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CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.0 Introduction.

This chapter is going to review literature on online dating, its effectiveness and sustainability
to a long lasting relationship. The chapter will look at the Social Information Processing
Theory and Hyperpersonal Communication, as well as the reason for viewing online dating
from a scripting approach in this study. It will also explain the Script Theory and how it applies
to online dating. In addition, this chapter will review past studies of dating scripts to show how
cultural and interpersonal scripts interact in the dating process and how traditional ways of
dating differ from online dating. It will also discuss romantically themed media to explain how
online dating site messages can impact site users. The sixth section discusses in detail the
processes of online dating including history, background, who is dating online, how a profile
is created, how matches are found and profiles are navigated and finding a possible dating
partner. cultural scripts for dating. The fifth section reviews literature on romantically themed
media to explain how online dating site messages can impact site users. The sixth section
discusses in detail the processes of online dating including history, background, who is dating
online, how a profile is created. Furthermore, the chapter will provide the empirical evidence
that is studies that were carried out by other scholars that are related to this research but at the
same time bringing out the gaps that resulted in this research to be carried out.

This empirical evidence also known as literature review saves a number of purposes. One of
the purposes of literature review is that it provides with understanding of the subject matter and
the importance of the research. This is supported by Ridley (2008) in her book entitled The
Literature Review, she states that literature review provides a historical background of research
and that it describes related research in the field and shows how the work extends or challenges
or addresses the gap. To this regard literature review brings out the need for the research as it
shows the need as some key information may have been left out giving room for the research
to be conducted. According to http//www.bl.uk/catalogues/listings.html,literature review is a
review of the research and or current discussion about a particular problem that has been
identified and or need to be answered. What this may imply is that the purpose of literature
review is to show that the topic is researchable and that the problem that has been found can
be researched about and that previous work has not fully addressed the subject under study. In
agreement, Hyland (2004) in the book Disciplinary Discourses has it that literature review
analyses documents containing information related to the research problem. This may also
imply that the previous researches did not exhaust everything about the topic under study and
that literature reviews acknowledges that certain topics related to this research were once
conducted.

2.1 An overview of the Online Dating Process

This section gives an overview of the online dating process and general scripts, including the
structure of the sites and information needed to create a profile. This information is presented
here to provide a context for the remainder of the chapter. There are many online dating sites
to choose from. Once date seekers decide to join a site, they have to create a profile. A profile
includes the date seeker’s photo or photos. Also, they provide information which includes the
date seeker’s age, location, interests, what he or she is seeking in a partner, smoking and
drinking habits, education, careers, a user name, and a body description. Having provided the
information about one’s self. Using this information, date seekers are either paired with other
site members or can search on their own for potential partners who meet their desired
expectations.

Figure 1 shows the Search box on Match.com, an online dating site. Date seekers enter desired
criteria including sex, age, and geographical location and there are options for advanced
searching. Next, date seekers view profiles of potential partners and can initiate communication
by sending a message of interest. If sites are fee-based, date seekers must pay before having
further contact. Messages are sent through the site and not personal email addresses. If
successful, potential dating partners can then share personal contact information and move the
relationship off the site or offline and building their dating life.
Figure 1. Search Box on Match.com

2.2 Social Information Processing and Hyperpersonal Communication

Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT) developed by Walther (2008) offers a framework
to begin studying online dating. The concept explains how people get to know one another
online. Essentially, if people are unable to obtain nonverbal cues, they do so in other ways,
such as through writing and language. While cues are available, the rate which information is
exchanged is slower than face-to-face exchanges. Thus, it is possible to develop satisfying
relationships online by using the cues available in computer-mediated communication. SIPT is
applicable to relationships developed online. However, online dating is used more for meeting
people to date and have a relationship offline. Regardless, researchers have used SIPT to study
online dating previously. While SIPT is useful for explaining how relationships develop online,
online daters are only initiating relationships online. Therefore, SIPT explains only part of the
online dating process, not how relationships are initiated online and quickly move offline.

