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Persuasion effect

Does having divorced parents affect an individual’s perspective of relationships?


Having divorced parents does affect an individual’s perspective of marriage.
How having divorced parents affects their relationship later on in life.
What is intergenerational transmission of divorce?

Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

There have been many studies that have been done with large national samples that
consistently show that parental divorce increases the risk the risk that offspring will see their
own marriages end in divorce. (Amato, p.628)

Using only female respondents Survey of Families and Households, Bumpass, Martin, and
Sweet, found that parental divorce increases the odds of disruption within the first 5 years of
marriage by 70%. This association was prevalent in both Whites and African American Groups
(Amato, p. 628).

Through the process of socialization, parental divorce (and disturbed family relationships that
often precede and accompany divorce) may increase the likelihood that offspring develop traits
and interpersonal orientations that interfere with intimate relationships in adult hood. For
example, children from families marked by discord or lack of affection between parents do not
have the benefit of prolonged exposure to models of successful dyadic behavior. As a result,
some children may not learn interpersonal skills (such as communicating effectively and
compromising) that facilitate mutually satisfying, long term ties with others. In addition the
stress associated with marital conflict more punitive toward their children. Disturbed marital
and parent child relationships may lead children to develop personal traits (such as lack of trust,
jealousy, or an inability to commit to a particular partner) that spring from a sense of emotional
insecurity. This perspective holds that adult children of divorce are more likely than others to
exhibit behaviors that interfere with the quality of marital relationships, thus lowering the
rewards associated with marriage and increasing the risk of marital dissolution.

Adult children of divorce may have an elevated risk of seeing their own marriages end in
divorce because they hold relatively liberal attitudes toward marital dissolutions. Studies show
that young adults who grew up in divorces families are more pessimistic about the chances of
life-long marriages and elevate divorce less negatively than do other young adults (Amato,631).
In addition, parental divorce may have a direct effect on children’s’ attitudes. By observing their
parent’s divorce, children learn firsthand that it can be a solution to a problematic marriage.
How likely someone of divorce parents is to get a divorce.
Those with divorced parents’ perspective of marriage
Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce

Divorce sometimes has negative psychological effects on children that last into adulthood
(Wolfinger, quoted Amato and Keither, 1991). Perhaps as a result, the adult of divorce more
often report low levels fo marital satisfaction than than do people form intact families (amato
and Booth 1991; Glenn and Kramer 1985).

The differential effects of parental divorce and marital conflict on young adult romantic
relationships

The majority of studies done about intergenerational transmission of marital quality and
divorce found that compared with those whose parents did not divorce, young adults whose
parents divorced are at greater risk for marital difficulties and divorce themselves (amato,
1996; Amato & Booth, 1997).
Several studies have demonstrated that compared with children from intact families, children
of divorce hold more pessimistic views of marriage and see divorce as a solution to a
problematic marriage (Amato, 1996; Axinn & Thornton, 1996; Trent & South, 1992).Using
national, longitudinal data from two generations, Amato and DeBoer (2001) suggested that parental divorce was
associ-ated with more problems in young adults’ marriages because these young adults hold a weaker commitment
to marriage. This finding is consistent with findings from several other studies on commitment as a potential
mechanism explaining the association between parental divorce and young adult children’s marriages (Glenn &
Kramer, 1987; Greenberg & Nay, 1982; Webster, Orbuch, & House, 1995).

When parents have problems in their behavioral interactions, such as problems in communicating, restraining
criticism, and resolving conflict, it likely increases offspring risk for displaying similar problems in their own
romantic relationships. Several stud- ies suggest that young adults whose parents had interpersonal behavior
problems exhib- ited more problems themselves (e.g., frequent criticizing and showing anger easily), which in turn,
increased the odds that their mar- riages or relationships ended (Amato, 1996; Caspi & Elder, 1988; Jacquet &
Surra, 2001; Sanders et al., 1999).

The Intergenerational Transmission of Union Instability in Early Adulthood

Although since the 1930s family scholars have speculated that divorce runs in families (e.g., Burgess & Cottrell,
1939) Burgess & Cottrell, 1939), the rst empirical evi- dence for the intergenerational transmission of divorce (ITD)
was not presented until the 1950s (Landis, 1955). Since then, 25 studies on this topic have been published, and
almost all have shown that divorce is correlated across gener- ations (e.g., Amato, 1996; Amato & DeBoer, 2001).
Although most of these studies were con- ducted in the United States, the ITD also has been reported in Australia,
Canada, England, and many continental European countries (Diek- mann & Schmidheiny, 2013; D’Onofrio et al.,
2007; Dronkers & Harkonen, 2008; Kiernan & Cherlin, 1999). We do not know whether the ITD exists in other
parts of the world, but it appears to be a feature of most developed Western societies.

