building Code.

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3.4 Methods of Data Collection
These refer to methods used to capture data for the purposes of the study. They are majorly
divided into two main methods; those used to capture primary data and those used to capture
secondary data

3.41 Methods of primary data collection


These are methods used to capture first-hand information from the field, for the purposes of this
study there will be use of interviews, photography, field sketching and observations, these are
discussed below;

3.411 Interviews
There those to be talked to one-on-one. The respondents to be interviewed will be majorly the
key informants some of whom include government institutions like City Council of Nairobi
(Departments of City Planning and Markets development).

3.412 Photography
This will basically entail taking pictures of various phenomena for illustration purposes. The
major features that will be captured through photography will comprise the physical ones e.g.
buildings, transport networks, drainage systems, people undertaking various activities among
others.

3.413 Field Sketching


The researcher will also draw sketches of various features for illustration purposes. These will
include elevations, cross-sections and perspective drawings of the various market structures.

3.414 Observation
This will involve capturing observable variables and recording them down. Some of the aspects
that will be observed included market user behaviours, market design characteristics amongst
others.

3.41 Methods of secondary data collection


This will basically involve literature review entail reading of books, journals, periodicals and
reports written by previous researchers on relevant areas. Also reviewed policies and legal
documents guiding market planning.

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3.5 Methods of Data Analysis
This is whereby the data collected will be cleaned, sieved and synthesized for meaningful
interpretation of findings. Qualitative data will be analysed through logical reasoning while
quantitative data will be analysed using Excel and SPSS programs. Spatial data will be analysed
using GIS tools, AutoCAD and ArchiCAD.

3.6 Methods of Data Presentation


Main methods of data presentation will be graphs and pie charts for analytical data from field
work. Spatial data will be analysed by use of maps, sketches and drawings will also be used for
design data presentation and interpretation.

3.7 Methodology Limitations


The following limitations were faced during the project:
 There were time experienced as the time involved in the collection of data was not enough
 Non co-operative respondents- There was also a problem of respondents being un co-
operative, some refused to give information as they feared the researcher was collecting
information to avail to the county government for action.
 Financial constraint - The research work was curtailed by lack of sufficient funds to
adequately conduct a scientific sample, this might have resulted to a problem of
representativeness in the responses received.

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3.8 Data Needs Matrix
Project Data needs Form Uses of the data Source/Subjects
objectives
To determine  Legal and policy  Descriptive/  Offering bases for comparisons between the  Field surveys
the suitability goals in market Qualitative new proposals and past working interventions  Policy reviews
of the development and  Qualitative/  Ensuring that proposals are of value in  Case studies
proposed land use planning attaining the national development goals
Descriptive
redevelopment  Stakeholders view  Ensuring that planning interventions sought
 Qualitative/
exercise in on the suitability are up to expectations of the stakeholders
Descriptive
muthurwa and compatibility
market of the project in the
market

To review  Planning standards  Numerical  Establishing market space demand  Physical Planning
appropriate and regulations for and  Establishing the market space-use/design Handbook
space use the various land descriptive relationships in the market  A.J Metric Handbooks
standards for uses  Spatial  Finding out the level of accessibility of the Building code
the effective  Catchment /Descriptive various blocks in the market
operation of population size and sketches  Exploring the contribution of trader’s
the market human traffic  Numerical encroachment on market paths and exploring
characteristics possible means to regulate their impact on the
space use conflict they cause.

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To propose  Space use patterns  Qualitative  Establishing the market space-use /market  Site observation and
planning and in the market area  Spatial/Desc design relationships in the market analysis
design  Customer riptive  Offering an optimal space use for the market  Physical Planning
interventions circulation pattern Handbook
for the in the market
effective use
 Market Planning
of available
standards
space in the
market.
To propose an  Legal and policy Descriptive  To help ensure that the legal conditions in  The Kenya
appropriate goals in informal market development and those concerned Constitution, Acts of
implementatio market operations with their effective operation are well Parliament and national
n framework  Institutional established. policies
for the framework for  Ensuring that planning interventions sought  Physical Planning
proposed market are up to various stakeholders’ expectations Handbook
reorganization development and  Assigning responsibilities in the  Market plan models
model land use planning implementation and monitoring framework of different countries
 Stakeholders to be appropriately whose informal
involved economies have been
effectively planned
Table 6: Data needs matrix,

Source; Author 2014

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CHAPTER FOUR: SITUATIONAL ANALYSIS OF THE
PROJECT AREA
4.1 OVERVIEW
This chapter articulates on the physical location of the project area; landscape or topographical
and environmental characteristics of the area, background (history, planning and development)
of the area, population characteristics therein, land use analysis and institutional, legal and
financial issues of the project area.
4.2 LOCATION OF STUDY AREA
The location of the study area can be viewed in the regional and local contexts. The regional
context view the study area as part of the bigger Kenyan region, at the local context the study
area is viewed in the context of Nairobi, a local area. This is discussed below;

4.21 Regional Context


The project area, at its regional context, is located in Nairobi which lies 1.19o south of the
Equator and 36.59o east of the Prime Meridian 70. Its altitude is between 1600 and 1850 meters
above sea level. The climate is generally a temperate tropical climate, with cool evenings and
mornings and becomes cold during the rainy seasons. The long rains in Nairobi fall between
April and June, while the short rains are experienced between November and early December.
The average daily temperatures range from 29oC in the dry seasons to 24oC during the rest of the
year

4.22 Local Context


The study area encompasses the area within Muthurwa which falls in zone 1A, where
commercial, residential and office buildings are allowed. Muthurwa is within the city of Nairobi
(CBD) now a county in the larger county of Kenya. The land previously held the muthurwa
estate owned by Kenya railway network for its employees, it was purchased by the government
to build the hawkers market The market was constructed in 2005 as a plan by the government to
relocate hawkers from the central business district. The market sits on a 17 acre piece of land at
the edge of the central business district to the east. Its sandwiched between Haile Selassie
Avenue, ladhies road, wakulima market and the muthurwa bus terminus that ferry commuters to
east lands. The development action area will be the hawkers market that covers blocks 1 to 8.