According to Walther et al ( 2001) one of Walther’s concepts that provides useful insight into
online dating is hyperpersonal communication. They contend that Hyperpersonal
communication explains how individuals sometimes experience more intimacy when meeting
others online than they would in a similar offline relationship. They add that the hyperpersonal
perspective offers an approach to understanding the ways Computer Mediated Communication
(CMC) users sometimes experience intimacy, affection and interpersonal assessments of their
partners that exceed those occurring in face to face activities or other contexts.

In a past study of the hyperpersonal communicaton perspective by Anderson and Emmers-


Sommer (2006), they state that internet users create hyperbolic and idealized
conceptualizations of others met online, which leads to knowing more about an online partner
because of available information. In addition, Rosen et al (2008) ascertain that online dating
sites present users with a lot of information from the available profiles such that matches know
a great deal about a person before ever meeting them.

Thus, Hyperpersonal communication helps explain how a great deal of information can be
obtained from profiles in online dating sites. The disadvantage is that it does little for
explaining how people relate once offline. Furthermore, it does not explain the process of
online dating, dating scripts, or how scripts are developed. Because relationships are initiated
online and then taken offline, SIPT and Hyperpersonal Communication only explain parts of
the online dating process. Further, theories for traditional dating are not entirely fitting because
of the nature of initiation and information known about one another in advance. According to
Simon and Gagnon (1986) there is one theory that can shed light on online dating processes
which is the Script Theory.

2.3 Script Theory

Script theory explains processes individuals follow for dating, which informs how online

dating sites may influence members’ scripts for dating. Simon and Gagnon (1986) define
Scripts as a metaphor for conceptualizing the production of behavior within social life. They
add that Scripts help to make sense of situations and guide our behavior. There are three distinct
levels of scripts: cultural, interpersonal, and intrapsychic.

Firstly, cultural scripts are instructional guides at the level of collective life that instruct specific

roles. Media provide cultural scripts by reinforcing norms or making new ones. For example,

a script can state what age a man or woman should have married. These cultural level scenarios,

however, often need adjustment in everyday situations.


Secondly, Simon and Gagnon (1998) say that interpersonal scripting involves adapting and
shaping material from cultural scenarios for content-specific behavior. It also involves
balancing personal desires with appropriate expectations. While an individual has an idea of

what they are “supposed to do” or hypothetically do, this does not mean the scripts are carried

out in exactly the same way. This may involve balancing the cultural expectation to get married

at a certain age with a desire to wait to marry.

Thirdly, intrapsychic scripts are the internal dialogue and fantasies of the individual or the
symbolic reorganization of reality to realize wishes. For example, one may have in mind what
they deem to be a perfect spouse. Thus, an individual may know he or she is supposed to marry
at a certain age but has not married because the perfect partner has not become available.

In relation to this, Simon and Gagnon (1986) note that these scripts change during an
individual’s life cycle because of various reasons. For instance, someone may expect to be
married by age 25 but once age 25 is reached, his or her priorities have changed due to many
factors and the desire to be married may change.

In the case of online dating, Rosen et al (2008) say that cultural and interpersonal scripts are
different from traditional dating. A script for courtship of meeting a partner, going on a first
date and courting are no longer accurate. An individual going on a first date with someone from
an online dating site already knows certain criteria, are a match and so motivations on a first
date are not the same as in traditional dating. Henry-Waring & Barraket (2008) state that the
very nature of dating and intimacy is changing due to online dating form. They say that the
idea of getting to know someone through dating and courtship has been taken over by the filter
process of online dating and partners have already learned a great deal about the other.

As through mainstream media, online dating sites provide information that can lead to the
reinforcement or formation of cultural scripts. For instance, if an online dating site may
emphasize the importance of specific features of a person, such as age and lifestyle. Thus, Fiore
and Donath (2004) contend that the users of that site are likely to believe those features are
important. According to the CR’s Guide to Dating Sites (2006), sites typically offer personality
profile tests for members and some sites allow users to choose their own matches while others
make matches for them. The features salient in this matching process have the potential to
influence dating expectations for site members. Further, dating online both changes and
reinforces some norms and values for dating. Barraket and HenryWaring (2008) discovered
that online daters have developed etiquette, norms for communicating and disclosing
information. Thus, according to Rosen et al (2006) there are notable differences between
individuals who date online versus traditionally, and the dating process is different for online
and offline dating.