Social learning theory (Bandura, 1977) holds that children learn about partner relationships from observing their
parents. When parents have happy and stable relationships, children have frequent opportunities to learn positive
relationship skills, such as how to communicate clearly, resolve con ict amicably, and show emotional support. If
parents with unhappy and unstable relationships do not model these skills, children have limited opportunities to
learn them elsewhere. Consequently, many children from unstable families of origin reach adulthood with- out the
skills necessary to achieve satisfying long-term unions. Although this explanation is compelling, it has proved dif
cult to test because few data sets contain the necessary variables. Consistent with this perspective, however, Amato
(1996) found that adults with divorced parents reported an elevated number of problematic interpersonal behaviors
in their marriages, such as being critical, getting angry easily, being jealous, having feelings that are hurt easily, not
talking, and not being faithful. These problems, in turn, mediated a substantial proportion of the estimated effect of
divorce in the family of origin on subsequent marital instability. (amato, p.725). When parents have unstable
unions, children may learn that most romantic relationships are temporary and that union disruptions are the rule
rather than the exception.

Children also may overhear divorced parents expressing favorable attitudes toward union disruption. Consistent with
this idea, studies have shown that adults who experienced parental divorce while growing up tend to hold relatively
nontraditional views about marriage and family life in general and positive attitudes toward divorce in particular
(Axinn & Thornton, 1996). hildren need close and secure bonds with caregivers (usually parents) for healthy adjust-
ment and development (Bowlby, 1982). When children perceive caregivers as unavailable and unresponsive, they
may become emotionally insecure and form negative views of themselves, other people, and relationships.
Emotional insecurity is linked with a variety of problems, including internalizing symptoms, externalizing behavior,
poor academic achievement, and a pattern of early and frequent sexual relation- ships during adolescence
(Cummings & Davies, 2010; Tracy, Shaver, Albino, & Cooper, 2003). Because attachment security (and insecurity)
is relatively stable during the life course, it can strengthen (or undermine) the quality and stability of romantic
relationships in adulthood (Hazan & Shaver, 1987). With respect to the ITD, parent union instability (along with
discord between parents) can interfere with parental sen- sitivity and responsiveness (Amato & Booth, 1997) and
increase emotional insecurity in children and youth (Brennan & Shaver, 1998; Cummings & Davies, 2010).
Consequently, par- ent union instability, parental unresponsiveness, emotional insecurity in childhood, and union
instability in adulthood all may all be linked. Although this explanation seems plausible, no studies to our
knowledge have directly assessed this perspective. (Amato, p.726)
References

Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce


APA Nicholas H. Wolfinger. (1999). Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of
Divorce. Demography, 36(3), 415. Retrieved from
https://libprox1.slcc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsjsr&AN=ed
sjsr.2648064&site=eds-live
MLA Nicholas H. Wolfinger. “Trends in the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce.” Demography, vol.
36, no. 3, 1999, p. 415. EBSCOhost,
libprox1.slcc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsjsr&AN=edsjsr.26
48064&site=eds-live.

The Intergenerational Transmission of Union Instability in Early Adolescence


APA (2017). The Intergenerational Transmission of Union Instability in Early Adulthood. Journal of
Marriage & Family, 79(3), 723–738. https://doi-org.libprox1.slcc.edu/10.1111/jomf.12384
MLA “The Intergenerational Transmission of Union Instability in Early Adulthood.” Journal of Marriage &
Family, vol. 79, no. 3, June 2017, pp. 723–738. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/jomf.12384.

Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce


APA Jay D. Teachman. (2002). Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission
of Divorce. Journal of Marriage and Family, 64(3), 717. Retrieved from
https://libprox1.slcc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsjsr&AN=ed
sjsr.3599937&site=eds-live

MLA Jay D. Teachman. “Childhood Living Arrangements and the Intergenerational Transmission of
Divorce.” Journal of Marriage and Family, vol. 64, no. 3, 2002, p. 717. EBSCOhost,
libprox1.slcc.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edsjsr&AN=edsjsr.35
99937&site=eds-live.

Explaining the Intergeneration Transmission of Divorce

APA Paul R. Amato. (1996). Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce. Journal of
Marriage and Family, 58(3), 628. https://doi-org.libprox1.slcc.edu/10.2307/353723
MLA Paul R. Amato. “Explaining the Intergenerational Transmission of Divorce.” Journal of Marriage and
Family, vol. 58, no. 3, 1996, p. 628. EBSCOhost, doi:10.2307/353723.

The differential effects of parental divorce and marital conflict


on young adult romantic relationships
APA MING CUI, & FINCHAM, F. D. (2010). The differential effects of parental divorce and marital conflict
on young adult romantic relationships. Personal Relationships, 17(3), 331–343. https://doi-
org.libprox1.slcc.edu/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01279.x
MLA MING CUI, and FRANK D. FINCHAM. “The Differential Effects of Parental Divorce and Marital
Conflict on Young Adult Romantic Relationships.” Personal Relationships, vol. 17, no. 3, Sept. 2010, pp.
331–343. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01279.x.
MING CUI, and FRANK D. FINCHAM. “The Differential Effects of Parental Divorce and Marital Conflict on
Young Adult Romantic Relationships.” Personal Relationships, vol. 17, no. 3, Sept. 2010, pp. 331–
343. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01279.x.

The Unexpected Legacy of Divorce: A 25-Year Landmark Study