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Map 1: Locational context of muthurwa in relation to Nairobi,

Source; Survey of Kenya 2009

Page 39 Planning development project


4.3HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROJECT AREA
Historical development of the project area is important as it helps understand the various
developments f various planning aspects in the project area, below discuss the historical
development of the entire Nairobi area and the development of muthurwa area over time.

4.31 Historical Development of Nairobi


The origin of Nairobi dates back to the year 1898 as a grazing front for Maasai and the Kikuyu.

In 1899, a trading centre emerged as a result of the construction and passage of the Kenya -
Uganda Railway. In the same year, the provincial headquarters was moved from Machakos to
Nairobi (Shihembetsa, 1995 in Mwaura, 2002).

The plan of Nairobi as a railway town manifested a lot of racial segregation. The Europeans, who
were senior officers, resided on the higher topographical area to the West of the railway line. The
subordinates, who were Asian junior officers, were located near the railway line on a partially
flat area near the hill area. Along Station Road (currently Moi Avenue), the European and Asian
traders provided their own housing, which was mixed with commercial enterprises.

During this time, permanent residence for African labourers was not catered for. They were
either accommodated in tents behind railway sheds or were expected to seek accommodation
outside the Railway Town in Kileleshwa (Maskini area) and across Nairobi River in Ngara,
Kariakor and Pangani areas
The Europeans who comprised 10% of the population were located in the best areas in the
northern and western parts of the town, on 2700 acres (1093ha) or 42% for residential purposes.
The Asian community (then 30% of the population) settled both in Parklands and Pangani on
300 acres (121.4ha) or 4.7% of the total area for residential use. The Africans, forming 60% of
the total population were to live in Pumwani location, an area less than 5% of the total area of
Nairobi.

4.32 Historic development of muthurwa Area


The study area fall within the larger Muthurwa estate which is situated in land No 209/6502 a 72
acre parcel of land belonging to Kenya Railways cooperation (KRC). The estate lies in the East
of Nairobi. The estate was constructed around 1910-1914 of the workers of KRC with a total of

Page 40 Planning development project


the 1120 houses units (10 by 10 meters). By 2002 Muthurwa estate used to be an independent
ward. It was afterwards merged with Shauri- Moyo Estate. Kenya Rail ways Staff Retirements
Benefits Scheme (KRSBRS) was mandated to manage the estate after the concession of Kenya
Railways Cooperation of Rift Valley Railways (RVR) Ltd in June 2006. The majority of people
residing in the estate are former KRC workers and their families. It is from this vast estate that
about 15 acres of land was sold to the city Council of Nairobi at 650 million for the construction
of the Multi- million Muthurwa market and terminus complex. Within this land, are two
important features; the Shaffie mosque which was gazette a National Monument in 2004 by
minister for Natural Heritage and the Social Hall measuring 120ft by 40ft constructed around and
before Second World War. Muthurwa hawker’s market and bus terminus is the official name of
the facility covering the study area measuring an approximate area of 15 acres. It is owned and
managed by the city council of Nairobi with the delegation of the transport and licensing board
department to oversee the operations of the bus terminus while the market department oversees
the operation of the hawkers market.

The market is majorly a facility for the informal trade commonly referred to as hawkers who deal
in an array of goods ranging from cloths, electronic gadgets, grains and vegetables while the bus
terminus is used by the buses plying the Eastland’s route. This facility was a brain child of the
government who envisioned a facility that would help to solve the menace of the hawkers that
was plaguing the CBD courtesy but also an increase in garbage and a general poor sanitation and
pollution in the CBD. It was thus put up with the aim of relocating the estimated 6000 hawkers at
the time so as to decongest the CBD. It was felt that constructing the market here will add value
to this location by bringing people to the hawkers rather than have the hawkers following the
people. Moreover, such a move would ensure that the city is decongested by removing both the
hawkers and the bus operators from the Eastland’s side there by ensuring that it is better
catchment area for the hawker’s capital to capitalize on the commuters who use the bus terminus.

According to the county government of Nairobi, the cost of construction was put at
Ksh.700million ($10.7million) despite the fact that up to today the construction work has never
been completed. Moreover, there were delays during the construction time that necessitated an
unprecedented rush to complete the project. This had the inevitable result of substandard work
coupled with poor structures, uncompleted roads and generally poor workmanship. In fact, the

Page 41 Planning development project


cluster 6 which was to include a hospital , police station, banking hall as well as an
administration office that were to be erected on site either were done halfway or did not
materialize altogether

4.4 SITE ANALYSIS


Site analysis refers to the specific analysis of the project area to understand the suitability of the
site for the proposed development in the area. It looks at the physical and climatic attributes of
the project area to verify its suitability for the proposed redevelopment exercise.

4.41 Topography and slope characteristics


The topography of the study area and Nairobi area in large can be described as gentle. It gently
slopes from North West side to South East. The altitude of the area changes from a height of
1650m high to 1620m. Topography analysis is crucial as it helps determine the orientation of
buildings to facilitate effective drainage in the market place. Muthurwa market slants towards
landhies road. Drainage channels are to be directed towards landhies road, it is proposed that the
blocked ones should be unblocked to facilitate effective drainage.

4.42 Geology and soils


The soil in Mathurwa is black- cotton soils (Sombroek et al, 1980) which have developed on
tertiary basic igneous rocks. The soil is imperfectly drained with low capillarity. The load
bearing of this soil is also low, making it poor for construction. Where there is to be a
construction on such soil, the soil must be removed wholly. This raises the construction cost.
However, the exercise intends to redevelop the existing ground, not high rise, the need for
bearing much load therefore becomes unnecessary.

4.43 Hydrology
Muthurwa area is drained by Nairobi River that passes the area to the eastern side. Hydrology
analysis helps in planning the construction site so that structure roofs are oriented such that
flooding is not experienced in the area. The site should be oriented in a way to prevent possible
flooding. However, the proposed exercise is redevelopment in nature; building stalls on blocks
earlier built, determining the roof orientations will not be necessary as the market blocks will not
be changed.

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4.44 Climatic conditions
Proper functionality of built structures requires that a proper analysis of an area’s climate is done
to determine the building orientations, direction and construction materials. For effective
operation of the market stalls, the climatic conditions of the study area are done below. The study
area receives the same climatic conditions as for the entire Nairobi city. The climate is generally
a temperate tropical climate, with cool evenings and mornings and becomes cold during the rainy
seasons.

