Sunteți pe pagina 1din 11

Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2017, 177-187.
Nationally Accredited based on the Decree of the Minister of Research,
Technology and Higher Education, Number 36a/E/KPT/2016

Antecedents of Job Satisfaction and the Influence on Turnover Intention

Ceacilia Srimindarti , Rachmawati Meita Oktaviani, Pancawati Hardiningsih

Faculty of Economics and Business, Stikubank University, Semarang, Indonesia

Info Article Abstract

History Article: This study aimed to examine the effect of the antecedent of job satisfaction on job satisfaction,
Received July 2017
the influence of leadership style, organizational commitment and job satisfaction on turnover
Approved August 2017
Published September 2017 intention and whether job satisfaction was able to mediate the relation of antecedent of job
satisfaction on turnover intention. The respondents in this study were employees at consulting
Leadership Style; Organizational
firms in Semarang. The analysis instrument in this research was the multiple regression. The
Commitment; Job Satisfaction; study showed that leadership style and organizational commitment had positive influence on
Turnover Intention. job satisfaction. The other result of this study showed that leadership style, organizational com-
mitment and job satisfaction had negative influence on turnover intention. With the proven
fact of the influence of leadership style, organizational commitment and job satisfaction on
turnover intention, the managers of consulting firms, therefore, should use leadership style that
fit with employees, should try to increase the organization’s commitment to employees so they
knew that they were a part of the organization and to maintain their membership in the or-
ganization and should improve employee satisfaction in order to reduce the turnover intention
among employees.

Anteseden Kepuasan Kerja dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Intensi Keluar

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji anteseden kepuasan kerja terhadap kepuasan ker-
ja, pengaruh gaya kepemimpinan, komitmen organisasi dan kepuasan kerja terhadap in-
tensi keluar, serta apakah kepuasan kerja mampu memediasi hubungan antara anteseden
kepuasan kerja terhadap intensi keluar. Responden dalam penelitian ini adalah karyawan
yang bekerja di kantor konsultan di Semarang. Alat analisis yang digunakan dalam peneli-
tian ini adalah regresi berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa gaya kepemimpi-
nan dan komitmen organisasi berpengaruh positif terhadap kepuasan kerja. Hasil lain
dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa gaya kepemimpinan, komitmen organisasi dan
kepuasan kerja berpengaruh negatif terhadap intensi keluar. dengan terbuktinya pengaruh
gaya kepemimpinan, komitmen organisasi, dan kepuasan kerja terhadap intensi keluar,
maka sebaiknya manajer kantor konsultan menggunakan gaya kepemimpinan yang cocok
dengan karyawan, berusaha meningkatkan komitmen organisasi agar karyawan merasa
menjadi bagian dari organisasi dan berusaha mempertahankan keanggotaan dalam or-
ganisasi, serta meningkatkan kepuasan karyawan agar dapat mengurangi intensi keluar

JEL Classification: M5, M51

How to Cite: Srimindarti, C., Oktaviani, R. M & Hardiningsih, P. 2017. Antecedents of Job Satisfaction and the Influence on
Turnover Intention. Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen. 8 (2): 177-187.

Correspondence Address ISSN
Jalan Kendeng V Bendan Ngisor Semarang, Indonesia 2086-0668 (print) 2337-5434 (online)
E-mail: DOI: 10.15294/jdm.v8i2.12758
Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2017, 177-187

