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Automatic Control System

Chapter 1: Introduction

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan Ba


Email : badx@hcmute.edu.vn
Content

1.1 Concept of automatic control

1.2 Elements of automatic control system

1.3 Control principles

1.4 Classification of automatic control system

1.5 Applications of automatic control system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 2


1.1 Concept of Automatic Control

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 3


An example – Motorbike driving

Control the speed at about 35km/h.

Control behavior:

If the current speed is greater than


35km/h, reduce the speed.
Observe the speed indicator Change the throttle cable
else, increase the speed...

Eye Nerve system Hand

As a result, the vehicle speed will be as close as possible to 35km/h.

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 4


Definition

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals. Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human.

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 5


Other examples

Rocket rotation control

Industrial thermal control system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 6


Why do we need the automatic control?

The system responses do not satisfy the desired values.

Sometimes, we want to increase the accuracy

Sometimes, we want to increase the performance

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 7


1.2 Basic Components of a Automatic Control System

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 8


Basic components of a control system

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

Desired r(t) e(t) u(t)


Controller Actuation Plant
signal

x(t)
y(t)
Sensor

r(t): Reference signal


u(t): control signal
y(t): output signal
x(t): Feedback signal
e(t): control error

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 9


Plant

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

Desired r(t) e(t) u(t)


Controller Actuation Plant
signal

x(t)
y(t)
Sensor
Electric plant

Mechical plant

Thermal plant
Composite plant
Pneumatic plant

Fluid Plant

Chemical plant
Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 10
Sensor

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

Desired r(t) e(t) u(t)


Controller Actuation Plant
signal

x(t)
y(t)
Sensor
Electric plant Magnetic sensor

Mechical plant Position sensor

Thermal plant Thermal sensor

Pneumatic plant Pressure sensor

Fluid Plant Flow sensor

Chemical plant Density sensor.....


Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 11
Controller

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

Desired r(t) e(t) u(t)


Controller Actuation Plant
signal

x(t)
y(t)
Sensor

Mechanical-based controller

Electrical-based controller Analog controller


Digital controller
Microcontroller-based
Mechatronic-based controller
Computer-based
PLC-based

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 12


Desired signals

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

Desired r(t) e(t) u(t)


+ Controller Actuation Plant
signal

x(t)
y(t)
Sensor

Constant

Step

Sinusoidal

Time-varying signals

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 13


1.3 Control Principles

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 14


Principle 1: Feedback information

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

To obtain high control performance, the necessary condition is that mandatorily it have the feedback information.

Serveral control structures:

Pertubance-compensation control

Error-compensation control

Combination control

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 15


Pertubance-compensation control

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

To obtain high control performance, the necessary condition is that mandatorily it have the feedback information.

n(t)

r(t) u(t)
Controller Actuation Plant

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 16


Error-compensation control

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

To obtain high control performance, the necessary condition is that mandatorily it have the feedback information.

Desired r(t) e(t) u(t)


Controller Actuation Plant
signal

x(t)
y(t)
Sensor

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 17


Combination control

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

To obtain high control performance, the necessary condition is that mandatorily it have the feedback information.

n(t)

Desired r(t) e(t) u(t)


Controller Actuation Plant
signal

x(t)
y(t)
Sensor

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 18


Principle 2: Compatible design

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

To obtain high control performance, the control design should be able to cover the role of the plant.

For example: It will be difference in design of a heating system and a medical-thermal system.

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 19


Principle 3: Robustness design

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

To deal with the unpredictive impact, the control design should be robust at least w.r.t uncertainties.

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 20


Principle 4: Storage ability

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

The control system should have the storage ability that could be useful in cases of data extraction or learning (AI).

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 21


Principle 5: Level distribution

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

To provide the ease of design and management, the control system should be designed in the level-distribution struction
(Industrial systems).

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 22


Principle 6: Internal compensation

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

The control system itself should be able to deal with the internal problem (Internal adaptation)

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 23


1.4 Classifications of Automatic Control Systems

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 24


Classification

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
predetermined goals.Automatic Control is the control process without Interference of human

Structure of the system

Mathematical-description of the system

Input/Output of the system

Control strategy of the system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 25


Classification based on the structure of the system

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
Classification
predetermined based on structure
goals.Automatic of the
Control system
is the control process without Interference of human

Open-loop control system Closed-loop control system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 26


Classification based on the mathematical description of the system

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
Classification
predetermined based on structure
goals.Automatic of the
Control system
is the control process without Interference of human

Time-continuous system Linear system Time-invariant system

Discrete system Nonlinear system Time-varying system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 27


Classification based on input/output of the system

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
Classification
predetermined based on structure
goals.Automatic of the
Control system
is the control process without Interference of human

Single input/Single output system (SISO)

Multi input/Multi output system (MIMO)

Single input/Multi output system (SIMO)

Multi input/single output system (MISO)

This course only covers the single input/single output linear time invariant systems

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 28


Classification based on control strategy of the system

Definition: Control is a process of acquisiting information, processing information, and impacting the system to achieve
Classification
predetermined based on structure
goals.Automatic of the
Control system
is the control process without Interference of human

Stabilization

Tracking control

Adaptive control

Robust control

Classical control

Intelligent control

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 29


Content of the automatic control system

The main goal of this subject is to study the classical methods on


analyzing, design of linear time-invariant SISO systems.

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 30


1.5 Applications of Automatic Control Systems

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 31


Industrial Robot systems

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 32


Humanoid Robot systems

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 33


Airplane system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 34


Marine system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 35


Energy control system

Instructor: Dr. Dang Xuan ba 36