4.45 Rainfall
The area receives on average 925mm of rainfall annually but varies from 500mm to 1500mm in
a year. There are two rainy seasons, from mid-March to the end of May (the "Long Rains"), and
from mid-October to mid-December (the "Short Rains") and are well distributed throughout the
area as for the whole of Nairobi. The amount of rain received in an area determine the amount of
precipitation and so an areas drainage. It also determines the kind of material to be used for
building and roofing. 925mm for muthurwa is moderately average. Drainage is manageable with
the current infrastructure without need of new drainage infrastructure. The market blocks are
roofed with iron sheet, there is hardly any need for re- roofing. However, repair of leaking roof is
necessary to ensure effective operation of trade in the market area.

4.46 Temperature
Muthurwa area experiences an average temperature of 18°C. The following table shows the
temperature distribution within the year.

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Graph 1: Temperature variance in the study area,

Source; www.meteo.go.ke 2014

In the case of market environments, analysis of temperature is an important component as they


determine the effective functionality of those markets especially where there is sale of
agricultural produce. High temperatures will increase the operation cost of the markets as there
might be requirement of refrigeration facilities. Temperatures also determine the orientation and
coverage of building as covering will be unnecessary where temperatures are very high.
Orientation towards the wind direction is necessary to facilitate aeration and cooling. The
temperature in muthurwa is moderately fair at an average of 18 degrees Celsius, use of fixed
stalls for the market will be allowable. However, for aeration purposes it is proposed that the stall
fronts face north east.

4.461 Effect of afternoon sun on market buildings


Building facing north and south will have minimum sunshine penetration. These are ideal since
the sun is not shinning into or through the stalls or shops, for example, during the hottest part of
the day and all the buildings are giving the maximum possible shelter to the occupants

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4.47 Winds
In muthurwa, wind near the ground is predominantly easterly throughout the year, generally
between North-east and east from October to April, and between east and south-east from May to
September. The strongest winds occur during the dry season just prior to the "Long Rains" when
speeds of 20 to 25 m.p.h.

The element of winds is very essential in planning for the orientation of buildings. For example,
in a market facility, it important that buildings and streets are aligned in a way that there is
natural aeration, for instance, markets selling food items, especially where refrigeration is absent
like the case of muthurwa market. Market stalls in the study area will face north east and south to
provide moderate aeration in the stalls, in the same way this orientation will also protect the
stalls from strong winds in case they strike. Planting of trees to reduce the speed of wind is
proposed.

4.5 POPULATION AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS


This refers to the character of the human population in the study area, the number and the
demographic characteristics. Population and demographics are an important component in in site
analysis as facilities, in this case market facility are planned to be used by human being. Below
discuss the population and demographic characteristics of the study area.

4.51 Population
The population in an area is an important indicator on the number of people to be planned for,
for purposes of this project, accurate estimation of the possible market users is necessary to
accurately predict the possible customer traffic and adequate space to be set for sales and
circulation in the market. For purposes of resident night population, by its nature, that of a
market, the exact census data on the study area is scanty however, an estimation of the persons
who transact business in this market can be done. According to the market superintendent at city
hall, muthurwa is estimated to attract an estimated population of approximately 100,000 people
per day with the pick hour being in the morning and evening when the Eastland’, commuters are
either coming to the CBD or leaving respectively.

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4.52 Demographic characteristics of the project area
According to the KNHPC 2009 Report, the demographic characteristics of the area around the
market, i.e. muthurwa residential flats and the houses occupied by the Kenya railway employees
can be estimated as below;

Information category Statistics


Total fertility rate 4.72
Crude death rate 13.1/1000
Infant mortality rate 53/1000
Neo-natal mortality rate 32/1000
Post neo-natal mortality rate 34/1000
Child mortality rate 27/1000
Under five mortality rate 78/1000
Life expectancy 57
Average household size 5
Dependency ratio 82%
Table 7: Demographic characteristics of the study area,

Source: KNPC Report 2009

4.6 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS


The area is inhabited by low income earners mainly working in the jua kali sector, the CBD,
muthurwa market and the industrial area. Findings from the research project identified that an
individual’s average income per month is Ksh.3500 while it ranges from Ksh.15000 to 20000 for
a few. The major economic activities in the area include small scale businesses (engaging in
almost all lines of trade ranging from cloths, electronics, food stuffs, etc.) The rate of increase in
these businesses is quite high, hence increasing the competition amongst the various traders, this
cause competition for space and other amenities, consequently soaring their operation cost.
There is need for space regularization to facilitate their effective operation.

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4.61 Land use Analysis of project area
The facility (Market and bus terminus) was constructed on a parcel of land that was previously
owned by the Kenya Railways and used predominately as residential zone for their staff.
However, the government through the city council acquired the land for the construction of the
market and bus terminus; however some residential units still remained within the site. There is
also a mosque, Madrasa School and a social hall within this residential area. Therefore, this
hitherto predominantly residential area now has another added function to it i.e. the market and
the bus terminus; these uses make the place really busy as customers and traders flow into the
market area is really high, creating possible congestion in the area. The major land uses in this
area include commercial, residential, recreation, transport, agriculture and public purpose. The
land use impacts on site are as shown below.

Land use Activity name Impact

Commercial Markets There is a high number of persons who come to


muthurwa for market purposes, to buy and sell
goods. This is a considerable number of people.

Residential Muthurwa estate Residents in muthurwa estate have to have to pass


via Muthurwa market in their way from the CBD

Transportation  Muthurwa bus terminus Commuters to east lands from the CBD to
 Machakos bus station Muthurwa bus terminus generate a lot of human
traffic as there isn’t any other route to the
terminus except passing through the market.

Public purpose Shaffie mosque Those accessing their way to the mosques and
police station must pass through the market
Police post
causing much traffic

Recreation Community social halls There is one community hall within the muthurwa
market which is a gazetted monument. It’s also
used to provide offices to TLB team

Table 8: Land uses in the project area,

Source: fieldwork 2014

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4.62 Environment and Pollution
The environment of the study area can be described as one struggling with pollution issues.
Ranging from noise pollution due to the competing musical tunes of the various traders to
dumping and poor waste management practices, incidences of broken sewer lines causing dumpy
environment in the market place is also an issue that needs attention. Pollution is therefore rife, a
problem that needs address.