INTRODUCTION dies examined the effects of job satisfaction to

the turnover intention. The results showed that
In this era, everything has become more job satisfaction had negative effects to the tur-
competitive. This condition requires the ma- nover intention (Fitriany et al., 2011; Mahdi et
nager to manage all of its resources properly so al., 2012; Sutanto & Gunawan, 2013; Saeed et
that the organization can survive. Companies al., 2014).
will find difficulty to maintain viability without Another factor that may affect turnover
the support of a loyal and skilled employees. intention from the organization is the leader-
Employees are invaluable resources for organi- ship style. Leadership style is a way used by
zations including those of consultants’ offices. leaders in directing subordinates to achieve the
Employees are the spearhead that could affect organizational goals. One of the reason causing
the survival of the organization. the consequen- employees to leave and to look for another job
ce if employees are not able to perform at work is because they do not feel comfortable with the
in accordance with the organization’s standards, way authority is delivered.When the employees
the services to the clients became less optimal. feel comfortable with the way the authority di-
the quality of consultant firm services to clients recting employees, they will retain their jobs.
are affected by the employees. Several studies found that leadership style had
One of the serious problems faced by the negative effects to the turnover intention (Gul
organization is the turnover intention. Turnover et al., 2012; Sartika, 2014; Amankwaa & Tsede,
intention is individual’s desire with full cons- 2015; Puni et al., 2016). Another study found
ciousness to leave the organization where these leadership style had no effect to the turnover in-
individuals work (Robbins & Judge, 2013). The tention (Long et al., 2012; Gul et al., 2012).
high percentage of employee turnover intenti- The next factor that effect on turnover
on will be a problem to the organization. This intention is the organizational commitment.
condition causes complaints both from clients Organizational commitment is the relative st-
and managers because the works, should then, rength of individual identification in an organi-
be performed by new employees are lack of ex- zation and her or his involvement in a particular
periences. The high turnover intention in the organization (Parker & Kohlmeyer, 2005). If the
organization causes more potential costs to be employees have a strong relation to the organi-
incurred by the organization. The fee covers the zation, they will try to maintain membership in
training cost that has been invested in the emp- the workplace. A strong emotional attachment
loyees and the recruiting and retraining cost between the employee and the organization will
(Zhang, 2016). reduce the employee’s turnover intention. The
There are several factors that influence results of previous studies found the organiza-
the turnover intention, but this study is limited tional commitment had negative effects to the
to job satisfaction, leadership style and organi- turnover intention (Fitriany et al., 2011; Joo &
zational commitment. One of the factors that Ready, 2012; Long et al., 2012; Mehrad & Fal-
may affect the turnover intention is job satisfac- lahi, 2014; Bateh & Heyliger, 2014; Siddiqui &
tion. Job satisfaction is someone’s feeling about Jamil, 2015; Srimindarti et al., 2015; Sun et al.,
his job whether positive or negative. Employee 2016). But Yasmin and Marzuki (2015) found
perceptions about whether they enjoy the job that organizational commitment had no effect
or not, is created from their experiences. If emp- on turnover intention.
loyees are satisfied with the various dimensions There are many factors that can affect the
of the job they will not look for another job. It employee job satisfaction level. The affecting
can be said the job satisfaction is strongly asso- factor to the job satisfaction can be derived from
ciated with the turnover intention. Several stu- the individual and job characteristic (Bender et

Ceacilia Srimindarti, et al. / Antecedents of Job Satisfaction and The...

al., 2005). This study examined the influence pected to give contribution to human resource
of organizational variables such as leadership science especially those associated with turno-
style and individual variables such as organiza- ver intention.
tional commitment to the job satisfaction. The
employee who feels more suitable against his Hypothesis Development
authority’s leadership style will increase job sa- This research was conducted on the basis
tisfaction, otherwise if the employee feels un- of the attribution theory that explains factors
comfortable, authority’s leadership style will that causing a personal behavior. Attribution
lead to higher dissatisfaction with the job. Some theory was used to explain the influence of job
studies found a leadership style had positive ef- satisfaction, leadership style and organizational
fect on job satisfaction ( Joo & Ready, 2012; Ba- commitment on turnover intention. This theory
teh & Heyliger, 2014; Long et al., 2014; Mehrad explains how someone relates the causes of the
& Fallahi, 2014; Siddiqui & Jamil, 2015; Sun et behavior of others as well as himself. A person’s
al., 2016). motifs for doing certain actions can be sourced
Another factor that can influence job sa- from internal (dispositional attributtions) and
tisfaction is organizational commitment. Or- external or situational attributtions. The internal
ganizational commitment is a psychological causes tend to be directed at individual behavio-
construct where there is a relationship charac- ral aspects, something that already exists within
teristics between the organization member oneself as a personal nature, self-perception,
with the organization and had implications for ability and motivation.
an individual’s decision to continue its mem- While external causes are more likely di-
bership in the organization (Meyer & Allen, rected at the environment that affects a person’s
1991). If employees have a strong commitment behavior, such as social conditions, social values
to the organization, it is illustrated that the emp- and social perceptions. Based on this theory, the
loyees will be satisfied with the job, which will decision of an employee’s actions to leave her/
make the employees decide to continue their his institution or to choose to retain jobs can be
membership in the organization. Several studies caused by individuals internal factors as well as
found that an organizational commitment had environmental factors. Above explanation pro-
positive effects on the job satisfaction (Anis et vides theoretical support to the notion that the
al., 2011; Adekola, 2012). The different results employees’ individual factors and organizatio-
found that affective organizational commitment nal factors may influence the employees deci-
had no effect on job satisfaction (Gangai & Ag- sion to leave the organization or keep their job.
rawal, 2014). Such support is explained by looking at the root
Based on the description above and on cause of an employee leaving their job or remain
the basis of the reviews of previous studies, the- in the organization.
re are several factors that influence the turnover
intention. The high turnover intention in the The Influence of Job Satisfaction on Turnover
organization causes more potential costs such Intention
as fee covers the training cost that has been in- Robbins and Judge (2013), defines job sa-
vested in the employees and the recruiting and tisfaction as positive feelings about a job, which
retraining cost. The motivation of this research is the impact or results of the job various aspects
is provided a solution for manager to decrease evaluation. Meanwhile, Wood et al. (1998) de-
turnover intention. This study aimed to examine fines job satisfaction as the extent to positively
the influence of organizational variables such as or negatively individual feelings about their job,
leadership style and individual variables such which is a person’s emotional response to the
as organizational commitment and job satis- task as well as the physical and social conditions
faction on turnover intention. This study is ex- in the workplace. Job satisfaction can be measu-

Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2017, 177-187

red by using Job Descriptive Index (Robbins & appointed by the company, but has the ability
Judge, 2013). to influence others (Robbins & Judge, 2013).
Job satisfaction is one of the factors that There are different styles of leadership. Previo-
may affect turnover intentions. Job satisfaction us studies that examine the effect of leadership
is defined as a positive feeling on the job, which style on turnover intention found the results as
is the impact or results of the work done using follows: democrative leadership style has nega-
various aspects of evaluation (Robbins & Jud- tive effect to the turnover intention. When the
ge, 2013). If the employee is satisfied with his leaders appreciate each member of the organi-
job, he assesses their work more positively. This zation style,characteristics and capabilities, the
condition will decrease the turnover intentions. leader always involves the employee in decision
However, if the employee was not satisfied with making when facing problems. The employees
his job, the opposite situation will occur and feel appreciated so the turnover intentions will
turnover intention will increase (Fitriany et be low (Puni et al., 2016).
al., 2011). Research conducted by Saeed et al. Another research by Long et al. (2012),
(2014) found that a job satisfaction had a nega- found that a transformational and transactio-
tive effect on turnover intentions (Fitriany et al., nal leadership styles affect the turnover intenti-
2011; Mahdi et al., 2012; Sutanto & Gunawan, on. The results of the study implies that when
2013; Khan & Aleem, 2014) a leader has a transformational style, he has a
Based on the description above and on capability to direct the employees on sensitivity
the basis of a previous studies review, it can be training and organizational development and he
concluded that job satisfaction, leadership style is able to transform the organization’s resources
and organizational commitment influence the optimally in order to achieve the organization’s
turnover intention. So the first Hypothesis in objectives in accordance with the targets set.
this study is: Transactional leadership style encourages
H1: Job Satisfaction has negative effect on employee to work by providing the resources
Turnover Intention. and rewards in exchange for motivation, pro-
ductivity and achievement of the task. Amank-
The Impact of Leadership Style on Turnover In- waa and Tsede (2015), found that transforma-
tention tional leadership style has a negative effect to
Leadership style is a way for an authority the turnover intention. This means that if a lea-
to influence others or subordinates such a way der can oversee and direct employees to achieve
that the person is willing to do the authority’s objectives effectively, it will decrease the turno-
will to achieve organizational goals although ver intention. Based on the review studies and
personally it might displease. Consideration lea- explanations described earlier, the second hy-
dership style is a style that illustrates the close potheses proposed in this study is:
relationship between authority and employee, H2: Leadership Style has negative effect on
trust among them, kinship, appreciate to the Turnover Intention.
employee’s idea and the communication bet-
ween authority and employee. Leaders who have The Effect of Organizational Commitment on
a consideration style emphasize the importance Turnover Intention
of open communication with employee. Organizational commitment is the next
Leadership is an important factor in an or- factor that affects the turnover intention. (Par-
ganization, because by the good leadership or- ker & Kohlmeyer, 2005) defines organizational
ganizational goals can be achieved. Leadership commitment as the individual’s relative strength
is the ability to influence a group to achieve a identification on an organization and its involve-
goal, which means either formally appointed by ment in a particular organization. Three factors
the company concerned and informally is not are involved in the organization, namely: (1)

Ceacilia Srimindarti, et al. / Antecedents of Job Satisfaction and The...