2.4 Traditional Dating Scripts

To explore how scripts are formed or recreated by online dating, it is necessary to explore

traditional dating scripts. Turner (2003) defines dating as the social process by which two
people meet, interact, and pair off as a couple. He noted that dating and sexual behavior have
evolved overtime. In Zimbabwe, there have been major developments occurring dating back
from precolonial to colonial and then twenty-first century. Turner (2003) also noted the need
to identify culture in dating processes, because dating varies greatly by culture and dating
behaviors are learned scripts and influenced by a variety of factors. In fact, dating and sexual
behaviors are influenced by social conditions, cultural norms, and institutional structures.

In precolonial Zimbabwe, people believed in what is termed in Shona, ‘kuroorana vematongo,’


meaning marrying someone from one’s own tribe and cultural background. This proverb sums
up the dating culture of most of the Zezuru, Korekore, Karanga and Manyika people in
Zimbabwe at least in the 90s and before. One had to date and marry someone from within their
tribes and boundaries.

Furthermore, Chirozva et al (2006) ascertain that dating in Zimbabwe used to be an institution


or an arrangement which involved a lot of rules and cultural or moral expectations that two
people in a relationship were supposed to follow. Dating was never casual as it was a way to
start a journey to marriage. In an article flighted in The Herald newspaper of 24 August 2014,
there were traditional forms of dating that were recognized in the Shona cultures. These include
‘Operation musengabere. Explained, this dating form involved a young man running after a
girl he would have seen and loved and running very fast to chase after her. She ran away from
him, almost as fast, pretending that falling in love was nowhere near her agenda in life. A girl
was expected never to admit to love on the first or second chase. Later on, the pair went to see
the girl’s aunt or her father’s sister, known as Tete. To start the dating process, the boy would
give that girl a token in the form of a knobkerry, for example. The girl would give the boy a
token, for example a traditional necklace. This would be done in the presence of the girl’s aunt.
The tokens would be kept by and they symbolized proof of the promise between the boy and
girl to marry. Most importantly, the dating would be closely monitored by the aunt as it was
taken seriously and meant to preserve the youth of the daters.

With the advent of colonialism and education where people began to migrate to the city for
work and suburbs began to flourish, so the dating trends changed as well. The boy would try
to woe aa girl by greeting her and asking her for her address. Once the girl agreed, the boy
would start writing letters, asking for a date. The letters would be hand delivered by a friend,
niece or nephew to the girl. In turn, the girl would reply and send via the same person or
another. This communication would go on until they start seeing each other with a chaperone
or alone. Once a boy decides to marry, they would go to the Tete for introductions, with their
tokens until they marry.

Also, within the Christian community, another way to initiate and start dating has been to go
to the elders in the church, aunts who monitor the dating process. A boy may approach the
elders in the church and tell them of his intention to date a certain girl. The girl is called by the
elders who explain he boy’s intent to date and if she agrees, the dating begins. They are
expected to behave, that is, not see each other privately or have physical contact as it will lead
to sexual temptations. The dating is monitored until the boy pays dowry and weds in the church.

Through out the dating process, dating is private, unknown to the family until they agree to get
married.

In recent years with the advent of new technological gadgets like smartphones and laptops,
there is a new dating trend which is fast developing in the country, which is internet dating.

2.5 Online Dating Processes

A variety of research studies have been conducted about online dating. The following section
will review these studies and explain the online dating process in more depth. The first
subsections discuss the history and background of online dating. Next, online daters themselves
will be discussed, including who is dating online and their reasons for doing so. Then, the
process of creating a profile, navigating matches, and concerns about deception are explored.

Finally, making contact with potential partners is discussed in detail.

2.5.1 History of Online Dating


According to Whitty and Carr (2006) online dating sites emerged in the 1980s and are
increasing in popularity. Epsten (2007) explains that in 2001 online dating was a $40 million
business and in 2008 it was expected to have made $600 million. As of 2014, out of the 14-
million people in Zimbabwe, about 5.2 million now have internet access, a development which
is seeing internet dating grow. Sites like Metrodate, Topface, DatingBuzz and Evening Touch,
to mention just a few are helping boys, girls, men and women find dates.