4.7 CONCLUSION
For purposes of the effective operation of the market, a situational analysis is important to
facilitate an understanding of the site. The following came out from the site analysis of the
project area;

 That Muthurwa market slants towards landhies road the drainage channels are to be directed
towards landhies road, it is proposed that the blocked ones be unblocked to facilitate
effective drainage.
 That the market stalls in the study area face north east and south to provide moderate aeration
in the stalls, in the same way this orientation will also protect the stalls from strong winds in
case they strike. Planting of trees to reduce the speed of wind is proposed.
 That the temperature in muthurwa is moderately fair at an average of 18 degrees Celsius, use
of fixed stalls for the market will be allowable. However, for aeration purposes it is proposed
that the stall fronts face north east.
 That drainage is manageable with the current infrastructure without need of new drainage
infrastructure. The market blocks are roofed with iron sheet, there is hardly any need for re-
roofing. However, repair of leaking roof is necessary to ensure effective operation of trade in
the market area.

Page 48 Planning development project


CHAPTER FIVE: PROJECT PLANNING DESIGN AND
IMPLEMENTATION

5.1 OVERVIEW
As outlined in Chapter one of this report, the objectives of this project will be achieved through a
series of designs. The designs have been developed through a series of steps as outlined in the
subsequent sections of this chapter.

5.2 Planning and Design of the Project


This section covers an evaluation of the various project outcomes in relation to the respective
output and objectives. Derivation of the designs intended for the project and development of a
spatial plan is discussed.

5.2.1 Expected Outputs and Outcomes of the Development Projects


The project design is expected to produce the following results and impacts

Expected Outputs and Outcomes of the Development Projects

Project Objective Project Outputs Project Outcomes


To determine the suitability Evaluated different alternative -selection of the best
of the proposed interventions possible in the project alternative using
redevelopment exercise in area that can solve space use conflict different appraisal
muthurwa market techniques

To review appropriate space Innovative space utilization in the market -Reduced congestion in the
use standards for the , while adhering to stipulated standards market
effective operation of the
-Effective distribution of
market
customers in all areas of the
market.

Page 49 Planning development project


o Well-designed market stalls Derivation of
To propose planning and that maximize on space use in maximum utility in
design interventions for the the market. space
effective use of available o Specialized market blocks Free flow of persons
space in the market. that serve different lines of and goods in the
trade market.
o Renovated infrastructure that
facilitate effective customer
circulation in the market

To propose an appropriate -Project’s Implementation Strategies and -Adequate


implementation framework schedules implementation,
for the proposed monitoring and evaluation
-Project’s Monitoring and Evaluation
reorganization model in the of redevelopments in the
framework
market project area
-Institutional framework for project’s
implementation
Table 9: Expected outputs and outcomes of the development project,

source; Author 2014

5.22 Development of a spatial plan and design alternatives


The first stage of this whole process was problem identification which was enabled by the
research undertaken on muthurwa market between October 2013 and January 2014. This led to
the realization that this project was necessary but before anything was done, objectives of the
project were set. After that, the planning process adopted for this project was as summarized in
charts 4 & 5 below. The project took into consideration of two different models and the minimal
intervention. The plan proposal is indicated below discussing the plan interventions and
proposal.

5.221 Site Planning and Design Process Stages


The project adopted the conventional planning and design process. The process involve the
following stages:

Page 50 Planning development project


Phase 1: Research and Analysis - This was done through a research project, it was evident that
there was conflict of use among the various components that use space in the market.

Phase 2: Program Development

This stage entailed drawing up a programme guide. Items outlined to accomplish this
encompassed:

• A statement of goals that the project should achieve.


• A list of project objectives by which these goals will be accomplished.
• A list of project elements that will be included and a description or analysis of their
interrelationships. The program is as follows:

THE DESIGN PROGRAM


Goal Statement
To redevelop muthurwa market
Objectives
o To determine the suitability of the proposed redevelopment exercise in muthurwa market

o To review appropriate space use standards for the effective operation of the market

o To propose planning and design interventions for the effective use of available space in the market.

o To propose an appropriate implementation framework for the proposed reorganization model in the
market

Program Elements
Design components; design of market stalls with the following specifications;
 1.6 by 2.35 by 3.2 meter for length, breath and height respectively.
 A 2meters circulation path after every four stalls along the length
 A 2.6 meters pedestrian walkway between the stall pair along the breath
Infrastructure upgrade ;repair of broken parts of the perimeter wall and renovation of market bridges
Classification and specialization of the various market blocks
Table 10: Project design programme,

source; Author 2014

Page 51 Planning development project


Phase 3: Synthesis (Design Phase)

This phase entail a series of stages. First, there’s the conceptual design which begins with
functional diagrams which explore the relationship of program elements and activities. Next on
line is a preliminary design which resolves each program element into a physical component,
suggesting basic form, size, and materials to be used. The final is the site plan which gives
precise form, dimension and indication of the materials. It’s however important to note that
before the designs were made, a situational analysis of the project area was done

5.23 Planning design alternatives


Two development alternative models for muthurwa market were evaluated; a redevelopment
model and a replacement model. The two are weighted on their various advantages and
disadvantages and the best alternative is chosen for development. A nil scenario intervention is
also considered, it looks at the possible courses of action in the event no planning intervention
are taken. These are discussed below;

5.231 Minimal intervention


In minimal intervention, little or no planning intervention is carried out. The following scenarios
are likely to be witnessed in the market if no intervention is done.