the certainty belief and acceptance of the values al. (2011) found that leadership style conside-
and organizational goals; (2) the desire to exert ration has positive effect on job satisfaction. If
every effort for the sake of the organization; and the leader is close to employees, respect to the
(3) a strong desire to remain a member of the employees opinion and to communicate openly
organization. would increase job satisfaction. Some previous
Member organizations have a high com- research found the influence of leadership style
mitment, the members of the organization are and organizational commitment to job satisfac-
motivated to be responsible with their work so tion and ultimately led to the turnover intention
they provides a good work which will lead to (Fitriany et al., 2011; Joo & Ready, 2012; Meh-
job satisfaction. So with job satisfaction they rad & Fallahi, 2014; Long et al., 2014; Bateh &
got from the organizations will minimize the Heyliger, 2014; Siddiqui & Jamil, 2015; Sun et
level of turnover intentions from the organi- al., 2016). Based on the basis of previous studies
zations (Biantoro & Sihombing, 2012). Some review and explanations described earlier, the
previous researchers found the results of the fourt Hypothesis proposed in this study is:
organization’s commitment to the turnover in- H4: Leadership Style has positive effect on Job
tention effect. Satisfaction.
The level of employees organizational
commitment can affect the turnover intention The Influence of Organizational Commitment
(Olawale et al., 2016). These results imply if the on Job Satisfaction
employees have a strong commitment to the or- Another factor influencing job satisfac-
ganization, it will affect on the decrease of tur- tion is the organizational commitment. Orga-
nover intention (Meyer et al., 2002; Salleh et al., nizational commitment is the extent to which
2012; Haryokusumo, 2012; Biantoro & Sihom- employees believe and accept the organizatio-
bing, 2012; Jehanzeb et al., 2013; Oktaviani & nal goals, as well as the desire to stay with or
Nurhayati, 2014; Saeed et al., 2014; Yasmin & leave the company ultimately reflected in ab-
Marzuki, 2015). Based on previous review stu- senteeism and employee turnover. If employees
dies and explanations, the third hypotheses pro- have a high commitment to the organization,
posed in this study is: the employees have confidence in the vision of
H3: Organizational Commitment has negati- the organization so they will be satisfied. Several
ve effect on Turnover Intention studies have found that organizational commit-
ment influences on employee job satisfaction
The Influence of Leadership Style on Job Satis- (Anis et al., 2011; Adekola, 2012). Based pre-
faction vious studies and explanations described earlier,
Robbins and Judge (2013) defines job the fifth hypotheses proposed in this study is:
satisfaction as a pleasant emotional state of a H5: Organizational Commitment Positively
person’s job ratings. One reason why emplo- Effect Job Satisfaction
yees are not satisfied with the job is incompa-
tible with his institutional authority leadership METHOD
style. When employees feel comfortable with
his authority’s leadership style it will increase The population in this study are emplo-
employee job satisfaction. Leadership style is a yees at the consulting offices in Semarang. The-
critical factor that determining employee satis- re are 14 tax consultant offices, 5 management
faction. consultant offices and 21 law consultant firms
Different leadership styles gives direct operating in Semarang. the category of popu-
or indirect impact on employee job satisfaction lation in this research is unidentified population
(Bogler, 2002; Heller et al., 1993; Alshahrani & so that the total number of employees is defi-
Baig, 2016). Research conducted by Fitriany et nitely not known. The sample in this study are

Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2017, 177-187

112 respondens using convenience sampling organization is a great place, maintain member-
method. The data in this study were obtained by ship in the organization, similarity employee
questionnaire. The data collection in this study and organization values, proud to be part of the
was obtained by distributing questionnaires di- organization, the organization inspires to work
rectly to the employees who work in consulting well, happy to join the organization, the orga-
offices in Semarang nization is the best place to work, care for the
Variables Operational Definition
Turnover Intention Job Satisfaction
Measured by the instrument developed Measured using Job Descriptive Index
by Donnelly et al. (2003) consisting of three sta- instruments, which was adopted from the JSS
tements including: actively looking for another ( Job Satisfaction Survey) by Spector (2001)
job, thinking to get out of work and looking for a which consists of five statements include: sala-
new alternative job. ries, promotions, benefits, communication and
Consideration Leadership Style
Measured using the instruments deve- RESULT AND DISCUSSION
loped by Gibson (2012) consisting of 5 items
statements include: the leader who is close Sample Information
to an employees, mutual trust between aut- Based on Table 1 there are 57.1% of fema-
hority and employees, the leader appreciate le and 42.9% male respondents. The next group
an employees’ idea, an authority appreciate based on education background showed that
employees’criticism and the leader communica- the majority of respondents had undergraduate
tes openly and fair with an employee. education level with the amount of 69.7%, fol-
lowed by diploma is 23.2%, graduate is 6% and
Organizational Comitment doctorate is 2%. Based on years of service it sho-
Measured by the instrument developed wed that the largest proportion of respondents
by (Mowday et al., 1979). The instrument con- worked 1-3 years is 63.4%, 4-6 years is 19.6%,
sists of nine statements such as: employees are 7-10 years is 13.4% and 3.6% who worked more
willing to work hard for the organization, the than 10 years.