The Internet has been found to be a good tool to help people meet one another as traditional
methods of meeting a man or a woman are beginning to fail because people no longer live in
the village nor do they know each other’s families the way it used to be like. The places to meet
are limited. So technology has stepped in to influence the way people meet and fall in love.
Dating sites are becoming very popular in helping individuals find their romantic partners.

While similar to newspaper personals, online dating sites are much more in-depth and
interactive. Users construct profiles often containing pictures or videos, make contact with
persons of interest, discern if those persons would also like contact, and then meet face-to-face.
As explained earlier, online dating is popular for many reasons. Valkenburg and Peter (2007)
state that proximity is not important, it is easier to meet similar people, help is not needed from
friends, it is easier to frequently access the sites and the nature of the Internet makes self-
disclosure easier. There seems to be an innate desire for an intimate relationship and a
monogamous long-term intimate relationship seems to be the ideal. In addition, HenryWaring
and Barraket (2008) point out that dating online seems logical because it is anonymous and
intimate at the same time and users know other users are also looking for a relationship.
Furthermore, easy access to the Internet, decreased stigma around online dating, and
affordability of sites are encouraging popularity.

2.5.2. Background of Online Dating Sites

Epstein (2007) ascertains that the largest and best-known sites are AmericanSingles,
eHarmony,Match,True,andYahoo!

Personal matching with potential partners varies by site. Some allow users to pick their own
matches while others pick up for users, based upon results of compatibility tests Most of the
sites allow users to set up profiles and view other profiles for free, but
members must pay to communicate with other members. Prices to communicate with others
range from $25 a month to $60 a month. A six-month subscription to eHarmony costs $173.70,
with the site not allowing individuals below 21-years-of-age.
One feature of online dating sites is the personality test, which is supposed to help
members be matched more effectively. Yahoo! and True offer the tests to members but
eHarmony requires users to complete personality profiles before being matched (CR’s guide
to online dating sites, 2006). Yahoo’s test is an interactive, multi-media experience aimed to
measure elements of personality, love styles, strengths, and life challenges. For instance, after
completing a series of interactive questions, the personality and love style report provides a
description of an individual’s personality, for example, if one enjoyed being around other
people.

2.5.3 Daters

With the advent of the internet and smartphones and laptops many internet users looking for a
romantic partner have gone to a dating web site. Lever et al (2008) says that another study
found 56.2% of all Internet users had visited at least one online personal site. A Pew research
study estimated that out of 10 million single Internet users, 74% have used the
Internet to try to find a partner (Rosen et al., 2008).
In 2005, individuals in the first half of their forties were the most active date-seekers
online. Online daters in the second half of their forties, however, were more likely to seek more
serious relationships. In another study by Chirozva et al (2006) they contend that apart from
the young and single searching for romantic relationships, commercial sex workers and even
married people frequent online dating sites, for potential sex partners.

2.5.4. Creating A profile

Online dating sites operate by allowing users to post a profile containing information
about hobbies, personality traits, interests, age, physical characteristics, and any other details
they find pertinent. Most sites allow posting of photographs, sometimes multiple photographs,
and even video. According to Whitty (2008) the creation of a profile is not a task taken lightly
by most serious online daters and
profile construction is a dynamic process involving re-writing and adjusting in order to attract
the right partner. Individuals often look at others’ profiles for ideas on how to create their own
profiles. Also, users attempt to represent themselves as accurately as possible but also take into
consideration what others might find attractive when constructing profiles. Likewise, members
view construction of profiles as very important, and they spend a considerable
amount of time creating them and managing their images.
In another study conducted by Whitty (2008) other features considered important are
presenting themselves in a humorous manner, listing occupation, demonstrating intelligence,
sounding unique, playing down their beauty, and having a glamour shot. The need to present a
good physical image is the most important aspect of profile construction. He adds that women
choose to include a photograph more frequently than men and often chose to include a
glamourous picture(s) of them. Furthermore Ellison et al (2006) postulate that online daters use
a variety of self-presentation strategies to maximize benefits and
minimize risks in online dating by presenting a favorable first impression
however, Elison et al (2006) asserts that online daters are often forced to find an acceptable
balance between their ideal and real selves.
Because daters have potential to meet face-to-face, they do not want to exaggerate their positive
attributes.