5.2311 Increased space use conflict- If no intervention is made; space conflict is likely to
continue manifesting in the market. The increasing number of traders due to high urbanization
rates will continue to bloat the market. With the unclear/ unregulated space allocation
procedures, there will be many traders than the facility can handle at a point of effective
operation causing deterioration of its functionality. For instance trader’s will continue selling
their merchandise on pathways hindering smooth flow of goods and people around the market, if
the bridges and the perimeter wall aren’t repaired to facilitate effective distribution of customers
in all areas of the market, customer distribution will remain skewed, favouring areas along paths
while others remain unviable for conducting business. This will cause loss of space utility
especially in block 5 and some parts of block 4;

Page 52 Planning development project


The case of skewed customer distribution in the market in the various areas of the market

The case of B, is that of


5.2312 Skewed customer distribution in the market
facility underutilization
due to few number of
customers who reach these
areas. The case well
A manifests itself in block 5
B
where traders get very few
or no customers at all. The
area is large but has few
people leading to facility
There are so many and trader’s customers along market paths underutilization as so non
and around market gates. Most notable are paths between 1 and maximization of space
2 and that which runs from gate 1 straight to the bus terminus. utility. If no intervention is
The area is small but has many people leading to congestion done this will continue to
and deteriorated operating conditions. manifest

If no interventions are done, the above is likely to ensure in muthurwa market. Measures to
control use of space should therefore be employed.
Above shows Figure 3: The case of skewed customer distribution in the market,

Source; Author 2014

5.232 Replacement
Unlike redevelopment, replacement refers to the demolition of the non-functional structures then
construction of new functional ones. It will involve a total overhaul on the market to develop
new high rise stalls in the market.

5.2321 Design – The existing market blocks are to be demolished and foundation laid for high
rise stalls. It is proposed that there be two floors; the ground floor and the first floor, both will

Page 53 Planning development project


have identical layout plans. The stall dimensions are proposed to be 1.7 by 2.35 by 3.2 meters.

Figure 4: Section through the proposed alternative high rise market model,

source; Author 2014

5.2322 Model description- The type of stalls and designs specifications proposed for the high
rise stall model will be categorised on the basis of their area, space requirements, and
functionality. The planning solution suggested is to construct high rise stalls in the market blocks
with the following specifications;
a) A common roof for at least 40 commercial stalls (including upper and ground floors) in one
market block set back behind the storm water drains. This number will vary depending on the

Page 54 Planning development project


length of the various market blocks. A 4meter pedestrian walkway between the blocks in the two
floors will be provided.
b) The ground coverage of the existing buildings in the plot should not be more than 75% of the
plot area.
c) The height of the market block shall be 7meters for the two floors; shop stall shall be to 3
meter.
d) Stalls in the first floor will be accessed from the pedestrian paths, access in the upper floors
will be through a balcony provided at the block edges. The dimension specifications of the
balcony will be as those of the setbacks behind the storm water drainages.
e) There will be no encroachment allowed on the carriage ways or pedestrian walk ways as the
shop area will be restricted.
f) The county council will contract construction firms to construct the stalls in the sites. It will
then handle the provision of water, electricity and sanitary facilities to the shops. License fees,
rents and rates will be paid to the city council for the provision of services.
g) The shop will not be sold/ sub-let, in the event an individual trader defers, the stall will be
reverted back to the city county to be rented out to another trader, to be used for purpose
stipulated for the site and the particular stalls

5.2323 Evaluation - The main advantage of this option is that maximum utility of the market
land will be utilized, there will be a chance to rethink the design of the market again while
involving all the stakeholders. Their space standard preferences and preferred operation of the
market will be taken into account. Some of the underscores of this option are; that it’s really
expensive to construct another new market. Getting the stakeholders approval on the same will
be really hard as part operation of the market while construction continues will be difficult if not
impossible.

5.232 Redevelopment
Redevelopment is the process of reshaping the fabric of the study area, either through reshaping
or refurbishment. It refers to repairing the existing structures to give them value in their usage
and to correct their current deficiencies in order to increase their functionality. The case of
redevelopment is based on the assumption that the area was initially planned to look like it
currently is, but over time the site has become blighted due to heavy number of traders that has

Page 55 Planning development project


to be accommodated who were not initially planned for. Ideally, the redevelopment exercise will
adopt the initial muthurwa market plan. The exercise will be geared toward sustenance of this
plan, market stalls space allocation and design will be rethought however. The redevelopment
exercise will be composed of the following components;

Infrastructural upgrade Market blocks Design Proper


 Market stall management
Market bridge classification and
renovation specialization design structure
Rebuilding broken parts  Market block
of the perimeter wall design

Market Redevelopment

 Improved condition of work, circulation and performance of the market through


effective and efficient space use.
 Increased space utility while maintaining order and walkability in the market.
 A solution in the problem of congestion.
 Provision of a platform for consultation of the various stakeholders in the market on
how they feel space should be effectively utilized and managed.
 Improvement, renovation and reconstruction of the dilapidated business areas (stalls),
and circulation infrastructure to enhance market aesthetics and customer satisfaction.

Figure 5: Conceptual diagram illustrating the redevelopment alternative in muthurwa market,

Source: Author 2014

The particular elements of the redevelopment exercise will encompass the following;

 Upgrading the condition of work, circulation and improvement of the performance of the
market by facilitating effective and efficient space use.

Page 56 Planning development project


 Increasing the utility of space in the market while maintaining order and walkability in the
market.
 Solving the problem of congestion in the market by using efficient space use as a platform.
 Provision of a platform for consultation of the various stakeholders in the market on how
they feel space should be effectively utilized, this was absent in the initial construction of the
market.
 Improvement, renovation and reconstruction of the dilapidated business areas (stalls), to
enhance, market aesthetics and customer satisfaction.
In the case of informal markets both replacement and redevelopment could be applied equally
well depending on the various cost benefit analysis of the various options relative to the site.

5.3 Site plan and market blocks classification


5.31 Site plan
The type of stalls and designs specifications to be allowed will be categorised on the basis of
their area, space requirements, and functionality. The planning solution suggested is to allow
construction of semi-permanent, professionally built stalls within the market blocks. These will
have the following specifications;
a) A common roof for at least 20 commercial stalls in one market block set back behind the
storm water drains. This number will vary depending on the length of the various market blocks.
A 4meter pedestrian walkway between the blocks and ample allowance for the drainage will be
enhanced.
b) The ground coverage of the existing buildings in the plot should not be more than 75% of the
plot area.
c) The height of the shop stall shall be restricted to 3 meter.
d) Stalls will be accessed from the pedestrian paths.
e) There will be no encroachment allowed on the carriage ways or pedestrian walk ways as the
shop area will be restricted.
f) The county council will contract construction firms to construct the stalls in the sites. It will
then handle the provision of water, electricity and sanitary facilities to the shops. License fees,
rents and rates will be paid to the city council for the provision of services.