Table 1. Respondents Profile

Number Characteristic Clasification Number of Respondents Respondent Percentage

1 Gender Female 64 57.1
Male 48 42.9
Total 112 100%
2. Level of Education Diploma 26 23.2
UnderGraduate 78 69.7
Graduate 6 5.3
Doctorate 2 1.8
Total 112 100%
3. Years of Service 1-3 years 71 63.4
4-6 years 22 19.6
7-10 years 15 13.4
> 10 years 4 3.6

Ceacilia Srimindarti, et al. / Antecedents of Job Satisfaction and The...

Variable Description this study hadmore than 0.4 proportion which

Based on data processing results, the pro- means that all question itemsin all instruments
portional of respondent answering every variab- being used were valid. Reliability testing results
le is, the turnover intentions were 2.92. It me- indicate that all Cronbach Alpha score proporti-
ans that respondents tend to answer disagree. on is higher than 0.7, meaning that all variables
Respondents tend to not look for another job, in the study were reliable.
do not think of work and not look for alterna-
tive new jobs. The average leadership styles va- Regression Analysis
riable of 5.40 illustrated that respondents tend The model 1 examine the influence of lea-
to answer agree. Employees agreed that being dership styles, organizational commitment and
close to their leader as well as using open com- job satisfaction on the turnover intention. Table
munication style was more preferable.The next 3 showed that F test sig of 0.000 was less than
average organizational commitment variable is 0.05 it indicated that the model in this study fit
5.11 it means that the employees agreed that the with the data and independent variables consist
consultant officewas a great place to work and of job satisfaction, leadership style and organi-
gave a lot of inspiration so they feel comfortable. zational commitment influence the turnover in-
Job satisfaction variables have an average of 4.07 tention. Based on the adjusted value R square, it
means that employees tend to answer agree. showed that the ability of job satisfaction, leader-
Employees felt satisfied with the salary, promo- ship style and organizational commitment could
tions, benefits, communication and co-workers. explain the turnover intention at 68.7%, while
the remain in results were influenced by other
Reliability and Validity Test factors not included in the model (Table 3).
The result of validity and reliability test The test result of hypotheses1 showed job
depict on Table 2. Validity test results in Table satisfaction had a direct negative effect on tur-
2 shows that the turnover intention variable, job nover intention by the significant value of 0.031
satisfaction, organizational commitment and (p ≤ 0.05) and a marked negative beta value
leadership style had KMO value more than 0.5 -0.046. These results showed that when emp-
so the sampling adequacy were fulfilled. Whi- loyees felt the various dimensions of the work
le loading factor shows that all indicators in carried out pleasantly, the turnover intentions

Table 2. Reliability and Validity Test

Variables Amount of Validity Reliability

Items KMO Loading factor Cronbach Alpha
Turnover Intention (TI) 3 0.712 0.766-0.842 0.817
Job Satisfaction ( JS) 5 0.770 0.614-0.718 0.852
Organizational Commitment (OC) 5 0.727 0.734-0.827 0.836
Leadership Style (LS) 4 0.712 0.685-0.819 0.833

Table 3. Statistical Result Model 1

Variables Sig 0. F Adjusted R2 Sig 0. t Beta Decision

Regression 0.000 0.687
Job Satisfied 0.031 -0.046 Accepted
Leadership Style 0.024 -0.003 Accepted
Organizational Commitment 0.008 -0.038 Accepted

Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2017, 177-187

Table 4. Statistical Result Model 2

Variable Sig. F Adjusted R2 Sig. t Beta Decision

Regrestion 0.000 0.416
Leadership Style 0.004 0.043 Accepted
Organizational Commitment 0.018 0.033 Accepted