Yurchinsin et al (2006) say that there are some misrepresentations in profiles such as
marital status, age, looks, details about their own relationships or children, age, weight,
socioeconomic status, and interests. Because there are age categories for searches, daters
sometimes listed their ages differently to avoid being filtered out of searches, but did not intend
on being deceptive for long.

Profile creation is also limited to the parameters and the interface of the dating site in
general. For instance, the appearance of the profile is uniform with typically only the
photograph and content in boxes changing. For example Yahoo! Personals ( 2007) in particular,
asked users to agree to a code of conduct before even proceeding to the creation of a profile.
The agreement specifies: I am single, will be honest and respectful of other members, will not
be abusive or post offensive material, will abide
by Yahoo! Personals guidelines, and will identify people who break these promises and
guidelines After agreeing to the terms, the next step is setting up a
profile and providing name, zip code, birthday, (all of the following are check boxes) ethnicity,
description of physical characteristics, lifestyle, education, employment and income, home life,
religion, language spoken, personality characteristics, political views, humor, TV habits and so
on. Once the profile is complete, Yahoo! (and most other sites) must approve it and the
photograph before it will be available to other users. After the profile is approved, members
can proceed to the matching and meeting process.
2.5.5 Finding matches and navigation

Once individuals post a profile, the matching process varies according to the dating site.

The process of online dating is different from more traditional face-to-face dating. According
to Rosen et al (2008) in the case of online dating, it usually begins with emails exchanged
between users and early self-disclosure. Once the users know enough about each other, they
can meet face-to-face. While attraction is still important, the way in which potential partners
are filtered out is different online. It is easier to learn about a person and quickly move on
without much concern, whereas it is more time- and emotionally- consuming to do the same
face-to-face. Further, individuals may have different filters for potential mates met online
versus face-to-face. According to CR’s guide to online dating sites (2006) some sites allow
users to choose their own matches while others choose matches for the users. Cited is
eHarmony which allows users to view profiles of users the site has matched them with while
others like Yahoo! Personals and Match are more open to viewing profiles of other users.
Personal information provided by users can vary in level of privacy with the ability to block
one’s profile in searches or blocking of communication from specific users.

The next step is usually viewing profiles of other members or matches. Viewing profiles of
others and deciding to contact another member is a complex process. Whitty and Carr’s (2006)
say that participants view profiles as if they had a shopping list to check what products met
what they were looking for in terms of physical attributes, similar interests/values,
socioeconomic status, and personality. Kambara (2005) further noted daters learn how to read
profiles to make judgments about them more easily. Smaller cues are important such as
spelling, the time responses were sent, and the length of time between responses. These results
are demonstrative of Social Information Processing Theory (SIPT; Walther, 2008), or using
available cues to draw inferences about people met online. For instance, if someone sent an
email in the middle of the night, the recipient can make judgments about the lifestyle of the
sender and his/her staying up late. If an individual responds very quickly, it may signal interest
or desperation.

According to Whitty (2008) the most attractive qualities are looks, similar interests/values,
socioeconomic status such as education, intelligence, occupation, income, being professional,
and personality. Other aspects looked for in a partner were honesty/being genuine, age, height,
proximity, size/weight, and being a non-smoker.
Lee et al (2008) point out that individuals with similar levels of attractiveness tend to date each
other but some prefer partners who are moderately more attractive than themselves but not
significantly more attractive. For instance, less attractive people place less emphasis on
physical attractiveness of a potential partner and more emphasis on other qualities such as a
sense of humor.

Physical proximity still plays a role in online dating, because if individuals hope to meet offline
it needs to be logistically possible. According to Barraket and Henry-Waring (2008) most
online dating sites are designed to allow individuals in close geographical areas an opportunity
to meet when they otherwise may not. This allows people to date from their own communities,
interest and geography.

2.5.6 Making Contact with a Potential Partner

The goal of online dating is to meet face-to-face, but users must navigate through the profiles
and other processes before meeting. McKenna (2007) explained this process effectively: Once
a potential partner has passed the physical appearance test and been placed into the larger pool
of “possibles” the user then begins to narrow the contact options based on self-provided
information about income and occupation, hobbies, previous marital status, and so forth. If all
of these factors seem to be “good”, the participant will send off an introductory email and wait
to see if he or she, in turn, passes the other person’s “shopping list” of acceptable criteria and
is contacted in return.