Page 57 Planning development project


g) The shop will not be sold/ sub-let, in the event an individual trader defers, the stall will be
reverted back to the city county to be rented out to another trader, to be used for purpose
stipulated for the site and the particular stalls.
5.32 Market block classification
Classification of the various market blocks help ease the flow of goods and passengers. It also
helps reduce shopping times and so congestion in the market place, the proposed classifications
and specialization of the various market blocks is illustrated in annexure 1.

5.4 Sales space design and classifications


Types of selling modes proposed in the market include

5.41Trestle tables

The project proposes that there be trestle for small scale traders, especially those who can’t
afford to rent fixed stalls either because of the high rent fee or due to the nature of their
businesses; very small or fast moving merchandise such as vegetables or fruit shops. The
tables are to be located at different points in the market where there are trees to offer shade
for such traders. These will be charged a daily fee of 50 shillings for purposes of
maintaining a clean market by the council.

Arrangement- As shown alongside, the trader will stand


behind the trestle table, his merchandise can be stored both
under the table and behind him or her. The tables will be
used for traders who don’t need much space due to the small
size of their businesses or nature of their merchandise. The
model of sale will be accompanied by reduced rents.

Material- The tables will be made of timber, sufficiently


robust to stand the heavy wear that occurs in markets

Figure 6: A cross-sectional view of the market block showing proposed trestle tables,

Source: Author 2014, adapted from FAO market construction handbook

Page 58 Planning development project


Layout plan – It’s proposed that the trestle be
1.5 meters by 0.75 meters for the length and
height respectively. The width of the trestle
table will be 0.5 meters. This will be enough
space for small scale traders to be able to
conduct their business. Since the tables have a
movable fulcrum, they will be easily packable
at the end of business in the evening. The lay
out of the tables is shown alongside showing
the part plan, end and front elevations.

Figure 7: showing the Part plan, end elevation, and front views of proposed trestle tables to be put

under the trees in the market,

Source; Author 2014

5.42 Traders selling from the aisle The traders will stand in the aisle and serve the
customers from goods displayed and stacked
behind them; this will serve mainly traders
selling fruits and horticultural products because
these can occupy a small space. Alongside
shows the proposed sale of goods by the traders
from the aisle. Sale from the aisles will however
be allowed only in block 3 and 7; which are
proposed for fresh farm produce such as
vegetables and fruits. These blocks will have a
higher set back to allow provision for the aisles

Figure 8: caption of proposed trestle tables in the


market,
5.43 Fixed stall Source: www.smartfurniture.com

These are to be located in the market blocks, they are to be made of semi-permanent
materials, especially the partitions to facilitate cross ownership of more than one stall by

Page 59 Planning development project


traders who would like to rent extra space especially those with business requiring extra
space. However, there should be a restriction on the number of stalls an individual trader
should own to prevent incidences of space brokerage as is the present situation .The
permanent stalls will serve as a restriction to traders who sell their goods and merchandise
in the market along the market paths.
The traders can either sit or stand while serving
customers by reaching forward over the
displayed produce. A.J Metric handbook on
market construction provides the minimum
design provision for one person circulation as
below; the stall provisions are 1.6*2.35*3.2
meters which is above minimum.

Figure 9: Proposed look and dimensions of new fixed stall in the market,

Source; Author 2014 with adaption from A.J metric Handbook.


The above designs can be applied to open pitches, fixed stalls or lockable units in the market

5.5 Stall layouts


In relation to the main theme of the development project; redevelopment to ensure effective
space use, the objectives of the stall environment should be

o Space productivity - This refers how effectively the retailer use space to generate sales and so
profits. The stalls should ensure maximum utility in space while at the same time facilitating
comfort and co
o Stall image - overall perception the consumer has of the stalls environment

Page 60 Planning development project


5.51Alternative Stall layout plans
Three stall layouts were considered in selection of the appropriate stall layout. These were then
evaluated depending on the benefits and short comings of each.

5.511 Free Flow Design

This is a design where trader’s goods would be laid down all over the market blocks and
customers purchase the goods from the trader of choice. The layout of the selling points is shown
below. This layout is really common with open air markets where space is hardly limited. This is
the sales mode used in some stalls in the market. Advantages
1. Flexibility as there is allowance
for browsing and wandering
freely in the floor space

2. Increased impulse purchases by


customers and so higher sales to
traders
Disadvantages
1. Loitering in the market place is
encouraged by the large
unutilized spaces
2. Possible confusion of the
customers on where locating
different goods of choice
3. There is a really high waste of
floor area space
4. Really Costly in construction
5. Difficulty in management and
cleaning the market area

Figure 10: Flee flow design model of space allocation in markets and retail outlets,

Source: piggy wiggly, retail layouts, 2001

5.512 Grid Layouts


Various stalls are laid down in a grid layout, there is a defined entry and exit points. Customers
are able to a buy from the various stalls in the market as they follow the grid layout of the
various stalls; this layout is famous with supermarkets.

Page 61 Planning development project


Advantages
1. Low construction cost - the layout is
pretty easy to construct and maintain compared
to the other two layouts
2. Maximum space utility- the layout ensure
maximum space utility as hardly any space is
wasted
3. Customer can take time to familiarize with
the products
4. Merchandise is well exposed to the
potential buyers
5. There is ease of cleaning and management,
especially during revenue collection
6. There is more security as people hardly
crowd at a particular place.
Disadvantages
1. The layout is plain and
Figure 11: Show the grid layout design model common, might not be
thought as innovative.
of space Allocation in markets and retail outlets,
2. Where there is rushed
Source; piggly wiggly, retail layouts, 2001 shopping, location of some
items becomes really hard
behavior
3. The layout offers limited
space for wandering
browsing.