decreased. This study found that employees’ the value of F test sig 0.000 was less than 0.05.
desire to quit the work could be sourced from It indicated that the model in this research fit to
employees internal factors accordance with the the data and the independent variable consisted
attribution theory (Fitriany et al., 2011; Mahdi with leadership style and organizational com-
et al., 2012; Sutanto & Gunawan, 2013; Saeed et mitment influence on job satisfaction. The adju-
al., 2014; Khan & Aleem, 2014). sted value of R square shows that the leadership
Hypothesis 2 testing showed that the lea- style ability and organizational commitment
dership style had negative effects to turnover in explaining job satisfaction is 41.6%, while
intention directly by the significant value 0.024 the remaining were influenced by other factors
(p ≤ 0.05) while the beta value is -0.003. The re- excluded in the model (Table 4).
sults of this study showedwhen employees felt The test results of Hypothesis 4 showed a
comfortable with the supervisor’s leadership positive effect of leadership style on satisfaction
style, it would have an impact on turnover inten- with the significant value 0.004 (p ≤ 0.05) and
tions decline. These results confirmed success- beta 0.043. This finding shows that if employees
fully the attribution theory which states that the felt comfortable with his supervisor’s leadership
employee’s behavior can be sourced from exter- style applied will influence in the increase of job
nal factors which in this study is represented by satisfaction (Fitriany et al., 2011; Joo & Rea-
the leadership style (Long et al., 2012; Amank- dy, 2012; Mehrad & Fallahi, 2014; Long et al.,
waa & Tsede, 2015; Puni et al., 2016). 2014; Bateh & Heyliger, 2014; Siddiqui & Jamil,
Testing of the Hypothesis 3 showed the 2015; Sun et al., 2016).
organization commitment had negative effect Testing the Hypothesis 5 shows the or-
to turnover intention directly by the significant ganizational commitment has positive effect on
value 0.008 (p ≤ 0.05) while the beta value was job satisfaction with 0,018 significant (p ≤ 0.05)
-0.038. This study showed if employees were while the beta value of 0.033. This result shows
committed to the organization, they would that if employees had a strong commitment and
maintain membership in the organization and still wanted to maintain membership in the or-
would not be looking for another job. This fin- ganization which would increase the job satis-
ding was consistent with the attribution theo- faction. Employees could complete all the work
ry which stated that the actions of employees in accordance with the commitments underta-
doing the turnover intention could be sourced ken so they would be more satisfied with their
from employees’ internal factors that was orga- jobs. The findings supported the study by (Anis
nizational commitment (Meyer et al., 2002; Sal- et al., 2011; Adekola, 2012).
leh et al., 2012; Biantoro & Sihombing, 2012;
Jehanzeb et al., 2013; Nazenin & Palupiningdy- CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
ah, 2014; Saeed et al., 2014; Yasmin & Marzuki,
2015). Based on the discussion can be conclu-
Model 2 examined the effect of leadership ded that job satisfaction has a negative effect on
style and organizational commitment to job sa- turnover intention, leadership style has a nega-
tisfaction. Based on Table 4, it could be seen that tive effect on turnover intention, organizational

Ceacilia Srimindarti, et al. / Antecedents of Job Satisfaction and The...

commitment has a negative effect on turnover Limitations of this study lies in the coefficient
intention, leadership style has a positive influen- of determination is relatively low. Possible cau-
ce on job satisfaction and organizational com- ses of these results were being not including all
mitment has positive effect to job satisfaction, the variables that affect the turnover intention.
job satisfaction mediates the effect of leadership Therefore, the further study is recommended to
style on turnover intention, job satisfaction me- add a variable that is influential to the turnover
diates the influence of the organization commit- intention such as organizational circumstance,
ment to turnover intention. competence, performance and complexity of
The theoretical implications related to the task to be giving more complete description
this research are: job satisfaction, leadership sty- on turnover intentions.
le and organizational commitment have a nega-
tively affected the employees turnover intention REFERENCES
those who work at consulting office in Sema-
rang. The further results of the study find that Adekola, B. 2012. The Impact of Organizational
the variables of leadership style and organizatio- Commitment on Job Satisfaction: a Study of
nal commitment positively affects employees’ Employees at Nigerian Universities. Interna-
tional Journal Humaniora Resource. Study. 2
job satisfaction of those who work at consulting
(2): 1-17.
office in Semarang. Based on the results of such Alshahrani, F. M. M & Baig, L. A. 2016. Effect of
research, this study supports the attribution the- Leadership Styles on Job Satisfaction among
ory, which states that a person’s behavior can be Critical Care Nurses in Aseer, Saudi Arabia.
caused by internal and external factors. Emp- Journal of the College of Physicians and Sur-
loyee decision to get out or remain the work is geons Pakistan. 26 (5): 366-370.
influenced by internal factors that are organiza- Amankwaa, A & Tsede, O. A. 2015. Linking Trans-
tional commitment and job satisfaction, while formational Leadership to Employee Turn-
external factors that influence is leadership style. over: the Moderating Role of Alternative Job
Opportunity. International Journal Bussiness
Thus, the results of this study success to confirm
Administration. 6 (4): 19-29.
the attribution theory. Anis, A., Rehman, K., Rehman, I. U., Khan, M. A
The findings of this study are expected to & Humayoun, A. A. 2011. Impact of Orga-
be useful for consulting office managers in Se- nizational Commitment on Job Satisfaction
marang, managers should be pay more attention and Employee Retention in Pharmaceutical
to employee’s satisfaction if they do not want to Industry. African Journal of Business Manage-
lose them. The manager is also expected to use a ment. Vol. 5 (17): 7316-7324.
close leadership style to the employees and con- Bateh, J & Heyliger, W. 2014. Academic Adminis-
duct open communication will make employees trator Leadership Styles and the Impact on
Faculty Job Satisfaction. Journal Leadership
satisfied with their job so it led the turnover in-
Education. Summer: 34-49.
tention decline. Other findings from this study Bender, K., Donohue, S. M & Heywood, J. 2005. Job
indicate that organizational commitment positi- Satisfaction and Gender Segregation. Oxford
vely affects the turnover intention. Based on this Economic Paper. 57 (3): 479-496.
result, the consultant office manager is expected Biantoro, L. C & Sihombing, R. P. 2012. Pengaruh
to always instill the values of the organization to Komitmen Organisasi terhadap Turnover In-
a better employee commitment to decline the tention Melalui Kepuasan Kerja dengan Bu-
turnover intentions.Job satisfaction variable is daya Organisasi sebagai Variabel Anteseden.
able to mediate the influence of leadership sty- Jurnal Akuntansi Bisnis. 11 (21): 61-94.
Bogler, R. 2002. Two profiles of schoolteachers: A
le and organizational commitment to the tur-
Discriminant Analysis of Job Satisfaction.
nover intention, therefore it is recommended Teaching and Teacher Education. 18: 665-673.
that managers can improve employee satisfac- Donnelly, D. P., Bryan, D. O & Quirin, J. J. 2003.
tion towards the declining turnover intention. Auditor Acceptance of Dysfunctional Audit