According to Rosen et al (2008) online daters tend to view a number of profiles per session
and, once the decision has been made to contact someone, there are two different
communication styles, sending a number of emails before moving forward or sending only a
few emails and moving the conversation to the phone.

People tend to move quickly to meeting face-to-face after making contact online. According to
Whitty (2008) the reasons for this include; determining if there was physical chemistry, not to
waste time, lack of trust in profile content, and wanting to know the “real” person more quickly.
To add on Rosen et al (2008) the initial meeting tends to be a screening out process instead of
a romantic occasion and determines whether or not the relationship would progress. If it
becomes successful, the online
e they meet in person, the Internet, online communication diminishes as they transition in an
offline relationship. However, if the first date is unsuccessful, they go back to the dating siteto
look for other potential partners.

Summary

This chapter reviewed iterature pertaining to studying dating scripts in online dating. First,
previous conceptualizations of computer-mediated-communication and why they were not
fitting for studying online dating scripts were discussed. Second, Script Theory was explained
and offered as an alternative approach to understanding online dating. The third section
explained traditional dating scripts and how they may not fit for online dating. The fourth
section discussed one source of cultural scripts for dating, media, and the advice and dating
scripts in media. The fifth section explained how romantically themed media influence beliefs
and attitudes about romantic relationships, which may inform how materials from online dating
sites influence members. The last section discussed online dating processes in detail. Finally,
research questions were posed. The next chapter provides the methodology the researcher is
going to accommodate to make this study a success.

Chirozva, C., Plaxedes, C., & Mukamuri, B. (2006). The Traditional African Family in the Age
of Globalisation: Literature Review Report for Centre for Rural Development a Barefoot
Education for Afrika Trust (BEAT) partner. Retrieved from http://beatafrica.org/comm.pdf
CHAPTER 3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.0 Introduction
This section presents methodology to be used in the study. It is presented under; Research
Design, Target population, Sample Size ,Sampling Technique and, Research Instruments,
Validity of Research instruments, Reliability of Research instruments, Data collection
procedures and Data Analysis Techniques.

3.1 Research Design


Orodho, (2003) describes research design as the scheme, outline or plan that is used to generate
answers to research problems. This study used a descriptive survey research design. Borg and
Gall (1989) explains that descriptive study determines and reports the way things are and
commonly involves assessing attitude, opinions towards individuals, organizations and
procedures.

In using this design, data collection is carried out in a structured process. Kumar (2005) argues
that the goal of descriptive research is to describe the characteristics of a selected phenomenon
and involves the collection of data without manipulation of variables. The sole purpose of
descriptive research is to provide an accurate and valid representation of the factors or variables
that pertain are relevant to the research question. Neuman (2000) says that descriptive survey
research is helpful in indicating trends in attitudes and behaviours, and enables generalization
of the findings of the research study to be done. This design was appropriate for this study
because it will enhance the amount of quality information yielded.

3.2 Target Population


Donald and Stars (1973) says that, “population is a class of people, events or objects. On the
same issue, Best and Khan (1993) define population as any group of individuals that have one
or more characteristics in common that are of interest to the researcher. Therefore, population
is a group of people about which generalisations are made about the entire population. The
study targeted Kaguvi Phase 3 whereby young and older people, married and unmarried are
part of the target population. Patton (2002) says that target population is the specific
components that the study focuses on and to which the findings of the research are generalized.
Target population is finite in size, exists within a given time frame, and is accessible.
3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Technique
Kombo and Tromp (2006) say that sampling is the act, process or technique of selecting a
suitable smaller size of a population of a representative part of a population for the purpose of
determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population. Gay (1996), states that for
a descriptive research a sample of 10-20% of the population is sufficient for reliable findings.
The researcher will use 50 people residing in Kaguvi Pahe 3 to participate in the study.

Simple random sampling was used to choose the participants. Only those living in Kaguvi
Phase 3 were considered. The advantage is that one in each member of the population has an
equal and independent chance of being selected. The selection of one individual does not affect
in any way the selection of the other individual. This study used purposive sampling to sample
the participants. This was selected basing on the researcher’s knowledge of the population and
the objectives of the research. Mugenda and Mugenda (2003) argue that the researcher uses
elements with the required information in line with the objectives of the study and that the
criteria for selecting these elements must be specified.