Page 62 Planning development project


5.513 Circular spine layout

This layout is essentially a combination of the grid and the free


flow layouts. Half of the blocks could be laid out in a free flow
manner while the rest could be grid. This layout therefore
combines both the advantages and disadvantages of both
designs. A schematic illustration of the circular spine layout is
shown alongside. The layouts main underscore is that there is
excessive wastage of floor space owing to the free arrangement,
hence not suitable in a case of space maximization like
muthurwa.
Stall Space requirements Alongside shows an illustration of the circular spine layout design
model of space allocation in markets and retail outlets

Source; piggly wiggly, retail design layouts; 2001


Commercial ISA employs an average of 2people on average per stall. However the actual sale is
done by 1 person operating at the site from 7.00 am to 6.30 pm. After which they commute back
to their homes, mostly in east lands in Nairobi. They operate on stalls measuring approximately
2meters by 2 meters and 3meters high. With such a categorization and space maximization;
commercial stalls measuring 1.6*2.35*3.2 are possible in muthurwa market.

Figure 12: Show an illustration of the


circular spine layout design model of
space allocationnin markets and
retail outlets , source; Piggly wiggly,
retail design layouts; 2001

Figure 13:Show Circular spine layout


design model of space allocation in
Page 63 Planning development project
markets and retail outletss, source;
piggly wiggly, retail design layout;
2001
5.52 Proposed stall layout plan for fixed stalls

A 2 Meter circulation
paths after every fourth
stall horizontally.
0.5
0.5Meters set
Meters
back on either
setback
side of the
market block

Figure 14: proposed stall layout plan for fixed stalls

Source author 2014

Notes

1. Each stall will measure 1.6* 2.35 meters each


2. Division of every four stalls on the breath will be made removable compartments to facilitate
3. Four stall along the breath of the market block with a 2.6 meters circulation path between a pair.
4. The number of stalls along the horizontal varies depending with the length of the various market
blocks; there will be a 2 meter circulation path after every fourth stall.
5. There will be a 0.5 Meters set back on the block edges to allow for service space on stalls on the
block edges

Page 64 Planning development project


Figure 15: A three dimension perspective view of the proposed market stall in market block along the
breath source; Author 2014

Figure 16: A three dimension perspective view of the proposed market stalls in the market blocks along
the horizontal,

Source Author 2014.

Page 65 Planning development project


Figure 17: Show an aerial view of the proposed market stall layouts in the market block,

Source; Author 2014

5.53 Building materials


Part Materials
Floor Plastered cement
Wall Removable Cardboards for partitions
Roof Corrugated iron sheets
Table 11: Showing building material for the proposed market stalls, source Author 2014

Page 66 Planning development project


5.6 Perimeter Walls
5.61Current situation – There is uneven customers flow in the market, to remedy this, some
traders broke the perimeter walls along landhies road to facilitate easy crossing of customers
from the retail market, and the country bus station to the market. This was intended to make their
businesses located near the perimeter wall more viable by putting them close to the newly made
gates. This add to the problem of uneven customer flow in the various market blocks as
customers tend to buy from businesses close to the gates or market paths leaving parts of blocks
4 and 5 that are far from either the paths or market gates with a few or no customers. Spaces in
these blocks are hence not well utilized. The development project intends to institute action plans
to repair the broken parts of the perimeter wall to remedy customer distribution.

5.62 Proposed action plans

A cross sectional view of the


proposed repair of broken parts of
the perimeter wall using two leafs
(an inner and an outer one) to
enhance its strength

Figure 18: Showing A cross sectional layout of the


proposed wall for repair of the broken parts of the
perimeter wall,

Source, Author 2014 with adoption from A.J metric


handbook 2009 leaf wall construction – It’s proposed that the perimeter wall be double leafed to
5.621 Double
reinforce its capacity to withstand external aggression. The quality of the perimeter wall is weak

Page 67 Planning development project


and unable to withstand much force. The cross sectional layout of the proposed wall is shown
above.

5.622 Regular inspection and management – There should be regular inspections on the wall
as well as other facilities in the market to ensure they are properly utilized and no unauthorised
alterations are made to any structures whatsoever.

5.7 Market bridges


5.71 Current condition - The current state of the bridges is deplorable, with security lights
absent, human wastes and street urchins all over the bridges making security of the people who
use them unguaranteed. Customers and traders no longer use them, hence don’t serve the
purpose they were intend; circulate customers around the market. This cause uneven distribution
of customers in the market place. It’s recommended that the bridges be renovated and cleaned to
enable effective usage by traders and customers.

5.72 Proposed action plans;


5.721 Lighting of the market bridges – It is proposed that the market bridges are lit to ensure
the security of traders and customers who pass through the bridge in the evenings. The bridges
are under a serious security threat that is posed by street families that have made a home here.

5.722 Aeration – It is proposed that the bridge be made of material that can facilitate aeration on
the sides as well as light passage. Use of mesh wire is proposed. This will serve aeration
purposes as well as boost security as it will be possible to see what goes on in the bridge
therefore enhancing security as well as the bridge environment.

5.723 Routine cleaning and aesthetic maintenance – It is proposed that there be a routine
cleanup and maintenance schedule of the bridges. This should be done weekly. Incidental cost
for the clean-up will be incurred by the county government. There should also efforts to upgrade
the bridges aesthetically, it’s proposed that there be painting and planting of flowers on pots in
then bridges to make walking in them desirable.

Page 68 Planning development project


It is proposed that the sides of the bridge be made of
mesh wire to facilitate aeration and also enhance
security as activities happening in the bridge can
easily be seen by on lookers on the road, incidences
of insecurity will therefore reduce. Mesh wire offers
a perfect barrier as well as help in aeration.

It is proposed that the market bridges are lit to


ensure the security of traders and customers who
pass through the bridge in the evening hours.

Figure 19: Show renovated market bridge proposed in muthurwa market, illustrating street light
provisions with removal of opaque advertising billboards that cause inadequate lighting,

Source; Author 2014.

5.8 Implementation strategies


The implementation matrix below shows how the objectives set out in chapter one of this project
will be achieved through the designs proposed in this chapter. The various actors to be involved
as well as implementation and timelines are also indicated.