Jurnal Dinamika Manajemen, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2017, 177-187

Behavior: An Explanatory Model Using Au- Turnover Intention: Exploratory Study of

ditors’ Personal Characteristics. Behavioral Academic Staff in a Malaysian College. World
Research in Accounting. 15 (4): 87-110. Applied Science Journal. 19 (4): 575-581.
Fitriany., Gani, L., Siregar, S. V., Marganingsih, A Long, C. S., Yusof, W. M. M., Kowang, T. O & Heng,
& Anggraita, V. 2011. Analisis Faktor yang L. H. 2014. The Impact of Transformational
Mempengaruhi Kepuasan Kerja Auditor dan Leadership Style on Job Satisfaction. World
Hubungannya dengan Kinerja dan Keinginan Applied Sciences Journal. 29 (1): 117-124.
Berpindah Kerja Auditor. Jurnal Akuntansi Mahdi, A. F., Zin, M. Z. M., Nor, M. R. M., Sakat,
dan Keuangan Indonesia Volume 8 (2): 171- A. A & Naim, A. S. A. 2012. The Relationship
196. between Job Satisfaction and Turnover In-
Gangai, K. N & Agrawal, R. 2014. Job Satisfaction tention. American Journal of Applied Sciences.
and Organizational Commitment: is It Im- 9 (9): 1518-1526.
portant for Employee Performance. Interna- Mehrad, A & Fallahi, B. 2014. The Role of Leader-
tional Journal of Management Business. 5 (4): ship Styles on Staff ’s Job Satisfaction in Pub-
269-278. lic Organizations. Multidiciplinary Scientific
Gibson, J. L., Ivancevich, J. M., Donnelly, J. H & Ko- Journal. 24 (5): 27-32.
nopaske, R. 2012. Organizations: Behavior, Meyer, J. P & Allen, N. J. 1991. A Three-Component
Structure, Processes, 14th Edition. New York: Conceptualization of Organizational Com-
McGraw-Hill. mitment. Human Resource Management Re-
Gul, S., Ahmad, B., Rehman, S. U., Shabir, N & Raz- view. 1 (1): 61-89.
zaq, N. 2012. Leadership Styles, Turnover In- Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L & Topol-
tentions and the Mediating Role of Organiza- nytsky, L. 2002. Affective, Continuance and
tional Commitment. Information Knowledge Normative Commitment to the Organiza-
Management. 2 (7): 41-51. tion: a Meta-Analysis of Antecedents, Corre-
Haryokusumo, D. 2015. The Effect of Workplace lates and Consequences. Journal of Vocational
Spirituality Dimensions on Organizational Behavior. 61: 20-52.
Commitment with Perceived Organizational Mowday, R. T., Porter, L. W & Steers, R. M. 1979.
Support as Moderating Variable. Jurnal Din- The Measurement of Organizational Com-
amika Manajemen. 6 (2): 187-202. mitment. Journal of Vocational Behavioral. 14
Heller, H. W., Clay, R & Perkins, C. 1993. The rela- (2): 224-247.
tionship between Teacher Job Satisfaction Nazenin, S & Palupiningdyah. 2014. Peran Stres
and Principal Leadership Style. Journal of Kerja dan Kepuasan Kerja untuk Mengurangi
School Leadership. 3 (1): 74-86. Turnover Intention. Jurnal Dinamika Manaje-
Jehanzeb, K., Rasheed, A & Rasheed, M. F. 2013. men. 5 (2): 220-227.
Organizational Commitment and Turnover Oktaviani, R. M & Nurhayati, I. 2014. Pengaruh
Intentions: Impact of Employee’s Training in Komitmen Profesi terhadap Turnover Inten-
Private Sector of Saudi Arabia. International tions dengan Kepuasan Kerja Sebagai Varia-
Journal of Business and Management. 8 (8). bel Pemediasi (Studi pada Karyawan Kantor
79-91. Konsultan Pajak Di Semarang). Jurnal Bisnis
Joo, B. K & Ready, K. J. 2012. The Influences of Pro- dan Ekonomi. 21 (1): 83-98.
active Personality, Performance Goal Orien- Olawale, A. R., FolusoIlesanmi, J & Olarewaju, A.
tation, Organizational Learning Culture and A. 2016. Job Satisfaction, Turnover Intention
Leader-Member Exchange Quality. Career and Organizational Commitment. Journal of
Development International. 17 (3): 276-295. Management Research. 8 (2): 102-114.
Khan, A. H & Aleem, M. 2014. Impact of Job Satis- Parker, R. J & Kohlmeyer, J. M. 2005. Organizational
faction on Employee Turnover: an Empirical Justice and Turnover in Public Accountant
Study of Autonomous Medical Institutions Firms: a Research Note. Accounting, Organi-
of Pakistan. Journal of International Studies. 7 zation and Society. 30: 357-369.
(1): 122-132. Puni, A., Agyemang, C. B., Asamoah, E. S. 2016.
Long, C. S., Thean, L. Y., Ismail, W. K. W & Jusoh, Leadership Styles, Employee Turnover In-
A. 2012. Leadership Styles and Employees’ tentions and Counterproductive Work Be-