3.4 Research Instruments


3.4.1 The Questionnaire
The questionnaire was principal instrument for primary data collection. The questionnaires
were administered to the participants. The questionnaires had both open and closed ended
questions. In addition, the questionnaires sought information on online dating and how the
same is impacting on success or effectiveness of dating in their area. . The questionnaires also
sought information on the challenges the young are facing in finding romantic or lasting
relationships and marriage. Questionnaires were advantageous because they save time for the
researcher and heighten the independence and accuracy of responses from respondents.

3.4.2 In-depth interviews

Also, the researcher used in-depth interviews as a qualitative method of analysis, which
precedes a confidential and secure conversation between an interviewer and a respondent. Face
to face in-depth interviews will be employed for data collection from key informants who are
Kaguvi Phase 3 inhabitants. This is because face to face in-depth interviews enhanced informal
relationship between the researcher and the participants and in turn the researcher got a well
detailed account since he or she can ask the how and why questions freely to his or her
respondents. In- depth interviews insure the flexibility of the study. Therefore, interviews with
respondents will be conducted in this research; the researcher used in-depth interviews to all
respondents.

3.4.3 Focus group discussions


According to Denzin and Lincoln (2011), focus group discussion is a group of individuals
selected and assembled by researchers to discuss and comment on personal experiences, on the
topic that is the subject of research. It allows interviewers to study people in a more natural
conversation pattern than typically occurs in a one to one interview. The researcher used this
type of interview because of its ability to gather people from similar backgrounds or
experiences to discuss a specific topic of interest. It is a tool which is used to explore the
unknown and thus will provide better understanding of the subject matter under study.

Focus group creates an accepting environment that puts participants at ease allowing them to
thoughtfully answer questions in their own words and add meaning to their answers. The
research held focus group discussion with four groups of Kaguvi Phase 3 inhabitants. In order
to get varying and complex responses, the researcher selected a population of 15 residence for
each group, in accordance with age and gender, and the other group of 5 comprise of
commercial sex workers. Thus, the researcher will be able to collect a mixed bag of data,
relating to the general experiences of online dating, their knowledge online dating strategies,
the traditional methods of dating and their views of online dating against traditional dating
norms. Therefore, the researcher used focus group discussion to overcome the loopholes of in-
depth interviews.

3.5 Data Analysis Procedure


The data was analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively. Quantitative data was edited to
eliminate inconsistencies, summarized and coded for easy classification in order to facilitate
tabulation and interpretation. Descriptive statistics was used in describing the sample data so
as to portray the typical respondent and to reveal the general response pattern. Analysed data
was presented in form of percentages and frequencies. Open ended questions which elicited
qualitative data was analysed according to themes based on the research questions and the
objectives and the objectives and thereafter, inferences and conclusions were drawn.
3.6 Ethical considerations
Ethics in research is akin to the moral standards and ethical concerns that need to be considered
at any stage of the study. Ethical considerations are very important because the research must
ensure that the participants are not harmed, offended, or affected by the research process
emotionally and physically. In this research, the researcher gained informed consent from the
participants. The councilors for Kaguvi were formally informed of the research and purpose to
which they consented to have their residents subjected.

Respondents were informed about the duration, nature and purpose of the study. The researcher
also behaved according to appropriate ethical standards.

Confidentiality and right to withdraw from the study at any time are highly maintained in this
study. Confidentiality and anonymity are crucial for this research in which private life for
participants is discussed. Use of real names of the respondents is not allowed in this study. The
research findings will be presented with respect to anonymity to avoid harm to the respondents.
The respondents are not compelled to take part in the research and this encourages them to
participate freely and ensured them to feel comfortable in interview sessions. Special care is
being taken to protect the identity of participants when disseminating information and storing
material. Also, findings will be presented with respect to confidentiality and anonymity.

3.7 Summary
This chapter provided the background of how the research was conducted. The instruments
used in the study were discussed and the concept of validity and reliability of research
instruments discussed in detail.