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NAME: SARPONG-ADU EMMANUEL

INDEX NUMBER: 6657416

COURSE CODE: BIOL 353

COURSE: PRINCIPLES OF ECOLOGY

DATE: 6TH JANUARY 2019

AIM

Determining the spatial distribution patterns of plants.

METHOD

1. Sixteen 20m x 20m plots in the KNUST botanical gardens were randomly demarcated
with a tape measure.
2. All trees and lianas in each plot were enumerated.
3. The data from all the sixteen plots was used to calculate the spatial distribution and
type for the lianas and trees.

Data for Trees

Plots Number of Trees (x-m) (x-m)2


(x)
1 21 4.8 23.04
2 10 -6.2 38.44
3 21 4.8 23.04
4 18 1.8 3.24
5 17 0.8 0.64
6 6 -10.2 104.04
7 8 -8.2 67.24
8 9 -7.2 51.84
9 27 10.8 116.64
10 21 4.8 23.04
11 10 -6.2 38.44
12 51 34.8 1211.04
13 10 -6.2 38.44
14 13 -3.2 10.24
15 8 -8.2 67.24
16 9 -7.2 51.84
∑x= 259

259
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 = = 16.2
16

(𝑥 − 𝑚)2
𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = ∑
𝑛

1868.44
𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = = 116.78
16
𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
Spatial distribution = 𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛

𝑣 116.78
= = 7.2
𝑚 16.2

If

v/m = 1, the distribution is random

v/m > 1, the distribution is clumped

v/m < 1, the distribution is uniform or regular

Since the spatial distribution of trees is 7.2 which is greater than 1, the distribution is said to
be clumped.
Data for lianas.

Plots Number of Lianas(x) (x-m) (x-m)2


1 16 4.3 18.49
2 10 -1.7 2.89
3 3 -8.7 75.69
4 8 -3.7 13.69
5 13 1.3 1.69
6 2 -9.7 94.09
7 1 -10.7 114.49
8 20 8.3 68.89
9 17 5.3 28.09
10 10 -1.7 2.89
11 0 -11.7 136.89
12 47 35.3 1256.09
13 15 3.3 10.89
14 6 -5.7 32.49
15 17 5.3 28.09
16 2 -9.7 94.09
∑x = 187

187
𝑀𝑒𝑎𝑛 = = 11.7
16

(𝑥 − 𝑚)2
𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = ∑
𝑛

1969.44
𝑉𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒 = = 123.09
16

𝑣𝑎𝑟𝑖𝑎𝑛𝑐𝑒
𝑆𝑝𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑡𝑟𝑖𝑏𝑢𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 =
𝑚𝑒𝑎𝑛

𝑣 123.09
= = 10.52
𝑚 11.7

v/m>1

Since v/m is greater than 1, the distribution is clumped.


Conclusion

The spatial distribution of both trees and lianas were recorded to be more the one, meaning
the type of sociability of plants in the KNUST Botanic Garden is a clumped one. This usually
occurs when individuals are in high density patches separated by areas of few to no
individuals. When this type of distribution occurs, there is a probability that

1. There is a mutual attraction among the plants.


2. The plants species undergo vegetative reproduction.