Ceacilia Srimindarti, et al. / Antecedents of Job Satisfaction and The...

haviours. International Journal of Innovative and Organizational Psychology. 61 (4): 335-

Research and Development. 5 (1): 1-7. 340.
Robbins, S. P & Judge, T. A. 2013. Organizational Behav- Srimindarti, C., Hardiningsih, P., Oktaviani, R. M.
ior, 15 edition. New Jersey: Pearson Education. 2015. Keahlian Auditor dan Turnover Inten-
Saeed, I., Waseem, M., Sikander, S & Rizwan, M. tion sebagai Mediasi Determinan Kinerja Au-
2014. The Relationship of Turnover Inten- ditor. Jurnal Akuntansi dan Keuangan Indone-
tion with Job Satisfaction, Job Performance, sia. 12 (2): 169-187.
Leader-Member Exchange, Emotional Intel- Sun, Y., Gergen, E., Avila, M & Green, M. 2016.
ligence and Organizational Commitment. Leadership and Job Satisfaction: Implications
International Journal of Learning and Develop- for Leaders of Accountants. American Journal
ment. 4 (2): 242-256. of Industrial and Business Management. 6: 268-
Salleh, R., Nair, M. S & Harun, H. 2012. Job Satisfac- 275.
tion, Organizational Commitment and Turn- Sutanto, E. M & Gunawan, C. 2013. Kepuasan Ker-
over Intention: a Case Study on Employees of ja, Komitmen Organisasional dan Turnover
a Retail Company in Malaysia. International Intentions. Jurnal Mitra Ekonomi dan Manaje-
Journal of Economics and Management Engi- men Bisnis. 4 (1): 76-88.
neering. 6 (12): 3429-3436. Wood, J., Wallace, J., Zeffane, R., Schermerhorn, J.
Sartika, D. 2014. Pengaruh Kepuasan Kerja dan R., Hunt, J. G & Osborn, R. N. 1998. Organi-
Gaya Kepemimpinan Transformasional ter- zational Behaviour: an Asia-Pacific Perspective.
hadap Keinginan Keluar Karyawan dengan Jacaranda: Wiley Ltd.
Komitmen Organisasi sebagai Variabel Me- Yasmin, K & Marzuki, N. A. 2015. Impact of Orga-
diasi (Sudi Kasus di CV. Putra Tama Jaya). nizational Commitment on Intention to Quit
Management Analysis Journal. 3 (2): 1-11. among Psychaitric Nurses: Evidence from
Siddiqui, A. A & Jamil, R. A. 2015. Antecedents of Pakistan. International Journal of Learning &
Employees’ Turnover Intentions: Evidence Development. 5 (4): 89-103.
from Private Educational Institutions. Ameri- Zhang, Y. 2016. A Review of Employee Turnover In-
can Journal Economics Business Administra- fluence Factor and Countermeasure a Review
tion. 7 (4): 160.165. of Employee Turnover Influence Factor and
Spector, P. E. 1988. Development of the Work Lo- Countermeasure. Journal of Human Resource
cus of Control Scale. Journal of Occupational and Sustainability Studies. 4: 85-91.