Page 69 Planning development project


5.81 Indicative Project Implementation Matrix
Project Action Tasks to be done Time Actors Involved Indicators of Success
Objective Frame
o To propose Market stalls design and Construction: 1.25 -Nairobi County Board Ability of customers to freely
planning and flow and access the entire market
 Design of Project years -Nairobi County market development
design block
Unit
interventions  Environmental Impact Assessment More efficient and reliable
for the -Environmental Experts Public transport service
effective use  Project design adjustment and approval planners, designers and other
of available relevant professionals
space in the  Verification of evaluation
market.
 Notification of market stall

 Nomination of contractors

o To propose an Redevelopment of the project area -City Board for Nairobi -More effective space
appropriate utilization in the market
 Notification of the stall owners and the -Nairobi County market development
implementati
general public of the redevelopment Unit -Adequate human traffic
on framework
circulation all over the
for the exercise -Professional Consultants- market, to reduce congestion
proposed
designers, and Planners in some parts of the market
reorganizatio  Commissioning of the project
n model in
 Development Applications
the market
 Approval of developments

 Construction

 Monitoring & Evaluation


Table 12: Show an indicative project implementation matrix, Source; Author 2014

Page 70 Planning development project


5.82 implementation schedule
The table below shows the implementation schedule to be used for the project. The schedule defines the activity times of the various
stages in the project.

Q3 Q4
2014 2014 Q1 2015 Q2 2016
Activity M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7 M8 M9 M10 M11 M12 M13 M14 M15 M16
Market redevelopment
preliminaries:
Environmental Impact
Assessment

Project Design
Project design adjustment
and approval
Verification of evaluation
Nomination of
contractors
Redevelopment of the
project area
Notification of the stall
owners and the general

Page 71 Planning development project


public of the
redevelopment exercise
Commissioning of the
redevelopment exercise
Development
Applications
Approval of
developments
Construction
Monitoring &
Evaluation

Project Implementation schedule;

Q1 = First Quarter of the year; Q2 = Second Quarter of the year; Q3 = Third


Table 13: Show projects implementation schedule,
Quarter of the year; Q4 = Fourth Quarter of the year. M1 to M12 = Month 1 to
Source author 2014
Month12

Page 72 Planning development project


CHAPTER SIX: MONITORING AND EVALUATION

6.0 Overview
Monitoring and evaluation is essential for the assessment of the quality and impacts of this
project in light of its objectives. The process below will enable the review of progress,
identification of problems in design and/or implementation and initiation of relevant adjustments.

6.1 Monitoring and evaluation stages in the implementation of project


The Monitoring and evaluation is to be done throughout the project. The stages through which
this will be done are as follows:

6.2 Guidelines for the Implementation Process


The implementation process will be guided by the following:

•The Nairobi County Planning Unit in conjunction with the City Board for Nairobi shall be
responsible for and approval of any developments in the area other than the ones provided for in
the plan

•All developments in the cluster shall be according to the Nairobi County Integrated
Development Plan and Sectoral plan

•The community members will be involved in any decision making by the County government or
other developers in the area

•Mass transit will be provided on dedicated bus lanes

•Provision of infrastructure services and facilities shall precede all other developments and will
include well marked access streets of between 6-9 meters

•Environmental protection shall be a core responsibility of everyone and everybody will work
towards such goals as to reduce environmental pollution

•No structure shall be constructed outside the limits of the project area unless it is deemed by the
City Board that such adds value or is compatible with other uses

Page 73 Planning development project


•The maximum plot ratio will be 300% and plot coverage exceeding 75% will not be allowed
(this is to allow for space for parking and other services)

•No activities shall be allowed in the areas designated as access streets within the project area

•No developments shall be allowed into the road reserves whatsoever and trees will be planted
along the roads to act as buffers with the residential neighbourhoods

•The provision of the public health act, EMCA, as to the safety of persons and the environment
will be adhered to by any form of development and the persons involved.

•Coordination of activities of different institutions implementing any project in the area will be
mandatory

6.3 Site/ Environmental management plan


It is expected that the project will cause various disruptions on site and environment alike. The
environmental management plan below is thus offered to help the contractors mitigate the
possible damages.

Page 74 Planning development project


Environmental Management Plan

Potential Mitigation Actors


Environmental
Impacts
Loss of flora and fauna • A clear environmental impact assessment City Board for Nairobi
should be carried out to identify the species to be
Contractors
affected and possibilities of relocation
• Replanting of trees and grass in the
landscaping efforts and provision of additional open
recreational spaces.
Noise Pollution during • Minimize noise and during the working Contractors
construction hours
• All works near residential areas should be
carried out during the day

Reduction of aesthetics  Ensure that the implementation process does not Contractors
adversely affect the area.
 Remove all construction facilities, remnant
materials and other construction wastes from the
site after finishing works
 Ensure that suitable equipment’s and manpower
are available to carry out all specified
construction and maintenance works
Risks of injuries;  Monitoring of the construction activities from City Board for Nairobi
• Workers time to time
Contractors
• Pedestrians  Hording of the construction site
• Motorists  Construction Machines should not be mixed with
normal traffic
 Provide all necessary equipment for specified
Table 14: Environmental management plan,

Source; Author 2014, with adaptation and Modification from Mbui, 2009

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6.4 Conclusion
The main goal of this project was to develop an integrated land use transport strategy to the
traffic flow problems on Jogoo road. Aspects of integration that have thus come up include
integration of modes (BRT buses and other motorized and NMT modes), institutional integration
and land use and transport systems integration.
In the first instance, the road design is such that there has been provision of dedicated BRT bus
lanes, lanes for other motorized traffic and NMT facilities. Further, there has been a
recommendation that a park and ride facility be incorporated in the system for those who would
want to access the BRT services using their private cars. In terms of institutions, there has been a
recommendation that an entity in charge of planning and coordinating the activities of all the
relevant institutions be constituted.
Moreover, the land use plan is such that the activity areas are provided for in a manner that the
traffic generation patterns are in congruence with the distribution of transport networks. The
densities of developments are also distributed in a manner that will ensure that the BRT service
supply does not exceed demand so that the efficiency and the sustainability of the service is
realized.

All said and done, it must be noted that introduction of BRT services and realignment of land
uses along Jogo road alone may not solve the problem entirely. The same initiative may also
have to be applied in all the other major corridors that interact with Jogoo road and these include
Mombasa, Thika, Outering, Lusaka and Landhies roads.

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