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Communication Process initiator of the message that need to be

transmitted. After having generated the idea,

The communication is a dynamic
information etc. the sender encodes it in such
process that begins with the conceptualizing
a manner that can be well-understood by the
of ideas by the sender who then transmits the
message through a channel to the receiver,
who in turn gives the feedback in the form of Message
some message or signal within the given time Message is referred to as the
frame. information conveyed by words as in speech
The Process of Communication and write-ups, signs, pictures or symbols
depending upon the situation and the nature
The process of communication refers and importance of information desired to be
to the transmission or passage of information sent. Message is the heart of communication.
or message from the sender through a It is the content the sender wants to covey to
selected channel to the receiver overcoming the receiver. It can be verbal both written and
barriers that affect its pace. spoken; or non-verbal i.e. pictorial or
The process of communication is a cyclic one symbolic, etc.
as it begins with the sender and ends with the Encoding
sender in the form of feedback. It takes place Encoding is putting the targeted
upward, downward and laterally throughout message into appropriate medium which may
the organization. be verbal or non-verbal depending upon the
The process of communication as such must situation, time, space and nature of the
be a continuous and dynamic interaction, message to be sent. The sender puts the
both affecting and being affected by many message into a series of symbols, pictures or
variables. words which will be communicated to the
intended receiver. Encoding is an important
Communication process consists of certain step in the communication process as wrong
steps where each step constitutes the and inappropriate encoding may defeat the
essential of an effective communication. true intent of the communication process.
The following is a brief analysis of the Channel
important steps of the process of
Channel(s) refers to the way or mode
the message flows or is transmitted through.
The Different Elements in The Process of The message is transmitted over a channel
Communication that links the sender with the receiver. The
We will now learn about the different message may be oral or written and it may be
elements in the process of communication. transmitted through a memorandum, a
computer, telephone, cell phone, apps or
Sender televisions.
The very foundation of
communication process is laid by the person Since each channel has its advantages and
who transmits or sends the message. He is disadvantages, the choice of proper selection
the sender of the message which may be a of the channel is paramount for effective
thought, idea, a picture, symbol, report or an communication.
order and postures and gestures, even a Receiver
momentary smile. The sender is therefore the
Receiver is the person or group who by the sender. It is instrumental to make
the message is meant for. He may be a communication effective and purposeful.
listener, a reader or a viewer. Any negligence
Consider the following points related to the
on the part of the receiver may make the
feedback involved in the process of
communication ineffective. The receiver
communication −
needs to comprehend the message sent in
the best possible manner such that the true  It enhances the effectiveness of the
intent of the communication is attained. The communication as it permits the
extent to which the receiver decodes the sender to know the efficacy of his
message depends on his/her knowledge of message.
the subject matter of the message,
 It enables the sender to know if
experience, trust and relationship with the
his/her message has been properly
The receiver is as significant a factor in
 The analysis of feedbacks helps
communication process as the sender is. It is
improve future messages. Feedback,
the other end of the process. The receiver
like the message, can be verbal or
should be in fit condition to receive the
nonverbal and transmitted through
message, that is, he/she should have channel
carefully chosen channel of
of communication active and should not be
preoccupied with other thoughts that might
cause him/her to pay insufficient attention to  We can represent the above steps in a
the message. model as the model of
communication process.
Decoding refers to interpreting or Types of Feedback
converting the sent message into intelligible Kevin Eujeberry, the world famous leadership
language. It simply means comprehending exponent mentioned the four types of
the message. The receiver after receiving the feedback. The types are as follows −
message interprets it and tries to understand
 Negative Feedback or corrective
it in the best possible manner.
comments about past behavior
 Positive Feedback or affirming
Feedback is the ultimate aspect of comments about future behavior
communication process. It refers to the
response of the receiver as to the message  Negative feedforward or corrective
sent to him/her by the sender. Feedback is comments about future behavior
necessary to ensure that the message has
 Positive feedforward or affirming
been effectively encoded, sent, decoded and
comments about future behavior
The Model of Communication Process
It is the final step of the communication
process and establishes that the receiver has Let us now see the model of communication
process −
received the message in its letter and spirit. In
other words, the receiver has correctly
interpreted the message as it was intended
-A death or an overdose of either of the
factors could result in unfavorable
-The principle of honesty on both sides should
be completely applied because any amount of
insincerity from either the listener or the
speaker would not be prudent.
Following PRINCIPLES of communication
make it more effective:
1. Principle of Clarity:
The idea or message to be communicated
should be clearly spelt out. It should be
worded in such a way that the receiver
understands the same thing which the sender
wants to convey. There should be no
ambiguity in the message. It should be kept in
The process of communication, however, is mind that the words do not speak
not as smooth or barrier-free as it seems. themselves, but the speaker gives them the
From its transmission to receipt, the message meaning. A clear message will evoke the same
may get interfered or disturbed with at any response from the other party. It is also
stage by many factors which are known as essential that the receiver is conversant with
barriers to effective communication. One of the language, inherent assumptions, and the
the factors is poor choice of communication mechanics of communication.
method. In addition to a poor choice of
communication method, other barriers to 2. Principle of Attention:
effective communication include noise and In order to make communication effective,
other physical distractions, language the receiver’s attention should be drawn
problems, and failure to recognize nonverbal towards message. People are different in
signals. We will discuss these barriers of behaviour, attention, emotions etc. so they
communication in a subsequent chapter. may respond differently to the message.
Subordinates should act similarly as per the
contents of the message. The acts of a
COMMUNICATION ETHICS superior also draw the attention of
subordinates and they may follow what they
-The principle governing communication, the
observe. For example, if a superior is very
right and wrong aspects of it, the moral-
punctual in coming to the office then
immoral dimensions relevant to Interpersonal
subordinates will also develop such habits. It
communication are called the ethics of
is said that ‘actions speak louder than words.
Interpersonal communication.
-Maintaining the correct balance between the 3. Principle of Feedback:
speaking and listening The principle of feedback is very important to
make the communication effective. There
-the legitimacy of fear and emotional appeal
should be a feedback information from the
-degree of criticism and praise recipient to know whether he has understood
the message in the same sense in which the adequate information is essential for taking
sender has meant it. proper decisions and making action plans.
4. Principle of Informality:
Formal communication is generally used for The message must be complete and geared to
transmitting messages and other information. the receiver’s perception of the world. The
Sometimes formal communication may not message must be based on facts and a
achieve the desired results, informal complex message needs additional
communication may prove effective in such information and/ or explanation. A good
situations. Management should use informal subdivision of subjects will clarify the
communication for assessing the reaction of message as a result of which there will be a
employees towards various policies. Senior complete overview of what is said.
management may informally convey certain
decisions to the employees for getting their Concreteness
feedback. So this principle states that
informal communication is as important as Concrete business communication is also
formal communication. about a clear message. This is often
supported by factual material such as
5. Principle of Consistency: research data and figures. The words used as
This principle states that communication well as the sentence structure can be
should always be consistent with the policies, interpreted uni-vocally. Nothing is left to the
plans, programmes and objectives of the imagination.
organization and not in conflict with them. If
the messages and communications are in
conflict with the policies and programmes
then there will be confusion in the minds of
subordinates and they may not implement In addition to considering the feelings and
them properly. Such a situation will be points of view of the target group, it is also
detrimental to the interests of the important to approach the audience in a
organization. friendly and courteous manner. Use of terms
that show respect for the receiver contribute
6. Principle of Timeliness: towards effective communication. The same
This principle states that communication goes for the manner in which you address
should be done at proper time so that it helps someone. Not everyone will be charmed if
in implementing plans. Any delay in you use a familiar form of address and use of
communication may not serve any purpose a formal address could come across as too
rather decisions become of historical distant. By using the word ‘they’ a larger
importance only. audience is immediately addressed.

7. Principle of Adequacy: Correctness

The information communicated should be
adequate and complete in all respects.
A correct use of language has the preference.
Inadequate information may delay action and
In written business communication,
create confusion. Inadequate information
grammatical errors must be avoided and
also affects efficiency of the receiver. So
stylistic lapses or a wrong use of verbs are not
sufficient either in verbal communication. A variations that are often overlooked,
correct use of language increases namely Creativity and Credibility.
trustworthiness and the receiver will feel that
they are taken seriously.

Clarity A text will only be lively when the words and

sentence structures are used creatively and
when short sentences are alternated with
Clear or plain language is characterized by
longer sentences. Creativity is especially
explicitness, short sentences and concrete
important in texts in which search words are
words. Fuzzy language is absolutely
used, it is essential that the search words are
forbidden, as are formal language and cliché
constantly used in a different setting.
expressions. By avoiding parentheses and
keeping to the point, the receiver will get a
clear picture of the content of the message. Credibility
Briefly-worded information emphasizes the
essence of the message. By creating an atmosphere of trust in a
conversation or text, you add credibility to
the message. This can be achieved by a clear
and striking ‘tone’, which indicates that the
information you are discussing contains the
Communicating with the target group right information.
(Consideration). In order to communicate
well, it is important to relate to the target
group and be involved. By taking the audience
into account, the message can be geared
towards them. Factors that play a role in this
are for example: professional knowledge,
level of education, age and interests.


A message is clear when the storyline is

consistent and when this does not contain
any inconsistencies. When facts are
mentioned, it is important that there is
consistent, supporting information.
Systematically implementing a certain
statement or notation also contributes to
clear business communication. When
statements are varied, they will confuse the

Variations throughout the years: The 7 C’s of

Effective Communication have two more